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Section 1 Advanced Manufacturing Technology


YU Zhonghua, WANG Zhaowei
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Tel: 86-571-87952820, Email:
Keywords: Green manufacturing, total quality
management, comparative study, integration.
The background and characteristics of green manufacturing
(GM) and total quality management (TQM) are briefly
described in the paper. And then, the relationship between
green manufacturing and total quality management is
discussed from different points of view. Finally, the
integration of GM and TQM is illustrated from aspects of
strategy, tactics and operation.
1 Introduction
Manufacturing is becoming the pillar industry with the
development of science and manufacture technology. But at
the same time, it consumes many of the organic resources and
causes environment pollution. How to harmonize the
contradiction has become the most important task. On the
basis of this background, the concept of Green Manufacturing
(GM) is presented. GM is a modem manufacture model
concentrating on the consideration of the impact on
environment and efficiency of resource utilization. It
advocates that the enterprises lead the result of least impact
on environment and achieve the most utilization ratio of
The GM includes comprehensive meanings. Firstly, the
concept of 'manufacture' relates to the total life circle of
product. So the 'manufacture' here is a generalized concept.
Secondly, the environmental problems relate to every counts
of the manufacture process. So many relevant concepts such
as green design, ecological process planning, green
manufacture and so on are brought out. Thirdly, GM is a
complicated system engineering problem. It needs to be
surveyed from the view of system engineering. Finally, the
essence of GM is a kind of sustainable development in the
field of modem manufacturing. So GM is the only solution of
sustainable development and it is also the enterprise's
responsibility for the society.
Total Quality Management(TQM) focuses on market or client.
It's main purpose is to satisfy the clients' demands and lead
the enterprise to develop the demanded product. TQM has
developed for about half a century and has built up a whole
philosophy and operating method. Its main characters are as
l) Focus on total quality. It requires not only to control
product quality but also to manage the operation quality.
2) Require the whole staff involved. The staff is the founder
of product and operation quality. So every worker should be
responsible for the product quality and involved in the
solution of quality problem. Thus the enterprise quality can be
3) Face to the process. It needs to begin from the root of
quality problem and go through the whole product life circle.
4) Integrate management into the process. TQM needs many
kinds of technology and management tools.
Broadly speaking, 'green' can be seen as an index of quality
attributes. TQM should cover the concept of GM. TQM and
GM are presented under different backgrounds. Though they
are both for sustainable development and can mutually
complete each other, they have respective system and
emphasis. So they should be comparatively studied to find out
an approach to integrate them organically.
2 The comparison between TQM and GM
GM and TQM belong to two different domains, but they both
ultimately do with the integrity "product" .So there are lots of
comparability and relevancy between GM and TQM. In this
article, the comparison is made from the views of sense of
value, the focusing point, supervisor mode, optimization
objective and others. The result is shown in tablel.
Values attitude Client-oriented centered society duty and Sustainable
focus the demands of market or The Sustainable development
client requirements of the whole
Type of Taking the benefit of Taking Sustainable
management client as central, pushed development as central,
by the demands ofthe pulled by laws and
client regulations
target Satisfying the client No waste(including energy,
demands most, zero material and other resources),
defect, the stability of keeping the environment
process quality, reducing clean
the loss of product defect
as low as possible
Principle of guarantee a product Guarantee circulating
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International Technology and Innovation Conference 2006
stuff selection utilizing
Structure To be inspected, To be restored, disassemble
character assembled and and reused
reliable ,etc.
Technology DFQ, robust design, SPC Green design, Life Cycle
character and other corresponding Assessment, Measurement
technology System Analysis
Process Watching the Fluctuations Watching the Waste
demands ofthe process quality, Disposal, depletion, waste
guarantee zero defect, etc. guarantee to dispose the
making sure the normal waste properly
usage of the product
Market Scattered and detailed Concentration and unity
Demands on enhancing our Enhancing environmental
staff consciousness of quality awareness, eliminating waste,
and the capacity of reducing depletion, clean
continuous quality emission
The degree of More Participation Strong Participation
The Meeting the demands of Bearing social responsibility,
foundation of clients abiding by the demands of the
enterprise laws and regulations
Corresponding IS09000 ISO14000
Table 1: the comparison between GM and TQM.
The core value ofTQM is for client. Its basic philosophy is to
satisfy the client's demands. The core of GM is for
sustainable development. Its basic objective focuses on
sustainable development. So laws and regulations are needed
to push and standardize the activities of the enterprise. From
optimization objective, the targets of TQM are high quality,
zero defects and client's satisfaction, while GM takes value
maximization and protection of non-renewable resource as its
Form the view of material selection, the principle of TQM is
to guarantee the product quality. Achieve best product quality
by rational material selection .At the same time, GM
advocates the selection of recycling, reusing and
environmental protective materials. From structural point,
TQM concerns more about the indexes of detestability,
function adaptability, reliability and so on. But GM
emphasizes on the indexes of detachability, maintainability,
reusability and so on.
From the view of technology supporting, TQM emphasizes
on the prevention of defects or failures during design phase,
the stability during manufacturing phase and the reliability
during the usage phase. The tools used to support TQM
include design for quality, robust design, working procedure
capacity study, etc. Similarly, GM is carried out around the
theme of 'green'. The main tools include green design, life
cycle analysis, multi-attribute decision making method,
energy saving technique, recycling, and environmental
protection processing other supporting technology. GM
embodies the concepts of broad sense manufacturing and
broad sense recycling. It covers the chains of material
production and supply, product design, product manufacture,
product usage and product retirement disposal. GM builds up
a multilayered recycle structure of manufacture system. This
system extends the product life circle which the TQM also
From the view of market features, TQM hopes to subdivide
the market to satisfy demands of different clients. But GM
adopts concentric and uniform market deeds to dispose the
resource rationally. TQM emphasizes on enhancing the staffs
quality consciousness and the clients are less involved. At the
same time, GM emphasizes on enhancing the staff's
consciousness of environmental conservation, preventing the
wasting, reducing the loss and so on. GM also needs the client
to take part in the process further.
From the view of standard system, TQM accords with
IS09000 quality standard system in quality aspect and
IS04000 standard system in environmental protection aspect.
These two standard systems are becoming more and more
unified in structure. Whereas the living environment is getting
worse and worse, many environmental protection standards
facing products are carried out. The responsibility for
environmental protection has become the duty of the
enterprises for the society. So the products should be
environmental protection. And it has been a standard for
entering the market or even been a new technical barrier.
What's more, the enterprise must bear the cost of product
recycling. There are indications that environmental protection
standard for some kinds of special products has been another
market entering standard which goes after the IS09000.
3 The integration of GM and TQM
GM and TQM are presented under different backgrounds.
They have their own unique ideological system and
methodology system. So it is necessary to integrate them
organically to enhance the operation efficiency and harmony
ability. Obviously, the integration can not only be simply
stacked. They need a deep integration. The intergration
process is shown in chart 1.
3.1 Strategic integration
On the strategic integration level, the main task is the
integration of enterprise cultures. Through this level of
integration, it can enhance the consciousness of paying equal
attention to quality and environment protection, harmonizing
the relationship of short term benefit and long term benefit,
pursuing zero default, zero pollution and zero waste. It also
can build up an aggressive enterprise culture, encourage the
enterprise to improve product quality and promote the
enterprise's capacity of competition.
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Section 1 Advanced Manufacturing Technology
3.2 Tactical integration
On the tactical level, the integration is mainly about the
process integration. It is to say that process is the focus. TQM
and GM are integrated in the way of process management.
This level of integration penetrates into supplying system,
enterprise, client and the product's whole life circle. Firstly,
during the analysis and identification processes of the product
life circle, especially for the process which has great impact
on product quality and environmental protection indexes, the
enterprise can develop preventative design, collocate
resources and technology rationally and build up complete
process models; Secondly, execute the operation steps and
methods according to the process. At last, detect and measure
the result of the process. On one hand, it helps to monitor the
process; on the other hand, it provides the decision basis for
process improvement. This operation flow matches the PDCA
circle which is advocated by TQM.
The key of process integration is to build up a unified process
index system. This system is used as the basis of process
incubation, monitoring and improvement. Obviously, the
system should cover all the aspects, including quality, cost,
environmental protection, time of delivery, etc, which can
reflect the capability of enterprise's sustainable development.
Among these, the time and cost indexes are concrete. But the
quality and environmental protection indexes are abstract and
more related to the concrete processes, products or service
objects. And they should be deployed together with the
characteristics of different products or industries. But from a
generalized point of view, all these indexes can be distributed
into three classes: technology attribute, social attribute and
economy attribute. The technology attribute reflects its
natural characters. It will not be affected by the social group's
preference so it can be objectively measured. This attribute
includes the function, reliability, safety, maintainability,
dissipative indexes and environment indexes, such as air
pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and waste materials.
The social attribute reflects the subjective characters. They
depend on different social groups. It means that the attribute
relates to people's recognition, society attitude, applicability
and brand effect, so the attribute is closely relating to the
social environment and not easy to measure. The economy
attribute is the motivity of enterprise development. includes
the indexes of quality cost, environment protection cost and
investment return rate. There are some problems must be
solved during the integration. They are how to balance these
indexes and rationally disposal them into each special chain,
how to implement them in a right way, how to prevent the
probable problem, and how to make continuous progress in
3.3 Operation integration
On the operational level, the integration is mainly about using
corresponding technologies, such as application platform,
enabled technology and tools to achieve the objectives.
Through the strategic integration, a uniform application
platform is built up. The GM and TQM systems can operation
in a uniform and harmonious application frame. At the same
time, build a information sharing platform to detect all the
quality and environmental indexes of TQM by using network
technologies. These platforms can provide decision making
basis to harmonize product quality improvement and
environment protection.
Both TQM and GM have many enable technologies and tools.
They include teamwork mechanism, life circle assessment,
activity integration computing units, PDCA circle, design for
quality, capability index assessment, measurement system
analysis and the old and new seven tools of TQM, etc. It is
necessary to share the enable technologies and tools on a
uniform platform. The development of computer science and
network technology has offered the implement conditions.
The OOP/COM can be adopted to visualize the tools and
make them into modules or tool boxes. Then it can be used in
kinds of application environments.
4 Conclusion
GM is developing with the trend of sustainable development
in recent years and it is just in the beginning phase. But TQM
has developed for about half a century and it is more mature.
The integration of GM and TQM will do a great deal to the
harmonious development of manufacture quality and
environment protection. It is an important thesis of
manufacture in the new century. This article makes some
discussion on GM and TQM at the concept level, and
proposes the framework of the integrity ofGM and TQM. But
it is just some initial results of our studies, a lot of problems
should be solved in the future. We hope many people can take
part in the studies to promote harmonious development of
[1] Tani T, "Product Development and Recycle System for Closed
Substance Cycle Society", EcoDesign '99: First International
Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse
Manufacturing, Published by IEEE Computer Society
Piscataway NJ USA, Tokyo, Japan, 294-299, 1999.
[2] S1. Schaltegger, R. Buritt, H. Petersen, "An Introduction to
Corporate Environmental Management", Greenleaf Publishing,
[3] Jaakko Kujala, "Total Quality Management As Cultural
Phenomena -A Conceptual Model And Empirical Illustration",
Helsinki University ofTechnology, Espoo, Finland, 2002
[4] Richard Reed, David Lemak, Neal P. Mero, "Total quality
management and sustainable competitive advantage", Journal of
Quality Management, 2000.
Brief introduction of the author:
Yu Zhonghua, professors and PhD supervisor of Zhejiang
University, the research work are mainly on Quality
Engineering, Knowledge Management and Green
International Technology and Innovation Conference 2006
Environment protection
Enterprise culture

Chart 1: the integration of GM&TQM.
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Tech attribute
Society attribute
Economic attribute