50 views

Uploaded by Steam29

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- List of Free Science Books _ Physics Database
- 0504062v14 Relativistic Quantum Mec
- Quantum Mechanics - Description
- Briefer History of Time Illustrations
- Dynamic Spin Release Process 2
- L’existence d’Allah
- Mathematical Formulation of Quantum Mechanics
- The Shape of Space - James Gunn
- phy3
- Haberes Modulo 1
- Topology, Geometry, Quantum Hall Abanov
- Fleming RJ 2019 - The Rise and Fall of the Carbon Dioxide Theory of Climate Change
- Is Quantum Mechanics Incompatible With Newton's First Law
- Semiconductor and Devices 1
- Logic and Physics
- Space and Time Can Warp Your Mind
- 04dec96ianstewart_chaosandthequantum.pdf
- 4a-The-Creation-of-the-Universe
- Evolution
- ch2 APP 1

You are on page 1of 31

Quantum

Mechanics

of the Googolplexus

*t

WILLY

FISCHLER

IGOR KLEBANOV

JOSEPH POLCHINSKI

LEONARD SUSSKIND

Stanford

Submitted

to Nuclear Physics B

* Work supported by the Department of Energy, contract DE-AC03-76SF00515. t Previous title: A Hilbert Space Analysis of Topology Change in Quantum Gravity. $ Research supported in part by the Robert A. Welch Foundation and NSF PHY-8605978. 5 A.P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. 1 Work supported by NSF Grant NSF-PHY-812280.

Grant

ABSTRACT

The Euclidean formulation of gravity is not a subject with firm foundations I think I

have threaded my way through it safely, but it is always possible that unknown to myself I am up to my neck in quicksand and sinking fast. Sidney Coleman

1. Introduction

According ordinary to some very recent speculations, the laws of nature as seen by an determined

by a background

of baby universe or wormhole operators which act on a Fock Th us far the most widely known formulation of this idea

baby universes will always adjust themselves to exactly constant. Unfortunately, the unboundedness of the action

d4x&j(A

- 16kG R, gravity. In

Coleman mechanism for the vanishing of the cosmological s on the apparent instability with respect to nucleating -2/3X

constant arbitrarily

relies heavily

large numbers of the Euclidean four-spheres each contributing (A = 16G2A/9). U n f or t unately, the same instability or even cosmically

to the action

large wormwholes

ref. [S] that these ideas do not work.) prescription which eliminate

On the other hand, there are mathematical They involve rotating the contours

the instabilities.

for all or part of the conformal degree of freedom of the metric. clearest prescription due to Gibbons, Hawking

and mathematically

nating any negative terms in the action (we assume that the cosmological constant is positive). Such a procedure may define a consistent quantum theory of gravity, the divergences as X -+ 0 which drive Coleman mechas

Other approximate

prescriptions

rotate

the contour

or In

saddle points

this case a careful analysis of the modes of fluctuation in front of the Baum-Coleman-Hawking with each four-sphere. (D = 4) the marvelous Evidently, the Euclidean amplitude

iDm2

exp(2/3X)

The result is, once again, not favorable: exp(exp(2/3X)) b ecomes a disappointing

used to prove anything. In this paper we will formulate change by returning mechanics ultimately construct a simplified the quantum mechanics of gravity with topology Hilbert space quantum We is

to the high dry ground of Hamiltonian to be derived from the Minkowski quantum

rich enough to describe any number of spatially holes which mediate transitions quantization between states.

spherical universes as well as worm The procedure wave function involves a third by an operator couplings with a

Dewitt

into a variable

distribution.

by the dynamics

is -

on X (A S 10-12 )

origin of the name googolplexusf (2) The probability for a given X is flat at X = 0, with no enhancement or Coleman type. does occur but in the form exp (-e2j3 ). of a probability for X but i. e., it of either

the Baum-Hawking

rather a transition

state to an out-vacuum,

* The googolplex is the largest finite integer with a special name. (Websters New Collegiate Dictionary.) 4

It is equal to 10 loOO

is the amplitude

to create no universes.

The exp(2/3X)

in electrodynamics

is the analogue of the soft photon factor which suppresses individual states with a finite number of soft photons. (4) The e2/3x of emitted

soft universes are cold, empty and uninteresting. The probability to find an interesting

We warm

probabilities

factor appears. Thus we find no reason to think that wormholes In fact with our present understanding random variable.

2. Second Quantization

Consider the minisuperspace spatially

of Minisuperspace

gravity. This model includes

model of quantum

ds2 = g

(-dT2

+ a2(r)d#)

(2)

is the metric of a unit S-sphere. We also include a number of spatially scalar fields $;(r). The E ins t ein-Hilbert action with matter coupling

+ a - a3(X + V($;))

+ a(&) ]

(3)

H = &

-II2

- a2 + Xa4 + -$I$

+ a4V(&)

>

(4)

of translations invariant,

in the parameter

5

This defines the Wheeler-Dewitt verse @(a, 4;) must satisfy: -d2 [ da2

equation

of the uni-

@(a,$;)

= 0

(5)

ordering,

of assumptions

s Sometimes eq. (5) is regarded as gravity ously more like gravity s with DeWitt[l3] bedding time. Klein-Gordon

Schrodinger equation,

but it is obvi-

equation.

equation, the lack of a positive definite probability to think of @ as a quantum field rather than

[5, 15-201. Of course, there is a second, independent, space theory with spaces of arbitrary

motivatopology,

numbers of connected

consider

a quantum

field theory

of the Wheeler-De

Witt

equation.

di + Xi

[ at2

a2 -_-

t2

t2 + t4(X

+ V(Xi)) I

Q(t,

Xi)

= 0

dXi

dXi

(7)

In order not to confuse the reader we emphasize that the xi are not ordinary spatial positions and Q(t, xi) is not an ordinary

6

whole universes with scale factor t and field values z;. t and Z; are the coordinates in a new space - the googolplexus Eq. (7) is a Klein-Gordon m2(t,Lq and time dependent all functionals is a complete conjugate metric - where particles are universes. mass-squared, (8) space consists of The field @(to, 2)

&@(to,Z)

The Hilbert

II(to,

operators,

is the as

operator

(7), interpreted

a Heisenberg field equation, determines the field at all other times in terms of these. We now have two issues to consider: of the googolplexus, what determines IU), the wave function A meta-observer, a general

for example,

will have given values when the radius of the universe takes some value ao. We are using universe a particle to mean a single connected spatial component, analogy. corresponding of identifying to

in the Klein-Gordon

of identifying

in quantum

particles

is time-dependent. of m2

It will be possible only in regions where m2 is positive in eq. (8) and the metric is the case. m2 > 0, at sufficiently large t, provided $<l, that *<1 m gxx X + V(Z) are adiabatic.

is positive.

7

universes, adiabatic

In particular,

the late-time

(Q, tlout)

- exp {-+Jdim(t,;)

( m2(t,

2) -

tb2V

. d)li?

Q(t)

Z)}

(10)

in a complete

set of solutions

of the

The division

operators

AI is made using

the out-vacuum

= 0

(12)

(13)

is time independent. Then

[AI, A:] = &J . (15)

Let 0 be an observable defined in a single universe, and let 01 be its expectation value in the universe described by solution 8 f~. Then its expectation value

is

wherenI

= (UIA~AIIU)

where

PIJ

= (UIA~AJIU)

Fi-

expectations conditions

conditional,

IU)? The M in k owski nature of the googolplexus 117) is determined at t = 0. It is possible that

physics (this is

to the many-universe

The idea is that the universes at t = 0 are the baby universes whose the local lagrangian of our world. We shall consider a number of

state determines

hypotheses for IU). H owever we will see that the main features of the physics we are interested in is largely insensitive to the details of (U) so long as IU) does not features arise from

between t = 0 and large t. We will discuss 117) in more detail in Sec. IV. We specialize to pure gravity (with X > 0) for with

t-

We now apply these ideas. which second quantized dependent in-state frequency.

reduces to a harmonic

oscillator

is this:

the generic of

a large number

small t, changing sign at t = Xm1i2. Before t = Xm1j2, the potential and the wave packet spreads. As a result,

9

the wavefunction

(@,tlU)

excited

adiabatic,

region.

This state

contains a large number of quanta, which are the out-universes. We see this quantatively only one value; the solution approximation to be j(t) - (4P)1/4e-i(tw2/3 +6). 7

as follows.

f(t),

With

no matter

normalized

t >

N2

(18)

There is a single lowering operator, A = iW(f* The number of universes in the adiabatic , a) .

(19)

region is .

(21) approx= 0.

is determined

The solution

(but normalized

In all,

+ic2e1/3A )

+ icle113A

(22)

of the Wronskian.

10

and (22),

n _N e2/3A(uJ {c2@(0)

+ clII(o)}2

IU) - e2 3x

(23)

By our assumption

in X, and so the number of universes diverges as e2/3x for X + large exponential factor of Baum [ll] and Hawking

component),

that is, as the average number of connected components sections we will discuss the relevance of this factor cosmological After obtained Morikawa Dewitt constant. these results,

to the determination

obtaining previously

we have learned that many of them have been Kuchar [15], Rubakov [18], Hosoya and

by other authors:

[20] h ave observed the analogy between the Wheelerequation in a time dependent background, between in-universes and out-universes. In

of the Baum-Hawking

factor as the

3. Topology

We now introduce first is to introduce topology

Change in Minisuperspace

change. We will do this in two different ways. The the method

co S free = J

0

dt

; 62(t)

+ $(t - Xt4p2(t)}

(24)

11

Consider an interacting

theory

co

0

P-9

parameter,

independent

251 the Feynman graphs resulting from such an action will correspond to spacetimes in which the spherical spaces described by @ are connected by wormholes propagator). In order to keep a Hamiltonian interpretation,

p(t):

(the o

00 + J dt { f

0

(26)

i2(t) + 3 [t - (A + a(t))t4]Q2(t) + P(l)&(t)} .

The fields (Y and p are a new pair of conjugate variables, so the wavefunctions be taken to be functions is arbitrary,

can,

since du = 0; this first term can be absorbed into the wavefunction \-Iu(Q, o; t) = (a, oy;tlU) invariance

is some smooth

by coordinate

rules of quantum

mechanics, this is

(27)

about

12

of X,ff:

the probability

is determined

and is not peaked at 0. This is in clear constrast Coleman[4], which has a double exponential peak

to the quantity

calculated

by

exp (e2/3Aeff)

(28)

of Coleman s calcula-

space interpretation

universes

n=

(w+w)

= Jdn -A

jL@ --oo

exp [ &)]

(29)

We see that for a smooth matrix 0 = X,ff . Thus in a certain x eff = 0. It is tempting problem.

to speculate

constant

We do not think

double exponential.

theory the number of created universes is also e2/3(x+4. Coleman has an additional probability function for X + o to have a

However,

a given value, namely, the double exponential priori probability appears in (29). the reader may be tempted

of eq. (28).

No such additional

Nevertheless, thropic

ideas to say that, since so many more universes are created with X,ff likely to be in one of these.

13

we are overwhelmingly

Unfortunately,

when matter

one finds that the e2/3Xeff universes are all empty, cold and devoid of study of the theory with matter, presented in section 5,

A preliminary

of wormholes.

It is not really

an independent

ate states are just small @ universes. We therefore try something a CF3interaction [5, 17, 191:

0 cm

+;

J 0

that a universe of radius assumption

a splits into universes of radii u and a. We now make the standard that this is negligible unless one universe is microscopic,

co

constant:

S;ubic = ; J{ 0

dt

ii2(t)

+ t2fD2(t)

(31)

- t4Q2(t) (A+gidt ).(t p(t )) } .

Here p(t)

is a function

simpler to analyze, we will make a slight modification: for t > t,, where t, is some cutoff radius.

14

to vanish identically

so that the support of p(t) and c(t) does not overlap. make no difference, very tiny universes. large compared since it amounts to neglecting The modification the cosmological so that wormholes

(32)

(32) should constant of

only affects universes which are very small in a cosmological more effort one could analyze the theory without confident that the physics would be unchanged. an auxiliary

these modifications,

and we are

space interpretation:

cc3

S cubic =

dt + k2(t) J

0

f {t2 - @)(A

+ p(t))}

Q2(t)

(33)

- s4v(~)) .

+ PM (i(t)

In order to recover S~ubic from Sorbic, q(t) must satisfy q(0) = 0, while q(m) unconstrained. Intergrating over

p(t)

iS

then gives

fwdt> = 95(t)

= g<(t)

J J

0 03 0

PvPD(t Pt

following

15

The theory (33) is solvable. The Heisenberg equations of motion @qt) + {t2 - ( x + n(t))C(t))

are

W) &l(t)

&p(t) +

- 94t)Pw - 9Pww>

;c(t)Q2(t)

= 0 = 0

= 0 *

(35)

(36)

(37)

Note that

by (36), q(t)

is constant

q is a constant independent

space breaks up into q(oo) - sectors with constant X,ff = X + q(o). Thus

q

dynamics

is

almost identical

to the earlier CL We can form the same observables as in the cx distribution for X,ff,

and the total number of universes,

n

(38)

= (UIAtAIU)

(39)

the q-dependence following

>

(40)

t > t,

PM = P(O)?

and so

-@qt)

t < t,

(41)

t) which satisfies

- 9/4)P(O)

= 0

(42)

We define a function

with the same boundary condition as the function

16 f(t):

(43)

is

X + f(t),

X,.f

and Re S(X,,f,O)

= 0. Th is is essentially

t4 -+ c(t).

except for the minor modification g(X,ff, jr( X,ff, 0) = -c~1,(Xeff)e-1'3xeff 0) = ic2( Xefj-)e1/3Xeff

Thus, at t = 0,

+ iCl(Xeff)e1'3xerr (44)

-&&2(t) +

= 0 = 1 h(O) = 0 (45)

= 0 42(O)

= 1

Comparing

t < t,

(46) that we

We can now proceed to solve eqs. (35, 36, 37). The parts of the solution need are: from (42))

9P(O)

J

0 +

dW )

{91(t )92(t)

- 92(t )g1(t)}

(47)

q(m) = q(0) @(O)h

tct,

H(O)hz

P(W3

h,2

= 9

J

0

L 0

tc

dt )gdt 4t )

h3 = g2

JJ

dt 0

(48)

17

Also,

A = iW(g*(X

- ig ] dt )g(X & t

+ q(m), t )p(O)

(49)

where the second term appears because of the source in (42). Evaluating

t = 0 gives

(49) at

We now determine obtained the observables (38) and (39).

.

identities,

The following

Baker-Hausdorf

(q = OK7 +

(Q = OlP%

P +

(51)

+ XP +

Then

tAeff> jfq =

and n=

(52)

-03 co

N 0

JdXeff J J

dX effe

2/3AeJf -03 iQ~O(ct2(Xeff)~

d@

(53)

Ih3l

ic;(xeff) %)2QlI(@)

18

42txeff)

= C2(Xeff)

( 1 -

$$)

+cZ(X,ff)$

As in the case of the o-model, . smooth. diverging There is one pathology as X,ff t foe.

the probability

distribution probability

for X,ff,

eq. (52), is

for q, eq. (40). W e assume that this is an artifact trust it in any case for IX,ffl model is reasonable for X,ff identical at X,ff

<< 1. The number of universes, eq. (53), is almost and has the same non-integrable singularity because of @, but is

elements in eqs. (29) and (53) differ slightly the small-t evolution

the wormhole

the physics is the same. The agreement between the Q3 model and the o-model the Hilbert wormholes space analog of the clean separation in the euclidean path integral. @ so as to eliminate to the o-model. the results:

Incidentally,

To conclude this section, we summarize holes, the probability distribution for X,ff

0. One universe observables, on the other hand, are dominated divergence being the single exponential peak of Baum [ll]

and Hawking

we emphasize that this is not a solution of the cosmological reasons that will be explained in sec. 5.

constant problem,

19

4. Correspondence

Coleman [4] f ound that the Euclidean path integral has a double exponential peak (28) as X,ff + 0. In this section we discuss the Hilbert space interpretation

of Coleman calculation. s In general, path integrals represent transition a time-independent Hamiltonian, the initial amplitudes. In the special case of

and final ground states are the same, amplitudes are also ground

and so the ground state to ground state transition state expectation values. In a time-dependent

background,

Iin).

expression

by eq. (10). Th e ]in ) st a t e d ep en d s on the t = 0 boundary conditions integral; we assume that this is to be identified Given a quantum theory in Hilbert with IU).

space, it is a standard exercise to derive the In the present case, this is complicated can be done in but will

several ways [al]. We will therefore not discuss the path integral directly, calculate

(out I . . .

IU) expectation

values and compare with Coleman result. s now. In the case that the tri--

ia(t,)lU),

is of order gnm2. Neglecting n > 3, since these go as positive powers of g, the wavefunction order 9-l: IU) 21 ,;(ro(o)+J n(o))lgll) where J and J are O(1) and (55) IU) is therefore a gaussian with width of order 1, centered on a value of

For convenience we ignore wormhole effects and work at fixed X; afterwards,

20

(56)

one

and introduce -

an arbitrary

smooth

a-dependence

into

IU).

(0ut)U)

= (out~~)e-JZG(o~o)~2g2

(57)

where

(58)

From eqs. (11) and (56)) B, = ctA + PA+ where Q = f(0) p = f (0) Then iv) = ,-PA I2~ A and

lout)( 1 - jp2/cY2 l)1 4

(59)

+ ivf(O> + +f*(O) e

(60)

(61)

where t,

f*(k)

- ~ftk)}

(62)

is the larger of tl and t2 and t< is the smaller. part of eq. (57) is the exponential factor. This factor is given spheres:

The interesting

by the sum of graphs shown in figure 1. This is a sum over disconnected each line represents a universe which is created with propagates (figure lb)). for a while, Thus,

tout lu> N e-J2WJ9/2g2

and is annihilated

(63)

represents the same graphs that give rise to the double exponential work of Coleman [4]. Naively

(28) in the

21

is not generically

= -f,

Cl + 25

. -1 e-a/3X

c2 + i7jcl

=icl

c2 + iqcl

(64)

Coleman,

path integral

in [al].

interpreted

or Q3 interaction) configurations,

already contains a subset of wormhole configurations. in the path integral over a(r),

t2)

attached

gets contributions

rewritten

G(O,O) =

-:

) + i ye2i3

(I

[iclq

+ $1

e213 + .-*)

(65)

a euclidean four-sphere

bounces is the O( 1)

result of eq. (64)[21]. However, this result is not consistent. It applies neither to the theory without

wormholes nor to the theory with all wormholes turned on. Indeed when wormholes are accounted for, let us say by introducing the worm holes connecting the wormhole field cy, we will overcount

Is there a way to turn off these minisuperspace q in the initial state changes the weighting

22

17= &/cl,

G(O,O) M c12e2/3x

(0utlU) -

exp

- J2c12e2/3X/2g2)

6-w

of ref.

It has already been noted [lo] that the plus sign assumed in but the result (66) does not agree with ref. [lo] either: which happens to be -1 in d = 4, It seems that we are on the but some

the phase found for the exponent was (-i)d+2, but the minus sign in eq. right track in identifying

(66) is d-independent.

details remain to be sorted out. How are we to interpret the fine-tuning needed to produce the double expo-

nential form (66)? We offer three possibilities: (i) It is possible that the correct answer for G(O,O) is eq. gravity (64)) of order 1,

does not pass over the there are contour the large

This is plausible:

to a contour which does pass over the saddle, but this finely tuned

object is uninteresting. (ii) tifacts The condition q = icz/cl may be necessary to eliminate with minisuperspace ar-

and give the correct correspondence in part the state IU). way. It corresponds

termines in another

W e note that this choice of 77 can be described to the boundary With condition i(O) = c2@(O)/cr in the Wheeler-

path integral.

this boundary at X = 0.

condition,

has a normalizable

solution

7 =

iC2/Cl

+ O(e-2/3X)

(67)

which sets ,B = 0 in eq. as the source J is turned universes. In

An example of this kind of fine tuning (60). According off, the fine-tuned

is 77= if*(O)/f(O)

to eq. (61)) this results in 1~) = lout): state of the googolplex boundary condition

to a natural

5. Matter

and Heat

Let us return to eq. (7) which d escribes universes with some number of matter fields and restrict V(x) it to the case of one scalar field x. For simplicity invariance. let us choose

expand Q(x) and find that the dynamics of the Fourier modes &( Ic) decouple. Thus a given universe Dewitt can be characterized by a wave number k and the Wheeler

&(t; k) = 0

(68)

We see that for k # 0 there are two oscillatory the de Sitter region of large t

(t ;L l/a),

regions of t.

In addition

to

a second classically

universes.

to cause them to

24

In the FRW region creation and annihilation To do this we find two oscillatory behave like

[18].

equation which

h*(t;

and expand 6(t; k) as

k) = 3

exp(fzklogt)

(69)

&(t; k) = B(k)h+

(70)

for FRW

universes. Since the FRW universes typically evolution of the wave function

the

from t = 0 to t z &

depend

no Baum-Hawking

enhancement

We are thus led to the negative conclusion universe is not peaked as X,ff + 0.

for an interesting

6. Conclusion

We have given a Hilbert space analysis of quantum gravity with topology

minisuperspace

specetimes.

Path integrals in this theory represents transition values. In particular, the double exponential

(o&l. --

amplitudes,

not expectation

Ill).

This is an exclusive

exactly

25

time-dependent

current

0. Any exclusive

by the mechanism

of sec. 2

are much like the soft photons of QED, with ny + e2i3 . However, these soft universes are as uninteresting as the divergent cloud of

soft photons produced by an accelerated charge in QED. When matter is included, say by eq. (7)) then warm excited universes will be like hard photons. question will go something like this: for each value of X,ff, A meaningful

of universes with a given amount of heat (and other relevant properties) over all possible numbers of the unobserved cold empty de Sitter

universes.

analogy with QED, the suppression factor (66) will not appear in this expression. In conclusion, we seem to be left in the following unhappy predicament. Worm as

holes do influence coupling constants and give rise to a probability claimed by Coleman. Hawking or Coleman However this probability function

distribution

= 0. Thus, even if X were tuned to zero, worm a probabilistic quantity with no peak at

holes, if they occur, would still make X,ff x eff = OIs there an escape.? One possibility and X = 0 for other reasons. second possibility of the googolplexus

is that

worm holes do not exist at all new to say about this option. conditions A

We have nothing

lout)

conditions

we assume that, for each k, the wave function or any other wave packet whose width the argument

Reversing

FRW universes must be highly excited. FRW universes is N exp(2/3X,ff). Such a speculation

26

about

naturalness.

We usually

assume that

are specified

at small we see no

way to decide if this is reasonable. Acknowledgements We are indebted which was entirely thank Captain to Sidney Coleman for his inspiring responsible for stimulating for providing work on topology change We also

Quackenbush

a stimulating

environment.

REFERENCES

1. S. W. Hawking, S. W. Hawking, D. N. Page, and C. N. Pope, Nucl. Phys. B170 (1980) 283; Comm. Math. Phys. 87 (1982) 395; A. Strominger, V. A. Rubakov, Phys.

and P. G.

Nucl. Phys. B236 (1984) 349. 2. S. Coleman, 3. S. Giddings 4. S. Coleman, Nucl. Phys. B307 (1988) 864. and A. Strominger, Nucl. Phys. B307 (1899) 854.

5. T. Banks, Nucl. Phys. 309 (1988) 493. 6. V. Kaplunovsky, (1989) 48 7. J. Preskill, preprint Wormholes in Spacetime and the Constants of Nature, Caltech unpublished; W. Fischler and L. Susskind, Phys. Lett. B217

CALT-68-1521

(1988); S. C o 1eman and K. Lee, Escape From the Harvard preprint HUTP-89/A002 (1989).

Menace of the Giant Wormholes, 8. J. Polchinski, Wormholes, 9. G. Gibbons, Decoupling University S. Hawking

Versus Excluded Volume, or, Return of the Giant of Texas preprint UTTG-06-89 (1989).

27

10. J. Polchinski,

Lett. B. (1989). 11. E. Baum, Phys. Lett. B133 (1983) 185. 12. S. W. Hawking, 13. B. S. Dewitt, 14. J. Polchinski, Phys. Lett. B134 (1984) 403. Phys. Rev. 160 (1967) 113. A Two-Dimensional UTTG-02-89 Model for Quantum Gravity, University

C. J. Isham, R. Penrose, and D. W. Sciama, (Clareadon, 16. A. Jevicki, Scientific, Frontiers in Particle

1981).

Physics 83, Dj. Sijacki, et. al., eds. (World Int. Jour. Theor. and Strings II,

Phys. 23 (1984) 23; I. Moss, in Field Theory, Quantum eds. H. J. de Vega and N. Sanchez (Springer, Changing preprint Topology and Non-Trivial Berlin,

Gravity,

Homotopy,

University

88-230 (1988). and A. Strominger, Constant, Baby Universes, Third preprint Quantization, and

17. S. Giddings

Harvard

HUTP-88/A036

Universes,

TASI Summer School. 18. V. Rubakov, Phys. Lett. B214 (1988) 503. Quantum RKK Field Theory of Universe, Hi-

19. A. Hosoya and M. Morikawa, roshima University 20. M. McGuigan, Equation, preprint

Rockefeller

verse Creation

Rockefeller

DOE/ER/40325-53-TASK-B

(1988).

28

(1988)) to appear in Nucl. Phys. B Phys. Rev. D28 (1983) 2960; S. W. Hawking,

22. J. B. Hartle and S. W. Hawking, Nucl. Phys. B239 (1984) 257. 23. A. Vilenkin, function Phys. Rev. lXX

of the Wave-

24. A. Strominger,

Constant

Prob-

Cosmological

University

preprint

FIGURE

CAPTIONS

the exponential of eq. (63). time 7.

1) a) The sum of Feynman diagrams representing The vertical axis is the scale factor

a, the horizontal

is parameter

Each line represents G(0, 0)) th e sum over all paths from a = 0 back to a = 0. b) G(O,O) is a sum over minisuperspace sphere. 2) The euclidean T < rzr/fi, for G(O,O). wormholes trajectories that of the form u(r) = 1sin(fir)l/fi, with 0 < geometries with the topology of a

need to be included

in the semiclassical

approximation

The reflections

that attach to the north and south poles of the large four-spheres.

29

4-89

J/cl

J/g

Fig. 1

6335Al

.a

4-89 6335A2 z

Fig. 2

- List of Free Science Books _ Physics DatabaseUploaded byolgicaradosevic
- 0504062v14 Relativistic Quantum MecUploaded bylcnblzr3877
- Quantum Mechanics - DescriptionUploaded byRafael Nascimento
- Briefer History of Time IllustrationsUploaded byKeith Parker
- Dynamic Spin Release Process 2Uploaded byrobertofigueira
- L’existence d’AllahUploaded byIslamic-invitation.com
- Mathematical Formulation of Quantum MechanicsUploaded bypraveen
- The Shape of Space - James GunnUploaded byThomas Van Der Eng
- phy3Uploaded byaman
- Haberes Modulo 1Uploaded bySantiago Seeker
- Topology, Geometry, Quantum Hall AbanovUploaded bySaad Khalid
- Fleming RJ 2019 - The Rise and Fall of the Carbon Dioxide Theory of Climate ChangeUploaded byjms_martins6920
- Is Quantum Mechanics Incompatible With Newton's First LawUploaded byCristina Slovineanu
- Semiconductor and Devices 1Uploaded bydk13071987
- Logic and PhysicsUploaded bypicogordo
- Space and Time Can Warp Your MindUploaded bysupermonkey07
- 04dec96ianstewart_chaosandthequantum.pdfUploaded byFilippo Biondi
- 4a-The-Creation-of-the-UniverseUploaded byBhavish Ahuja
- EvolutionUploaded byherbert23
- ch2 APP 1Uploaded bySusskino
- MomentumSpace.pdfUploaded byMadhav Mohan
- Conditions for EntanglementUploaded byAnonymous DiWfMN
- 4. Quantum Mechanics_NET-JRF June 2011-Dec 2016Uploaded byVinoth Kumar
- The Fourth Dimension - Chapter 4 (the Scribe of Tao)Uploaded bytao2012
- Engineering in the Cosmic Sense - May2008Uploaded byAndrew Marshall
- VERY - Phase-space Quantization of Field TheoryUploaded byahsbon
- AstrophysicsUploaded bymariyathai_1
- examenesUploaded byJulian David Henao Escobar
- PhysRevLett.692Uploaded bythyagosmesme
- Astronomy Final GuideUploaded byjoshkim599

- David E. Evans and Yasuyuki Kawahigashi- On Ocneanu’s theory of asymptotic inclusions for subfactors, topological quantum field theories and quantum doublesUploaded bySteam29
- David E. Evans and Yasuyuki Kawahigashi- From subfactors to 3-dimensional topological quantum field theories and back — a detailed account of Ocneanu’s theory —Uploaded bySteam29
- Jan de Boer and Jacob Goeree- Markov Traces and II1 Factors in Conformal Field TheoryUploaded bySteam29
- D. Hammaoui and E. H. Tahri- Quantum Symmetries of Higher Coxeter-Dynkin Graphs- A Non-Commutative Case: The D3 Graph of SU(3) SystemUploaded bySteam29
- Dahmane Hammaoui- The Smallest Ocneanu Quantum Groupoid of SU(3) TypeUploaded bySteam29
- David E. Evans and Mathew Pugh- Ocneanu cells and Boltzmann weights for the SU(3) ADE graphsUploaded bySteam29
- R. Coquereaux- Racah - Wigner quantum 6j Symbols, Ocneanu Cells for AN diagrams and quantum groupoidsUploaded bySteam29
- Valentina Petkova and Jean-Bernard Zuber- Conformal Field Theories, Graphs and Quantum AlgebrasUploaded bySteam29
- C.H. Otto Chui, Christian Mercat and Paul A. Pearce- Integrable and Conformal Twisted Boundary Conditions for sl(2) A-D-E Lattice ModelsUploaded bySteam29
- V.B. Petkova and J.-B. Zuber- BCFT: from the boundary to the bulkUploaded bySteam29
- E. Isasi and G. Schieber- From modular invariants to graphs: the modular splitting methodUploaded bySteam29
- Jens Bockenhauer and David E. Evans- On α-Induction, Chiral Generators and Modular Invariants for SubfactorsUploaded bySteam29
- Roger E. Behrend, Paul A. Pearce, Valentina B. Petkova and Jean-Bernard Zuber- Boundary Conditions in Rational Conformal Field TheoriesUploaded bySteam29
- Robert Coquereaux and Roberto Trinchero- On quantum symmetries of ADE graphsUploaded bySteam29
- Adrian Ocneanu- The Classification of Subgroups of quantum SU(N)Uploaded bySteam29
- R. Coquereaux and G. Schieber-Determination of quantum symmetries for higher ADE systems from the modular T matrixUploaded bySteam29
- C.H. Otto Chui, Christian Mercat, William P. Orrick and Paul A. Pearce- Integrable Lattice Realizations of Conformal Twisted Boundary ConditionsUploaded bySteam29
- R. Coquereaux- Notes on the Quantum TetrahedronUploaded bySteam29
- V.B. Petkova and J.-B. Zuber- Generalised twisted partition functionsUploaded bySteam29
- R. Coquereaux and G. Schieber- Twisted partition functions for ADE boundary conformal field theories and Ocneanu algebras of quantum symmetriesUploaded bySteam29
- V.B. Petkova and J.-B. Zuber- The many faces of Ocneanu cellsUploaded bySteam29
- Igor Klebanov and Leonard Susskind- The GoogolplexusUploaded bySteam29
- Ph. Roche- Ocneanu Cell Calculus and Integrable Lattice ModelsUploaded bySteam29
- Greg Kuperberg- Spiders for Rank 2 Lie AlgebrasUploaded bySteam29
- Alexander Burinskii- Superconducting Source of the Kerr-Newman ElectronUploaded bySteam29
- Alexander Burinskii-Axial Stringy System of the Kerr Spinning ParticleUploaded bySteam29
- A Burinskii- Complex Kerr Geometry, Twistors and the Dirac ElectronUploaded bySteam29
- Alexander Burinskii- Two Stringy Systems of the Kerr Spinning ParticleUploaded bySteam29
- A. Ya. Burinskii- Supersymmetric Superconducting Bag as a Core of Kerr Spinning ParticleUploaded bySteam29

- Quantum Field TheoryUploaded bycomplexo
- Cyclic Universe Dragan HajdukovicUploaded byAntroxu Fuera
- Richard Feynman: Simulating physics with computersUploaded bykajdijkstra
- Motion Mountain Physics TextbookUploaded byV_equals_IR
- Quantum Optics for ExperimentalistsUploaded bydagouyi
- FdsAmSciUploaded bysid_senadheera
- Introduction to Quantum Mechanics - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bysreevatsakurudi
- Valone - Feasibility Study of Zero-Point EnergyUploaded byokowrygo
- Issue9Uploaded byClaudio Oliveira Tavares
- (Reviews in Mathematical Physics - Volume 22 ) H. Araki, V. Bach, J. Yngvason (Editors)-World Scientific (2010).pdfUploaded byJaime Feliciano Hernández
- motionmountain-volume5Uploaded byyashyi
- Depth PerceptionUploaded byPuneeth B C
- The Double Slit Experiment by Miles Williams MathisUploaded byTenuc
- Christopher Fang-Yen, Ph. D. thesisUploaded bycfangyen
- feynman diagram 1.pdfUploaded byAsanga Bandara
- BEREZHIANI Quantum-Elettrodinamics 2017-2018 EnUploaded byFlavio Zuccarini
- A First Book of Quantum Field Theory [Lahiri-Pal]Uploaded bytulinne
- 1107034264_ParticleUploaded byBosco Raju
- Quantum Physics 101Uploaded byE. T. Mensah
- Values of ConstantsUploaded byAlexandros Kouretsis
- Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in the Higgs MechanismUploaded byFRIENDs CALCUTTA [ SANDIP40 ]
- Quantum Field Theory a Modern Introduction(Michio Kaku)Uploaded byDaniel Parra
- Wilson LectureUploaded byharismk
- The Making of a Genius Richard P. FeynmanUploaded bynahual22
- ZeemanUploaded byscrusn
- 1307.2201Uploaded bytzihue
- Proca Equations and the Photon Imaginary MassUploaded byFran De Aquino
- DatabaseUploaded byjosephru
- New Strong-field QED Effects at Extreme Light InfrastructureUploaded byttt
- Sieberer_2016_Rep._Prog._Phys._79_096001Uploaded byStephenDedalus