Cloud computing

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Cloud computing
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet).

Overview
Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein Cloud computing logical diagram end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualised resources.[1] [2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data center environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6] [7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers and appearing as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8] [9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the federal United States government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize their IT infrastructure and decrease their spending budgets. With the advent of the top government official mandating cloud adoption, many agencies already have at least one or more cloud

g. industry and consumer statistics."[14] • Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination.[16] • Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: • Centralisation of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. users can connect from anywhere. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. self-service basis near real-time.[16] • Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e." • Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. such as computation and storage. etc. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).) • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) • Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. mobile phone). PC. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. and financial transaction processing.. such as electricity. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: • Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. • Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure.[10] 2 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: • Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry.[13] • Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. in part because providers are able to devote resources to . as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. enterprise resource planning. increased security-focused resources. etc. • Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. electricity.[12] • Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked.[20] [21] • Performance is monitored. and the lack of security for stored kernels.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems.[16] • Security could improve due to centralisation of data.[18] • Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data. typically bulk data processing such as census.Cloud computing systems online.[19] • Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. without users having to engineer for peak loads. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) • Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.[11] • Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients)..

• Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier.[28] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. OpenNebula. government. who no longer have need for expertise in. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[33] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit.[29] After the dot-com bubble.Cloud computing solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. In early 2008. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. autonomic. just to leave room for occasional spikes. In addition. provided as a utility. which.[27] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. illusion of infinite supply)."[34] . user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. 3 History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. Eucalyptus became the first open-source.. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. and utility computing.[32] By mid-2008. online. Details are abstracted from end-users.[18] [30] In early 2008. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. private. and community forms.[23] However.[25] Cloud computing [26] is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. like most computer networks. and for the federation of clouds. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. or control over.[31] In the same year." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. service-oriented architecture. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds.

There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms.[38] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. but they all have great potential in developing. Examples include some computers. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. It's your choice on what you would like to call the platform. Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. When development teams create applications for the cloud. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualisation environment – as a service. and browsers. Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. or Cloud 9. they must build its own cloud platform. operating systems. Platform Cloud platform services. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud.[35] [36] [37] Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. or even use services provided by the cloud. phones and other devices.Cloud computing 4 Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. software.[41] . Rather than purchasing servers. data-center space or network equipment. along with raw (block) storage and networking. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.[39] [40] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.

compliance. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. jurisdiction. build. etc. including multi-core processors.[46] Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private.[16] Community cloud Cloud computing types Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. in which a service provider makes resources. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. available to the general public over the Internet.). offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.[48] [49] .[47] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".[46] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.Cloud computing 5 Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. community. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. such as applications and storage.[46] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another.[42] [43] [44] [45] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud).

[54] [55] [56] Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing.Cloud computing 6 Architecture Cloud architecture. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. and Verizon. and governance in conceiving.[62] . This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[60] [61] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. Instances such as the secret NSA program. performance. The Intercloud The Intercloud[51] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[52] [53] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. standardisation."[58] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. web. platform. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. working with AT&T. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. may access the data that is on the cloud. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. security. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. thus.[59] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. because the service provider at any point in time. and SOX in the United States. and quality engineering.[50] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. can monitor at will. risk. software. HIPAA.[57] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info. lawfully or unlawfully. developing. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. information. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control.

[64] [65] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.[78] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. everything from trademark infringement. such as Finland.[73] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. the environmental effects will be more moderate. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources.[63] Providers typically make this information available on request.[68] Open standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[69] ) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures.[67] In November 2007.[71] [74] [75] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". and improving virtual machine support and legal support. from cryptography. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation[79] . one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. However. a small .Cloud computing Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. recovery.[70] Security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. account control. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability.[71] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. accountability. privacy. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. under non-disclosure agreement. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[66] 7 Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. that promote external management of provided services. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. Open source Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. standardisation of APIs.[77] Sweden and Switzerland. and multi-tenancy issues. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. to use of multiple cloud providers. data segregation.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. certain legal issues arise. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available.[72] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. management console security. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. bug exploitation. malicious insiders.[76] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. private or public.

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