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Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design Second Edition

Donald A. Neamen

Chapter One 1-2 Semiconductor Materials and Diodes McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Chapter One

1-2

Semiconductor Materials

and Diodes

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Figure 1.16 1-3 Ideal forward-biased I-V characteristics of pn junction diode, with the current plotted

Figure 1.16

1-3

Ideal forward-biased I-V characteristics of pn junction diode, with the current plotted on a log scale for I s = 10 -14 A and n = 1

on a log scale for I s = 10 - 1 4 A and n =

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Figure 1.22 The ideal diode: (a) I-V characteristics, (b) equivalent circuit under reverse bias, and

Figure 1.22

The ideal diode: (a) I-V characteristics, (b) equivalent circuit under reverse bias, and (c) equivalent circuit in the conducting state

1-4

bias, and (c) equivalent circuit in the conducting state 1-4 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 1.23

The diode rectifier: (a) circuit, (b) sinusoidal input signal,

(c)

(e)

rectifier: (a) circuit, (b) sinusoidal input signal, (c) (e) 1-5 equivalent circuit for v I >

1-5

equivalent circuit for v I > 0, (d) equivalent circuit for v I < 0, and rectified output signal

circuit for v I < 0, and rectified output signal McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 1.25

The diode and load line characteristics for the circuit shown in Figure 1.24

line characteristics for the circuit shown in Figure 1.24 1-6 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-6

characteristics for the circuit shown in Figure 1.24 1-6 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 1.27 The diode equivalent circuit (a) in the “on” condition when V D ³

Figure 1.27

The diode equivalent circuit (a) in the “on” condition when V D ³ V y , (b) in the “off” condition when V D < V y , and (c) piecewise linear approximation when r f = 0

1-7

and (c) piecewise linear approximation when r f = 0 1-7 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

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Figure 1.31 AC circuit analysis: (a) circuit with combined dc and sinusoidal input voltages, (b)

Figure 1.31

AC circuit analysis: (a) circuit with combined dc and sinusoidal input voltages, (b) sinusoidal diode current superimposed on the quiescent current, (c) sinusoidal diode voltage superimposed on the quiescent value, and (d) forward-biased diode I-V characteristics with a sinusoidal current and voltage superimposed on the quiescent values

1-8

current and voltage superimposed on the quiescent values 1-8 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Chapter 2 1-9 Diode Circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Chapter 2

1-9

Diode Circuits

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Figure 2.2 1-10 Diode in series with ac power source: (a) circuit and (b) voltage

Figure 2.2

1-10

Diode in series with ac power source: (a) circuit and (b) voltage transfer characteristics

source: (a) circuit and (b) voltage transfer characteristics McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 2.3 1-11 Half-wave rectifier circuit: (a) Sinusoidal input voltage, (b) output voltage, and (c)

Figure 2.3

1-11

Half-wave rectifier circuit: (a) Sinusoidal input voltage, (b) output voltage, and (c) diode voltage

input voltage, (b) output voltage, and (c) diode voltage McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 2.6

Figure 2.6 1-12 Full-wave rectifier: (a) circuit with center-tapped transformer, (b) voltage transfer characteristics, and

1-12

Full-wave rectifier: (a) circuit with center-tapped transformer, (b) voltage transfer characteristics, and (c) input and output waveforms

transfer characteristics, and (c) input and output waveforms McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 2.7

Figure 2.7 1-13 A full-wave bridge rectifier: (a) circuit showing the current direction for a positive

1-13

A full-wave bridge rectifier: (a) circuit showing the current direction for a positive input cycle, (b) current direction for a negative input cycle, and (c) input and output voltage waveforms

input cycle, and (c) input and output voltage waveforms McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 2.15 A Zener diode voltage regulator circuit 1-14 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 2.15

A Zener diode voltage regulator circuit

1-14

Figure 2.15 A Zener diode voltage regulator circuit 1-14 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill
Figure 2.15 A Zener diode voltage regulator circuit 1-14 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 2.19 Single-diode clipper: (a) circuit and (b) output response 1-15 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001

Figure 2.19

Single-diode clipper: (a) circuit and (b) output response

1-15

clipper: (a) circuit and (b) output response 1-15 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 2.25

Figure 2.25 1-16 Action of a diode clamper circuit: (a) a typical diode clamper circuit, (b)

1-16

Action of a diode clamper circuit: (a) a typical diode clamper circuit, (b) the sinusoidal input signal, (c) the capacitor voltage, and (d) the output voltage

(c) the capacitor voltage, and (d) the output voltage McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 2.32

Figure 2.32 1-17 A two-diode circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

1-17

A two-diode circuit

Figure 2.32 1-17 A two-diode circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 2.33 1-18 Voltage transfer characteristics for the two-diode circuit in Fig. 2.32 McGraw-Hill Copyright

Figure 2.33

1-18

Voltage transfer characteristics for the two-diode circuit in Fig. 2.32

characteristics for the two-diode circuit in Fig. 2.32 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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1-19 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Chapter Three 1-20 The Bipolar Junction Transistor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Chapter Three

1-20

The Bipolar Junction Transistor

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Figure 3.10 1-21 Common-emitter circuits: (a) with an npn transistor, (b) with a pnp transistor,

Figure 3.10

1-21

Common-emitter circuits: (a) with an npn transistor, (b) with a pnp transistor, and (c) with a pnp transistor biased with a positive voltage source

with a pnp transistor biased with a positive voltage source McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 3.13

Figure 3.13 1-22 Transistor current-voltage characteristics of the common-emitter circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

1-22

Transistor current-voltage characteristics of the common-emitter circuit

characteristics of the common-emitter circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 3.18 1-23 (a) Common-emitter circuit with an npn transistor and (b) dc equivalent circuit,

Figure 3.18

1-23

(a) Common-emitter circuit with an npn transistor and (b) dc equivalent circuit, with piecewise linear parameters

(b) dc equivalent circuit, with piecewise linear parameters McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 3.19 Circuit for Example 3.3 1-24 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 3.19

Circuit for Example 3.3

1-24

Figure 3.19 Circuit for Example 3.3 1-24 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 3.21 Circuit for Example 3.4 1-25 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 3.21

Circuit for Example 3.4

1-25

Figure 3.21 Circuit for Example 3.4 1-25 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 3.22

(a) base-emitter junction characteristics and the input load line and (b) common- emitter transistor characteristics and the collector-emitter load line

characteristics and the collector-emitter load line 1-26 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-26

characteristics and the collector-emitter load line 1-26 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 3.23 Circuit for Example 3.5 1-27 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 3.23

Circuit for Example 3.5

1-27

Figure 3.23 Circuit for Example 3.5 1-27 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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1-28

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Figure 3.26 Circuit for Example 3.6 1-29 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 3.26

Circuit for Example 3.6

1-29

Figure 3.26 Circuit for Example 3.6 1-29 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 3.33 Circuit for Example 3.8 1-30 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 3.33

Circuit for Example 3.8

1-30

Figure 3.33 Circuit for Example 3.8 1-30 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 3.44 1-31 (a) A bipolar inverter used as an amplifier; (b) the inverter voltage

Figure 3.44

1-31

(a) A bipolar inverter used as an amplifier; (b) the inverter voltage transfer characteristics

amplifier; (b) the inverter voltage transfer characteristics McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 3.45

(a) The inverter circuit with both a dc and an ac input signal; (b) the dc voltage transfer characteristics, Q-point, and sinusoidal input and output signals; (c) the transfer characteristics showing improper dc biasing

(c) the transfer characteristics showing improper dc biasing 1-32 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-32

transfer characteristics showing improper dc biasing 1-32 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 3.53

(a) A common-emitter circuit with an emitter resistor and voltage divider bias circuit in the base; (b) the dc circuit with a Thevenin equivalent base circuit

(b) the dc circuit with a Thevenin equivalent base circuit 1-33 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

1-33

the dc circuit with a Thevenin equivalent base circuit 1-33 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Chapter Four 1-34 Basic BJT Amplifiers McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Four

1-34

Basic BJT Amplifiers

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Figure 4.2 (a) Bipolar transistor inverter circuit; (b) inverter transfer characteristics 1-35 McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

Figure 4.2

(a) Bipolar transistor inverter circuit; (b) inverter transfer characteristics

1-35

inverter circuit; (b) inverter transfer characteristics 1-35 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 4.4 Common-emitter transistor characteristics, dc load line, and sinusoidal variation in base current, collector

Figure 4.4

Common-emitter transistor characteristics, dc load line, and sinusoidal variation in base current, collector current, and collector-emitter voltage

1-36

collector current, and collector-emitter voltage 1-36 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Base current versus base-emitter voltage characteristic with superimposed sinusoidal signals

1-37

Figure 4.5

with superimposed sinusoidal signals 1-37 Figure 4.5 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,
with superimposed sinusoidal signals 1-37 Figure 4.5 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 4.8

Figure 4.8 1-38 A simplified small-signal hybrid- p equivalent circuit for the npn transistor McGraw-Hill Copyright

1-38

A simplified small-signal hybrid-p equivalent circuit for the npn transistor

hybrid- p equivalent circuit for the npn transistor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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1-39 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1-39

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Figure 4.13

Figure 4.13 1-40 Expanded small-signal model of the BJT, including the Early effect, for the case

1-40

Expanded small-signal model of the BJT, including the Early effect, for the case when the circuit contains the (a) transconductance and (b) the current gain parameters

the (a) transconductance and (b) the current gain parameters McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 4.22a

Basic data sheet for the 2N2222 bipolar transistor

4.22a Basic data sheet for the 2N2222 bipolar transistor 1-41 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-41

Basic data sheet for the 2N2222 bipolar transistor 1-41 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 4.22b 1-42 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 4.22b

1-42
1-42

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Figure 4.28

Figure 4.28 1-43 A bipolar circuit with an emitter resistor, a voltage-divider biasing circuit, and a

1-43

A bipolar circuit with an emitter resistor, a voltage-divider biasing circuit, and a coupling capacitor

a voltage-divider biasing circuit, and a coupling capacitor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 4.29

Figure 4.29 1-44 The small-signal equivalent circuit with an emitter resistor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

1-44

The small-signal equivalent circuit with an emitter resistor

The small-signal equivalent circuit with an emitter resistor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 4.44

Figure 4.44 1-45 Emitter-follower circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

1-45

Emitter-follower circuit

Figure 4.44 1-45 Emitter-follower circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Figure 4.45

Figure 4.45 1-46 Small-signal equivalent circuit of the emitter-follower McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-46

Small-signal equivalent circuit of the emitter-follower

1-46 Small-signal equivalent circuit of the emitter-follower McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 4.53 Basic common-base circuit 1-47 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Figure 4.53

Basic common-base circuit

1-47

Figure 4.53 Basic common-base circuit 1-47 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 4.54 1-48 (a) Simplified hybrid- p model of the npn transistor and (b) small-signal

Figure 4.54

1-48

(a) Simplified hybrid-p model of the npn transistor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit of the common-base circuit

small-signal equivalent circuit of the common-base circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Five 1-49 The Field-Effect Transistor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Five

1-49

The Field-Effect Transistor

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Figure 5.24 1-51 (a) An NMOS common-source circuit and (b) the NMOS circuit for Example

Figure 5.24

1-51

(a) An NMOS common-source circuit and (b) the NMOS circuit for Example 5.3

circuit and (b) the NMOS circuit for Example 5.3 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 5.25 1-52 (a) A PMOS common-source circuit, (b) results when saturation-region bias assumption is

Figure 5.25

1-52

(a) A PMOS common-source circuit, (b) results when saturation-region bias assumption is incorrect, and (c) results when nonsaturation-region bias assumption is correct

results when nonsaturation-region bias assumption is correct McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 5.28 1-53 Transistor characteristics, v DS (sat) curve, load line, and Q -point for

Figure 5.28

1-53

Transistor characteristics, vDS (sat) curve, load line, and Q-point for the NMOS common-course circuit in Figure 5.24 (b)

-point for the NMOS common-course circuit in Figure 5.24 (b) McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 5.29

Figure 5.29 NMOS common-source circuit with source resistor 1-55 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

NMOS common-source circuit with source resistor

1-55

5.29 NMOS common-source circuit with source resistor 1-55 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 5.35

Circuit with enhancement load devices and NMOS driver

5.35 Circuit with enhancement load devices and NMOS driver 1-56 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-56

Circuit with enhancement load devices and NMOS driver 1-56 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 5.36

Voltage transfer characteristics of NMOS inverter with enhancement load device

of NMOS inverter with enhancement load device 1-57 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-57

of NMOS inverter with enhancement load device 1-57 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 5.37 1-58 (a) Depletion-mode NMOS device with the gate connected to the source and

Figure 5.37

1-58

(a) Depletion-mode NMOS device with the gate connected to the source and (b) current-voltage characteristics

to the source and (b) current-voltage characteristics McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 5.39

Figure 5.39 Circuit with depletion load device and NMOS driver 1-59 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Circuit with depletion load device and NMOS driver

1-59

5.39 Circuit with depletion load device and NMOS driver 1-59 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 5.40

Voltage transfer characteristics of NMOS inverter with depletion load device

characteristics of NMOS inverter with depletion load device 1-60 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-60

of NMOS inverter with depletion load device 1-60 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 5.47

Figure 5.47 1-61 (a) An NMOS common-source circuit with a time-varying signal coupled to the gate

1-61

(a) An NMOS common-source circuit with a time-varying signal coupled to the gate and (b) transistor characteristics, load line, and superimposed sinusoidal signals

load line, and superimposed sinusoidal signals McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Six 1-62 Basic FET Amplifiers McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Six

1-62

Basic FET Amplifiers

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1-63 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1-63

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Figure 6.13

Figure 6.13 1-64 Common-source circuit with voltage divider biasing and coupling capacitor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001

1-64

Common-source circuit with voltage divider biasing and coupling capacitor

circuit with voltage divider biasing and coupling capacitor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.14 1-65 Small-signal equivalent circuit, assuming coupling capacitor acts as a short circuit McGraw-Hill

Figure 6.14

1-65

Small-signal equivalent circuit, assuming coupling capacitor acts as a short circuit

circuit, assuming coupling capacitor acts as a short circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill
circuit, assuming coupling capacitor acts as a short circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 6.17 1-66 DC load line and transition point for NMOS circuit shown in Figure

Figure 6.17

1-66

DC load line and transition point for NMOS circuit shown in Figure 6.16

and transition point for NMOS circuit shown in Figure 6.16 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 6.19 1-67 Small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS common-source amplifier with source resistor McGraw-Hill

Figure 6.19

1-67

Small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS common-source amplifier with source resistor

circuit of NMOS common-source amplifier with source resistor McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.28

Figure 6.28 1-68 NMOS source-follower or common-drain amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-68

NMOS source-follower or common-drain amplifier

6.28 1-68 NMOS source-follower or common-drain amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.29 1-69 (a) Small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS source-follower and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

Figure 6.29

1-69

(a) Small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS source-follower and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS source-follower with all signal grounds at a common point

source-follower with all signal grounds at a common point McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 6.34 Common-gate circuit 1-70 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Figure 6.34

Common-gate circuit

1-70

Figure 6.34 Common-gate circuit 1-70 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Figure 6.35

Figure 6.35 1-71 Small-signal equivalent circuit of common-gate amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-71

Small-signal equivalent circuit of common-gate amplifier

Small-signal equivalent circuit of common-gate amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.39

Figure 6.39 1-72 (a) NMOS amplifier with enhancement load device; (b) driver transistor characteristics and enhancement

1-72

(a) NMOS amplifier with enhancement load device; (b) driver transistor characteristics and enhancement load curve with transition point

and enhancement load curve with transition point McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.39c

Voltage transfer characteristics of NMOS amplifier with enhancement load device

of NMOS amplifier with enhancement load device 1-73 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-73

of NMOS amplifier with enhancement load device 1-73 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.43

Figure 6.43 1-74 (a) NMOS amplifier with depletion load device; (b) driver transistor characteristics and depletion

1-74

(a) NMOS amplifier with depletion load device; (b) driver transistor characteristics and depletion load curve, with transition points

and depletion load curve, with transition points McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.43c

(c) voltage transfer characteristics

Figure 6.43c (c) voltage transfer characteristics 1-75 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-75

Figure 6.43c (c) voltage transfer characteristics 1-75 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 6.45

Figure 6.45 1-76 (a) CMOS common-source amplifier; (b) PMOS active load i-v characteristic, (c) driver transistor

1-76

(a) CMOS common-source amplifier; (b) PMOS active load i-v characteristic, (c) driver transistor characteristics with load curve, (d) voltage transfer characteristics

with load curve, (d) voltage transfer characteristics McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 6.50

NMOS cascode circuit

Figure 6.50 NMOS cascode circuit 1-77 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
1-77 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
1-77
McGraw-Hill
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Figure 6.52 1-78 Small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS cascode circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 6.52

1-78

Small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS cascode circuit

1-78 Small-signal equivalent circuit of NMOS cascode circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Seven 1-79 Frequency Response McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Chapter Seven

1-79

Frequency Response

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Figure 7.1 Amplifier gain versus frequency 1-80 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 7.1

Amplifier gain versus frequency

1-80

Figure 7.1 Amplifier gain versus frequency 1-80 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 7.16

(a) Common-emitter circuit with coupling capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

coupling capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-81 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-81

capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-81 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 7.17 1-82 (a) Common-source circuit with output coupling and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

Figure 7.17

1-82

(a)

Common-source circuit with output coupling and

(b)

small-signal equivalent circuit

coupling and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 7.18 (a) Emitter-follower circuit with output coupling capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-83

Figure 7.18

(a) Emitter-follower circuit with output coupling capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

1-83

capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-83 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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1-84 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1-84

1-84 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Figure 7.20 (a) MOSFET common-source circuit with a load capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

Figure 7.20

(a) MOSFET common-source circuit with a load capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

1-85

load capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-85 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 7.21 PSpice analysis results for the circuit in Figure 7.20(a): (a) voltage gain magnitude

Figure 7.21

PSpice analysis results for the circuit in Figure 7.20(a): (a) voltage gain magnitude response, and (b) phase response

1-86

voltage gain magnitude response, and (b) phase response 1-86 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 7.22

(a) Circuit with both a coupling and a load capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

and a load capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-87 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-87

load capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-87 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 7.23

(a) Circuit with emitter bypass capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

bypass capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-88 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-88

capacitor and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-88 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 7.24

Bode plot of the voltage gain magnitude for the circuit with an emitter bypass capacitor

magnitude for the circuit with an emitter bypass capacitor 1-89 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-89

for the circuit with an emitter bypass capacitor 1-89 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 7.33

Figure 7.33 1-90 Hybrid- p equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-90

Hybrid-p equivalent circuit

Figure 7.33 1-90 Hybrid- p equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 7.35 Bode plots for the short-circuit current gain: (a) magnitude and (b) phase 1-91

Figure 7.35

Bode plots for the short-circuit current gain: (a) magnitude and (b) phase

1-91

short-circuit current gain: (a) magnitude and (b) phase 1-91 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 7.37a

(a) Common-emitter circuit with current source input

7.37a (a) Common-emitter circuit with current source input 1-92 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-92

(a) Common-emitter circuit with current source input 1-92 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 7.37b (b) small signal equivalent circuit with simplified hybrid- p model 1-93 McGraw-Hill Copyright

Figure 7.37b

(b) small signal equivalent circuit with simplified hybrid-p model

1-93

equivalent circuit with simplified hybrid- p model 1-93 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 7.39 1-94 Small-signal equivalent circuit, including the equivalent Miller capacitance McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

Figure 7.39

1-94

Small-signal equivalent circuit, including the equivalent Miller capacitance

circuit, including the equivalent Miller capacitance McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Eight 1-95 Output Stages and Power Amplifiers McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

Chapter Eight

1-95

Output Stages and Power Amplifiers

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Figure 8.1

Typical dc beta characteristics (h FE versus l c ) for 2N3055

characteristics ( h F E versus l c ) for 2N3055 1-96 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001

1-96

( h F E versus l c ) for 2N3055 1-96 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

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Figure 8.3 1-97 The safe operating area of a bipolar transistor plotted on: (a) linear

Figure 8.3

1-97

The safe operating area of a bipolar transistor plotted on: (a) linear scales and (b) logarithmic scales

plotted on: (a) linear scales and (b) logarithmic scales McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 8.7

Figure 8.7 1-98 Typical characteristics for high-power MOSFETs: (a) transconductance versus drain current; (b) transfer

1-98

Typical characteristics for high-power MOSFETs: (a) transconductance versus drain current; (b) transfer characteristics

versus drain current; (b) transfer characteristics McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,
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Figure 8.8 (a) Cross section of a VMOS device; (b) cross section of DMOS device;

Figure 8.8

(a) Cross section of a VMOS device; (b) cross section of DMOS device; (c) HEXFET structure

1-99

(b) cross section of DMOS device; (c) HEXFET structure 1-99 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 8.15 Collector current versus time characteristics: (a) class-A amplifier, (b) class-B amplifier, (c) class-AB

Figure 8.15

Collector current versus time characteristics: (a) class-A amplifier, (b) class-B amplifier, (c) class-AB amplifier, and (d) class-C amplifier

1-100

(c) class-AB amplifier, and (d) class-C amplifier 1-100 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 8.16 (a) Common-emitter amplifier, (b) dc load line, and (c) instantaneous power dissipation versus

Figure 8.16

(a) Common-emitter amplifier, (b) dc load line, and (c) instantaneous power dissipation versus time in the transistor

1-101

power dissipation versus time in the transistor 1-101 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 8.20

Crossover distortion of basic complementary push-pull output stage

distortion of basic complementary push-pull output stage 1-102 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-102

of basic complementary push-pull output stage 1-102 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 8.23

Bipolar class-AB output stage

Figure 8.23 Bipolar class-AB output stage 1-103 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-103

Figure 8.23 Bipolar class-AB output stage 1-103 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 8.24

Characteristics of a class-AB output stage: (a) voltage transfer curve, (b) sinusoidal input signal, (c) collector currents, and (d) out put current

signal, (c) collector currents, and (d) out put current 1-104 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-104

(c) collector currents, and (d) out put current 1-104 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 8.28 (a) Transformer-coupled common-emitter amplifier and (b) dc and ac load lines 1-105 McGraw-Hill

Figure 8.28

(a) Transformer-coupled common-emitter amplifier and (b) dc and ac load lines

1-105

common-emitter amplifier and (b) dc and ac load lines 1-105 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 8.30

Class-AB output stage with quiescent bias established by diodes

output stage with quiescent bias established by diodes 1-106 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-106

output stage with quiescent bias established by diodes 1-106 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 8.31

Class-AB output stage with V BE multiplier bias circuit

output stage with V B E multiplier bias circuit 1-107 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-107

output stage with V B E multiplier bias circuit 1-107 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Chapter Nine 1-108 The Ideal Operational Amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Chapter Nine

1-108

The Ideal Operational Amplifier

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Figure 9.2 1-109 (a) Ideal op-amp equivalent circuit and (b) op-amp transfer characteristics McGraw-Hill Copyright

Figure 9.2

1-109

(a) Ideal op-amp equivalent circuit and (b) op-amp transfer characteristics

equivalent circuit and (b) op-amp transfer characteristics McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 9.9 Currents and voltages in the inverting op-amp 1-110 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 9.9

Currents and voltages in the inverting op-amp

1-110

9.9 Currents and voltages in the inverting op-amp 1-110 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 9.13 (a) Summing op-amp amplifier circuit and (b) currents and voltages in the summing

Figure 9.13

(a) Summing op-amp amplifier circuit and (b) currents and voltages in the summing amplifier

1-111

and (b) currents and voltages in the summing amplifier 1-111 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 9.14

Noninverting op-amp circuit

Figure 9.14 Noninverting op-amp circuit 1-112 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

1-112

Figure 9.14 Noninverting op-amp circuit 1-112 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 9.19

Current-to-voltage converter

Figure 9.19 Current-to-voltage converter 1-113 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

1-113

Figure 9.19 Current-to-voltage converter 1-113 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Figure 9.21

Voltage-to-currect convertor

Figure 9.21 Voltage-to-currect convertor 1-114 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

1-114

Figure 9.21 Voltage-to-currect convertor 1-114 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Figure 9.23

(a) Op-amp difference amplifier, (b) difference amplifier with v 12 = 0 and (c) difference amplifier with v 11 = 0

2 = 0 and (c) difference amplifier with v 1 1 = 0 1-115 McGraw-Hill Copyright

1-115

= 0 and (c) difference amplifier with v 1 1 = 0 1-115 McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

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Figure 9.26

Voltages and currents in instrumentation amplifier

9.26 Voltages and currents in instrumentation amplifier 1-116 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-116

Voltages and currents in instrumentation amplifier 1-116 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 9.29 Op-amp integrator 1-117 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Figure 9.29

Op-amp integrator

1-117

Figure 9.29 Op-amp integrator 1-117 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Figure 9.31 Figure for Exercise 9.21 1-118 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 9.31

Figure for Exercise 9.21

1-118

Figure 9.31 Figure for Exercise 9.21 1-118 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 9.33

Precision half-wave rectifier circuit

Figure 9.33 Precision half-wave rectifier circuit 1-119 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-119

Figure 9.33 Precision half-wave rectifier circuit 1-119 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 9.39

Op-amp voltage reference circuit

Figure 9.39 Op-amp voltage reference circuit 1-120 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-120

Figure 9.39 Op-amp voltage reference circuit 1-120 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 9.42 Complete amplifier system 1-121 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Figure 9.42

Complete amplifier system

1-121

Figure 9.42 Complete amplifier system 1-121 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Chapter Ten 1-122 Integrated Circuit Biasing and Active Loads McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Chapter Ten

1-122

Integrated Circuit Biasing and Active Loads

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Figure 10.2 (a) Basic two-transistor current source; (b) two-transistor current source with reference resistor R

Figure 10.2

(a) Basic two-transistor current source; (b) two-transistor current source with reference resistor R 1

1-123

current source with reference resistor R 1 1-123 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 10.5

Basic-three-transistor current source

Figure 10.5 Basic-three-transistor current source 1-124 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-124

Figure 10.5 Basic-three-transistor current source 1-124 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 10.6

Figure 10.6 (a) (c) variation in bias currents with a change in ß Two-transistor current mirror;

(a)

(c) variation in bias currents with a change in ß

Two-transistor current mirror; (b) three-transistor current mirror;

1-125

current mirror; (b) three-transistor current mirror; 1-125 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 10.7 1-126 (a) Bipolar cascode current mirror; (b) small-signal equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

Figure 10.7

1-126

(a) Bipolar cascode current mirror; (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

cascode current mirror; (b) small-signal equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 10.9

Widlar current source

Figure 10.9 Widlar current source 1-127 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

1-127

Figure 10.9 Widlar current source 1-127 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 10.10

(a) Small-signal equivalent circuit for determining output resistance of Widlar current source, (b) simplified equivalent circuit for determining output resistance, and (c) equivalent circuit after a Norton transformation

and (c) equivalent circuit after a Norton transformation 1-128 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-128

(c) equivalent circuit after a Norton transformation 1-128 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 10.17

MOSFET current source

Figure 10.17 MOSFET current source 1-129 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

1-129

Figure 10.17 MOSFET current source 1-129 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 10.19

MOSFET cascode current mirror

Figure 10.19 MOSFET cascode current mirror 1-130 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-130

Figure 10.19 MOSFET cascode current mirror 1-130 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 10.20 Equivalent circuits of the MOSFET cascode current mirror for determining output resistance 1-131

Figure 10.20

Equivalent circuits of the MOSFET cascode current mirror for determining output resistance

1-131

current mirror for determining output resistance 1-131 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 10.23 Bias-independent MOSFET current mirror 1-132 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 10.23

Bias-independent MOSFET current mirror

1-132

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Figure 10.28

Bipolar common-emitter circuit

Figure 10.28 Bipolar common-emitter circuit 1-133 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

1-133

Figure 10.28 Bipolar common-emitter circuit 1-133 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 10.30

Voltage transfer characteristics of bipolar circuit with active load

transfer characteristics of bipolar circuit with active load 1-134 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-134

characteristics of bipolar circuit with active load 1-134 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 10.37 (a) Simple BJT amplifier with active load and load resistance and (b) small-signal

Figure 10.37

(a) Simple BJT amplifier with active load and load resistance and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

1-135

resistance and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit 1-135 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 10.39 1-136 (a) Simple MOSFET amplifier with active load and load resistance and (b)

Figure 10.39

1-136

(a) Simple MOSFET amplifier with active load and load resistance and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit

and load resistance and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

McGraw-Hill

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Chapter Eleven 1-137 Differential and Multistage Amplifiers McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Chapter Eleven

1-137

Differential and Multistage Amplifiers

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Figure 11.2

Figure 11.2 1-138 Basic BJT differential-pair configuration McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

1-138

Basic BJT differential-pair configuration

Figure 11.2 1-138 Basic BJT differential-pair configuration McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,
Figure 11.2 1-138 Basic BJT differential-pair configuration McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.3 Basic diff-amp with applied common-mode voltage and (b) basic diff-amp with applied differential-

Figure 11.3

Basic diff-amp with applied common-mode voltage and (b) basic diff-amp with applied differential- mode voltage

1-139

basic diff-amp with applied differential- mode voltage 1-139 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.7 (a) Equivalent ac circuit, diff-amp with differential-mode input signal and two-sided output voltage

Figure 11.7

(a) Equivalent ac circuit, diff-amp with differential-mode input signal and two-sided output voltage and (b) ac equivalent circuit with one- sided output

1-140

and (b) ac equivalent circuit with one- sided output 1-140 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 11.8 1-141 Small-signal equivalent circuit, bipolar differential amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 11.8

1-141

Small-signal equivalent circuit, bipolar differential amplifier

equivalent circuit, bipolar differential amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.12 1-142 (a) Equivalent ac circuit, diff-amp with applied sinusoidal differential-mode input signal, and

Figure 11.12

1-142

(a) Equivalent ac circuit, diff-amp with applied sinusoidal differential-mode input signal, and resulting signal current directions and (b) differential-mode half-circuits

current directions and (b) differential-mode half-circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.13

Figure 11.13 1-143 (a) Equivalent ac circuit of diff-amp with common-mode input signal, and resulting signal

1-143

(a) Equivalent ac circuit of diff-amp with common-mode input signal, and resulting signal current directions and (b) common-mode half circuits

signal current directions and (b) common-mode half circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.22 1-144 AC equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 11.22

1-144

AC equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier

1-144 AC equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.23 1-145 Small-signal equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 11.23

1-145

Small-signal equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier

equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

McGraw-Hill

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Figure 11.24 1-146 MOSFET cascode current source McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 11.24

1-146

MOSFET cascode current source

Figure 11.24 1-146 MOSFET cascode current source McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 11.28

Figure 11.28 1-147 BJT differential amplifier with active load McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-147

BJT differential amplifier with active load

11.28 1-147 BJT differential amplifier with active load McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.30

Figure 11.30 1-148 BJT differential amplifier with three-transistor active load, showing the signal currents McGraw-Hill

1-148

BJT differential amplifier with three-transistor active load, showing the signal currents

three-transistor active load, showing the signal currents McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.31 (a) Small-signal equivalent circuit BJT differential amplifier with active load and (b) rearrangement

Figure 11.31

(a) Small-signal equivalent circuit BJT differential amplifier with active load and (b) rearrangement of small-signal equivalent circuit

1-149

(b) rearrangement of small-signal equivalent circuit 1-149 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.33

Figure 11.33 1-150 The ac equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier with active load McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

1-150

The ac equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier with active load

circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier with active load McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.34 (a) Small-signal equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier with active load and (b) rearranged

Figure 11.34

(a) Small-signal equivalent circuit, MOSFET differential amplifier with active load and (b) rearranged small-signal equivalent circuit

1-151

and (b) rearranged small-signal equivalent circuit 1-151 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 11.37

A MOSFET cascode diff-amp with a cascode diff-amp

11.37 A MOSFET cascode diff-amp with a cascode diff-amp 1-152 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-152

A MOSFET cascode diff-amp with a cascode diff-amp 1-152 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 11.46

Figure 11.46 BJT diff-amp with three- transistor active load, Darlington pair gain stage, and simple emitter-follower

BJT diff-amp with three-transistor active load, Darlington pair gain stage, and simple emitter-follower output stage

1-153

gain stage, and simple emitter-follower output stage 1-153 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Twelve 1-154 Feedback and Stability McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Twelve

1-154

Feedback

and

Stability

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Figure 12.1 1-155 Basic configuration of a feedback amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 12.1

1-155

Basic configuration of a feedback amplifier

Figure 12.1 1-155 Basic configuration of a feedback amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 12.5 Basic feedback connections 1-156 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Figure 12.5

Basic feedback connections

1-156

Figure 12.5 Basic feedback connections 1-156 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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1-157 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1-157

1-157 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Figure 12.16 1-158 Example of an op-amp series-shunt feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 12.16

1-158

Example of an op-amp series-shunt feedback circuit

1-158 Example of an op-amp series-shunt feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.18 Discrete transistor series-shunt feedback circuits: (a) emitter-follower, (b) source-follower, and (c)

Figure 12.18

Discrete transistor series-shunt feedback circuits:

(a) emitter-follower, (b) source-follower, and (c) small-signal equivalent circuit of emitter-follower

1-159

small-signal equivalent circuit of emitter-follower 1-159 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure12.20 1-160 Example of an op-amp shunt-series feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure12.20

1-160

Example of an op-amp shunt-series feedback circuit

1-160 Example of an op-amp shunt-series feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.22 1-161 (a) Equivalent circuit for simple common-base circuit and (b) reconfigured circuit McGraw-Hill

Figure 12.22

1-161

(a) Equivalent circuit for simple common-base circuit and (b) reconfigured circuit

for simple common-base circuit and (b) reconfigured circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.27

Figure 12.27 1-162 Example of an op-amp series-series feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-162

Example of an op-amp series-series feedback circuit

1-162 Example of an op-amp series-series feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.29

Figure 12.29 1-163 Example of a discrete transistor series-series feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

1-163

Example of a discrete transistor series-series feedback circuit

of a discrete transistor series-series feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.33 1-164 Example of an op-amp shunt-shunt feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 12.33

1-164

Example of an op-amp shunt-shunt feedback circuit

1-164 Example of an op-amp shunt-shunt feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.35

Figure 12.35 1-165 Example of a discrete transistor shunt-shunt feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

1-165

Example of a discrete transistor shunt-shunt feedback circuit

of a discrete transistor shunt-shunt feedback circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.44 1-166 (a) Basic feedback network, showing amplifier input resistance and (b) feedback network

Figure 12.44

1-166

(a) Basic feedback network, showing amplifier input resistance and (b) feedback network after the loop is broken, showing test voltage and load resistance

the loop is broken, showing test voltage and load resistance McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 12.45

Figure 12.45 (a) Feedback circuit prior to breaking the loop and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit after

(a) Feedback circuit prior to breaking the loop and (b) small-signal equivalent circuit after breaking the loop

1-167

equivalent circuit after breaking the loop 1-167 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 12.56 1-168 Nyquist plot, loop gain for three-stage amplifier, for: (a) stable system and

Figure 12.56

1-168

Nyquist plot, loop gain for three-stage amplifier, for: (a) stable system and (b) unstable system

amplifier, for: (a) stable system and (b) unstable system McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 12.57 Bode plots of loop gain of function described in Example 12.19, for two

Figure 12.57

Bode plots of loop gain of function described in Example 12.19, for two values of feedback transfer function: (a) magnitude and (b) phase

1-169

transfer function: (a) magnitude and (b) phase 1-169 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Thirteen 1-170 Operational Amplifier Circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Thirteen

1-170

Operational Amplifier Circuits

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Figure 13.2

Figure 13.2 1-171 A simple bipolar operational amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

1-171

A simple bipolar operational amplifier

Figure 13.2 1-171 A simple bipolar operational amplifier McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 13.3

Figure 13.3 1-172 Equivalent circuit, 741 op-amp McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-172

Equivalent circuit, 741 op-amp

Figure 13.3 1-172 Equivalent circuit, 741 op-amp McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 13.5

Figure 13.5 1-173 Bias circuit and input stage portion of 741 op-amp circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

1-173

Bias circuit and input stage portion of 741 op-amp circuit

Bias circuit and input stage portion of 741 op-amp circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 13.7

Reference circuit and gain stage, 741 op-amp

e 1 3 . 7 Reference circuit and gain stage, 741 op-amp 1-174 McGraw-Hill Copyright ©
1-174
1-174

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Figure 13.8

Figure 13.8 1-175 Basic output stage, 741 op-amp, showing currents and voltages McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001

1-175

Basic output stage, 741 op-amp, showing currents and voltages

output stage, 741 op-amp, showing currents and voltages McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 13.9

Figure 13.9 Output stage, 741 op-amp with short-circuit protection devices 1-176 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Output stage, 741 op-amp with short-circuit protection devices

1-176

741 op-amp with short-circuit protection devices 1-176 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 13.14

Figure 13.14 1-177 MC14573 CMOS op-amp equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

1-177

MC14573 CMOS op-amp equivalent circuit

Figure 13.14 1-177 MC14573 CMOS op-amp equivalent circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

McGraw-Hill

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Figure 13.15

Figure 13.15 1-178 (a) Classical cascode stage; (b) folded-cascode stage McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-178

(a) Classical cascode stage; (b) folded-cascode stage

1-178 (a) Classical cascode stage; (b) folded-cascode stage McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 13.16

CMOS folded cascode amplifier

Figure 13.16 CMOS folded cascode amplifier 1-179 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-179

Figure 13.16 CMOS folded cascode amplifier 1-179 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 13.17

CMOS current-mirror op-amp

F i g u r e 1 3 . 1 7 CMOS current-mirror op-amp 1-180 McGraw-Hill

1-180

g u r e 1 3 . 1 7 CMOS current-mirror op-amp 1-180 McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

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Figure 13.19

BICMOS folded cascode amplifier

Figure 13.19 BICMOS folded cascode amplifier 1-181 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-181

Figure 13.19 BICMOS folded cascode amplifier 1-181 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 13.20

CA3140 BICMOS op-amp equivalent circuit

e 1 3 . 2 0 CA3140 BICMOS op-amp equivalent circuit 1-182 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001

1-182

1 3 . 2 0 CA3140 BICMOS op-amp equivalent circuit 1-182 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

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Figure 13.21

Bias circuit, CA3140 BICMOS op-amp

Figure 13.21 Bias circuit, CA3140 BICMOS op-amp 1-183 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

1-183

Figure 13.21 Bias circuit, CA3140 BICMOS op-amp 1-183 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Fourteen 1-184 Nonideal Effects in Operational Amplifier Circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Chapter Fourteen

1-184

Nonideal Effects in Operational Amplifier Circuits

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1-185 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1-185

1-185 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Figure 14.2 Equivalent circuit, inverting amplifier with finite open-loop gain 1-186 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001

Figure 14.2

Equivalent circuit, inverting amplifier with finite open-loop gain

1-186

inverting amplifier with finite open-loop gain 1-186 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 14.3 Equivalent circuit, noninverting amplifier with finite open-loop gain 1-187 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001

Figure 14.3

Equivalent circuit, noninverting amplifier with finite open-loop gain

1-187

noninverting amplifier with finite open-loop gain 1-187 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 14.4

(a) Inverting amplifier and (b) inverting amplifier equivalent circuit, for calculating closed-loop input resistance

circuit, for calculating closed-loop input resistance 1-188 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-188

circuit, for calculating closed-loop input resistance 1-188 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 14.11 Simplified op-amp for calculating slew rate 1-189 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 14.11

Simplified op-amp for calculating slew rate

1-189

14.11 Simplified op-amp for calculating slew rate 1-189 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 14.20 Offset voltage compensation circuit for inverting amplifier 1-190 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 14.20

Offset voltage compensation circuit for inverting amplifier

1-190

voltage compensation circuit for inverting amplifier 1-190 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 14.21 Offset voltage compensation circuit for noninverting amplifier 1-191 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 14.21

Offset voltage compensation circuit for noninverting amplifier

1-191

compensation circuit for noninverting amplifier 1-191 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 14.22

Basic bipolar input diff-amp stage, including a pair of offset-null terminals connected to a potentiometer

a pair of offset-null terminals connected to a potentiometer 1-192 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

1-192

of offset-null terminals connected to a potentiometer 1-192 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 14.28

Op-amp circuit with resistor connected to noninverting terminal, for input bias current compensation

noninverting terminal, for input bias current compensation 1-193 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

1-193

terminal, for input bias current compensation 1-193 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Fifteen 1-194 Applications and Design of Integrated Circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Chapter Fifteen

1-194

Applications and Design of Integrated Circuits

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Figure 15.3 (a) High-pass filter with voltage follower and (b) low-pass filter with voltage follower

Figure 15.3

(a) High-pass filter with voltage follower and (b) low-pass filter with voltage follower

1-195

follower and (b) low-pass filter with voltage follower 1-195 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 15.7 1-196 (a) Two-pole low-pass Butterworth filter and (b) Bode plot, transfer function magnitude

Figure 15.7

1-196

(a) Two-pole low-pass Butterworth filter and (b) Bode plot, transfer function magnitude

filter and (b) Bode plot, transfer function magnitude McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 15.9 1-197 (a) Two-pole high-pass Butterworth filter and (b) Bode plot, transfer function magnitude

Figure 15.9

1-197

(a) Two-pole high-pass Butterworth filter and (b) Bode plot, transfer function magnitude

filter and (b) Bode plot, transfer function magnitude McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 15.10 1-198 (a) Three-pole low-pass Butterworth filter and (b) three-pole high-pass Butterworth filter McGraw-Hill

Figure 15.10

1-198

(a) Three-pole low-pass Butterworth filter and (b) three-pole high-pass Butterworth filter

filter and (b) three-pole high-pass Butterworth filter McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 15.16 Phase-shift oscillator circuit with voltage-follower butter stages 1-199 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 15.16

Phase-shift oscillator circuit with voltage-follower butter stages

1-199

oscillator circuit with voltage-follower butter stages 1-199 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 15.18 Wien-bridge oscillator 1-200 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Figure 15.18

Wien-bridge oscillator

1-200

Figure 15.18 Wien-bridge oscillator 1-200 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Figure 15.30 (a) Schmitt trigger circuit, (b) voltage transfer characteristic as input voltage increases, (c)

Figure 15.30

(a) Schmitt trigger circuit, (b) voltage transfer characteristic as input voltage increases, (c) voltage transfer characteristic as input voltage decreases, and (d) net voltage transfer characteristics, showing hysteresis effect

1-201

transfer characteristics, showing hysteresis effect 1-201 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 15.38 Schmitt trigger oscillator 1-202 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Figure 15.38

Schmitt trigger oscillator

1-202

Figure 15.38 Schmitt trigger oscillator 1-202 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 15.39 1-203 Output voltage and capacitor voltage versus time for Schmitt trigger oscillator McGraw-Hill

Figure 15.39

1-203

Output voltage and capacitor voltage versus time for Schmitt trigger oscillator

capacitor voltage versus time for Schmitt trigger oscillator McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 15.45 The LM380 power amplifier 1-204 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 15.45

The LM380 power amplifier

1-204

Figure 15.45 The LM380 power amplifier 1-204 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure15.46 The ac equivalent circuit, LM380 power amplifier 1-205 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure15.46

The ac equivalent circuit, LM380 power amplifier

1-205

The ac equivalent circuit, LM380 power amplifier 1-205 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Chapter Sixteen 1-206 MOSFET Digital Circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Sixteen

1-206

MOSFET Digital Circuits

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Figure 16.6 1-207 Voltage transfer characteristics, NMOS inverter with resistor load, for three resistor values

Figure 16.6

1-207

Voltage transfer characteristics, NMOS inverter with resistor load, for three resistor values

NMOS inverter with resistor load, for three resistor values McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 16.8 (a) NMOS inverter with saturated load and (b) driver transistor characteristics and load

Figure 16.8

(a) NMOS inverter with saturated load and (b) driver transistor characteristics and load curve

1-208

(b) driver transistor characteristics and load curve 1-208 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 16.9 Voltage transfer characteristics, NMOS inverter with saturated load, for three aspect ratios 1-209

Figure 16.9

Voltage transfer characteristics, NMOS inverter with saturated load, for three aspect ratios

1-209

inverter with saturated load, for three aspect ratios 1-209 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 16.10 (a) NMOS inverter with depletion load, (b) current-voltage characteristic of depletion load, and

Figure 16.10

(a) NMOS inverter with depletion load, (b) current-voltage characteristic of depletion load, and (c) driver transistor characteristics and load curve

1-210

(c) driver transistor characteristics and load curve 1-210 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 16.11 Voltage transfer characteristics, NMOS inverter with depletion load, for three aspect ratios 1-211

Figure 16.11

Voltage transfer characteristics, NMOS inverter with depletion load, for three aspect ratios

1-211

inverter with depletion load, for three aspect ratios 1-211 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 16.18 Voltage transfer characteristics of NMOS inverters with and without the body effect (a)

Figure 16.18

Voltage transfer characteristics of NMOS inverters with and without the body effect (a) enhancement load and (b) depletion load

1-212

effect (a) enhancement load and (b) depletion load 1-212 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 16.26 1-213 Composite width-to-length ratios of driver transistors in two- input NMOS logic configurations

Figure 16.26

1-213

Composite width-to-length ratios of driver transistors in two- input NMOS logic configurations (a) NOR and (b) NAND

in two- input NMOS logic configurations (a) NOR and (b) NAND McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

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Figure 16.27 NMOS logic circuit example 1-214 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 16.27

NMOS logic circuit example

1-214

Figure 16.27 NMOS logic circuit example 1-214 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 16.34 CMOS inverter 1-215 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Figure 16.34

CMOS inverter

1-215

Figure 16.34 CMOS inverter 1-215 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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Figure 16.39 Complete voltage transfer characteristics, CMOS inverter 1-216 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 16.39

Complete voltage transfer characteristics, CMOS inverter

1-216

voltage transfer characteristics, CMOS inverter 1-216 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 16.41 1-217 Square root of inverter current versus input voltage, CMOS inverter biased at

Figure 16.41

1-217

Square root of inverter current versus input voltage, CMOS inverter biased at either V DD = 5V or V DD = 10V

biased at either V D D = 5V or V D D = 10V McGraw-Hill Copyright

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Figure 16.44 1-218 (a) Two-input CMOS NOR logic circuit and (b) truth table McGraw-Hill Copyright

Figure 16.44

1-218

(a) Two-input CMOS NOR logic circuit and (b) truth table

(a) Two-input CMOS NOR logic circuit and (b) truth table McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 16.45 1-219 (a) Two-input CMOS NAND logic circuit and (b) truth table McGraw-Hill Copyright

Figure 16.45

1-219

(a) Two-input CMOS NAND logic circuit and (b) truth table

(a) Two-input CMOS NAND logic circuit and (b) truth table McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 16.49 Complete CMOS design for Example 16.12 1-220 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 16.49

Complete CMOS design for Example 16.12

1-220

Figure 16.49 Complete CMOS design for Example 16.12 1-220 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 16.52 1-221 Clocked CMOS logic circuit (a) AND function and (b) OR function McGraw-Hill

Figure 16.52

1-221

Clocked CMOS logic circuit (a) AND function and (b) OR function

CMOS logic circuit (a) AND function and (b) OR function McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 16.71 NMOS R-S flip-flop 1-222 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Figure 16.71

NMOS R-S flip-flop

1-222

Figure 16.71 NMOS R-S flip-flop 1-222 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 16.72 CMOS R-S flip-flop 1-223 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Figure 16.72

CMOS R-S flip-flop

1-223

Figure 16.72 CMOS R-S flip-flop 1-223 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

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Figure 16.79 Basic random access memory architecture 1-224 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

Figure 16.79

Basic random access memory architecture

1-224

Figure 16.79 Basic random access memory architecture 1-224 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 16.84 CMOS RAM cell including PMOS pull-up transistors 1-225 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 16.84

CMOS RAM cell including PMOS pull-up transistors

1-225

16.84 CMOS RAM cell including PMOS pull-up transistors 1-225 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 16.87 1-226 Complete circuit diagram of a CMOS RAM cell with write and read

Figure 16.87

1-226

Complete circuit diagram of a CMOS RAM cell with write and read circuitry

diagram of a CMOS RAM cell with write and read circuitry McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

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Chapter Seventeen 1-227 Bipolar Digital Circuits McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter Seventeen

1-227

Bipolar Digital Circuits

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Figure 17.4 1-228 Two-input ECL OR/NOR logic gate with emitter-follower output stages McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

Figure 17.4

1-228

Two-input ECL OR/NOR logic gate with emitter-follower output stages

ECL OR/NOR logic gate with emitter-follower output stages McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 17.5 Basic ECL logic gate with reference circuit 1-229 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 17.5

Basic ECL logic gate with reference circuit

1-229

Figure 17.5 Basic ECL logic gate with reference circuit 1-229 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

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Figure 17.10 Modified ECL logic gate with Schottky diode 1-230 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by

Figure 17.10

Modified ECL logic gate with Schottky diode

1-230

17.10 Modified ECL logic gate with Schottky diode 1-230 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 17.16 ECL series gating example 1-231 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

Figure 17.16

ECL series gating example

1-231

Figure 17.16 ECL series gating example 1-231 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 17.20

Basic diode-transistor logic gate

Figure 17.20 Basic diode-transistor logic gate 1-232 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1-232

Figure 17.20 Basic diode-transistor logic gate 1-232 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Figure 17.24 TTL circuit with currents and voltages 1-233 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 17.24

TTL circuit with currents and voltages

1-233

Figure 17.24 TTL circuit with currents and voltages 1-233 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 17.25 TTL circuit with totem-pole output stage 1-234 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 17.25

TTL circuit with totem-pole output stage

1-234

Figure 17.25 TTL circuit with totem-pole output stage 1-234 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 17.29 TTL circuit with tristate output stage 1-235 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 17.29

TTL circuit with tristate output stage

1-235

Figure 17.29 TTL circuit with tristate output stage 1-235 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 17.31 1-236 Schottky clamped transistor equivalent circuit, with currents and voltages McGraw-Hill Copyright ©

Figure 17.31

1-236

Schottky clamped transistor equivalent circuit, with currents and voltages

transistor equivalent circuit, with currents and voltages McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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Figure 17.34 1-237 Low-power Schottky TTL NAND logic circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 17.34

1-237

Low-power Schottky TTL NAND logic circuit

Figure 17.34 1-237 Low-power Schottky TTL NAND logic circuit McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill

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Figure 17.35 Advanced low-power Schottky (ALS) inverter gate 1-238 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the

Figure 17.35

Advanced low-power Schottky (ALS) inverter gate

1-238

17.35 Advanced low-power Schottky (ALS) inverter gate 1-238 McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2001 by the McGraw-Hill Companies,

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