Sie sind auf Seite 1von 72

ALTERNATORS AND SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS

A mini project report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING BY

K.RAMA REDDY

08MH1A0217

Under the esteemed guidance of

Mr.M.SOMI REDDY B.Tech Assistant Professor

ALTERNATORS AND SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS A mini project report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

SRI ADITYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada)

Surampalem, East Godavari District.

2008-2012

1

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING SRI ADITYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

(Affiliated to JNTUK & Approved by AICTE ) Surampalem, E.G.Dist

2008-2012

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING SRI ADITYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE (Affiliated to JNTUK & Approved by

This is certify that the mini project report entitled

ALTERNATORS AND SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS

Being submitted by

K.RAMA REDDY

08MH1A0217

In the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of the Bachelor of technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. It is the record of bonafide work, carried out by them under esteemed guidance and supervision of

Sri Mr. M.SOMI REDDY B.Tech Assistant Professor

Signature of project guide

Signature of HOD

2

Industry certificate

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction that accompanies successful completion of any task would incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all the efforts with success. The acknowledgement transcends the reality of formality. I would like to express my deep gratitude and respect to all those people behind the screen who guided,inspired and helped us for completion of my project. I am thankful to my guide Mr. M Somi Reddy,B.Tech who has spared his valuable time and append novel ideas to guide us in intelligent. I am indebted to him without whom I have not culminated to pinnacle of the project.

I wish to convey my sincere thanks to Head Of the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Mr. K MANOZ KUMAR REDDY who provided vital information which was necessary of this project. I am thankful to my principal Mr. AB SRINIVAS RAO, Sri Aditya Engineering College, for providing appropriate environment required for this project.

With sincere regards, K.RAMAREDDY

4

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this project titled ALTERNATORS AND SEPERATELY

EXCITED GENERATORShas been under taken at this work has

been submitted

to SRI

Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem, Affiliated to JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, Kakinada in partial fulfillment of the degree of bachelors of technology.

We further declare that this project work has not been submitted in full or part for the award of any other degree of this on any other educational institutions.

K.RAMAREDDY

5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.

PAGENO:

  • 1. ABSTRACT

8-9

  • 2. INTRODUCTION

10-12

  • 3. ALTERNATORS

13-26

  • 3.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

  • 3.2 SYNCHRONOUS SPEEDS

  • 3.3 AUTOMATIC ALTERNATORS

  • 4. TYPES OF ALTERNATORS

27-32

  • 4.1 MARINE ALTERNATORS

  • 4.2 BRUSHLESS ALTERNATORS

  • 4.3 PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

  • 5. SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS

33-39

  • 5.1 EXCITATION OF GENERATORS

  • 5.2 A.C GENERATOR CHARACTERSTICS

  • 5.3 SYNCHRONIZATION OF ALTERNATORS

  • 5.4 D.C SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS

  • 6. AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

40-45

  • 6.1 MEASURES OF REGULATOR QUALITY

  • 6.2 ELECTRONIC VOLTAGE REGULATORS

6

  • 7. ELECTOMECHANICAL REGULATORS

    • 7.1 D.C VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    • 7.2 ACTIVE REGULATORS

    • 7.3 THYRISTOR REGULATORS

    • 7.4 POWER SUPPLY

46-67

  • 8. CONCLUSION

68-69

  • 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY

70-71

7

CHAPTER-1

ABSTRACT

This study project deals with’ ALTERNATORS AND SEPERATELY EXCITED

GENERATORS’ in the VAMSHI INDUSTRIES LIMITED, located at VEMULLAPALLI,

MANDAPETA MANDAL.

Alternators are used to convert mechanical power drived from stream to electrical power in the power plant. The automatic voltage regulator is a solid state continuous acting, thyrastorised voltage regulator suitable for generators employing conventional methods of excitation.

The equipment automatically regulates the generator output voltage by providing it with a controlled field supply. The system is based on closed loop generator voltage control The automatic voltage regulator circuit compares generator terminal voltage (feed back signal) with reference signal set on the auto control potentiometer to produce the required Mitt) .

The automatic voltage regulator is designed for use with AC Generators of medium capacity and mainly comprises a printed circuit board containing a regulating circuit, a single phase full wave half controlled thyristor, Diode Bridge and associated components.

The function of regulator is to adjust the generator excitation automatically in response to deviations in bus bar voltage detected by Error Detector circuit.The regulator controls the generator voltage with in close limits for any load from zero to full load. Excitation power is obtained from the Generator itself.

Alternators are the primary source of electrical energy for the generation of power. To avoid the usage of brushes and slip rings brushless excitation is used in the modern power plants.

9

CHAPTER-2

INTRODUCTION

Early 20th-century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station.

An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.

Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field but linear alternators are occasionally used. In principle, any AC electrical generator can be called an alternator, but usually the word refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other internal combustion engines. Alternators in power stations driven by steam turbines are called turbo-alternators.

The electricity is very most important aspect for any industries, house hold appliances and e.t.c. By using bio mass they produce electricity by proper planning.

Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

The "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886. Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz). After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.

11

12

12

CHAPTER-3

ALTERNATORS

ALTERNATORS Early 20th-century alternator made in <a href=Budapest , Hungary , in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station (photograph by Prokudin-Gorsky , 1905 – 1915). An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current . Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field but linear alternators are occasionally used. In principle, any AC electrical generator can be called an alternator, but usually the word refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other internal combustion engines. Alternators in power stations driven by steam turbines are called turbo-alternators. 14 " id="pdf-obj-13-4" src="pdf-obj-13-4.jpg">

Early 20th-century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station (photograph by Prokudin-Gorsky, 19051915).

An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.

Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field but linear alternators are occasionally used. In principle, any AC electrical generator can be called an alternator, but usually the word refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and other internal combustion engines. Alternators in power stations driven by steam turbines are called turbo-alternators.

14

History Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the <amagnetic induction of electric current . The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii . Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886. Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon , in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz . In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz). After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.  We noted ear lier that Faraday’s law dictates that if a coil of N turns experiences a change in magnetic flux, then the induced voltage V is given by V=N dt 15 " id="pdf-obj-14-2" src="pdf-obj-14-2.jpg">

History

Alternating current generating systems were known in simple forms from the discovery of the magnetic induction of electric current. The early machines were developed by pioneers such as Michael Faraday and Hippolyte Pixii.

Faraday developed the "rotating rectangle", whose operation was heteropolar - each active conductor passed successively through regions where the magnetic field was in opposite directions.The first public demonstration of a more robust "alternator system" took place in 1886. Large two-phase alternating current generators were built by a British electrician, J.E.H. Gordon, in 1882. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Ferranti also developed early alternators, producing frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. In 1891, Nikola Tesla patented a practical "high-frequency" alternator (which operated around 15 kHz). After 1891, polyphase alternators were introduced to supply currents of multiple differing phases.

  • We noted earlier that Faraday’s law dictates that if a coil of N turns experiences a change in magnetic flux, then the induced voltage V is given by

V=N d

dt

15

  • If a coil of area A rotates with respect to a field B, and if at a particular time it is at an angle to the field, then the flux linking the coil is BAcos, and the rate of change of flux is given by

dΦ d sin    d   BA  cos    cos
d sin
d
BA
cos
 
cos
dt
d t
d
t

16

Principle of operation

Principle of operation Diagram of a simple alternator with a rotating magnetic core (rotor) and stationaryrotor turns within a stationary set of conductors wound in coils on an iron core, called the stator . The field cuts across the conductors, generating an induced emf (electromotive force), as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn. The rotating magnetic field induces an AC voltage in the stator windings. Often there are three sets of stator windings, physically offset so that the rotating magnetic field produces a three phase current, displaced by one-third of a period with respect to each other. The rotors magnetic field may be produced by induction (as in a "brush-less" alternator), by permanent magnets (as in very small machines), or by a rotor winding energized with direct current through slip rings and brushes. The rotors magnetic field may even be provided by stationary field winding, with moving poles in the rotor. Automotive alternators invariably use a rotor winding, which allows control of the alternators generated voltage by varying the current in the rotor field winding. Permanent magnet machines avoid the loss due to magnetizing current in the rotor, but are restricted in size, owing to the cost of the magnet material. Since the permanent magnet field is constant, the terminal voltage varies directly 17 " id="pdf-obj-16-4" src="pdf-obj-16-4.jpg">

Diagram of a simple alternator with a rotating magnetic core (rotor) and stationary wire (stator) also showing the current induced in the stator by the rotating magnetic field of the rotor.

Alternators generate electricity using the same principle as DC generators, namely, when the magnetic field around a conductor changes, a current is induced in the conductor. Typically, a rotating magnet, called the rotor turns within a stationary set of conductors wound in coils on an iron core, called the stator. The field cuts across the conductors, generating an induced emf (electromotive force), as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn.

The rotating magnetic field induces an AC voltage in the stator windings. Often there are three sets of stator windings, physically offset so that the rotating magnetic field produces a three phase current, displaced by one-third of a period with respect to each other.

The rotors magnetic field may be produced by induction (as in a "brush-less" alternator), by permanent magnets (as in very small machines), or by a rotor winding energized with direct current through slip rings and brushes. The rotors magnetic field may even be provided by stationary field winding, with moving poles in the rotor. Automotive alternators invariably use a rotor winding, which allows control of the alternators generated voltage by varying the current in the rotor field winding. Permanent magnet machines avoid the loss due to magnetizing current in the rotor, but are restricted in size, owing to the cost of the magnet material. Since the permanent magnet field is constant, the terminal voltage varies directly

17

with the speed of the generator. Brushless AC generators are usually larger machines than those used in automotive applications.

An automatic voltage control device controls the field current to keep output voltage constant. If the output voltage from the stationary armature coils drops due to an increase in demand, more current is fed into the rotating field coils through the Automatic Voltage Regulator or AVR. This increases the magnetic field around the field coils which induces a greater voltage in the armature coils. Thus, the output voltage is brought back up to its original value.

Alternators in central power stations use may also control the field current to regulate reactive power and to help stabilize the power system against the effects of momentary faults.

18

Synchronous speeds

The output frequency of an alternator depends on the number of poles and the rotational speed. The speed corresponding to a particular frequency is called the synchronous speed for that frequency. This table gives some examples:

Poles RPM for 50 Hz RPM for 60 Hz

  • 2 3,000

3,600

  • 4 1,500

1,800

  • 6 1,000

1,200

  • 8 750

900

  • 10 600

720

  • 12 500

600

  • 14 428.6

514.3

  • 16 375

450

  • 18 333.3

400

  • 20 300

360

More generally, one cycle of alternating current is produced each time a pair of field poles passes over a point on the stationary winding. The relation between speed and frequency is N

= 120f / P , where f is the frequency in Hz (cycles per second). P is the number of poles

(2,4,6

)

and N is the rotational speed in revolutions per minute (RPM). Very old

... descriptions of alternating current systems sometimes give the frequency in terms of alternations per minute, counting each half-cycle as one alternation; so 12,000 alternations per minute corresponds to 100 Hz.

19

Automotive alternators

Automotive alternators Alternator mounted in the lower right front of an automobile engine with a <aserpentine belt pulley Cut-away of an alternator, showing the claw-pole construction; two of the wedge-shaped field poles, alternating N and S, are visible in the centre and the stationary armature winding is visible at the top and bottom of the opening. The belt and pulley at the right hand end drives the alternator. Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running. Early automobiles used DC generators. Alternators have several advantages over direct-current generators. They are simpler, lighter, less costly and 20 " id="pdf-obj-19-4" src="pdf-obj-19-4.jpg">

Alternator mounted in the lower right front of an automobile engine with a serpentine belt pulley

Automotive alternators Alternator mounted in the lower right front of an automobile engine with a <aserpentine belt pulley Cut-away of an alternator, showing the claw-pole construction; two of the wedge-shaped field poles, alternating N and S, are visible in the centre and the stationary armature winding is visible at the top and bottom of the opening. The belt and pulley at the right hand end drives the alternator. Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running. Early automobiles used DC generators. Alternators have several advantages over direct-current generators. They are simpler, lighter, less costly and 20 " id="pdf-obj-19-10" src="pdf-obj-19-10.jpg">

Cut-away of an alternator, showing the claw-pole construction; two of the wedge-shaped field poles, alternating N and S, are visible in the centre and the stationary armature winding is visible at the top and bottom of the opening. The belt and pulley at the right hand end drives the alternator.

Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running. Early automobiles used DC generators. Alternators have several advantages over direct-current generators. They are simpler, lighter, less costly and

20

more rugged. They use Slip rings providing greatly extended brush life over a commutator. A set of rectifiers (diode bridge) is required to convert AC to DC. Since the 1960s, the availability of low-cost, solid-state diodes allowed car manufacturers to substitute alternators for DC generators. To provide direct current with low ripple, a three-phase winding is used and the pole-pieces of the rotor are shaped (claw-pole) to produce a waveform similar to a square wave instead of a sinusoid. The alternator is usually belt driven at 2-3 times the engine crankshaft speed. This improves output when the engine is idling. The alternator runs at various RPM (which varies the frequency) since it is driven by the engine. This is not a problem because the alternating current is rectified to direct current.

Typical passenger vehicle and light truck alternators use Lundell or claw-pole field construction, where the field north and south poles are all energized by a single winding, with the poles looking like fingers of two hands interlocked with each other. Larger vehicles may have salient-pole alternators similar to larger machines.

Automotive alternators have a voltage regulator built into them which operates by modulating the small field current in order to produce a constant voltage at the stator output. The field current is much smaller than the output current of the alternator; for example, a 70 A alternator may need only 2 A of field current. The field current is supplied to the rotor windings by slip rings and brushes. The low current and relatively smooth slip rings ensure greater reliability and longer life than that obtained by a DC generator with its commutator and higher current being passed through its brushes.

The field windings are initially supplied power from battery via the ignition switch and "charge" warning indicator (which is why the indicator is on when the ignition is on but the engine is not running). Once the engine is running and the alternator is generating power, a diode feeds the field current from the alternator main output equalizing the voltage across the warning indicator which goes off. The wire supplying the field current is often referred to as the "exciter" wire. The drawback of this arrangement is that if the warning lamp burns out or the "exciter" wire is disconnected, no current reaches the field windings and the alternator will not generate power. Some warning indicator circuits are equipped with a resistor in parallel with the lamp that permit excitation current to flow if the warning lamp burns out. The driver should check that the warning indicator is on when the engine is stopped; otherwise, there might not be any indication of a failure of the belt which may also drive the

21

cooling water pump. Some alternators will self-excite when the engine reaches at a certain speed.

Older automobiles with minimal lighting may have had an alternator capable of producing only 30A. Typical passenger car and light truck alternators are rated around 50-70A, though higher ratings are becoming more common, especially as there is more load on the vehicle's electrical system with air conditioning, electric power steering and other electrical systems. Very large alternators used on buses, heavy equipment or emergency vehicles may produce 300amperes. Semi-trucks usually have alternators which output 140A. Very large alternators may be water-cooled or oil-cooled.

In recent years, alternator regulators are linked to the vehicle's computer system and various factors including air temperature obtained from the intake air temperature sensor, battery temperature sensor and engine load are evaluated in adjusting the voltage supplied by the alternator.

Efficiency of automotive alternators is limited by fan cooling loss, bearing loss, iron loss, copper loss, and the voltage drop in the diode bridges. At partial load efficiency is between 50-62% depending on the size of alternator and varies with alternator speed. [7] This is similar to very small high-performance permanent magnet alternators, such as those used for bicycle lighting systems, which achieve an efficiency around 60%. Larger permanent magnet alternators can achieve higher efficiencies. [citation needed] Large AC generators used in power stations run at carefully controlled speeds and have less constraints on size or weight. They have much higher efficiencies, as high as of 98%.

Hybrid automobiles replace the separate alternator and starter motor with a combined motor/generator that performs both functions, cranking the internal combustion engine when starting, providing additional mechanical power for accelerating, and charging a large storage battery when the vehicle is running at constant speed. These rotating machines have considerably more powerful electronic devices for their control than the automotive alternator described above.

22

Theory of operation

Alternators generate electricity by the same principle as DC generators, namely, when the magnetic field around a conductor changes, a current is induced in the conductor. Typically, a rotating magnet called the rotor turns within a stationary set of conductors wound in coils on an iron core, called the stator. The field cuts across the conductors, generating an electrical current, as the mechanical input causes the rotor to turn.

The rotor magnetic field may be produced by induction (in a "brushless" alternator), by permanent magnets (in very small machines), or by a rotor winding energized with direct current through slip rings and brushes. The rotor magnetic field may even be provided by stationary field winding, with moving poles in the rotor. Automotive alternators invariably use a rotor winding, which allows control of the alternator generated voltage by varying the current in the rotor field winding. Permanent magnet machines avoid the loss due to magnetizing current in the rotor, but are restricted in size, owing to the cost of the magnet material. Since the permanent magnet field is constant, the terminal voltage varies directly with the speed of the generator. Brushless AC generators are usually larger machines than those used in automotive applications.

A rotating magnetic field is a magnetic field which periodically changes direction. This is a key principle to the operation of alternating-current motor. In 1882, Nikola Tesla identified the concept of the rotating magnetic field. In 1885, Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. In 1888, Tesla gained U.S. Patent 0,381,968 for his work. Also in 1888, Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin.

23

Sine wave current in each of the coils produces <a href=Vector sum of the magnetic field vectors of the sine varying magnetic field on the rotation axis. stator coils produces a single rotating vector of Magnetic fields. resulting System Ground Stator Ground The Exciter "Wild" Power G System Stator Phase System Phase 24 " id="pdf-obj-23-2" src="pdf-obj-23-2.jpg">

Sine wave current in each of the coils produces Vector sum of the magnetic field vectors of the sine varying magnetic field on the rotation axis. stator coils produces a single rotating vector of

Magnetic fields. resulting System Ground Stator Ground The Exciter "Wild" Power G System Stator Phase System
Magnetic fields.
resulting
System
Ground
Stator
Ground
The
Exciter
"Wild"
Power
G
System
Stator
Phase
System
Phase
Sine wave current in each of the coils produces <a href=Vector sum of the magnetic field vectors of the sine varying magnetic field on the rotation axis. stator coils produces a single rotating vector of Magnetic fields. resulting System Ground Stator Ground The Exciter "Wild" Power G System Stator Phase System Phase 24 " id="pdf-obj-23-10" src="pdf-obj-23-10.jpg">

24

25

A diagram from a Tesla patent (U.S. Patent 381968) showing a revolving magnetic field created by two phase currents and two sets of field windings.

A symmetric rotating magnetic field can be produced with as few as three coils. Three coils will have to be driven by a symmetric 3-phase AC sine current system, thus each phase will be shifted 120 degrees in phase from the others. For the purpose of this example, magnetic field is taken to be the linear function of coil's current.

The result of adding three 120-degrees phased sine waves on the axis of the motor is a single rotating vector. The rotor (having a constant magnetic field driven by DC current or a permanent magnet) will attempt to take such position that N pole of the rotor is adjusted to S pole of the stator's magnetic field, and vice versa. This magneto-mechanical force will drive rotor to follow rotating magnetic field in a synchronous manner.

A permanent magnet in such a field will rotate so as to maintain its alignment with the external field. This effect was utilised in early alternating current electric motors. A rotating magnetic field can be constructed using two orthogonal coils with 90 degrees phase difference in their AC currents. However, in practice such a system would be supplied through a three-wire arrangement with unequal currents. This inequality would cause serious problems in standardization of the conductor size and in order to overcome it, three-phase systems are used where the three currents are equal in magnitude and have 120 degrees phase difference. Three similar coils having mutual geometrical angles of 120 degrees will create the rotating magnetic field in this case. The ability of the three phase system to create a rotating field utilized in electric motors is one of the main reasons why three phase systems dominated in the world electric power supply systems. Because magnets degrade with time, synchronous motors and induction motors use short-circuited rotors (instead of a magnet) following a rotating magnetic field of multicoiled stator. (Short circuited turns of rotor develop eddy currents in the rotating field of stator which (currents) in turn move the rotor by Lorentz force).

Note that the rotating magnetic field can actually be produced by two coils, with phases shifted 90 degrees. In case two phases of sine current are only available, four poles are commonly use

26

CHAPTER-4

27

TYPES OF ALTERNATORS

Marine Alternators

Marine alternators used in yachts are similar to automotive alternators, with appropriate adaptations to the salt-water environment. Marine alternators are designed to be explosion proof so that brush sparking will not ignite explosive gas mixtures in an engine room environment. They may be 12 or 24 volt depending on the type of system installed. Larger marine diesels may have two or more alternators to cope with the heavy electrical demand of a modern yacht. On single alternator circuits, the power is split between the engine starting battery and the domestic or house battery (or batteries) by use of a split-charge diode (battery isolator) or a mechanical switch. Because the alternator only produces power when running, engine control panels are typically fed directly from the alternator by means of an auxiliary terminal. Other typical connections are for charge control circuits.

28

Brushless Alternators

A brushless alternator is composed of two alternators built end-to-end on one shaft. Smaller brushless alternators may look like one unit but the two parts are readily identifiable on the large versions. The larger of the two sections is the main alternator and the smaller one is the exciter. The exciter has stationary field coils and a rotating armature (power coils). The main alternator uses the opposite configuration with a rotating field and stationary armature. A bridge rectifier, called the rotating rectifier assembly, is mounted on a plate attached to the rotor. Neither brushes nor slip rings are used, which reduces the number of wearing parts. The main alternator has a rotating field as described above and a stationary armature (power generation windings).

Varying the amount of current through the stationary exciter field coils varies the 3-phase output from the exciter. This output is rectified by a rotating rectifier assembly, mounted on the rotor, and the resultant DC supplies the rotating field of the main alternator and hence alternator output. The result of all this is that a small DC exciter current indirectly controls the output of the main alternator.

A wound-rotor induction motor (WRIM) is mounted on the same shaft as the wound-field synchronous motor. This is acting as a rotating transformer with the rotor as the primary and the stator as the secondary. The stator of the WRIM is fed by a 60Hz supply and the rotor of the WRIM rotates at a speed set by the supply frequency. The slip voltage in the rotor winding of the WRIM is rectified to provide the current feed to the rotor windings of the synchronous motor.

29

30

30

Permanent magnet synchronous generator

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator is a type of Synchronous Generator where the excitation field is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a coil.

Synchronous Generators are the primary source of all electrical energy and commonly used to convert the mechanical power output of steam turbines, gas turbines, reciprocating engines, hydro turbines and wind turbines into electrical power for the grid. They are known as synchronous generators because they operate at synchronous speed, which is the same principle of operation as a synchronous motor. The speed of the rotor with a constant magnetic field always matches supply frequency of the stationary winding. The constant magnetic field of the rotor is produced by the persistent magnetic field of a rotor permanent magnet assembly or by controlling direct current to a rotor field winding (i.e., electromagnet) fed through a slip-ring assembly or a brushless means.

Advantages of permanent magnets in synchronous generator

They are more stable and secure during normal operation and they do not require an additional DC supply for the excitation circuit.

The permanent magnet synchronous generators avoid the use of slip rings, hence it is simpler and maintenance free.

Higher power coefficient and efficiency.

Synchronous generators are suitable for high capacities and asynchronous generators, which consume more reactive power, are suitable for smaller capacities.

Voltage regulation is possible in synchronous generators where it is not possible in induction types.

Condensers are not required for maintaining the power factor in synchronous generators, as it is required in induction generators.

31

Because of high coercivity of high performance permanent magnet materials, such as neodymium, air-gap depth is more tolerable, which puts lower structural constraints on frame and bearing assemblies.

Disadvantages of permanent magnets in synchronous generator

Unlike MMF produced flux density in a winding, the flux density of high performance permanent magnets, such as derivatives of neodymium and samarium- cobalt, is limited regardless of high coercivity. After all, permanent magnets are magnetized with the higher flux density of an electromagnet. Furthermore, all electric machines are designed to the magnetic core saturation constraints.

Torque current MMF vectorially combines with the persistent flux of permanent magnets, which leads to higher air-gap flux density and eventually, core saturation.

Uncontrolled air-gap flux density leads to over voltage and poor electronic control reliability.

A persistent magnetic field imposes safety issues during assembly, field service or repair, such as physical injury, electrocution, etc.

In all cases, high performance permanent magnet materials are always expensive or virtually cartel controlled by a single country

The mining of high performance permanent magnet materials is environmentally

demanding

and

as

a

result,

the

use

of

permanent

magnets

is

by

no

means

environmentally friendly.

Air-gap depth tolerance improves only 20% over other electric machines before magnetic leakage becomes the same concern for any electric machine.

High performance permanent magnets, themselves, have structural and thermal issues.

32

CHAPTER-5

33

Separately Excited Generator

A d.c. generator whose field magnet winding is supplied from an independent external d.c. source (e.g., a battery etc.) is called a separately excited generator. Fig. (1) shows the connections of a separately excited generator. The voltage output depends upon the speed of

rotation of armature and the field current (Eg =PΦ ZN/60 A). The greater the speed and field

current, greater is the generated e.m.f. It may be noted that separately excited d.c. generators are rarely used in practice. The d.c. generators are normally of self-excited type.

Separately Excited Generator A d.c. generator whose field magnet winding is supplied from an independent external
Separately Excited Generator A d.c. generator whose field magnet winding is supplied from an independent external

34

Excitation of Generator

The frequency of the generated voltage is dependent on the number of field poles and the speed at which the generator is operated. Frequency, measured in Hertz (Hz), is the number of complete cycles per second in alternating current direction. As current flows through the armature, there is some amount of resistance and inductive reactance. The combination of

these make up what is known as the internal resistance

When the load current flows, a

.. voltage drop is developed. When a Direct Current (DC) voltage is applied to the field windings of a dc generator, current flows through the windings and sets up a steady magnetic field. This is called Filed Excitation.

An exciter is part of the generator package supplying direct current to the alternator field windings to magnetize the rotating poles. The exciter output may be controlled by a voltage regulator. Types of exciters include brush type with rotating commutator, static excitation or brush less generator and exciter. A regulator is an important option to consider if there are frequency or voltage sensitive equipment such as computers.

Uses of AC Generators:

Many DC generators are driven by AC motors in combinations called motor-generator sets. This is one way of changing alternating current to direct current. Factories that do electroplating and those that produce aluminum, chlorine, and some other industrial materials need large amounts of direct current and use DC generators.

So do locomotives and ships driven by diesel-electric motors. Because commutators are complex and costly, many DC generators are being replaced by AC generators combined with electronic rectifiers.

Rectifiers are devices that let current flow in one direction only. They permit use of simpler, more rugged AC generators, even when DC is required.

The speed of ac machine operated as a generator is fixed by the prime mover. For general- purpose operation, the prime mover is equipped with a speed governor so that the speed of the generator is practically constant.

35

Under such condition, the generator performance deals primarily with the relation between excitation, terminal voltage and load. These relations can be best exhibited graphically by means of curves known as generator characteristics.

These characteristics show at a glance the behaviour of the generator under different load conditions.

AC Generator Characteristics

The following are the three most important characteristics of a AC generator:

  • 1. Open Circuit Characteristic (O.C.C.):

This curve shows the relation between the generated e.m.f. at no-load (E0) and the field current (If) at constant speed. It is also known as magnetic characteristic or no-load saturation curve. Its shape is practically the same for all generators whether separately or self-excited. The data for O.C.C. are obtained experimentally by operating the generator at no load and constant speed and recording the change in terminal voltage as the field current is varied.

  • 2. Internal or Total characteristic (E/Ia)

This curve shows the relation between the generated e.m.f. on load (E) and the armature current (Ia). The e.m.f. E is less than E0 due to the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction. Therefore, this curve will lie below the open circuit characteristic (O.C.C.). The internal characteristic is of interest chiefly to the designer. It cannot be obtained directly by

experiment

The internal characteristic can be obtained from external characteristic if

.. winding resistances are known because armature reaction effect is included in both

characteristics

  • 3. External characteristic (V/IL):

This curve shows the relation between the terminal voltage (V) and load current (IL). The terminal voltage V will be less than E due to voltage drop in the armature circuit. This characteristic is very important in determining the suitability of a generator for a given purpose. It can be obtained by making simultaneous measurements of terminal voltage and load current (with voltmeter and ammeter) of a loaded generator

36

Synchronization of Alternators

  • Definition

The process of connecting an AC generator (alternator) to other AC generators is known as synchronization and is crucial for the generation of AC electrical power.

Synchronization of an alternator with a large utility system, or "infinite bus' as it is called is comparable to matching a small gear to another of enormous size and power. If the teeth of both gears are properly synchronized upon contact, then the matching will be smooth. But should the teeth edges meet shock would result with possible damage to the smaller gear.

Smooth synchronization of an alternator means first that its frequency must be equal to that of the supply. In addition, the phase sequence (or rotation) must be the same. Returning to our example of the gears, we would not think of trying to mesh two gears going in opposite directions, even if their speeds were identical.

Parallel operation of Alternators

  • Definition

Synchronization of Alternators Definition The process of connecting an AC generator (alternator) to other AC generators

The operation of connecting an alternator in parallel with another alternator or with common bus-bars is known as synchronizing. Generally, alternators are used in a power system where they are parallel with many other alternators. It means that the alternator is connected to a live system of constant and constant frequency.

Synchronization of Alternators Definition The process of connecting an AC generator (alternator) to other AC generators

Often the electrical system to which the alternator is connected, has already so many alternators and loads connected to it that no matter what power is delivered by the incoming alternator, the voltage and frequency of the system remain the same. In that case, the alternator is said to be connected to infinite bus-bars.

Synchronization of Alternators Definition The process of connecting an AC generator (alternator) to other AC generators

It

is

never

advisable to connect a stationary alternator to live bus-bars,

because, stator induce being zero, a short-circuit will result.

37

For proper synchronization of alternators, the following three conditions must be satisfied.

  • 1. The terminal voltage (effective) of the incoming alternator must be the same as bus- bar voltage

  • 2. The speed of the incoming machine must be such that its frequency (= PN/120) equals bus-bar frequency.

  • 3. The phase of the alternator voltage must be identical with the phase of the bus-bar Voltage.

4.It means that the switch must be closed at (or very near) the instant the voltages have relationship.

two

5.Condition (1) is indicated by a voltmeter, synchronizing lamps or a synchronoscope.

conditions

(2)

and

(3)

are indicated by

DC SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS

  • A small amount of power in the field circuit may control a relatively large amount of power in the armature circuit, i.e., the generator is a power amplifier.

  • Separately excited generators are often used in feedback control systems when control of the armature voltage over a wide range is required

  • Varying the amount of current through the stationary exciter field coils varies the 3-phase output from the exciter.

  • This output is rectified by a rotating rectifier assembly, mounted on the rotor, and the resultant DC supplies the rotating field of the main alternator and hence alternator output.

  • The result of all this is that a small DC exciter current indirectly controls the output of the main alternator

38

39

39

CHAPTER-6

40

AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR A popular three pin 12 V DC voltage regulator IC. A voltage regulatorelectrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops . It may use an electromechanical mechanism , or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the l Measures of regulator quality The output voltage can only be held roughly constant; the regulation is specified by two measurements:  load regulation is the change in output voltage for a given change in load current (for  example: "typically 15mV, maximum 100mV for load currents between 5mA and 1.4A, at some specified temperature and input voltage"). line regulation or input regulation is the degree to which output voltage changes with input (supply) voltage changes - as a ratio of output to input change (for example "typically 13mV/V"), or the output voltage change over the entire specified input voltage range (for example "plus or minus 2% for input voltages between 90V and 260V, 50-60Hz"). 41 " id="pdf-obj-40-4" src="pdf-obj-40-4.jpg">

A popular three pin 12 V DC voltage regulator IC.

A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feed-forward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements. In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the l

Measures of regulator quality

The output voltage can only be held roughly constant; the regulation is specified by two measurements:

load regulation is the change in output voltage for a given change in load current (for

example: "typically 15mV, maximum 100mV for load currents between 5mA and 1.4A, at some specified temperature and input voltage"). line regulation or input regulation is the degree to which output voltage changes with input (supply) voltage changes - as a ratio of output to input change (for example "typically 13mV/V"), or the output voltage change over the entire specified input voltage range (for example "plus or minus 2% for input voltages between 90V and 260V, 50-60Hz").

41

Other important parameters are:

Temperature coefficient of the output voltage is the change in output voltage with

temperature (perhaps averaged over a given temperature range), while ... Initial accuracy of a voltage regulator (or simply "the voltage accuracy") reflects the

error in output voltage for a fixed regulator without taking into account temperature or aging effects on output accuracy. Dropout voltage is the minimum difference between input voltage and output

voltage for which the regulator can still supply the specified current. A Low Drop- Out (LDO) regulator is designed to work well even with an input supply only a Volt or so above the output voltage. The input-output differential at which the voltage regulator will no longer maintain regulation. Further reduction in input voltage will result in reduced output voltage. This value is dependent on load current and junction temperature. Absolute maximum ratings are defined for regulator components, specifying the

continuous and peak output currents that may be used (sometimes internally limited), the maximum input voltage, maximum power dissipation at a given temperature, etc. Output noise (thermal white noise) and output dynamic impedance may be

specified as graphs versus frequency, while output ripple noise (mains "hum" or switch-mode "hash" noise) may be given as peak-to-peak or RMS voltages, or in terms of their spectra. Quiescent current in a regulator circuit is the current drawn internally, not available

to the load, normally measured as the input current while no load is connected (and hence a source of inefficiency; some linear regulators are, surprisingly, more efficient at very low current loads than switch-mode designs because of this). Transient response is the reaction of a regulator when a (sudden) change of the load current (called the load transient) or input voltage (called the line transient) occurs. Some regulators will tend to oscillate or have a slow response time which in some cases might lead to undesired results. This value is different from the regulation parameters, as that is the stable situation definition. The transient response shows the behaviour of the regulator on a change. This data is usually provided in the technical documentation of a regulator and is also dependent on output capacitance.

42

Electronic voltage regulators

A simple voltage regulator can be made from a resistor in series with a diode (or series of diodes). Due to the logarithmic shape of diode V-I curves, the voltage across the diode changes only slightly due to changes in current drawn. When precise voltage control is not important, this design may work fine.

Feedback voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error. This forms a negative feedback control loop; increasing the open-loop gain tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduce stability (avoidance of oscillation, or ringing during step changes). There will also be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the response to changes. If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or load current increasing), the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a higher output voltageby dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series regulators and buck switching regulators), or to draw input current for longer periods (boost-type switching regulators); if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element will normally be commanded to produce a lower voltage. However, many regulators have over-current protection, so that they will entirely stop sourcing current (or limit the current in some way) if the output current is too high, and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is outside a given range (see also: crowbar circuits).

Electromechanical regulators

Electronic voltage regulators A simple voltage regulator can be made from a resistor in series withdiode (or series of diodes). Due to the logarithmic shape of diode V-I curves, the voltage across the diode changes only slightly due to changes in current drawn. When precise voltage control is not important, this design may work fine. Feedback voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error. This forms a negative feedback control loop ; increasing the open-loop gain tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduce stability (avoidance of oscillation, or ringing during step changes). There will also be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the response to changes. If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or load current increasing), the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a higher output voltage – by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series regulators and buck switching regulators ) , or to draw input current for longer periods (boost-type switching regulators ) ; if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element will normally be commanded to produce a lower voltage. However, many regulators have over-current protection, so that they will entirely stop sourcing current (or limit the current in some way) if the output current is too high, and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is outside a given range (see also: crowbar circuits ) . Electromechanical regulators Circuit design for a simple electromechanical voltage regulator. 43 " id="pdf-obj-42-30" src="pdf-obj-42-30.jpg">

Circuit design for a simple electromechanical voltage regulator.

Electronic voltage regulators A simple voltage regulator can be made from a resistor in series withdiode (or series of diodes). Due to the logarithmic shape of diode V-I curves, the voltage across the diode changes only slightly due to changes in current drawn. When precise voltage control is not important, this design may work fine. Feedback voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error. This forms a negative feedback control loop ; increasing the open-loop gain tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduce stability (avoidance of oscillation, or ringing during step changes). There will also be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the response to changes. If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or load current increasing), the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a higher output voltage – by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series regulators and buck switching regulators ) , or to draw input current for longer periods (boost-type switching regulators ) ; if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element will normally be commanded to produce a lower voltage. However, many regulators have over-current protection, so that they will entirely stop sourcing current (or limit the current in some way) if the output current is too high, and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is outside a given range (see also: crowbar circuits ) . Electromechanical regulators Circuit design for a simple electromechanical voltage regulator. 43 " id="pdf-obj-42-34" src="pdf-obj-42-34.jpg">

43

A voltage stabilizer using electromechanical relays for switching.

A voltage stabilizer using electromechanical relays for switching. Graph of voltage output on a time scale.magnetic field produced by the current attracts a moving ferrous core held back under spring tension or gravitational pull. As voltage increases, so does the current, strengthening the magnetic field produced by the coil and pulling the core towards the field. The magnet is physically connected to a mechanical power switch, which opens as the magnet moves into the field. As voltage decreases, so does the current, releasing spring tension or the weight of the core and causing it to retract. This closes the switch and allows the power to flow once more. If the mechanical regulator design is sensitive to small voltage fluctuations, the motion of the solenoid core can be used to move a selector switch across a range of resistances or transformer windings to gradually step the output voltage up or down, or to rotate the position of a moving-coil AC regulator. Early automobile generators and alternators had a mechanical voltage regulator using one, two, or three relays and various resistors to stabilize the generator's output at slightly more than 6 or 12 V, independent of the engine ' s rpm or the varying load on the vehicle's electrical system. Essentially, the relay(s) employed pulse width modulation to regulate the output of the generator, controlling the field current reaching the generator (or alternator) and in this way controlling the output voltage produced. The regulators used for DC generators (but not alternators) also disconnect the generator when it was not producing electricity, thereby preventing the battery from discharging back into the generator and attempting to run it as a motor. The rectifier diodes in an alternator automatically perform this function so that a specific relay is not required; this appreciably simplified the regulator design. More modern designs now use solid state technology ( transistors ) to perform the same function that the relays perform in electromechanical regulators. Electromechanical regulators are used for mains voltage stabilisation — see AC voltage stabilizers below. 44 " id="pdf-obj-43-4" src="pdf-obj-43-4.jpg">

Graph of voltage output on a time scale.

In electromechanical regulators, voltage regulation is easily accomplished by coiling the sensing wire to make an electromagnet. The magnetic field produced by the current attracts a moving ferrous core held back under spring tension or gravitational pull. As voltage increases, so does the current, strengthening the magnetic field produced by the coil and pulling the core towards the field. The magnet is physically connected to a mechanical power switch, which opens as the magnet moves into the field. As voltage decreases, so does the current, releasing spring tension or the weight of the core and causing it to retract. This closes the switch and allows the power to flow once more.

If the mechanical regulator design is sensitive to small voltage fluctuations, the motion of the solenoid core can be used to move a selector switch across a range of resistances or transformer windings to gradually step the output voltage up or down, or to rotate the position of a moving-coil AC regulator.

Early automobile generators and alternators had a mechanical voltage regulator using one, two, or three relays and various resistors to stabilize the generator's output at slightly more than 6 or 12 V, independent of the engine's rpm or the varying load on the vehicle's electrical system. Essentially, the relay(s) employed pulse width modulation to regulate the output of the generator, controlling the field current reaching the generator (or alternator) and in this way controlling the output voltage produced.

The regulators used for DC generators (but not alternators) also disconnect the generator when it was not producing electricity, thereby preventing the battery from discharging back into the generator and attempting to run it as a motor. The rectifier diodes in an alternator automatically perform this function so that a specific relay is not required; this appreciably simplified the regulator design.

More modern designs now use solid state technology (transistors) to perform the same function that the relays perform in electromechanical regulators.

Electromechanical regulators are used for mains voltage stabilisationsee AC voltage stabilizers below.

44

Coil-rotation AC voltage regulator

Coil-rotation AC voltage regulator Basic design principle and circuit diagram for the rotating-coil AC voltage regulator.

Basic design principle and circuit diagram for the rotating-coil AC voltage regulator.

This is an older type of regulator used in the 1920s that uses the principle of a fixed-position field coil and a second field coil that can be rotated on an axis in parallel with the fixed coil.

When the movable coil is positioned perpendicular to the fixed coil, the magnetic forces acting on the movable coil balance each other out and voltage output is unchanged. Rotating the coil in one direction or the other away from the center position will increase or decrease voltage in the secondary movable coil.

This type of regulator can be automated via a servo control mechanism to advance the movable coil position in order to provide voltage increase or decrease. A braking mechanism or high ratio gearing is used to hold the rotating coil in place against the powerful magnetic forces acting on the moving coil.

45

CHAPTER-7

46

ELECTROMECHANICAL REGULATORS

Electromechanical regulators, usually called voltage stabilizers, have also been used to regulate the voltage on AC power distribution lines. These regulators operate by using a servomechanism to select the appropriate tap on an autotransformer with multiple taps, or by moving the wiper on a continuously variable autotransfomer. If the output voltage is not in the acceptable range, the servomechanism switches connections or moves the wiper to adjust the voltage into the acceptable region. The controls provide a deadband wherein the controller will not act, preventing the controller from constantly adjusting the voltage ("hunting") as it varies by an acceptably small amount.

Constant-voltage transformer

The ferroresonant transformer, ferroresonant regulator or constant-voltage transformer is a type of saturating transformer used as a voltage regulator. These transformers use a tank circuit composed of a high-voltage resonant winding and a capacitor to produce a nearly constant average output voltage with a varying input current or varying load. The circuit has a primary on one side of a magnet shunt and the tuned circuit coil and secondary on the other side. The regulation is due to magnetic saturation in the section around the secondary.

The ferroresonant approach is attractive due to its lack of active components, relying on the square loop saturation characteristics of the tank circuit to absorb variations in average input voltage. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply.

Older designs of ferroresonant transformers had an output with high harmonic content, leading to a distorted output waveform. Modern devices are used to construct a perfect sine wave. The ferroresonant action is a flux limiter rather than a voltage regulator, but with a fixed supply frequency it can maintain an almost constant average output voltage even as the input voltage varies widely.

The ferroresonant transformers, which are also known as Constant Voltage Transformers (CVTs) or ferros, are also good surge suppressors, as they provide high isolation and inherent short-circuit protection.

A ferroresonant transformer can operate with an input voltage range ±40% or more of the nominal voltage.

Output power factor remains in the range of 0.96 or higher from half to full load.

Because it regenerates an output voltage waveform, output distortion, which is typically less than 4%, is independent of any input voltage distortion, including notching.

Efficiency at full load is typically in the range of 89% to 93%. However, at low loads, efficiency can drop below 60% and no-load losses can be as high as 20%. [clarification needed] The current-limiting capability also becomes a handicap when a CVT is used in an application with moderate to high inrush current like motors, transformers or magnets. In this case, the

47

CVT has to be sized to accommodate the peak current, thus forcing it to run at low loads and poor efficiency.

Minimum maintenance is required, as transformers and capacitors can be very reliable. Some units have included redundant capacitors to allow several capacitors to fail between inspections without any noticeable effect on the device's performance.

Output voltage varies about 1.2% for every 1% change in supply frequency. For example, a 2 Hz change in generator frequency, which is very large, results in an output voltage change of only 4%, which has little effect for most loads.

It accepts 100% single-phase switch-mode power supply loading without any requirement for derating, including all neutral components.

Input current distortion remains less than 8% THD even when supplying nonlinear loads with more than 100% current THD.

Drawbacks of CVTs are their larger size, audible humming sound, and the high heat generation caused by saturation. Also, the regulation is not as good as solid state devices, so these units are obsolete for most purposes.

DC voltage REGULATORS

Many simple DC power supplies regulate the voltage using a shunt regulator such as a zener diode, avalanche breakdown diode, or voltage regulator tube. Each of these devices begins conducting at a specified voltage and will conduct as much current as required to hold its terminal voltage to that specified voltage. The power supply is designed to only supply a maximum amount of current that is within the safe operating capability of the shunt regulating device (commonly, by using a series resistor).

If the stabilizer must provide more power, the shunt regulator output is only used to provide the standard voltage reference for the electronic device, known as the voltage stabilizer. The voltage stabilizer is the electronic device, able to deliver much larger currents on demand.

Active regulators

Active regulators employ at least one active (amplifying) component such as a transistor or operational amplifier. Shunt regulators are often (but not always) passive and simple, but always inefficient because they (essentially) dump the excess current not needed by the load. When more power must be supplied, more sophisticated circuits are used. In general, these active regulators can be divided into several classes:

Linear series regulators

Switching regulators

SCR regulators

48

Linear regulators

Linear regulators are based on devices that operate in their linear region (in contrast, a switching regulator is based on a device forced to act as an on/off switch). In the past, one or more vacuum tubes were commonly used as the variable resistance. Modern designs use one or more transistors instead, perhaps within an Integrated Circuit. Linear designs have the advantage of very "clean" output with little noise introduced into their DC output, but are most often much less efficient and unable to step-up or invert the input voltage like switched supplies. All linear regulators require a higher input than the output. If the input voltage approaches the desired output voltage, the regulator will "drop out". The input to output voltage differential at which this occurs is known as the regulator's drop-out voltage.

Entire linear regulators are available as integrated circuits. These chips come in either fixed or adjustable voltage types.

Switching regulators

Switching regulators rapidly switch a series device on and off. The duty cycle of the switch sets how much charge is transferred to the load. This is controlled by a similar feedback mechanism as in a linear regulator. Because the series element is either fully conducting, or switched off, it dissipates almost no power; this is what gives the switching design its efficiency. Switching regulators are also able to generate output voltages which are higher than the input, or of opposite polarity something not possible with a linear design.

Like linear regulators, nearly-complete switching regulators are also available as integrated circuits. Unlike linear regulators, these usually require one external component: an inductor that acts as the energy storage element. (Large-valued inductors tend to be physically large relative to almost all other kinds of componentry, so they are rarely fabricated within integrated circuits and IC regulators with some exceptions. [1][2] )

Comparing linear vs. switching regulators

The two types of regulators have their different advantages:

Linear regulators are best when low output noise (and low RFI radiated noise) is

required Linear regulators are best when a fast response to input and output disturbances is

required. At low levels of power, linear regulators are cheaper and occupy less printed circuit

board space. Switching regulators are best when power efficiency is critical (such as in portable

computers), except linear regulators are more efficient in a small number of cases (such as a 5V microprocessor often in "sleep" mode fed from a 6V battery, if the complexity of the switching circuit and the junction capacitance charging current means a high quiescent current in the switching regulator). Switching regulators are required when the only power supply is a DC voltage, and a

higher output voltage is required. At high levels of power (above a few watts), switching regulators are cheaper (for example, the cost of removing heat generated is less).

49

SCR regulators

Regulators powered from AC power circuits can use silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) as the series device. Whenever the output voltage is below the desired value, the SCR is triggered, allowing electricity to flow into the load until the AC mains voltage passes through zero (ending the half cycle). SCR regulators have the advantages of being both very efficient and very simple, but because they can not terminate an on-going half cycle of conduction, they are not capable of very accurate voltage regulation in response to rapidly-changing loads. An alternative is the SCR shunt regulator which uses the regulator output as a trigger, both series and shunt designs are noisy, but powerful, as the device has a low on resistance.

Combination (hybrid) regulators

Many power supplies use more than one regulating method in series. For example, the output from a switching regulator can be further regulated by a linear regulator. The switching regulator accepts a wide range of input voltages and efficiently generates a (somewhat noisy) voltage slightly above the ultimately desired output. That is followed by a linear regulator that generates exactly the desired voltage and eliminates nearly all the noise generated by the switching regulator. Other designs may use an SCR regulator as the "pre-regulator", followed by another type of regulator. An efficient way of creating a variable-voltage, accurate output power supply is to combine a multi-tapped transformer with an adjustable linear post- regulator.

Transistor regulator

In the simplest case emitter follower is used, the base of the regulating transistor is directly connected to the voltage reference:

SCR regulators Regulators powered from AC power circuits can use <a href=silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) as the series device. Whenever the output voltage is below the desired value, the SCR is triggered, allowing electricity to flow into the load until the AC mains voltage passes through zero (ending the half cycle). SCR regulators have the advantages of being both very efficient and very simple, but because they can not terminate an on-going half cycle of conduction, they are not capable of very accurate voltage regulation in response to rapidly-changing loads. An alternative is the SCR shunt regulator which uses the regulator output as a trigger, both series and shunt designs are noisy, but powerful, as the device has a low on resistance. Combination (hybrid) regulators Many power supplies use more than one regulating method in series. For example, the output from a switching regulator can be further regulated by a linear regulator. The switching regulator accepts a wide range of input voltages and efficiently generates a (somewhat noisy) voltage slightly above the ultimately desired output. That is followed by a linear regulator that generates exactly the desired voltage and eliminates nearly all the noise generated by the switching regulator. Other designs may use an SCR regulator as the "pre-regulator", followed by another type of regulator. An efficient way of creating a variable-voltage, accurate output power supply is to combine a multi-tapped transformer with an adjustable linear post- regulator. Transistor regulator In the simplest case emitter follower is used, the base of the regulating transistor is directly connected to the voltage reference: The stabilizer uses the power source, having voltage U that may vary over time. It delivers the relatively constant voltage U . The output load R can also vary over time. For such a device to work properly, the input voltage must be larger than the output voltage and Voltage drop must not exceed the limits of the transistor used. The output voltage of the stabilizer is equal to U - U where U is about 0.7v and depends on the load current. If the output voltage drops below that limit, this increases the voltage difference between the base and emitter (U ), opening the transistor and delivering more current. Delivering more current through the same output resistor R increases the voltage again. 50 " id="pdf-obj-49-20" src="pdf-obj-49-20.jpg">

The stabilizer uses the power source, having voltage U in that may vary over time. It delivers the relatively constant voltage U out . The output load R L can also vary over time. For such a device to work properly, the input voltage must be larger than the output voltage and Voltage drop must not exceed the limits of the transistor used.

The output voltage of the stabilizer is equal to U Z - U BE where U BE is about 0.7v and depends on the load current. If the output voltage drops below that limit, this increases the voltage difference between the base and emitter (U be ), opening the transistor and delivering more current. Delivering more current through the same output resistor R L increases the voltage again.

50

Regulator with an operational amplifier

The stability of the output voltage can be significantly increased by using an operational amplifier:

Regulator with an operational amplifier The stability of the output voltage can be significantly increased byoperational amplifier : In this case, the operational amplifier drives the transistor with more current if the voltage at its inverting input drops below the output of the voltage reference at the non-inverting input. Using the voltage divider (R1, R2 and R3) allows choice of the arbitrary output voltage between U and U . 51 " id="pdf-obj-50-8" src="pdf-obj-50-8.jpg">

In this case, the operational amplifier drives the transistor with more current if the voltage at its inverting input drops below the output of the voltage reference at the non-inverting input. Using the voltage divider (R1, R2 and R3) allows choice of the arbitrary output voltage between U z and U in .

51

POWER SUPPLY

A power Supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's energy source.

Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from:

Electrical energy transmission systems. Common examples of this include power supplies

that convert AC line voltage to DC voltage. Energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators.

A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. In the latter case, for example, low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their loads in devices such as computers and household electronics.

Power supplies types

Power supplies for electronic devices can be broadly divided into line-frequency (or "conventional") and switching power supplies. The line-frequency supply is usually a relatively simple design, but it becomes increasingly bulky and heavy for high-current equipment due to the need for large mains-frequency transformers and heat-sinked electronic regulation circuitry. Conventional line-frequency power supplies are sometimes called "linear," but that is a misnomer because the conversion from AC voltage to DC is inherently non-linear when the rectifiers feed into capacitive reservoirs. Linear voltage regulators produce regulated output voltage by means of an active voltage divider that consumes energy, thus making efficiency low. A switched-mode supply of the same rating as a line- frequency supply will be smaller, is usually more efficient, but will be more complex.

52

A battery is a device that converts stored chemical energy to electrical energy. Batteries are commonly used as energy sources in many household and industrial applications.

There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used in hearing aids and wristwatches to room-size battery banks that serve as backup power supplies in telephone exchanges and computer data centers.

DC power supply

An AC powered unregulated power supply usually uses a transformer to convert the voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, nowadays usually lower, voltage. If it is used to produce DC, a rectifier is used to convert alternating voltage to a pulsating direct voltage, followed by a filter, comprising one or more capacitors, resistors, and sometimes inductors, to filter out (smooth) most of the pulsation. A small remaining unwanted alternating voltage component at mains or twice mains power frequency (depending upon whether half- or full- wave rectification is used)rippleis unavoidably superimposed on the direct output voltage.

For purposes such as charging batteries the ripple is not a problem, and the simplest unregulated mains-powered DC power supply circuit consists of a transformer driving a single diode in series with a resistor.

Before the introduction of solid-state electronics, equipment used valves (vacuum tubes) which required high voltages; power supplies used step-up transformers, rectifiers, and filters to generate one or more direct voltages of some hundreds of volts, and a low alternating voltage for filaments. Only the most advanced equipment used expensive and bulky regulated power supplies.

AC power supply

An AC power supply typically takes the voltage from a wall outlet (mains supply) and lowers it to the desired voltage (e.g. 9 VAC). As well as lowering the voltage some filtering may take place. An example use for an AC power supply is powering certain guitar effects pedals (e.g. the DigiTech Whammy pedal) although it is more common for effects pedals to require DC.

Linear regulated power supply

The voltage produced by an unregulated power supply will vary depending on the load and on variations in the AC supply voltage. For critical electronics applications a linear regulator

53

may be used to set the voltage to a precise value, stabilized against fluctuations in input voltage and load. The regulator also greatly reduces the ripple and noise in the output direct current. Linear regulators often provide current limiting, protecting the power supply and attached circuit from overcurrent.

Adjustable linear power supplies are common laboratory and service shop test equipment, allowing the output voltage to be adjusted over a range. For example, a bench power supply used by circuit designers may be adjustable up to 30 volts and up to 5 amperes output. Some can be driven by an external signal, for example, for applications requiring a pulsed output.

AC/DC supply

In the past, mains electricity was supplied as DC in some regions, AC in others. Transformers cannot be used for DC, but a simple, cheap unregulated power supply could run directly from either AC or DC mains without using a transformer. The power supply consisted of a rectifier and a filter capacitor. When operating from DC, the rectifier was essentially a conductor, having no effect; it was included to allow operation from AC or DC without modification.

Switched-mode power supply

A switched-mode power supply (SMPS) works on a different principle. AC input, usually at mains voltage, is rectified without the use of a mains transformer, to obtain a DC voltage. This voltage is then switched on and off at a high speed by electronic switching circuitry, which may then pass through a high-frequency, hence small, light, and cheap, transformer or inductor. The duty cycle of the output square wave increases as power output requirements increase. Switched-mode power supplies are always regulated. If the SMPS uses a properly- insulated high-frequency transformer, the output will be electrically isolated from the mains, essential for safety.

The input power slicing occurs at a very high speed (typically 10 kHz 1 MHz). High frequency and high voltages in this first stage permit much smaller transformers and smoothing capacitors than in a power supply operating at mains frequency, as linear supplies do. After the transformer secondary, the AC is again rectified to DC. To keep output voltage constant, the power supply needs a sophisticated feedback controller to monitor current drawn by the load.

SMPSs often include safety features such as current limiting or a crowbar circuit to help protect the device and the user from harm. [1] In the event that an abnormal high-current power draw is detected, the switched-mode supply can assume this is a direct short and will shut itself down before damage is done. For decades PC power supplies have provided a power good signal to the motherboard whose absence prevents operation when abnormal supply voltages are present.

SMPSs have an absolute limit on their minimum current output. [2] They are only able to output above a certain power level and cannot function below that point. In a no-load condition the frequency of the power slicing circuit increases to great speed, causing the isolated transformer to act as a Tesla coil, causing damage due to the resulting very high voltage power spikes. Switched-mode supplies with protection circuits may briefly turn on

54

but then shut down when no load has been detected. A very small low-power dummy load such as a ceramic power resistor or 10-watt light bulb can be attached to the supply to allow it to run with no primary load attached.

Power factor has become a recent issue of concern for computer manufacturers. Switched mode power supplies have traditionally been a source of power line harmonics and have a very poor power factor. Many computer power supplies built in the last few years now include power factor correction built right into the switched-mode supply, and may advertise the fact that they offer 1.0 power factor.

By slicing up the sinusoidal AC wave into very small discrete pieces, a portion of unused alternating current stays in the power line as very small spikes of power that cannot be utilized by AC motors and results in waste heating of power line transformers. Hundreds of switched mode power supplies in a building can result in poor power quality for other customers surrounding that building, and high electric bills for the company if they are billed according to their power factor in addition to the actual power used. Filtering capacitor banks may be needed on the building power mains to suppress and absorb these negative power factor effects.

Some switch-mode power supplies use L-C resonance in the primary circuit to convert what would otherwise be a square wave into a sinusoidal waveform. This can decrease the losses in the switching devices and reduce RF harmonics of the switching frequency, but it adds to the circuit complexity and places higher demands on design tolerances.

Programmable power supply

Programmable power supplies allow for remote control of the output voltage through an analog input signal or a computer interface such as RS232 or GPIB. Variable properties include voltage, current, and frequency (for AC output units). These supplies are composed of a processor, voltage/current programming circuits, current shunt, and voltage/current read- back circuits. Additional features can include overcurrent, overvoltage, and short circuit protection, and temperature compensation. Programmable power supplies also come in a variety of forms including modular, board-mounted, wall-mounted, floor-mounted or bench top.

Programmable power supplies can furnish DC, AC, or AC with a DC offset. The AC output can be either single-phase or three-phase. Single-phase is generally used for low-voltage, while three-phase is more common for high-voltage power supplies.

Programmable power supplies are now used in many applications. Some examples include automated equipment testing, crystal growth monitoring, and differential thermal analysis. [3]

Uninterruptible power supply

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) takes its power from two or more sources simultaneously. It is usually powered directly from the AC mains, while simultaneously charging a storage battery. Should there be a dropout or failure of the mains, the battery

55

instantly takes over so that the load never experiences an interruption. Such a scheme can supply power as long as the battery charge suffices, e.g., in a computer installation, giving the operator sufficient time to effect an orderly system shutdown without loss of data. Other UPS schemes may use an internal combustion engine or turbine to continuously supply power to a system in parallel with power coming from the AC . The engine-driven generators would normally be idling, but could come to full power in a matter of a few seconds in order to keep vital equipment running without interruption. Such a scheme might be found in hospitals or telephone central offices.

High-voltage power supply

High voltage refers to an output on the order of hundreds or thousands of volts. High-voltage supplies use a linear setup to produce an output voltage in this range.

Additional features available on high-voltage supplies can include the ability to reverse the output polarity along with the use of circuit breakers and special connectors intended to minimize arcing and accidental contact with human hands. Some supplies provide analog inputs (i.e. 0-10V) that can be used to control the output voltage, effectively turning them into high-voltage amplifiers albeit with very limited bandwidth.

Voltage multipliers

Voltage multipliers, as the name implies, are circuits designed to multiply the input voltage. The input voltage may be doubled (voltage doubler), tripled (voltage tripler), quadrupled (voltage quadrupler), etc. Voltage multipliers are also power converters. An AC input is converted to a higher DC output. These circuits allow high voltages to be obtained using a much lower voltage AC source.

Typically, voltage multipliers are composed of half-wave rectifiers, capacitors, and diodes. For example, a voltage tripler consists of three half-wave rectifiers, three capacitors, and three diodes (see Cockcroft Walton Multiplier). Full-wave rectifiers may be used in a different configuration to achieve even higher voltages. Also, both parallel and series configurations are available. For parallel multipliers, a higher voltage rating is required at each consecutive multiplication stage, but less capacitance is required. The voltage capability of the capacitor limits the maximum output voltage.

Voltage multipliers have many applications. For example, voltage multipliers can be found in everyday items like televisions and photocopiers. Even more applications can be found in the laboratory, such as cathode ray tubes, oscilloscopes, and photomultiplier tubes. [4][5]

Power supply applications

Computer power supply

56

A modern computer power supply is a switch with on and off supply designed to convert 110-240 V AC power from the mains supply, to several output both positive (and historically negative) DC voltages in the range + 12V,-12V,+5V,+5VBs and +3.3V. The first generation of computers power supplies were linear devices, but as cost became a driving factor, and weight became important, switched mode supplies are almost universal.

The diverse collection of output voltages also have widely varying current draw requirements, which are difficult to all be supplied from the same switched-mode source. Consequently most modern computer power supplies actually consist of several different switched mode supplies, each producing just one voltage component and each able to vary its output based on component power requirements, and all are linked together to shut down as a group in the event of a fault condition.

Welding power supply

Arc welding uses electricity to melt the surfaces of the metals in order to join them together through coalescence. The electricity is provided by a welding power supply, and can either be AC or DC. Arc welding typically requires high currents typically between 100 and 350 amps. Some types of welding can use as few as 10 amps, while some applications of spot welding employ currents as high as 60,000 amps for an extremely short time. Older welding power supplies consisted of transformers or engines driving generators. More recent supplies use semiconductors and microprocessors reducing their size and weight.

AC adapter

A modern computer power supply is a switch with on and off supply designed to convertArc welding uses electricity to melt the surfaces of the metals in order to join them together through coalescence . The electricity is provided by a welding power supply, and can either be AC or DC . Arc welding typically requires high currents typically between 100 and 350 amps . Some types of welding can use as few as 10 amps, while some applications of spot welding employ currents as high as 60,000 amps for an extremely short time. Older welding power supplies consisted of transformers or engines driving generators . More recent supplies use semiconductors and microprocessors reducing their size and weight. AC adapter Switched mode mobile phone charger Main article: AC adapter A power supply that is built into an AC mains power plug is known as a "plug pack" or "plug-in adapter", or by slang terms such as "wall wart". They are even more diverse than their names; often with either the same kind of DC plug offering different voltage or polarity , or a different plug offering the same voltage. "Universal" adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones, using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities . Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of, and supply at least as much current as, the original power supply. The least expensive AC units consist solely of a small transformer , while DC adapters include a few additional diodes. Whether or not a load is connected to the power adapter, the 57 " id="pdf-obj-56-39" src="pdf-obj-56-39.jpg">

Switched mode mobile phone charger

Main article: AC adapter

A power supply that is built into an AC mains power plug is known as a "plug pack" or "plug-in adapter", or by slang terms such as "wall wart". They are even more diverse than their names; often with either the same kind of DC plug offering different voltage or polarity, or a different plug offering the same voltage. "Universal" adapters attempt to replace missing or damaged ones, using multiple plugs and selectors for different voltages and polarities. Replacement power supplies must match the voltage of, and supply at least as much current as, the original power supply.

The least expensive AC units consist solely of a small transformer, while DC adapters include a few additional diodes. Whether or not a load is connected to the power adapter, the

57

transformer has a magnetic field continuously present and normally cannot be completely turned off unless unplugged.

Because they consume standby power, they are sometimes known as "electricity vampires" and may be plugged into a power strip to allow turning them off. Expensive switched-mode power supplies can cut off leaky electrolyte-capacitors, use powerless MOSFETs, and reduce their working frequency to get a gulp of energy once in a while to power, for example, a clock, which would otherwise need a battery.

Overload protection

Power supplies often include some type of overload protection that protects the power supply from load faults (e.g., short circuits) that might otherwise cause damage by overheating components or, in the worst case, electrical fire. Fuses and circuit breakers are two commonly used mechanisms for overload protection. [6]

Fuses

A Fuse (electrical) fuse is a piece of wire in a casingl characteristics. If too much current flows, the wire becomes hot and melts. This effectively disconnects the power supply from its load, and the equipment stops working until the problem that caused the overload is identified and the fuse is replaced.

There are various types of fuses used in power supplies.

fast blow fuses cut the power as quick as they can

slow blow fuses tolerate more short term overload

wire link fuses are just an open piece of wire, and have poorer overload characteristics than glass and ceramic fuses

Some power supplies use a very thin wire link soldered in place as a fuse.

Circuit breakers

One benefit of using a circuit breaker as opposed to a fuse is that it can simply be reset instead of having to replace the blown fuse. A circuit breaker contains an element that heats, bends and triggers a spring which shuts the circuit down. Once the element cools, and the problem is identified the breaker can be reset and the power restored.

Thermal cutouts

Some PSUs use a thermal cutout buried in the transformer rather than a fuse. The advantage is it allows greater current to be drawn for limited time than the unit can supply continuously. Some such cutouts are self resetting, some are single use only.

Current limiting

58

Some supplies use current limiting instead of cutting off power if overloaded. The two types of current limiting used are electronic limiting and impedance limiting. The former is common on lab bench PSUs, the latter is common on supplies of less than 3 watts output.

A foldback current limiter reduces the output current to much less than the maximum non- fault current.

Power conversion

The term "power supply" is sometimes restricted to those devices that convert some other form of energy into electricity (such as solar power and fuel cells and generators). A more accurate term for devices that convert one form of electric power into another form (such as transformers and linear regulators) is power converter. The most common conversion is from AC to DC.

59

VOLTAGE DIVIDER

VOLTAGE DIVIDER Figure 1: Voltage divider In <a href=electronics , a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider ) is a simple linear circuit that produces an output voltage (V ) that is a fraction of its input voltage (V ). Voltage division refers to the partitioning of a voltage among the components of the divider. The formula governing a voltage divider is similar to that for a current divider , but the ratio describing voltage division places the selected impedance in the numerator, unlike current division where it is the unselected components that enter the numerator. A simple example of a voltage divider consists of two resistors in series or a potentiometer . It is commonly used to create a reference voltage, or to get a low voltage signal proportional to the voltage to be measured and may also be used as a signal attenuator at low frequencies. General case A voltage divider referenced to ground is created by connecting two electrical impedances in series, as shown in Figure 1. The input voltage is applied across the series impedances Z and Z and the output is the voltage across Z . Z and Z may be composed of any combination of elements such as resistors , inductors and capacitors . Applying Ohm's Law , the relationship between the input voltage, V , and the output voltage, V , can be found: Proof: 60 " id="pdf-obj-59-4" src="pdf-obj-59-4.jpg">

Figure 1: Voltage divider

In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a simple linear circuit that produces an output voltage (V out ) that is a fraction of its input voltage (V in ). Voltage division refers to the partitioning of a voltage among the components of the divider.

The formula governing a voltage divider is similar to that for a current divider, but the ratio describing voltage division places the selected impedance in the numerator, unlike current division where it is the unselected components that enter the numerator.

A simple example of a voltage divider consists of two resistors in series or a potentiometer. It is commonly used to create a reference voltage, or to get a low voltage signal proportional to the voltage to be measured and may also be used as a signal attenuator at low frequencies.

General case

A voltage divider referenced to ground is created by connecting two electrical impedances in series, as shown in Figure 1. The input voltage is applied across the series impedances Z 1 and Z 2 and the output is the voltage across Z 2 . Z 1 and Z 2 may be composed of any combination of elements such as resistors, inductors and capacitors.

Applying Ohm's Law, the relationship between the input voltage, V in , and the output voltage, V out , can be found:

VOLTAGE DIVIDER Figure 1: Voltage divider In <a href=electronics , a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider ) is a simple linear circuit that produces an output voltage (V ) that is a fraction of its input voltage (V ). Voltage division refers to the partitioning of a voltage among the components of the divider. The formula governing a voltage divider is similar to that for a current divider , but the ratio describing voltage division places the selected impedance in the numerator, unlike current division where it is the unselected components that enter the numerator. A simple example of a voltage divider consists of two resistors in series or a potentiometer . It is commonly used to create a reference voltage, or to get a low voltage signal proportional to the voltage to be measured and may also be used as a signal attenuator at low frequencies. General case A voltage divider referenced to ground is created by connecting two electrical impedances in series, as shown in Figure 1. The input voltage is applied across the series impedances Z and Z and the output is the voltage across Z . Z and Z may be composed of any combination of elements such as resistors , inductors and capacitors . Applying Ohm's Law , the relationship between the input voltage, V , and the output voltage, V , can be found: Proof: 60 " id="pdf-obj-59-74" src="pdf-obj-59-74.jpg">

Proof:

60

The <a href=transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio ) of this circuit is simply: In general this transfer function is a complex , rational function of frequency . Resistive divider Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z and Z , are purely resistive (Figure 2). Substituting Z = R and Z = R into the previous expression gives: As in the general case, R and R may be any combination of series/parallel resistors. Examples Resistive divider As a simple example, if R = R then 61 " id="pdf-obj-60-2" src="pdf-obj-60-2.jpg">
The <a href=transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio ) of this circuit is simply: In general this transfer function is a complex , rational function of frequency . Resistive divider Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z and Z , are purely resistive (Figure 2). Substituting Z = R and Z = R into the previous expression gives: As in the general case, R and R may be any combination of series/parallel resistors. Examples Resistive divider As a simple example, if R = R then 61 " id="pdf-obj-60-4" src="pdf-obj-60-4.jpg">
The <a href=transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio ) of this circuit is simply: In general this transfer function is a complex , rational function of frequency . Resistive divider Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z and Z , are purely resistive (Figure 2). Substituting Z = R and Z = R into the previous expression gives: As in the general case, R and R may be any combination of series/parallel resistors. Examples Resistive divider As a simple example, if R = R then 61 " id="pdf-obj-60-6" src="pdf-obj-60-6.jpg">

The transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio) of this circuit is simply:

The <a href=transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio ) of this circuit is simply: In general this transfer function is a complex , rational function of frequency . Resistive divider Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z and Z , are purely resistive (Figure 2). Substituting Z = R and Z = R into the previous expression gives: As in the general case, R and R may be any combination of series/parallel resistors. Examples Resistive divider As a simple example, if R = R then 61 " id="pdf-obj-60-14" src="pdf-obj-60-14.jpg">

In general this transfer function is a complex, rational function of frequency.

Resistive divider

The <a href=transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio ) of this circuit is simply: In general this transfer function is a complex , rational function of frequency . Resistive divider Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z and Z , are purely resistive (Figure 2). Substituting Z = R and Z = R into the previous expression gives: As in the general case, R and R may be any combination of series/parallel resistors. Examples Resistive divider As a simple example, if R = R then 61 " id="pdf-obj-60-26" src="pdf-obj-60-26.jpg">

Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider

A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z 1 and Z 2 , are purely resistive (Figure 2).

Substituting Z 1 = R 1 and Z 2 = R 2 into the previous expression gives:

The <a href=transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio ) of this circuit is simply: In general this transfer function is a complex , rational function of frequency . Resistive divider Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z and Z , are purely resistive (Figure 2). Substituting Z = R and Z = R into the previous expression gives: As in the general case, R and R may be any combination of series/parallel resistors. Examples Resistive divider As a simple example, if R = R then 61 " id="pdf-obj-60-46" src="pdf-obj-60-46.jpg">

As in the general case, R 1 and R 2 may be any combination of series/parallel resistors.

Examples

Resistive divider

As a simple example, if R 1 = R 2 then

The <a href=transfer function (also known as the divider's voltage ratio ) of this circuit is simply: In general this transfer function is a complex , rational function of frequency . Resistive divider Figure 2: Simple resistive voltage divider A resistive divider is a special case where both impedances, Z and Z , are purely resistive (Figure 2). Substituting Z = R and Z = R into the previous expression gives: As in the general case, R and R may be any combination of series/parallel resistors. Examples Resistive divider As a simple example, if R = R then 61 " id="pdf-obj-60-64" src="pdf-obj-60-64.jpg">

61

As a more specific and/or practical example, if V out =6V and V in =9V (both commonly used voltages), then:

As a more specific and/or practical example, if V =6V and V =9V (both commonly usedalgebra , R must be twice the value of R . To solve for R1: To solve for R2: Any ratio between 0 and 1 is possible. That is, using resistors alone it is not possible to either invert the voltage or increase V above V . Low-pass RC filter Figure 3: Resistor/capacitor voltage divider Consider a divider consisting of a resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 3. Comparing with the general case, we see Z = R and Z is the impedance of the capacitor, given by where X is the reactance of the capacitor, C is the capacitance of the capacitor, j is the imaginary unit , and ω (omega) is the radian frequency of the input voltage. 62 " id="pdf-obj-61-8" src="pdf-obj-61-8.jpg">

and by solving using algebra, R 2 must be twice the value of R 1 .

To solve for R1:

As a more specific and/or practical example, if V =6V and V =9V (both commonly usedalgebra , R must be twice the value of R . To solve for R1: To solve for R2: Any ratio between 0 and 1 is possible. That is, using resistors alone it is not possible to either invert the voltage or increase V above V . Low-pass RC filter Figure 3: Resistor/capacitor voltage divider Consider a divider consisting of a resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 3. Comparing with the general case, we see Z = R and Z is the impedance of the capacitor, given by where X is the reactance of the capacitor, C is the capacitance of the capacitor, j is the imaginary unit , and ω (omega) is the radian frequency of the input voltage. 62 " id="pdf-obj-61-21" src="pdf-obj-61-21.jpg">

To solve for R2:

As a more specific and/or practical example, if V =6V and V =9V (both commonly usedalgebra , R must be twice the value of R . To solve for R1: To solve for R2: Any ratio between 0 and 1 is possible. That is, using resistors alone it is not possible to either invert the voltage or increase V above V . Low-pass RC filter Figure 3: Resistor/capacitor voltage divider Consider a divider consisting of a resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 3. Comparing with the general case, we see Z = R and Z is the impedance of the capacitor, given by where X is the reactance of the capacitor, C is the capacitance of the capacitor, j is the imaginary unit , and ω (omega) is the radian frequency of the input voltage. 62 " id="pdf-obj-61-25" src="pdf-obj-61-25.jpg">

Any ratio between 0 and 1 is possible. That is, using resistors alone it is not possible to either invert the voltage or increase V out above V in .

Low-pass RC filter

As a more specific and/or practical example, if V =6V and V =9V (both commonly usedalgebra , R must be twice the value of R . To solve for R1: To solve for R2: Any ratio between 0 and 1 is possible. That is, using resistors alone it is not possible to either invert the voltage or increase V above V . Low-pass RC filter Figure 3: Resistor/capacitor voltage divider Consider a divider consisting of a resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 3. Comparing with the general case, we see Z = R and Z is the impedance of the capacitor, given by where X is the reactance of the capacitor, C is the capacitance of the capacitor, j is the imaginary unit , and ω (omega) is the radian frequency of the input voltage. 62 " id="pdf-obj-61-35" src="pdf-obj-61-35.jpg">

Figure 3: Resistor/capacitor voltage divider

Consider a divider consisting of a resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 3.

Comparing with the general case, we see Z 1 = R and Z 2 is the impedance of the capacitor, given by

As a more specific and/or practical example, if V =6V and V =9V (both commonly usedalgebra , R must be twice the value of R . To solve for R1: To solve for R2: Any ratio between 0 and 1 is possible. That is, using resistors alone it is not possible to either invert the voltage or increase V above V . Low-pass RC filter Figure 3: Resistor/capacitor voltage divider Consider a divider consisting of a resistor and capacitor as shown in Figure 3. Comparing with the general case, we see Z = R and Z is the impedance of the capacitor, given by where X is the reactance of the capacitor, C is the capacitance of the capacitor, j is the imaginary unit , and ω (omega) is the radian frequency of the input voltage. 62 " id="pdf-obj-61-49" src="pdf-obj-61-49.jpg">

where X C is the reactance of the capacitor, C is the capacitance of the capacitor, j is the imaginary unit, and ω (omega) is the radian frequency of the input voltage.

62

This divider will then have the voltage ratio:

.
.

The product of τ (tau) = RC is called the time constant of the circuit.

The ratio then depends on frequency, in this case decreasing as frequency increases. This circuit is, in fact, a basic (first-order) lowpass filter. The ratio contains an imaginary number, and actually contains both the amplitude and phase shift information of the filter. To extract just the amplitude ratio, calculate the magnitude of the ratio, that is:

This divider will then have the voltage ratio: . The product of τ (tau) = RCtime constant of the circuit. The ratio then depends on frequency, in this case decreasing as frequency increases. This circuit is, in fact, a basic (first-order) lowpass filter . The ratio contains an imaginary number, and actually contains both the amplitude and phase shift information of the filter. To extract just the amplitude ratio, calculate the magnitude of the ratio, that is: Inductive divider Inductive dividers split DC input according to resistive divider rules above. Inductive dividers split AC input according to inductance: The above equation is for ideal conditions. In the real world the amount of mutual inductance will alter the results. Capacitive divider Capacitive dividers do not pass DC input. For an AC input a simple capacitive equation is: Capacitive dividers are limited in current by the capacitance of the elements used. This effect is opposite to resistive division and inductive division. 63 " id="pdf-obj-62-19" src="pdf-obj-62-19.jpg">

Inductive divider

Inductive dividers split DC input according to resistive divider rules above.

Inductive dividers split AC input according to inductance:

This divider will then have the voltage ratio: . The product of τ (tau) = RCtime constant of the circuit. The ratio then depends on frequency, in this case decreasing as frequency increases. This circuit is, in fact, a basic (first-order) lowpass filter . The ratio contains an imaginary number, and actually contains both the amplitude and phase shift information of the filter. To extract just the amplitude ratio, calculate the magnitude of the ratio, that is: Inductive divider Inductive dividers split DC input according to resistive divider rules above. Inductive dividers split AC input according to inductance: The above equation is for ideal conditions. In the real world the amount of mutual inductance will alter the results. Capacitive divider Capacitive dividers do not pass DC input. For an AC input a simple capacitive equation is: Capacitive dividers are limited in current by the capacitance of the elements used. This effect is opposite to resistive division and inductive division. 63 " id="pdf-obj-62-27" src="pdf-obj-62-27.jpg">

The above equation is for ideal conditions. In the real world the amount of mutual inductance will alter the results.

Capacitive divider

Capacitive dividers do not pass DC input.

For an AC input a simple capacitive equation is:

This divider will then have the voltage ratio: . The product of τ (tau) = RCtime constant of the circuit. The ratio then depends on frequency, in this case decreasing as frequency increases. This circuit is, in fact, a basic (first-order) lowpass filter . The ratio contains an imaginary number, and actually contains both the amplitude and phase shift information of the filter. To extract just the amplitude ratio, calculate the magnitude of the ratio, that is: Inductive divider Inductive dividers split DC input according to resistive divider rules above. Inductive dividers split AC input according to inductance: The above equation is for ideal conditions. In the real world the amount of mutual inductance will alter the results. Capacitive divider Capacitive dividers do not pass DC input. For an AC input a simple capacitive equation is: Capacitive dividers are limited in current by the capacitance of the elements used. This effect is opposite to resistive division and inductive division. 63 " id="pdf-obj-62-37" src="pdf-obj-62-37.jpg">

Capacitive dividers are limited in current by the capacitance of the elements used.

This effect is opposite to resistive division and inductive division.

63

Loading effect

The voltage output of a voltage divider is not fixed but varies according to the load. To obtain a reasonably stable output voltage the output current should be a small fraction of the input current. The drawback of this is that most of the input current is wasted as heat in the resistors.

The following example describes the effect when a voltage divider is used to drive an amplifier:

Loading effect The voltage output of a voltage divider is not fixed but varies according togain of an amplifier generally depends on its source and load terminations, so-called loading effects that reduce the gain. The analysis of the amplifier itself is conveniently treated separately using idealized drivers and loads, and then supplemented by the use of voltage and current division to include the loading effects of real sources and loads . The choice of idealized driver and idealized load depends upon whether current or voltage is the input/output variable for the amplifier at hand, as described next. For more detail on types of amplifier based upon input/output variables, see classification based on input and output variables . In terms of sources, amplifiers with voltage input (voltage and transconductance amplifiers) typically are characterized using ideal zero-impedance voltage sources. In terms of terminations, amplifiers with voltage output (voltage and transresistance amplifiers) typically are characterized in terms of an open circuit output condition. Similarly, amplifiers with current input (current and transresistance amplifiers) are characterized using ideal infinite impedance current sources, while amplifiers with current output (current and transconductance amplifiers) are characterized by a short-circuit output condition, As stated above, when any of these amplifiers is driven by a non-ideal source, and/or terminated by a finite, non-zero load, the effective gain is lowered due to the loading effect at the input and/or the output. Figure 3 illustrates loading by voltage division at both input and output for a simple voltage amplifier. (A current amplifier example is found in the article on current division . ) For any of the four types of amplifier (current, voltage, transconductance or transresistance), these loading effects can be understood as a result of voltage division and/or current division , as described next. 64 " id="pdf-obj-63-8" src="pdf-obj-63-8.jpg">

Figure 3: A simple voltage amplifier (gray outline) demonstrating input loading (blue outline) and output loading (green outline)

The gain of an amplifier generally depends on its source and load terminations, so-called loading effects that reduce the gain. The analysis of the amplifier itself is conveniently treated separately using idealized drivers and loads, and then supplemented by the use of voltage and current division to include the loading effects of real sources and loads. [1] The choice of idealized driver and idealized load depends upon whether current or voltage is the input/output variable for the amplifier at hand, as described next. For more detail on types of amplifier based upon input/output variables, see classification based on input and output variables.

In terms of sources, amplifiers with voltage input (voltage and transconductance amplifiers) typically are characterized using ideal zero-impedance voltage sources. In terms of terminations, amplifiers with voltage output (voltage and transresistance amplifiers) typically are characterized in terms of an open circuit output condition.

Similarly, amplifiers with current input (current and transresistance amplifiers) are characterized using ideal infinite impedance current sources, while amplifiers with current output (current and transconductance amplifiers) are characterized by a short-circuit output condition,

As stated above, when any of these amplifiers is driven by a non-ideal source, and/or terminated by a finite, non-zero load, the effective gain is lowered due to the loading effect at the input and/or the output. Figure 3 illustrates loading by voltage division at both input and output for a simple voltage amplifier. (A current amplifier example is found in the article on current division.) For any of the four types of amplifier (current, voltage, transconductance or transresistance), these loading effects can be understood as a result of voltage division and/or current division, as described next.

64

Input loading

A general voltage source can be represented by a Thévenin equivalent circuit with Thévenin series impedance R S . For a Thévenin driver, the input voltage v i is reduced from v S by voltage division to a value

Input loading A general voltage source can be represented by a <a href=Thévenin equivalent circuit with Thévenin series impedance R . For a Thévenin driver, the input voltage v is reduced from v by voltage division to a value where R is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the idealized gain by the same voltage division factor. In the same manner, the ideal input current for an ideal driver i is realized only for an infinite-resistance current driver. For a Norton driver with current i and source impedance R , the input current i is reduced from i by current division to a value where R is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal driver by the same current division factor. More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the driver and amplifier resistances. Output loading For a finite load, R an output voltage is reduced by voltage division by the factor R / ( R + R ), where R is the amplifier output resistance. Likewise, as the term short-circuit implies, the output current delivered to a load R is reduced by current division by the factor R / ( R + R ). The overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal load by the same current division factor. More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the load and amplifier resistances. Loaded gain - voltage amplifier case Including both the input and output voltage division factors for the voltage amplifier of Figure 4, the ideal voltage gain A realized with an ideal driver and an open-circuit load is reduced to the loaded gain A : The resistor ratios in the above expression are called the loading factors . 65 " id="pdf-obj-64-14" src="pdf-obj-64-14.jpg">

where R in is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the idealized gain by the same voltage division factor.

In the same manner, the ideal input current for an ideal driver i i is realized only for an infinite-resistance current driver. For a Norton driver with current i S and source impedance R S , the input current i i is reduced from i S by current division to a value

Input loading A general voltage source can be represented by a <a href=Thévenin equivalent circuit with Thévenin series impedance R . For a Thévenin driver, the input voltage v is reduced from v by voltage division to a value where R is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the idealized gain by the same voltage division factor. In the same manner, the ideal input current for an ideal driver i is realized only for an infinite-resistance current driver. For a Norton driver with current i and source impedance R , the input current i is reduced from i by current division to a value where R is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal driver by the same current division factor. More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the driver and amplifier resistances. Output loading For a finite load, R an output voltage is reduced by voltage division by the factor R / ( R + R ), where R is the amplifier output resistance. Likewise, as the term short-circuit implies, the output current delivered to a load R is reduced by current division by the factor R / ( R + R ). The overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal load by the same current division factor. More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the load and amplifier resistances. Loaded gain - voltage amplifier case Including both the input and output voltage division factors for the voltage amplifier of Figure 4, the ideal voltage gain A realized with an ideal driver and an open-circuit load is reduced to the loaded gain A : The resistor ratios in the above expression are called the loading factors . 65 " id="pdf-obj-64-34" src="pdf-obj-64-34.jpg">

where R in is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal driver by the same current division factor.

More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the driver and amplifier resistances.

Output loading

For a finite load, R L an output voltage is reduced by voltage division by the factor R L / ( R L + R out ), where R out is the amplifier output resistance. Likewise, as the term short-circuit implies, the output current delivered to a load R L is reduced by current division by the factor R out / ( R L + R out ). The overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal load by the same current division factor.

More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the load and amplifier resistances.

Loaded gain - voltage amplifier case

Including both the input and output voltage division factors for the voltage amplifier of Figure 4, the ideal voltage gain A v realized with an ideal driver and an open-circuit load is reduced to the loaded gain A loaded :

Input loading A general voltage source can be represented by a <a href=Thévenin equivalent circuit with Thévenin series impedance R . For a Thévenin driver, the input voltage v is reduced from v by voltage division to a value where R is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the idealized gain by the same voltage division factor. In the same manner, the ideal input current for an ideal driver i is realized only for an infinite-resistance current driver. For a Norton driver with current i and source impedance R , the input current i is reduced from i by current division to a value where R is the amplifier input resistance, and the overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal driver by the same current division factor. More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the driver and amplifier resistances. Output loading For a finite load, R an output voltage is reduced by voltage division by the factor R / ( R + R ), where R is the amplifier output resistance. Likewise, as the term short-circuit implies, the output current delivered to a load R is reduced by current division by the factor R / ( R + R ). The overall gain is reduced below the gain estimated using an ideal load by the same current division factor. More generally, complex frequency-dependent impedances can be used instead of the load and amplifier resistances. Loaded gain - voltage amplifier case Including both the input and output voltage division factors for the voltage amplifier of Figure 4, the ideal voltage gain A realized with an ideal driver and an open-circuit load is reduced to the loaded gain A : The resistor ratios in the above expression are called the loading factors . 65 " id="pdf-obj-64-80" src="pdf-obj-64-80.jpg">

The resistor ratios in the above expression are called the loading factors.

65

Figure 4: G-parameter voltage amplifier two-port; feedback provided by dependent current- controlled current source of gainunilateral amplifier. In a more general case where the amplifier is represented by a two port , the input resistance of the amplifier depends on its load, and the output resistance on the source impedance. The loading factors in these cases must employ the true amplifier impedances including these bilateral effects. For example, taking the unilateral voltage amplifier of Figure 3, the corresponding bilateral two- port network is shown in Figure 4 based upon g-parameters . Carrying out the analysis for this circuit, the voltage gain with feedback A is found to be That is, the ideal current gain A is reduced not only by the loading factors, but due to the bilateral nature of the two-port by an additional facto r (1 + β (R / R ) A ), which is typical of negative feedback amplifier circuits. The factor β(R / R ) is the voltage feedback provided by the current feedback source of current gain β (A/A). For instance, for an ideal voltage source with R = 0 Ω, the current feedback has no influence, and for R = ∞ Ω, there is zero load current, again disabling the feedback. Applications Reference voltage Voltage dividers are often used to produce stable reference voltages. The term reference voltage implies that little or no current is drawn from the divider output node by an attached load. Thus, use of the divider as a reference requires a load device with a high input impedance to avoid loading the divider, that is, to avoid disturbing its output voltage. A simple way of avoiding loading (for low power applications) is to simply input the reference voltage into the non-inverting input of an op-amp buffer . Another wa y is to "neutralize" the load impedance by an equivalent negative impedance ( INIC ) . 66 " id="pdf-obj-65-2" src="pdf-obj-65-2.jpg">

Figure 4: G-parameter voltage amplifier two-port; feedback provided by dependent current-

controlled current source of gain β A/A

Unilateral versus bilateral amplifiers

Figure 3 and the associated discussion refers to a unilateral amplifier. In a more general case where the amplifier is represented by a two port, the input resistance of the amplifier depends on its load, and the output resistance on the source impedance. The loading factors in these cases must employ the true amplifier impedances including these bilateral effects. For example, taking the unilateral voltage amplifier of Figure 3, the corresponding bilateral two- port network is shown in Figure 4 based upon g-parameters. [nb 1] Carrying out the analysis for this circuit, the voltage gain with feedback A fb is found to be

Figure 4: G-parameter voltage amplifier two-port; feedback provided by dependent current- controlled current source of gainunilateral amplifier. In a more general case where the amplifier is represented by a two port , the input resistance of the amplifier depends on its load, and the output resistance on the source impedance. The loading factors in these cases must employ the true amplifier impedances including these bilateral effects. For example, taking the unilateral voltage amplifier of Figure 3, the corresponding bilateral two- port network is shown in Figure 4 based upon g-parameters . Carrying out the analysis for this circuit, the voltage gain with feedback A is found to be That is, the ideal current gain A is reduced not only by the loading factors, but due to the bilateral nature of the two-port by an additional facto r (1 + β (R / R ) A ), which is typical of negative feedback amplifier circuits. The factor β(R / R ) is the voltage feedback provided by the current feedback source of current gain β (A/A). For instance, for an ideal voltage source with R = 0 Ω, the current feedback has no influence, and for R = ∞ Ω, there is zero load current, again disabling the feedback. Applications Reference voltage Voltage dividers are often used to produce stable reference voltages. The term reference voltage implies that little or no current is drawn from the divider output node by an attached load. Thus, use of the divider as a reference requires a load device with a high input impedance to avoid loading the divider, that is, to avoid disturbing its output voltage. A simple way of avoiding loading (for low power applications) is to simply input the reference voltage into the non-inverting input of an op-amp buffer . Another wa y is to "neutralize" the load impedance by an equivalent negative impedance ( INIC ) . 66 " id="pdf-obj-65-24" src="pdf-obj-65-24.jpg">

That is, the ideal current gain A i is reduced not only by the loading factors, but due to the bilateral nature of the two-port by an additional factor [nb 2] (1 + β (R S / R L ) A loaded ), which is typical of negative feedback amplifier circuits. The factor β(R S / R L ) is the voltage feedback provided by the current feedback source of current gain β (A/A). For instance, for an ideal voltage source with R S = 0 Ω, the current feedback has no influence, and for R L = ∞ Ω, there is zero load current, again disabling the feedback.

Applications

Reference voltage

Voltage dividers are often used to produce stable reference voltages. The term reference voltage implies that little or no current is drawn from the divider output node by an attached load. Thus, use of the divider as a reference requires a load device with a high input impedance to avoid loading the divider, that is, to avoid disturbing its output voltage. A simple way of avoiding loading (for low power applications) is to simply input the reference voltage into the non-inverting input of an op-amp buffer. Another way [2] is to "neutralize" the load impedance by an equivalent negative impedance (INIC).

66

Voltage source

While voltage dividers may be used to produce precise reference voltages (that is, when no current is drawn from the reference node), they make poor voltage sources (that is, when current is drawn from the reference node). The reason for poor source behavior is that the current drawn by the load passes through resistor R 1 , but not through R 2 , causing the voltage drop across R 1 to change with the load current, and thereby changing the output voltage.

In terms of the above equations, if current flows into a load resistance R L (attached at the output node where the voltage is V out ), that load resistance R L must be considered in parallel with R 2 to determine the voltage at V out . In this case, the voltage at V out is calculated as follows:

Voltage source While voltage dividers may be used to produce precise reference voltages (that is, whenin parallel with R to determine the voltage at V . In this case, the voltage at V is calculated as follows: where R is a load resistor in parallel with R . From this result it is clear that V is decreased by R unless R // R ≈ R , that is, unless R >> R . In other words, for high impedance loads it is possible to use a voltage divider as a voltage source, as long as R has very small value compared to the load. This technique leads to considerable power dissipation in the divider. A voltage divider is commonly used to set the DC Biasing of a common emitter amplifier, where the current drawn from the divider is the relatively low base current of the transistor. 67 " id="pdf-obj-66-28" src="pdf-obj-66-28.jpg">

where R L is a load resistor in parallel with R 2 . From this result it is clear that V out is decreased by R L unless R 2 // R L ≈ R 2 , that is, unless R L >> R 2 .

In other words, for high impedance loads it is possible to use a voltage divider as a voltage source, as long as R 2 has very small value compared to the load. This technique leads to considerable power dissipation in the divider.

A voltage divider is commonly used to set the DC Biasing of a common emitter amplifier, where the current drawn from the divider is the relatively low base current of the transistor.

67

CHAPTER-8

68

CONCLUSION

This project report concludes that Brush voltage drop results in significant power losses if field current is high. Due to contact resistance the voltage drop is nearly 2 volts. Despite of above problems, SLIP RINGS & BRUSHES used for smaller synchronous machines since is cost- effective.

Brushless exciter is a smaller ac generator with its field circuit mounted on stator & its armature circuit mounted on rotor shaft. A 3 phase output of exciter generator rectified by a 3 phase rectifier mounted also on shaft.

By controlling small dc field current of exciter generator, it is possible to fed (and also adjust) field current of main machine without slip rings and brushes. To avoid the usage of brushes and slip rings brushless excitation is used and expected up to the range. This mini project concludes that ―By replacing brushes and slip rings with brushless excitation in the modern generation we can make it more efficient

69

CHAPTER-9

BOOKS:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • A Course in Electrical technology by B.L.THERAJA

  • Theory and performance of Electrical machines by J.B.GUPTA.

  • Electrical machines by M.V.BAKSHI AND U.A.BAKSHI

WEBSITES:

71