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Vibration Absorbers

Pic: Wikipedia

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction" How it works"

Undamped Vibration Absorber" Damped Vibration Absorber"

Tuned Vibration Absorber"

3 4

4 6

7

Buildings & Structures" Automotive" Sports"

9

9 9 9

Bibliography"

11

I N TRODUCTION

Vibration Absorbers

Vibration absorbers are tuned spring-mass/(damper) systems which reduces or eliminates the vibration of a harmonically excited system. They are usually axed to vibrating systems to reduce the possibility that a resonance condition will occur which could lead to rapid catastrophic failures of systems. As opposed to vibration isolators, which are used to isolate one part of a structure from an excitation or from another part that is vibrating, vibration absorbers are devices consisting of another mass and a stiness element that are attached to the main mass to be protected from vibration. The new system consisting of the main mass and the absorber mass has two degrees of freedom, and thus the new system has two natural frequencies. If we know the frequency of the disturbing input and the natural frequency of the original system, we can design the vibration absorber such that the natural frequencies of the resulting system are away from resonance of the excitation frequency thus resulting in the motion of the original mass to be small, which means that its kinetic and potential energies will also be small. In order to achieve this small motion, the energy delivered to the system by the disturbing input must be absorbed by the absorbers mass and stiness.

H OW IT WORKS

Undamped Vibration Absorber

K Absorber K

M2 K1 M1 M1

Fig 1: Vibration absorber for a ta# building

X1 K2 M2 X2

Figure 1 illustrates a simple vibration absorber. The absorber has a mass of M2 and connects to the building of mass M1 through a spring of stiness K2. Assuming the force applied to the system (wind, earthquake, etc) is harmonic, the equations of motion for the system are

m1 x1 + k1 x1 + k2 ( x1 ! x 2 ) = F0 sin ! t

..

&

&

m2 x 2 + k 2 ( x 2 ! x 1 ) = 0

..

x j ( t ) = X j sin ! t

j = 1,2

X1 =

& &

(k + k

1

2 ! m1! 2 ) ( k2 ! m2! 2 ) ! k2

(k

! m2! 2 ) F0

X2 =

& &

2

Lets say we want the absorber to absorb all the applied force, hence there is no motion of mass M1. To do this, well set the amplitude of M1 to be equal to zero. This gives us

!2 =

& &

k2 m2

Before the addition of the absorber system, if the response frequency of the building is near its resonance & &

! 2 ! ! 12 = k1 m1

Hence if the absorber is designed such that it has the same natural frequency as F or

!2 =

& &

k2 k = 1 m2 m1

the amplitude of vibration of the building, while operating at its original resonant frequency will be zero. The absorber is then said to be tuned to the input frequency. Furthermore, de2 ning ! 2 = k2 m2 it can be shown that

&

&

"! % 1! $ ' # !2 & X1k1 = 2 F0 ( k " ! % +( " ! %2+ k *1+ 2 ! $ ' - *1! $ ' - ! 2 * k1 # ! 1 & - * # ! 2 & - k1 ) ,) , & & X2 k1 1 = 2 F0 ( k " ! % +( " ! %2+ k *1+ 2 ! $ ' - *1! $ ' - ! 2 * k1 # ! 1 & - * # ! 2 & - k1 ) ,) , & &

Eq. 1

&

&

Eq. 2

As seen before at ! = ! 1

&

&

X1 = 0 &&

X2 = !

and &

k1 F0 F =! 0 k2 k1 k2

k2 X2 = !k2

& &

F0 = !F0 k2

This shows that if the absorber is tuned to the input frequency and has reached steady state, the force acting on the absorbers mass is equal in magnitude to the force applied but is in the opposite direction. This causes the net force acting on mass M1 to be zero; therefore the building does not move. In theory, M2 and K2 can be any value but in practice the allowable clearance for the absorbers motion X2 puts a limit on the allowable range for both the absorbers stiness K2. Also, K2 should also be able to support the force F and the resulting extension and compression X2.

!2 = 1.0 !1

m2 = 0.2 m1

X1k1 F0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

With absorber

! !1

Without absorber

From Figure 3, we can see that while the absorber eliminates vibration at the known applied frequency, it also introduces two resonant frequency at which the buildings amplitude is innite. The operating frequency must therefore be kept away from these frequencies and can be found by equating the denominator of Eq. 1 to zero.

A vibration absorber without a damping component removes the original resonance peak in the response curve of the machine but introduces two new peaks. Therefore, as the machine is going through start-up and stopping, it will experience large ampliK1/2 tudes. This can be reduced with the introduction of a damper into the system as in Figure 4.The equations of motions of the system now becomes

. . m1 x1 + k1 x1 + k2 ( x1 ! x2 ) + c " x1 ! x2 $ = F0 sin ! t # % .. . . m2 x2 + k2 ( x2 ! x1 ) + c " x2 ! x1 $ = 0 # % ..

K1/2 M1 X1

K2 M2

&

X2

Fig 4: Model of a damped vibration absorber

x j = X j ei! t

j = 1,2

X1 = X2 =

& & By dening

F0 ( k2 ! m2! 2 + ic! )

(k

! m2! 2 + i! c )

g = ! ! n = Forced frequency ratio

& &

&

&

X1k1 = F0

( 2! g )2 ( g 2 ! 1+ g 2 )

( 2! g )2 + ( g 2 ! f 2 )

2

2 2

+ " f 2 g 2 ! ( g 2 ! 1) ( g 2 ! f 2 ) $ # %

&

Eq. 3

&

&

X2 k1 = F0

( 2! g )2 ( g 2 ! 1+ g 2 )

( 2! g )2 + f 4

2

+ " f 2 g 2 ! ( g 2 ! 1) ( g 2 ! f 2 ) $ # %

&

Eq. 4

We can see that when the damping ratio is zero, resonance occurs at the two undamped resonant frequencies of the system. This is the same result as that of an undamped vibration absorber system. When the damping is innite, there is only one resonance frequency and the two masses behaves similar to a single degree of freedom system. We can further see that between these two innite response, there is a value where the peak of X1 is a minimum.

T U N E D V I B R AT I O N A B S O R B E R

As shown in Figure 5, regardless of the damping value, all the curves intersect at points A and B. Equating Eq. 3 using =0 and = will give us points A and B. It can be deduced from Figure 5 that the most ecient vibration absorber will be one where the amplitude at point A and B are equal. This can be satised when

15 12 9

A B

!2 = 1.0 !1 m2 1 = m1 20

X1k1 F0

6 3 0

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

! !1

! =0

! = 0.1

! =!

f=

& &

1 1+

An absorber that satises this equation is commonly known as a tuned vibration absorber. Using this equation and substituting it into Eq. 3, will give us an average optimal value for the damping ratio that corresponds to an optimal value of the normalized amplitude of

2 ! optimal =

&

&

3 3 8 (1+ )

&

&

It is worth noting that the amplitude of the absorber mass, X2 will always be larger that that of the main mass, X1. Also, due to the large amplitudes of M2, design consideration should be done to accommodate the this and the fatigue life of the absorber spring K2.

The systems discussed so far have the disadvantage of only working in certain frequency ranges because of their mass, stiness and damping limitation. With the addition of an actuator, sensors, a computer and a power source, a counter force can be applied to the mass to reduce the vibration of the system. The actuator also works to change the eective stiness and damping of the system. This is advantageous since not much weight is added and it doesnt require the need to change the physical components of the system.

Where Vibration Absorbers Are Used

Vibration absorbers are commonly used in modern engineering especially in tall buildings and bridges to counter the eects of wind, typhoons, earthquakes, and even human use. When rst opened, the London Millennium Bridge designers did not take into account the oscillation caused by the natural sway motion of the pedestrian. So as the bridge swayed in response, this caused the pedestrians to sway more in their steps and thus increasing the bridges amplitude of oscillation and thus reinforcing the eect even more. Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) in skyscrapers are another example of vibration absorbers. Taiwans Taipei 101 has a TMD that weighs 730 tons; the largest one in the world. It was so big and heavy that it could not be carried up by the cranes and had to be built on site.

Automotive

The automotive industry have always used a spring-damper system to reduce the vibration of their vehicle and also to ensure the tires are in optimal contact with the road. But it wasnt until the 1990s that the industry began putting active suspensions in their luxury cars. These days, most luxury cars have sophisticated independent active suspension systems that could adjust in really high speeds. An example is the system developed by Delphi, that uses a damper that is lled with magneto-rheological uid which changes viscosity up to 1000 times a second by means of a controlled magnetic eld

Sports

Applications for vibration control has also been developed for the sports industry. Among these are bikes that have shock absorbers to keep the wheel in constant with the ground, smart skis that reduce the vibration to maximize the contact area between the edge of the ski and the snow surface (developed by K2 and Head) and also running shoes like the 2005 Adidas-1 that uses a battery powered microprocessor and motor that actively controls the stiness of the sole. Tension cables in the base of the sole are wind and unwind by the motor which adjusts the shoe stiness before the feet hits the ground.

Pic 2: Exploded view of the Adidas-1 running shoe

in designing and manufacturing TMDs with masses from 20 to 10,000 kg, and vibration frequencies from 40 to as low as 0.3 Hz.

All GERB TMDs, both vertical or horizontal, have three main components: Spring or pendulum Oscillating Mass Viscodamper (viscous fluid damper).

Vertical TMD

Horizontal TMD

10

B I B L IOGRAPHY

Thomson, William T. Theory of Vibration With Applications 3rd Ed. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988 Rao, Singiresu S. Mechanical Vibrations 4th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004 Palm III, William J. Mechanical Vibration: Wiley, 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuned_mass_damper http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Millennium_Bridge http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/news/1612252 http://www.totalvibrationsolutions.com/ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=18 http://com4000chung.alliant.wikispaces.net/ADIDAS+1

11

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