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Notes Functional English Part 1

What is Mood?
The mood oI a verb is the manner in which the action or condition is conceived or intended.
In English there are three verb moods.
1. Indicative, a verb stating an apparent Iact or asking a question. This is the way verbs are
normally used in English.
2. Imperative, a verb stating a command or request.
3. Subjunctive, a verb expressing a doubt, desire, supposition, or condition contrary to Iact.
Imperative Sentence
An imperative sentence asks, requests, or commands someone to do something. An
imperative sentence drops the subject.
Sometimes when simply the verb oI an imperative sentence is reIerred to, it is said to be in
the imperative mood.
Examples: Go away!
Please go away.
John, come here please.
(John is not the subject but a direct address.)
@ere are D|fferent 1ypes of ronouns
lor deLalled explanaLlon and examples of Le Lypes of pronouns refer Lo ronouns page

uemonsLraLlve ronouns polnL ouL a speclflc persons anlmals places Llngs or ldeas
ersonal ronouns sLand ln for people places Llngs and ldeas
lndeflnlLe ronouns replace nouns wlLouL speclfylng wlc noun Ley replace
lnLenslve ronouns empaslze (lnLenslfy) a noun or anoLer pronoun
lnLerrogaLlve ronouns used Lo begln or lnLroduce lnLerrogaLlve senLences
8eclprocal ronouns sow a muLual relaLlonslp
8eflexlve ronouns polnL back Lo Le sub[ecL of Le senLence
8elaLlve ronouns begln a subordlnaLe clause and connecL lL Lo anoLer noun LaL precedes lL

Reflexive Pronoun
An reflexive pronoun "reIlects" a noun or pronoun by taking the place oI its antecedent
when the noun or pronoun is doing something to itselI.
In English reIlexive pronouns are Iormed just like intensive pronouns--by adding -self or -
selves to the root pronoun.
Examples: We underrated ourselves beIore the race.
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The cat washed herselI careIully with her tongue.
The only reIlexive pronouns in modern English are the Iollowing:
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves

Conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases, or clauses and Prepositions
are those connecting words that show the relation of a noun or pronoun to other
words in a sentence.
CONJUNCTIONS - used in connecting words, phrases, or cIauses:
a Coordinate Conjunctions such as and and but are placed next to the words
and ideas they connect. Examples: O e was strong in body and mind.
O She was strong mentally but not physically.
- Su-ordinate Conjunctions are used when one idea in a sentence is
dependent upon another idea. The subordinate conjunction is used to connect the
dependent with the main thought. Examples:
to indicate concession i.e. although, even if, though)
O %4ug some of the volunteers never showed, we still packed a great
number of boxes.
to show cause i.e. now that, because, as, since)
O e was terminated because of his excessive absenteeism.
to express a condition i.e. if only, provided that, except that, unless)
O The whole project will be delayed unless that shipment arrives today.
to indicate purpose i.e. in order that, so that)
O e called in a replacement s4 tat she could go home and get some rest.
to fix a time i.e. as long as, ever since, until, after, when, now that, before)
O Ever since we installed that new software, tracking our shipments is easier.
c CorreIative Conjunctions are those used in pairs i.e. neiter/n4r, eiter/4r,
n4t 4nly/but als4) and should be placed next to the words they connect.
O Eiter we meet the budget 4r downsizing will be the alternative.
O She is respected by neiter her clients n4r her colleagues.
O They n4t 4nly finished the project on time but als4 came in below budget.
PREPOSITIONS - are used to show the reIation of a noun or pronoun to
another word in the sentence:
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O The defendant was shocked by the verdict from the jury.
preposition 'by' shows the relation of the noun 'verdict' to the verb 's4cked.'
Care must -e taken with the use of prepositions. Often there is confusion
using the foIIowing prepositions:
,t, with
O My colleagues were angry with me. not 'at me')
O e was angry at the decisions being made. not 'it' the decisions')
O The contractor was impatient at the delays. not 'it the delays')
O She was impatient with her children. not 'at' her children')
,2ong, between
O The proceeds were divided am4ng the team members. not 'beteen the team
O The proceeds were divided beteen the two participants. not 'am4ng the
two participants')
in, into
O Tommy ran in the gym. within its walls)
O Tommy ran int4 the gym. entered the gym)
,greed to, on, with
O e agreed t4 the terms of the contract. not 'agreed it the terms')
O The board members agreed 4n implementing a hiring freeze. not 'agreed it
O She agreed it Tom to share in the responsibilities.
What is 'Gender'?
03/07 refers to the socIal attrIbutes and opportunItIes assocIated wIth beIng male and female and
the relatIonshIps between women and men and gIrls and boys, as well as the relatIons between
women and those between men. These attrIbutes, opportunItIes and relatIonshIps are socIally
constructed and are learned through socIalIzatIon processes. They are context/ tImespecIfIc and
What is an antonym?
n anLonym of a parLlcular word ls one LaL as Le opposlte meooloq
An antonym is usually an adjective or adverb, but can include verb Iorms such as "coming /
going", "leading/ Iollowing", and "heeding / ignoring".
Example: The antonym oI up is down.
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ther examples:
Small is an antonym oI big
The antonym oI smart would be unintelligent.
Walk can be an antonym oI run
Happy is an antonym oI sad (or possibly angry)
Catch is an antonym oI throwBlack can be an antonym Ior white
Deny antonym Agree
Gentle antonym rough
What is a synonym and a homonym?
A synonym (Irom Greek syn "with" onoma "name") is a word that has the same meaning as
another word. "Couch" and "soIa" are synonyms.
A homonym is a word that is pronounced like another word. "Pare," "pair," and "pear" are
homonyms. Homonyms, Irom Greek homo "same" onoma "name," are sometimes
Parts oI speech: Part 1
Words are divided into diIIerent classes on the basis oI their
grammatical behavior. These diIIerent classes oI words are called the
Parts of Speech. Languages diIIer Irom one another in the parts oI
speech they possess. English, Ior example, has eight parts oI speech:
1. oun
2. Pronoun
3. Adjective
4. Verb
5. Adverb
6. Conjunction
7. Preposition
8. Interjection
ote that determiners and degree modifiers are also sometimes
recognized as parts oI speech.
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A noun is a word used as the name oI a person, place or thing. Examples
are: -oy, tree, India, Paris, James, elephant, country, -eauty etc.
O Solomon was a wise king.
O The lion is the king oI beasts.
O Honesty is the best policy.
O India is the largest democracy in the world.
O London is on the river Thames.
An adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning oI a noun.
Examples are: ind, -eautiful, careful, ignorant, clever, -rave, ten,
twenty, first etc.
O He is a clever boy.
O She is a nice girl.
O Twenty people were present at the meeting.
O He won the first prize.
A pronoun is a word used instead oI a noun. Examples are: he, she, it,
them, some-ody, anything etc.
O 1ohn didn`t come because he was ill. (Here the pronoun he is used
to avoid the repetition oI the noun John.)
arts of speech art
A verb is a word like as, mae, wait, go and wor. Most verbs reIer to
actions or states.
O I want to go.
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O She made a cake.
O He works in a Iactory.
O I asked him a question.
O She wrote a letter.
An adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning oI a verb.
Examples are: carefully, well, quicly, now, then, today etc.
O She can speak English well.
O He Iinished his meal quickly.
O He worked hard.
O I want to go now.
A preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the
person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to
some other word in the sentence. Examples are: in, out, of, to, for,
under, a-ove, from, -etween etc.
O He sat under the tree.
O The lion is in the cage.
O He sat on the table.
A conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences. Examples are:
and, -ut, or, -ecause, since, as, though etc.
O James and Alice are cousins.
O He is very hardworking but his brother is lazy.
O ou can have tea or coIIee.
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An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden Ieeling.
Examples are: alas, hurrah etc.
O Alas! We have lost the match.
O Hurrah! We have won the match.
arts of speech Lxerc|se
Name the part of speech of each italicized word in the following
1. Alice is very intelligent.
2. Still waters run deep.
3. We searched Ior him
4. They arrived soon aIter.
5. Cleanliness is next to
6. Widsom is -etter than riches.
7. I recogni:ed his Iace at once.
8. He could not win the match.
9. Each hand has five Iingers.
10. He has little intelligence.
11. He lost all his wealth.
12. Few cats like cold water.
1. very: adverb (modiIies
intelligent`), intelligent:
adjective (modiIies the noun
2. still: adjective (modiIies the
noun waters), run: verb
3. everywhere: adverb oI place
4. they: pronoun, soon: adverb
(modiIies the verb arrived)
5. cleanliness: noun
6. better: comparative adjective,
riches: noun
7. recognized: verb
8. match: noun
9. each: adjective (modiIies the
noun hand), Iive: adjective
(modiIies the noun Iingers)
10. little: intelligence (modiIies
the noun intelligence)
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11. all: adjective (modiIies the
noun wealth)
12. Iew: adjective (modiIies the
noun cats), water: noun
Strictly speaking, the words few, all, some, any, this, that, each, one,
two, both etc., are not adjectives. They are actually determiners which
determine or limit the meaning oI the nouns that Iollow. However, in
traditional grammars these words are classiIied as adjectives.
Adjectives are words like clever, beautiful, kind, old, intelligent and
smart. An adjective may denote a temporary or permanent quality
associated with a noun.
Study the Iollowing sentences:
O Alice is a nice girl. (Here the adjective nice shows what kind oI
girl Alice is.)
O He gave me three apples. (Here the adjective three answers the
question how many mangoes`.)
O I don`t like that boy. (Here the adjective that answers the question
which boy`)
As you may have noticed an adjective is a word used with a noun to
describe a temporary or permanent quality associated with the noun.
Position of adjectives
Most adjectives can go in two main places in a sentence.
a) attributive position (beIore a noun)
O The lazy boy was punished.
O He is a clever boy.
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b) predicative position (aIter be, seem, look, become and other copular
O She looks happy.
O That dress is beautiful.
|nds of ad[ect|ves
Adjectives may be divided into the Iollowing categories:
Adjectives of quality (also called descriptive adjectives)
Adjectives oI quality denote the kind or quality oI a person or thing
modiIied by the adjective. Examples are: ind, nice, clever, intelligent,
-rave, modest, decent, attractive, efficient etc.
O She is an attractive woman. (Here the adjective attractive shows a
certain quality associated with the noun woman.)
O He is an efficient guy.
O Mumbai is a large city.
O She is a nice girl.
O A clever Iox once invited a stork to dine with him.
Adjectives of quantity
Adjectives oI quantity denote how much oI a thing is meant. Examples
are: some, few, little, much, all, any, no, whole etc.
O He has little intelligence.
O Are you getting enough sleep?
O He ate some rice.
O He has lost all his wealth.
O He did not eat any rice.
Adjectives of number (also called numeral adjectives)
Adjectives oI number show how many persons or things are meant.
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They may also indicate in what order a person or thing stands. ote that
numbers (both cardinal and ordinal) come under this category.
Examples are: one, two, three, first, second, tenth, last etc.
O Each hand has five Iingers.
O Sunday is the first day oI the week.
O I bought two apples.
O Alice was the last person to arrive.
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Proper adjectives
Adjectives Iormed Irom proper nouns are oIten called proper
adjectives. Examples are: Indian, British, Persian, Turish etc.
O Indian Ilag
O Persian carpet
O rench wine
Distributive adjectives
Distributive adjectives reIer to each one oI a group oI people or things.
Examples are: each, every, either, neither etc.
O Each hand has Iive Iingers.
O Every man must do his duty.
O Either method is right.
O Neither answer is correct.
ote that distributive adjectives are Iollowed by singular nouns and
singular verbs.
O Neither girl was able to solve the problem. (T either girls
were able to solve the problem.)
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O Each boy was given a medal. (T Each boys were given a
Demonstrative adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives point out the person or thing that is meant.
Examples are: this, that, these, those.
O This boy is taller than that boy.
O These mangoes are sweeter than those mangoes.
O These girls are going to school.
Demonstrative adjectives answer the question which?
It should be noted that this and that are used with singular nouns and
these and those are used with plural nouns.
Interrogative adjectives
Interrogative adjectives are words like which, what and whose. They
are used with nouns to ask questions.
O Whose pen is this?
O Which boy won the prize?
O What time is it?
d[ect|ves worksheet
Pick out the adjectives in the Iollowing sentences and state to which
class each oI them belongs.
1. The car sustained heavy
damage in the accident.
2. Every dog has his day.
3. He has written several stories.
4. A dead man can`t walk.
5. He is a man oI Iew words.
6. either answer is quite right.
7. What time is it?
8. Which color do you like?
9. He is Iirst person to climb Mt.
10. ice guys Iinish second.
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11. There I met an old woman
with a crooked nose.
12. He died a glorious death.
1. Adjective oI quality: heavy
2. Distributive adjective: every
3. umeral adjective: several
4. Adjective oI quality: dead
5. Adjective oI quantity: Iew
6. Distributive adjective: neither
7. Interrogative adjective: what
8. Interrogative adjective: which
9. umeral adjective: Iirst
10. Adjective oI quality: nice
11. Adjectives oI quality: old,
12. Adjective oI quality: glorious
or an
BeIore a vowel, the article a changes to an. Compare: A dog A cat An
elephant An orange An apple ote that the choice between a and an
depends on pronunciation, not spelling. We use an beIore a vowel
sound, even iI it begins with a consonant. An hour (T a hour) An MP
1he |ndef|n|te art|c|e
We use a/an to talk about a particular person or thing when the
listener/reader does not know which one is meant. He is going out with
a Russian girl. (The listener does not know which Russian girl.) She
works in a pub. A/an can be used to talk about any one member oI a
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The part of speech (or word class) that is used to name or identify a
person, place, thing, quality, or action. Adjective: nominal.
Types of Nouns
There are several ways to classify the types of nouns that exist in
the English language. In traditional grammar, nouns are taught to
be words that refer to people, places, things, or abstract ideas.
While modern linguistics find this definition to be problematic
because it relies on non-specific nouns such as thing to specifically
define what a noun is, much of our social understanding of what
nouns are defers to the traditional definition.
Proper Nouns
Proper nouns are nouns that refer to specific entities. Writers of
English capitalize proper nouns like Nebraska, Steve, Harvard, or
White House to show their distinction from common nouns.
Common Nouns
ommon nouns refer to general, unspecific categories of entities.
Whereas Nebraska is a proper noun because it signifies a specific
state, the word state itself is a common noun because it can refer to
any of the 50 states in the United States. Harvard refers to a
particular institution of higher learning, while the common noun
university can refer to any such institution.
Countable Nouns
To linguists, these count nouns can occur in both single and plural
forms, can be modified by numerals, and can co-occur with
quantificational determiners like many, most, more, several, etc.
For example, the noun bike is countable noun. onsider the
following sentence:
There is a -ike in that garage.
In this example, the word -ike is singular as it refers to one bike
that is presently residing in a particular garage.
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owever, bike can also occur in the plural form.
There are six -roken -ikes in that garage.
In this example, the noun bikes refers to more than one bike as it is
being modified by the numeral six.
In addition, countable nouns can co-occur with quantificational
In that garage, several -ikes are broken.
This sentence is grammatical, as the noun bike can take the
modification of the quantificational determiner several.
Uncountable Nouns or Mass Nouns
onversely, some nouns are not countable and are called
uncountable nouns or mass nouns. For example, the word clutter is
a mass noun.
That garage is full of .lutter.
This sentence makes grammatical sense. owever, the following
example does not.
That garage is full of .lutters.
Mass nouns can not take plural forms, and therefore a sentence
containing the word clutters is ungrammatical.
Substances, liquids, and powders are entities that are often signified
by mass nouns such as wood, sand, water, and flour. Other
examples would be milk, air, furniture, freedom, rice, and
Collective Nouns
In general, collective nouns are nouns that refer to a group of
something in a specific manner. Often, collective nouns are used to
refer to groups of animals. onsider the following sentences.
ook at the ale of geese. There used to be herds of wild buffalo
on the prairie. A -evy of swans is swimming in the pond. A .olony
of ants live in the anthill.
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In the above examples, gaggle, herds, bevy, and colony are
collective nouns.
Concrete Nouns
oncrete nouns are nouns that can be touched, smelled, seen, felt,
or tasted. Steak, table, dog, Maria, salt, and wool are all examples
of concrete nouns.
Can I pet your do Please pass the salt. Your sweater is made of
fine wool.
oncrete nouns can be perceived by at least one of our senses.
Abstract Nouns
More ethereal, theoretical concepts use abstract nouns to refer to
them. oncepts like freedom, love, power, and redemption are all
examples of abstract nouns.
They hate us for our freedom. All you need is love. We must fight
the power.
In these sentences, the abstract nouns refer to concepts, ideas,
philosophies, and other entities that cannot be concretely perceived.
Personal pronouns are types of nouns that take the place of nouns
when referring to people, places or things. The personal pronouns in
English are I, you, he, she, it, and they.
Amy works at a flower shop. $he works at a flower shop.
The Greeks invented democracy. They invented democracy.
These pronouns take on other forms depending on what type of
function they are performing in a sentence. For example, when used
to signify possession of another noun, pronouns take on their
possessive form such as mine, ours, hers, and theirs.
That pizza belongs to Marley. That pizza is hers.
When used as the object of a preposition, pronouns take on their
objective case. Examples include him, her, me, us, and them.
and the money over to Jennifer. and the money over to her.
The police are on to John and Ray. The police are on to them.
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Compound noun
Two or more nouns combined to form a single noun.
ompound nouns are written as separate words (grapefruit juice),
as words linked by a hyphen (sister-in-law), or as one word
Abstract noun
A noun (such as courage or freedom) that names an idea, event,
quality, or concept. ontrast with concrete noun.
From the Latin, "drawn away"
Transform the following sentences into the negative
and the interrogative.
1 Example:
I can dance.
I cant dance/I cannot dance.
an I dance?
a She can swim.
b They can help you.
c We can ride a horse.
d e can drive a lorry.
e It can fly.

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Computer Application Part 1
What is ALU
ALU stands Ior the Arithmetic logic unit and it is an internal part oI the processor which is
used Ior all the mathematical and logical operations. The operations oI the ALU includes
multiplying the binary values and perIorming the logical operations such as AD, R and
XR, integer arithmetic operations and Bit-shiIting operations etc. ALU is the Iundamental
building block oI the processor
Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable is the kind oI copper cable used by cable TV companies between the
community antenna and user homes and businesses. Coaxial cable is sometimes used by
telephone companies Irom their central oIIice to the telephone poles near users. It is also
widely installed Ior use in business and corporation Ethernet and other types oI local area
Client (computing)
A client is an application or system that accesses a remote service on another computer
system, known as a server, by way oI a network.
The term was Iirst applied to devices that
were not capable oI running their own stand-alone programs, but could interact with remote
computers via a network. These dumb terminals were clients oI the time-sharing mainIrame
The clientserver model is still used today. Client and server can run on the same machine
and connect via Unix domain sockets. Using Internet sockets a user may connect to a service
operating on a possibly remote system through the Internet protocol suite. Servers set up
listening sockets, and clients initiate connections that a server may accept. Web browsers are
clients that connect to web servers and retrieve web pages Ior display. Most people use email
clients to retrieve their email Irom their internet service provider's mail storage servers.
nline chat uses a variety oI clients, which vary depending on the chat protocol being used.
Multiplayer online games may run as Game Clients on each local computer.
Setting Tab Positions in Microsoft Word
Tab in word processing terms is the jump your cursor makes from one position to
another when you press the tab key on your keyboard.
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our tab key looks like this:

Advantages of internet
There many advantages to using the internet such as:
O Email.
Email is now an essential communication tools in business. t is also excellent for keeping in
touch with family and friends. The advantages to email is that it is free no charge per use)
when compared to telephone, fax and postal services.
O nformation.
There is a huge amount of information available on the internet for just about every subject
known to man, ranging from government law and services, trade fairs and conferences,
market information, new ideas and technical support.
O Services.
Many services are now provided on the internet such as online banking, job seeking and
applications, and hotel reservations. Often these services are not available off-line or cost
O Buy or sell products.
The internet is a very effective way to buy and sell products all over the world.
O Communities.
Communities of all types have sprung up on the internet. ts a great way to meet up with
people of similar interest and discuss common issues.
isadvantages of the
Theft of PersonaI information: Electronic messages sent over the nternet can be easily
snooped and tracked, revealing who is talking to whom and what they are talking about. f
you use the nternet, your personal information such as your name, address, credit card,
bank details and other information can be accessed by culprits. f you use a credit card or
internet banking for online shopping, then your details can also be 'stolen'.
Negative effects on famiIy communication: lthough there are conflicting research
findings on this topic, an article published by Science Daily reported that time spent on the
nternet was associated with later declines in within house family communication and a
decrease in the number of friends and acquaintances with which they kept ties.
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Internet addiction: There is some controversy over whether it is possible to actually be
addicted to the nternet or not. Some researchers, claim that it is simply people trying to
escape their problems in an online world and cannot be classified as an addiction.
Other psychologists, believe that nternet addiction is a true psychological disorder with
definable symptoms. The symptoms are comparable to any addiction, withdrawal, loss of
relationships or job and significant time consumption.
ChiIdren using the Internet has become a big concern. Most parents do not realize the
dangers involved when their children log onto the nternet. When children talk to others
online, they do not realize they could actually be talking to a harmful person. Moreover,
pornography is also a very serious issue concerning the nternet, especially when it comes
to young children. There are thousands of pornographic sites on the nternet that can be
easily found and can be a detriment to letting children use the nternet.
Virus threat: Today, not only are humans getting viruses, but computers are also.
Computers are mainly getting these viruses from the nternet. Virus is is a program which
disrupts the normal functioning of your computer systems. Computers attached to internet
are more prone to virus attacks and they can end up into crashing your whole hard disk,
causing you considerable headache.
Spamming: s often viewed as the act of sending unsolicited email. This multiple or vast
emailing is often compared to mass junk mailings. t needlessly obstruct the entire system.
Most spam is commercial advertising, often for dubious products, get-rich-quick schemes, or
quasi-legal services. Spam costs the sender very little to send -- most of the costs are paid
for by the recipient or the carriers rather than by the sender.
Precis Writing:

A precis is a short summary. It is not a paraphrase, which merely says in diIIerent and
simpler words exactly what the passage being paraphrased has to say. A paraphrase may be a
long as the passage itselI. A precis rarely is more than one-third the length oI the original
selection and may be only one-Iourth as long.

A precis gives only the "heart" of a passage. It omits repetition and such details as
examples, illustrations, and adjectives unless they are oI unusual importance.

A precis is written entirely in the words of the person writing it, not in the words of the
original selection. Avoid the temptation to liIt long phrases and whole sentences Irom the

A precis is written from the point of view of the author whose work is being
summarized. Do not begin with such expressions as "This author says" or "The paragraph
means." Begin as though you were summarizing your own writing.

In writing a precis proceed as Iollows:
O Read careIully, sentence by sentence, the passage to be summarized. Try to grasp the
writer's main point. Spotting the topic sentence will help. Look up in the dictionary
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any words whose meaning is not absolutely clear. As you read, take brieI notes to be
used in your writing.
O When you have Iinally decided what the author's main point is, write it out in your
own words. Do not use the wording oI the original except Ior certain key words which
you may Iind indispensable. II you cannot translate the idea into language oI your
own, you do not understand them very well. Be especially careIul not to rely too
much on the topic sentence. Do not add any opinions or ideas oI your own.
O Revise your writing until you are sure that you have given an accurate summary.
O Usually you will Iind your precis is too long, iI it is more than one-third the length oI
the original. Continue your revision until you have reduced the precis to the proper
length. In this careIul revision lies the principal value oI the precis as a composition


A precis should reduce the length of the original passage by at least two - thirds.

Every important idea must be retained, preferably in the order in which it appears in
the original.

Unimportant points, including details, illustrations and anecdotes, should be discarded.

A first draft of the precis should be written, then checked to see that it contains the
main ideas of the passage.

Although you should be as brief as possible. Guard against being so condensed that you
obscure the point of passage.

Try to capture the tone or feeling of the original, particularly if it is deliberately
humorous, ironic or biased.

Check the draft for expression errors, repetition or vague phrasing; then write a
smoother final version.

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Computer Basics
What is A Computer
A computer is an electronic machine that accepts inIormation, stores it until the inIormation is
needed, processes the inIormation according to the instructions provided by the user, and Iinally returns
the results to the user. The computer can store and manipulate large quantities oI data at very high
speed, but a computer cannot think. A computer makes decisions based on simple comparisons such as
one number being larger than another. Although the computer can help solve a tremendous variety oI
problems, it is simply a machine. It cannot solve problems on its own.

History of Computers
Since civilizations began, many oI the advances made by science and technology have
depended upon the ability to process large amounts oI data and perIorm complex mathematical
calculations. or thousands oI years, mathematicians, scientists and businessmen have searched Ior
computing machines that could perIorm calculations and analyze data quickly and eIIiciently. ne
such device was the abacus.
The abacus was an important counting machine in ancient Babylon, China, and throughout
Europe where it was used until the late middle ages. It was Iollowed by a series oI improvements in
mechanical counting machines that led up to the development oI accurate mechanical adding machines
in the 1930`s. These machines used a complicated assortment oI gears and levers to perIorm the
calculations but they were Iar to slow to be oI much use to scientists. Also, a machine capable oI
making simple decisions such as which number is larger was needed. A machine capable oI making
decisions is called a computer.
The Iirst computer like machine was the Mark I developed by a team Irom IBM and Harvard
University. It used mechanical telephone relays to store inIormation and it processed data entered on
punch cards. This machine was not a true computer since it could not make decisions.
In June 1943, work began on the world's Iirst electronic computer. It was built at the
University oI Pennsylvania as a secret military project during World War II and was to be used to
calculate the trajectory oI artillery shells. It covered 1500 square Ieet and weighed 30 tons. The
project was not completed until 1946 but the eIIort was not wasted. In one oI its Iirst demonstrations,
the computer solved a problem in 20 seconds that took a team oI mathematicians three days. This
machine was a vast improvement over the mechanical calculating machines oI the past because it used
vacuum tubes instead oI relay switches. It contained over 17,000 oI these tubes, which were the same
type tubes used in radios at that time.
The invention oI the transistor made smaller and less expensive computers possible. Although
computers shrank in size, they were still huge by today`s standards. Another innovation to computers
in the 60`s was storing data on tape instead oI punch cards. This gave computers the ability to store
and retrieve data quickly and reliably.

Classification of Computers
MainIrame Computers
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MainIrame computers are very large, oIten Iilling an entire room. They can store enormous oI inIormation, can
perIorm many tasks at the same time, can communicate with many users at the same time, and are very
expensive. . The price oI a mainIrame computer Irequently runs into the millions oI dollars. MainIrame
computers usually have many terminals connected to them. These terminals look like small computers but they
are only devices used to send and receive inIormation Irom the actual computer using wires. Terminals can be
located in the same room with the mainIrame computer, but they can also be in diIIerent rooms, buildings, or
cities. Large businesses, government agencies, and universities usually use this type oI computer.

Minicomputers are much smaller than mainIrame computers and they are also much less expensive. The cost oI
these computers can vary Irom a Iew thousand dollars to several hundred thousand dollars. They possess most
oI the Ieatures Iound on mainIrame computers, but on a more limited scale. They can still have many terminals,
but not as many as the mainIrames. They can store a tremendous amount oI inIormation, but again usually not
as much as the mainIrame. Medium and small businesses typically use these computers.

Microcomputers are the types oI computers we are using in your classes at loyd College. These computers are
usually divided into desktop models and laptop models. They are terribly limited in what they can do when
compared to the larger models discussed above because they can only be used by one person at a time, they are
much slower than the larger computers, and they can not store nearly as much inIormation, but they are
excellent when used in small businesses, homes, and school classrooms. These computers are inexpensive and
easy to use. They have become an indispensable part oI modern liIe.

Computer Tasks

When a computer is asked to do a job, it handles the task in a very special way.
1. It accepts the inIormation Irom the user. This is called input.
2. It stored the inIormation until it is ready Ior use. The computer has memory chips, which are designed to
hold inIormation until it is needed.
3. It processes the inIormation. The computer has an electronic brain called the Central Processing Unit,
which is responsible Ior processing all data and instructions given to the computer.
4. It then returns the processed inIormation to the user. This is called output.

Every computer has special parts to do each oI the jobs listed above. Whether it is a multimillion dollar
mainIrame or a thousand dollar personal computer, it has the Iollowing Iour components, Input, Memory,
Central Processing, and utput.
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The central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic brain oI the computer. The CPU in a personal computer is
usually a single chip. It organizes and carries out instructions that come Irom either the user or Irom the
soItware. The processor is made up oI many components, but two oI them are worth mentioning at this point.
These are the arithmetic and logic unit and the control unit. The control unit controls the electronic Ilow oI
inIormation around the computer. The arithmetic and logic unit, ALU, is responsible Ior mathematical
calculations and logical comparisons.

The processor is plugged into the computer`s motherboard. The motherboard is a rigid rectangular card
containing the circuitry that connects the processor and all the other components that make up your personal
computer. In most personal computers, some oI the components are attached directly to the motherboard and
some are housed on their own small circuit boards that plug into the expansion slots built into the motherboard.

Input Devices

A computer would be useless without some way Ior you to interact with it because the machine must be able to
receive your instructions and deliver the results oI these instructions to you. Input devices accept instructions
and data Irom you the user. Some popular input devices are listed below.



A personal computer must have a means oI storing inIormation (data) and instructions so that it can perIorm
processing tasks on the data. Personal computers have two types oI memory. These are discussed below.

Read nly Memory (RM)
RM is a small area oI permanent memory that provides startup instructions when the
computer is turned on. ou can not store any data in RM. The instructions in RM are set
by the manuIacturer and cannot be changed by the user. The last instruction in RM directs
the computer to load the operating system.

Every computer needs an operating system. This is a special computer program that must be
loaded into memory as soon as the computer is turned on. Its purpose is to translate your
instructions in English into Binary so that the computer can understand your instructions. The
operating system also translates the results generated by your computer into English when it is
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Iinished so that we can understand and use the results. The operating system comes with a

Random Access Memory (RAM)
This is the area oI memory where data and program instructions are stored while the computer
is in operation. This is temporary memory. TE: 1he data stored in RAM is lost forever
when the power is turned off. or this reason it is very important that you save your work
beIore turning oII your computer. This is why we have peripheral storage devices like your
computer`s hard disk and Iloppy diskettes.

Permanent Memory (Auxiliary Storage)
our Iiles are stored in permanent memory only when saved to your disk in a: drive or saved
to your computer's hard disk,
Drive c: In the loyd College labs, you can also save your work to a network drive. We will
discuss this in class.

To better understand how a computer handles inIormation and to also understand why inIormation is lost iI the
power goes oII, let`s take a closer look at how a computer handles inIormation. our computer is made oI
millions oI tiny electric circuits. or every circuit in a computer chip, there are two possibilities:

1. an electric circuit Ilows through the circuit or
2. An electric circuit does not Ilow through the circuit.

When an electric current Ilows through a circuit, the circuit is on. When no electricity Ilows, the circuit is oII.
An 'on circuit is represented by the number one (1) and an oII circuit is represented by the number zero (0).
The two numbers 1 and 0 are called bits. The word bit comes Irom 'binary digit. Each time a computer reads
an instruction, it translates that instruction into a series oI bits, 1`s and 0`s. n most computers every character
Irom the keyboard is translated into eight bits, a combination oI eight 1`s and 0`s. Each group oI eight bits is
called a byte.

Byte The amount oI space in memory or on a disk needed to store one character. 8 bits 1 Byte

Since computers can handle such large numbers oI characters at one time, metric preIixes are combined with the
word byte to give some common multiples you will encounter in computer literature.

Kilo means 1000 Kilobyte (KB) 1000 Bytes
Mega means 1,000,000 Megabyte (MB) 1,000,000 Bytes
Giga Means 1,000,000,000 Gigabyte (GB) 1,000,000,000 Bytes

At this point it would be good to point out why inIormation stored in RAM is lost iI the power goes oII.
Consider the way the Iollowing characters are translated into binary code Ior use by the computer.
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A 01000001
B 01000010
C 01000011
X 01011000
Z 01011010
1 00110001
2 00110010

Consider the column at the right, which represents how the computer stores inIormation. Each oI the 1`s in the
second column represents a circuit that is 'on. II the power goes oII, these circuits can T be 'on any more
because the electricity has been turned oII and any data represented by these circuits is lost. This is why we can
not overemphasize the importance oI saving your work oIten.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The central processing unit is one oI the two most important components oI your microcomputer. It is the
electronic brain oI your computer. In addition to processing data, it controls the Iunction oI all the other
components. The most popular microprocessors in IBM compatible computers are made by Intel. The
generations oI microprocessors are listed below.

1981 8088
1984 80286
1987 80386
1990 80486
1993 Pentium
1996 P-6
1998 Pentium III
2000 Pentium IV

our computer has a Pentium IV processor.

Output Devices

Dot Matrix
Ink Jet
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Storage Devices
Hard disk
loppy disk
Tape drive
Telecommunications means that you are communicating over long distances usually using phone lines. This
enables you to send data to and receive data Irom another computer that can be located down the street, in
another town, or in another country. Telecommunications requires a communication device called a modem,
which connects your computer to a standard phone jack. A modem converts the digital signals that your
computer uses into analog signals that can be transmitted over the phone lines. To use a modem, you must also
have communication soItware to handle the transmission process.

Computer Software
System SoItware
System soItware will come provided with each computer and is necessary Ior the computers operation. This
soItware acts as an interpreter between the computer and user. It interprets your instructions into binary code
and likewise interprets binary code into language the user can understand. In the past you may have used MS-
DS or MicrosoIt Disk perating System which was a command line interIace. This Iorm oI system soItware
required speciIic commands to be typed. Windows 95 is a more recent version oI system soItware and is known
as a graphical interIace. This means that it uses graphics or "icons" to represent various operations. ou no
longer have to memorize commands; you simply point to an icon and click.
Program SoItware
Program soItware is soItware used to write computer programs in speciIic computer languages.
Application SoItware
Application soItware is any soItware used Ior speciIied applications such as:
Word Processing
Presentation Graphics
Entertainment, Games