Cloud computing

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Cloud computing
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet).

Overview
Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein Cloud computing logical diagram end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualised resources.[1] [2] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.[4] Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services.[5] This type of data center environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.[6] [7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers and appearing as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs), but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies.[8] [9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the federal United States government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize their IT infrastructure and decrease their spending budgets. With the advent of the top government official mandating cloud adoption, many agencies already have at least one or more cloud

such as electricity."[14] • Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. increased security-focused resources. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.[12] • Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) • Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). • Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers.[19] • Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. electricity. enterprise resource planning.[10] 2 Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: • Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.g. typically bulk data processing such as census.[16] • Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: • Centralisation of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. in part because providers are able to devote resources to . users can connect from anywhere. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. industry and consumer statistics.. and financial transaction processing. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks.. and the lack of security for stored kernels.[16] • Security could improve due to centralisation of data. mobile phone).[11] • Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). PC. etc.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. without users having to engineer for peak loads. such as computation and storage.[13] • Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources.[16] • Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.Cloud computing systems online.[18] • Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked." • Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications. etc.[20] [21] • Performance is monitored. self-service basis near real-time. • Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure.) • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) • Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: • Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control.

fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. which.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.. In addition. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. service-oriented architecture. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. private. who no longer have need for expertise in." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision."[34] . began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. online. and for the federation of clouds. illusion of infinite supply).[29] After the dot-com bubble. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[33] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project. In early 2008.[23] However.[27] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. and utility computing. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. or control over. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.[32] By mid-2008. like most computer networks. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public.. OpenNebula. autonomic. and community forms. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas.Cloud computing solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. 3 History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. provided as a utility. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility. Details are abstracted from end-users. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits.[31] In the same year. • Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users.[18] [30] In early 2008. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book.[28] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies.[25] Cloud computing [26] is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. just to leave room for occasional spikes. government. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.

Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud.[39] [40] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry.[35] [36] [37] Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. It's your choice on what you would like to call the platform. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS).[38] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. or Cloud 9. software. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. or even use services provided by the cloud.[41] . and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms.Cloud computing 4 Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. but they all have great potential in developing. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualisation environment – as a service. data-center space or network equipment. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. they must build its own cloud platform. Examples include some computers. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Platform Cloud platform services. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. along with raw (block) storage and networking. When development teams create applications for the cloud. Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. phones and other devices. and browsers. Rather than purchasing servers. operating systems.

[46] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy.[16] Community cloud Cloud computing types Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security. community.[46] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization.[46] Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another. available to the general public over the Internet. etc.[42] [43] [44] [45] Deployment models Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management.[47] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". in which a service provider makes resources. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. compliance.Cloud computing 5 Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realized. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. including multi-core processors. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.). such as applications and storage. jurisdiction. build.[48] [49] .

the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. developing. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[60] [61] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. software. and SOX in the United States. information. performance. can monitor at will. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. because the service provider at any point in time. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. risk. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. working with AT&T. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. may access the data that is on the cloud. HIPAA. standardisation."[58] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns basically. web. Instances such as the secret NSA program. and quality engineering.[62] . users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems.[59] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info.Cloud computing 6 Architecture Cloud architecture. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company.[50] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. thus. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. and governance in conceiving. platform. and Verizon.[54] [55] [56] Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. The Intercloud The Intercloud[51] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[52] [53] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.[57] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment. lawfully or unlawfully. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. security.

but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. a small .[73] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. that promote external management of provided services. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework.[78] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.[70] Security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity.[63] Providers typically make this information available on request. However.[67] In November 2007. recovery.[64] [65] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. accountability.Cloud computing Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification. standardisation of APIs.[77] Sweden and Switzerland.[66] 7 Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. malicious insiders. and improving virtual machine support and legal support. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services.[68] Open standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[69] ) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI).[71] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. data segregation. Open source Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. under non-disclosure agreement.[72] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security-based services.[71] [74] [75] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". management console security. from cryptography. concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. and multi-tenancy issues. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. certain legal issues arise. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. privacy. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.) Thus countries with favorable conditions. to use of multiple cloud providers. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. account control. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. the environmental effects will be more moderate. Solutions to various cloud security issues vary. private or public. such as Finland. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. everything from trademark infringement. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware scheduling and server consolidation[79] . bug exploitation.[76] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing.

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