Cloud computing

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Cloud computing
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet).

Overview
Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein Cloud computing logical diagram end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualised resources.[1] [2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data center environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6] [7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers and appearing as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8] [9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the federal United States government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize their IT infrastructure and decrease their spending budgets. With the advent of the top government official mandating cloud adoption, many agencies already have at least one or more cloud

as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) • Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. such as electricity. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. electricity.[11] • Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). increased security-focused resources. etc. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. • Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: • Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control.[13] • Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. users can connect from anywhere.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery." • Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. self-service basis near real-time. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. without users having to engineer for peak loads. mobile phone).[18] • Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used.[16] • Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. such as computation and storage.) • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) • Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.[16] • Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: • Centralisation of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. typically bulk data processing such as census. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house)..[19] • Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained."[14] • Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination.[10] 2 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: • Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management.[20] [21] • Performance is monitored.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. industry and consumer statistics. • Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.g. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. in part because providers are able to devote resources to .[12] • Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing.[16] • Security could improve due to centralisation of data. PC. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.Cloud computing systems online. etc. and financial transaction processing. and the lack of security for stored kernels. enterprise resource planning..

[27] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. Details are abstracted from end-users. or control over. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. provided as a utility. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. which. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer.[23] However.[29] After the dot-com bubble. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.Cloud computing solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[25] Cloud computing [26] is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation.[32] By mid-2008. In addition.[31] In the same year.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.[18] [30] In early 2008. service-oriented architecture. private. autonomic. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. and for the federation of clouds. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. illusion of infinite supply). just to leave room for occasional spikes. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. • Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier.. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. online. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. who no longer have need for expertise in. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services.[28] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies. government. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. and community forms. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. In early 2008. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small."[34] . Eucalyptus became the first open-source. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[33] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . OpenNebula.. 3 History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. and utility computing. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. like most computer networks." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost.

[41] . they must build its own cloud platform. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. and browsers. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualisation environment – as a service. Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. When development teams create applications for the cloud. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. along with raw (block) storage and networking. software. operating systems. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. It's your choice on what you would like to call the platform.[39] [40] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry. or even use services provided by the cloud. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. Platform Cloud platform services. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. but they all have great potential in developing. or Cloud 9. Examples include some computers. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS).[38] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. phones and other devices. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. data-center space or network equipment. Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it.Cloud computing 4 Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. also known as platform as a service (PaaS).[35] [36] [37] Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. Rather than purchasing servers.

so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. jurisdiction.[46] Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private.[16] Community cloud Cloud computing types Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. build.[46] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy.[46] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.[47] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. in which a service provider makes resources.[48] [49] . community. such as applications and storage. available to the general public over the Internet. etc. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.Cloud computing 5 Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. including multi-core processors. compliance. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.). It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another.[42] [43] [44] [45] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model.

[59] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. risk. security. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. The Intercloud The Intercloud[51] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[52] [53] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. can monitor at will. Instances such as the secret NSA program. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue.Cloud computing 6 Architecture Cloud architecture. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. performance. developing.[57] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. may access the data that is on the cloud. software. web. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. and Verizon. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[60] [61] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance."[58] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. information. thus.[50] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. HIPAA. because the service provider at any point in time. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. and governance in conceiving. and quality engineering.[62] . standardisation. lawfully or unlawfully. working with AT&T. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info.[54] [55] [56] Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. and SOX in the United States. platform. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones.

[71] [74] [75] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing".[63] Providers typically make this information available on request. that promote external management of provided services. management console security. certain legal issues arise. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model.) Thus countries with favorable conditions.[73] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. such as Finland. and improving virtual machine support and legal support. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI). However. everything from trademark infringement. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. Open source Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.[67] In November 2007. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. standardisation of APIs. under non-disclosure agreement. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. and multi-tenancy issues. a small . recovery. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.[77] Sweden and Switzerland. privacy. private or public. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. from cryptography. the environmental effects will be more moderate.[71] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption.[66] 7 Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. accountability. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.[68] Open standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[69] ) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. account control. malicious insiders.[76] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing.[70] Security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. bug exploitation. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation[79] .[64] [65] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.[72] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services.[78] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers. to use of multiple cloud providers.Cloud computing Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. data segregation.

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