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Corporate Social Responsibility

A Submission to the Australian Government Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee

24 February 2006

Corporate Social Responsibility Submission

February 2006

Table of Contents
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Overview About CCI Introduction Executive Summary Specific Responses to the Terms of Reference Background CSR Defined The Role of Corporations The shareholder-oriented firm The stakeholder-oriented firm Reasons for Adopting a Stakeholder Orientation Good Behaviour is Profitable Bad Behaviour is Costly Trends in CSR Current Practices Example: BHP Billiton Issues in Relation to CSR Conflicting Priorities and Values Accountability and Governance The Wider Case Against Regulation Public and Private Regulation Profiting from Corporate Social Responsibility Alternative Measures to Regulation Appendix A: Terms of Reference Appendix B ASX Best Practice Principles Appendix C GRI Guidelines In Accordance Requirements Report Content Environmental and Social Performance Indicators Notes and References Bibliography Comments and Notes 1 1 1 2 4 8 8 8 8 9 10 10 12 13 14 15 17 17 17 21 21 21 23 25 27 28 28 29 30 31 31 31

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Overview
About CCI
The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Western Australia (CCI) is the leading business association in Western Australia. It is the second largest organisation of its kind in Australia, with a membership of 5,000 organisations in all sectors including manufacturing, resources, agriculture, transport, communications, retailing, hospitality, building and construction, community services and finance. Most members are private businesses, but CCI also has representation in the not-for-profit sector and the government sector. About 80 per cent of members are small businesses, and members are located in all geographical regions of WA.

Introduction
Recent years have seen renewed focus on the social and environmental dimensions of economic activity, and in particular on the activities of the business sector. This focus has many sources and strands. It derives in part from the search for new ways of moulding society and the economy in the aftermath of the collapse of communism, and consequent discrediting of state-directed, centralised political and economic models. It reflects concerns about the processes and effects of globalisation, and the way in which economic decisions and their social and environmental effects increasingly transcend traditional national and regional political jurisdictions. It is driven in part by the increasing prominence and claims of non-government organisations seeking to fill some of these gaps in authority with the influence of civil society. This prominence has in turn been both a cause and an effect of a shift in public opinion towards concerns for the social, cultural and environmental consequences of economic activity. Within this broad context, the Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee (the Advisory Committee) has been asked to consider the following questions: 1. Should the Corporations Act be revised to clarify the extent to which directors may take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions?

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2. Should the Corporations Act be revised to require directors to take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions? 3. Should Australian companies be encouraged to adopt socially and environmentally responsible business practices and if so, how? 4. Should the Corporations Act require certain types of companies to report on the social and environmental impact of their activities? Further details regarding the terms of reference to the inquiry can be found at Attachment A. In addition to this current inquiry, the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Corporations and Financial Services is currently completing its inquiry into Corporate Responsibility and Triple Bottom Line reporting. It is endeavouring to determine the extent to which organisational decision-makers have and should have regard for the interests of stakeholders other than shareholders, and the broader community for profit and not-for-profit incorporated entities under the Corporations Act. CCI provided a submission to this review in September 2005. The Hon Senator Ian Campbell, Minister for the Environment, has also asked the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) Corporate Governance Council to consider developing a noncompulsory standard for sustainability reporting for listed companies. This submission has been structured in four main sections. The first section provides a brief response to each of the broad terms of reference questions detailed above. The sections that follow provide a more detailed analysis of the issue of corporate social responsibility, and in the process provides support for the responses to the questions detailed in the first section.

Executive Summary
The appeal of corporate social responsibility, triple bottom line accounting and stakeholder entitlements among businesses is strong. Some corporations have displayed willingness, and even eagerness, to abandon a shareholder orientation in favour of a wider focus. Under headings such as triple bottom line accounting, corporate social responsibility, stakeholder capitalism and ethical investment, many businesses are incorporating environmental, social, stakeholder and ethical dimensions of their activities into core objectives along with shareholder returns. To a large extent, this represents a commercial necessity for businesses to recognise and respond to developments in their operating environment as opposed to a need to respond to regulatory requirements.

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For example, the rise in stakeholder orientation among firms is likely to represent the fact that its absence is being more heavily penalised by a community becoming more concerned about the behaviour and ethics of businesses. The commercial incentive is not purely to avoid negative outcomes. Many businesses have implemented triple bottom line accounting and achieved improvements in operating efficiency or savings in input or waste management costs. These measures are adopted by firms because they make good business sense and are in the interest of shareholders. It is not appropriate to encourage decision makers to accommodate stakeholder interests beyond this via the regulatory framework. This is because stakeholder policies beyond those which maximise shareholder returns have the potential to create costly and inefficient outcomes. For example, if business is obliged to further the interests of the community, society, government and environment as well as owners, a range of conflicting questions arise such as which groups and interests are entitled to consideration in how the business is run? And by what means is that consideration to be put into practice? Even if these questions of entitlement can be resolved, harder problems of accountability remain. Giving other stakeholders real influence over how a corporation operates would require an entirely new framework of corporate accountability and sanctions. It would rewrite property rights and constrain freedom of choice, redefine corporate governance and transparency, and require new institutions of political, social and commercial accountability. An overarching concern for CCI is that stakeholder entitlement and related ideas appear to be based on a profound misunderstanding of how modern businesses and economies operate. It assumes that good results can only come from good intentions that business activity will only benefit society, the community, the economy and the environment if that is what business leaders (or regulators or stakeholders) set out to achieve. But this is not the case. A market economy - in which the production, distribution, pricing and use of goods and services are primarily determined by peoples purchasing decisions - leads to a better social and economic outcome than one in which well-intentioned business leaders or regulators try to second-guess peoples wants and needs. Government already has a role in shaping the regulatory environment where good business practice alone might not result in efficient social and environmental outcomes. Extending social policy objectives to corporations is not in the public interest. It moves corporations into the sphere of public policy and service provision, which is not the role of business.

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Specific Responses to the Terms of Reference


Responses to the questions detailed in the terms of reference are provided below. Supporting information is provided in the subsequent sections of the submission. Should the Corporations Act be revised to clarify the extent to which directors may take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions? Effective decision making requires businesses, and more specifically directors, to take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders and the broader community. The current regulatory framework already ensures that social and environmental considerations are taken into account when making business decisions. In relation to the Corporations Act, no restrictions exist which would prevent directors from taking these considerations into account. Directors have a duty to act in the interest of their company, and therefore must take into consideration the needs of employees, consumers and other stakeholders. Providing a more formalised duty to external stakeholders would in effect create uncertainty and mean that directors would need to consider those interests alongside the business rather than in the context of the viability of the business. This would also create a subjective assessment of the primacy of interests resulting in an increased risk aversion in commercial decisions. Should the Corporations Act be revised to require directors to take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions? CCI believes that law changes to require directors to take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions to be unnecessary. CCI does not believe there is evidence that directors feel that their duties prevent them from taking into account the interests of stakeholders other than shareholders, to the extent that those interests are relevant to the company and its shareholders. Only if there is clear evidence that directors do feel so prevented, and that their views have some legal foundation, should consideration be given to an enabling provision in the Corporations Act that makes it clear that the duties of Directors and officers do not preclude them from having regard for the interests of stakeholders other than shareholders, to the extent that those interest are relevant to the corporation. As such, CCI is opposed to the view that that the law needs to be changed to require directors to take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader

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community when making corporate decisions. Such legislative intervention is not only unnecessary, but would also be counter-productive. In the absence of legislative intervention, businesses are already engaged in a wide range of corporate social responsibility activities, and are voluntarily reporting their performances in these areas and subjecting themselves to independent auditing and rating. The increasing trend towards corporate social responsibility is examined in more detail in Trends in CSR on page 13 and Current Practices on page 14. If, however, a legislative requirement is put in place to require directors to take account of the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions, there will be a danger that directors will find themselves having to balance competing and conflicting legal obligations. The issues in relation to conflicting priorities and accountability are examined in more detail in Issues in Relation to CSR on page 17. Should Australian companies be encouraged to adopt socially and environmentally responsible business practices and if so, how? As highlighted in Trends in CSR on page 13 and Current Practices on page 14, Australian companies are increasingly adopting socially and environmentally responsible business practices. They do so because these factors need to be taken into account as part of their day to day decision making. For example, the rise in stakeholder orientation among firms is likely to represent the fact that its absence is being more heavily penalised by a community becoming more concerned about the behaviour and ethics of businesses. However, the commercial incentive is not purely to avoid negative outcomes. Many businesses have implemented triple bottom line accounting and achieved improvements in operating efficiency or savings in input or waste management costs. These measures are adopted by firms because they make good business sense and are in the interest of shareholders. This issue is further examined in Reasons for Adopting a Stakeholder Orientation on page 10. Should the Corporations Act require certain types of companies to report on the social and environmental impact of their activities? Australian companies are governed by the Corporations Act, the purpose of which is to regulate the formation, operation and closure of corporations and the role of directors and officers. Its purpose is not to set environmental or social standards, nor require a company to behave in a particular way. Where there is a need to establish minimum standards of behaviour or to prescribe certain types of behaviour, this is appropriately dealt with in specific purpose legislation. In this regard, Australian companies are governed by a large range of legislation, including
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environmental, financial services, human rights, equal opportunity, sex and racial discrimination, industrial relations, native title, occupational health and safety, taxation and trade practices and fair trading. In the absence of specific requirements set out in the Corporations Act, businesses are already engaged in a wide range of corporate social responsibility activities, and are voluntarily reporting their performances in these areas and subjecting themselves to independent auditing and rating. The increasing trend towards corporate social responsibility is examined in more detail in Trends in CSR on page 13 and Current Practices on page 14. If business is obliged to further the interests of the community, society, government and environment as well as owners, a range of questions arise: Which groups and interests are entitled to consideration in how the business is run? By what means is that consideration to be put into practice? Are all identified stakeholders given equal weight? How are inevitable conflicts between the interests of stakeholders to be resolved? How are new and changing interests to be incorporated into the business plan?

Even if these questions of entitlement can be resolved, harder problems of accountability remain. Accountability requires a right to information, authority (the right to issue instructions) and sanctions (the right to impose penalties is those instructions are not carried out). In a typical corporation, directors are accountable to shareholders, while employees and other agents are accountable, through managers, to directors. If shareholder value were no longer the key objective of management, a new structure of accountability would be needed to determine which interests are entitled to influence how the business is run, who is to decide when that entitlement has been breached, what sanctions are to apply, and to whom. Such a structure would not be compatible with shareholders rights to buy and sell shares and to sack directors. For as long as those rights exist, boards will accord special priority to shareholders interests. Giving other stakeholders real influence over how a corporation operates would therefore require an entirely new framework of corporate accountability and sanctions. It would rewrite property rights and constrain freedom of choice, redefine corporate governance and transparency, and require new institutions of political, social and commercial accountability.

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The virtues of modern businesses are induced and reinforced by the incentive and accountability structures under which they currently operate. Businesses generate returns for investors by providing customers with the goods and services they want, at prices they are prepared to pay, while proving trustworthy and responsive enough to earn repeat business. In the process, they must secure and develop mutually beneficial relationships with employees, clients, and suppliers. They create jobs, bid up wages, pay taxes, and innovate in the perpetual search for an advantage over competitors. All of this contributes far more to society than pious good intentions. Businesses will continue to monitor and respond to changes in the climate of opinion on social, ethical and environmental issues, as they always have. But to seek to reinforce this process by imposing vague and inconsistent social and environmental obligations on corporations though legislation, disclosure requirements or contractual terms would create a confusion of inconsistent entitlements and undermine accountability. The issues in relation to conflicting priorities and accountability are examined in more detail in Issues in Relation to CSR on page 17.

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Background
CSR Defined
There is no single commonly accepted definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Some examples of definitions include:
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) refers to a range of practices that a business might adopt to ensure that it operates in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations that society has of business. From Taking The First Steps: An Overview Of Corporate Social Responsibility In Australia NSW State Chamber of Commerce, February 2001, p. 5. Corporate social responsibility is essentially a concept whereby companies decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment. From Promoting a European framework for corporate social responsibility, EU Green Paper, July 2001, p.5 Corporate social responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large From Corporate social responsibility: making good business sense World Business Council for Sustainable Development, January 2000.

CSR is linked to (and in some cases used interchangeably with) related terms and ideas such as corporate sustainability, corporate citizenship, corporate social investment, the triple bottom line, socially responsible investment, business sustainability and corporate governance.

The Role of Corporations


The debate over corporate social responsibility concerns the role of corporations. For as long as businesses with limited liability have existed, there has been debate about how they should be owned, operated, regulated and motivated. Essentially, there are two differing views of the firm in the context of this issue. The shareholder-oriented firm In Australia, the UK and the USA, the commonest understanding of the firm is of a shareholder-oriented institution. This is typically a limited liability joint stock company whose core function is seen as generating profits for its owners. In this model, corporate governance focuses primarily on ensuring that managers and directors exercise responsible stewardship of shareholders funds. There is no expectation that these agents have a responsibility to serve any other interests besides those of the people whose property they manage. Most exponents of a shareholder-focused model of the firm recognise that it is appropriate to modify the behaviour of business owners, managers and directors in the light of the wider
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social costs and benefits their businesses activities engender (although the extent of appropriate intervention is hotly debated). So, firms operations are constrained within a framework of laws designed to enforce protections for the interests of customers, employees, other businesses, the environment, the community, the government, and so on. Under this shareholder-oriented model, these constraints are external. No more is expected of businesses than that they obey the rules as they go about their core function of generating profits. This limited expectation can be expressed either negatively or positively. Positive advocates of the shareholder-oriented firm assert that maximising profit within a framework of laws is both the most ethically appropriate behaviour of business managers and the most socially desirable, because it leads to the best economic and social outcomes. This view has been stated by Milton Friedman, who argued 40 years ago that:
there is one and only one social responsibility of business - to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game.i

The negative view of shareholder orientation presumes that corporate ethics is an oxymoron. In this view nothing better than greed can be expected of business operators and pursuit of owners interests will be at the expense of the wider community, so a system of laws and regulations is necessary to force corporations to behave according to the community interest. An oft-quoted observation from 18th century British jurist Edward Thurlow sums up this view summarising the hopelessness of expecting unselfish behaviour from business:
Did you ever expect a corporation to have a conscience, when it has no soul to be damned, ii and no body to be kicked?

The stakeholder-oriented firm The model of the shareholder-oriented corporation operating within a framework of rules has never been universally welcomed or accepted, nor has it always been applied. Social democratic and corporatist societies have enlisted business along with labour and government in a concerted effort to achieve some wider social and economic good broad macro-economic management or more specific objectives such as limiting wage increases in order to control inflation or reduce unemployment, for example. Recently, there has been a revival in centre-left political circles of interest in broadening the orientation of businesses objectives as part of a wider approach to economic management. This has coincided and overlapped with developments in stakeholder theories of management, which argue that the activities of businesses (and government and non-government agencies)

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should be oriented towards furthering the interests of a range of social and economic groups, or stakeholders. These theories promote what Elaine Sternbergiii has described as entitlement stakeholders. Some advocates of a stakeholder-oriented approach to the corporation in fact hold very similar opinions to the negative view of the shareholder-oriented firm. They see businesses as inherently anti-social and greedy, and therefore in need of extensive legal and regulatory restraints to make them give due consideration to implications of their operations on employees, customers, competitors, the environment and the community. But there is a less hostile view which hopes that businesses will voluntarily incorporate broader interests into decision making processes. Perhaps the most well-known political advocate of this form of stakeholder orientation is British Prime Minister Tony Blair, who has argued:
We cannot by legislation guarantee that a company will behave in a way conducive to trust and long-term commitment. But it is surely time to assess how we shift the emphasis in corporate ethos, from the company being a mere vehicle for the capital market, to be traded, bought and sold as a commodity, towards a vision of the company as a community or partnership in which each employee has a stake, and where a companys responsibilities are more clearly delineated.iv

The resurgence of interest in stakeholder theory and other views that firms should take a broader focus than the interest of shareholders alone has many sources. In its form most hostile to business, it reflects the views of the more radical elements of the anti-globalisation movement, and their related opposition to corporate activities and rights. While Marxist solutions to the perceived evils of capitalism may have been largely discredited, an underlying hostility to capitalism persists. Its more mainstream political expression lies in the resurgent third way politics of Britains New Labour already discussed, whose electoral successes make it an attractive role model to centre-left parties in Europe and elsewhere, including Australia. At a fairly diffuse social level, it reflects a response to the changing climate of community opinion which has underpinned that political sea-change, including increased environmental awareness and concern, disquiet at globalisation, hostility to corporations and a view that political processes fail to deliver the social and economic outcomes people want.

Reasons for Adopting a Stakeholder Orientation


Good Behaviour is Profitable From a business perspective, a persuasive case for adopting a stakeholder orientation is that good corporate citizenship is profitable. At its most fundamental level, the underpinning mechanism of commerce in free markets is ethical - voluntary cooperation to mutual gain.

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A strong case can be argued that this is a more ethical foundation than alternative mechanisms for distributing goods and services which, while perhaps driven by more altruistic motives than self-interest, tend to be achievable only through compulsion and confiscation. At a more practical level, ethical business is generally profitable business. Businesses in competitive markets which repeatedly sell over-priced or shoddy goods, which fail to pay suppliers, which exploit or underpay workers or which harm the communities they operate in are usually not profitable for any length of time (although exceptions do exist, at least temporarily). So good managements and responsible boards have always stressed ethical behaviour on the part of employees and agents, and more general business virtues such as courtesy, honesty, value for money and reliability, knowing these to be a considerable source of long-term competitive advantage. The report by the NSW State Chamber of Commerce summed up the advantages of corporate social responsibility for the business community generally and for individual enterprises:
The business community benefits when companies act responsibly. It gains a voice in the political arena, legitimacy, trust, power and freedom from regulations. These gains ensure that Australian companies will be competitive in domestic and global markets. Enterprise level benefits can be grouped into four areas; operating performance, market goals, human v resources and external relations.

The findings of the survey of 115 large public and private Australian entities, conducted by the Centre for Corporate Public Affairs and the Business Council of Australia, confirm this view:
For three-quarters of the companies in this study the goal of long-term business sustainability is at the heart of the business case for community involvement. They see involvement not as a means of improving short-term business competitiveness but as a way to maintain trust, support and legitimacy with the community, governments and employees. They see community involvement as a social responsibility of business but one that is clearly aligned with the long-term commercial interest of companies.

Many businesses have embarked tentatively or reluctantly on stakeholder-oriented programs only to embrace them with increasing enthusiasm as they are seen to yield dividends. Companies have implemented triple bottom line accounting and in the process achieved improvements in operating efficiency or savings in input or waste management costs that have greatly exceeded both the cost of the program, and expectations. But the gains from ethical trading practices and environmental responsibility are not new, so they are not in themselves enough to account for the increase in the number of businesses which publicly and explicitly commit to one or more forms of stakeholder orientation. The increase in business activity in this area may in part reflect opportunity. In recent years there has been rapid growth in the range and depth of courses and consultancies, advisory bodies, literature and academics available to assist businesses who
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wish to adopt a systematic approach to business ethics, corporate social responsibility or triple bottom line accounting, for example. Yet this increase in the opportunities for devising and implementing stakeholder-oriented policies may itself be an effect of increased demand for these services, rather than the cause for their adoption. Bad Behaviour is Costly Rather than corporate virtue being rewarded more richly than in the past, a more plausible explanation for corporations increased stakeholder orientation may be that its absence is being more heavily penalised. The community is becoming more concerned about the behaviour and ethics of the firms they do business with (and those they dont). They have more opportunities to monitor, publicise and respond to business behaviour through the media, the internet, and via pressure groups such as Corpwatchvi established specifically in order to monitor and criticise corporate behaviour. Not only are people more informed about corporate behaviour, they are more willing and able to influence and penalise that behaviour, as consumers, investors, voters and litigants. Public activism has been targeted at corporations in Australia including James Hardy, Alcoa and McDonaldsvii. The reputations of corporations and their brands have been shown to be vulnerable to concerted publicity campaigns, and businesses have been forced to respond to activists allegations, even when they were ill-foundedviii. Ethical investment funds screen out businesses whose products and/or practices they believe immoral, and it has been claimed that investors can make as good or even better returns from investing in these firms than in the general run of corporationsix, although more recent evidence suggests that the apparently superior performance of sustainable or ethical funds is not necessarily permanent, but depends on market conditions. Chart 1 illustrates this point. The Dow Jones Sustainability Indexx matched or outperformed the Dow Jones World Index to early 2000. In recent times however, global markets have strengthened due to the resources boom while the sustainability index, which contains few mining related companies, has flattened. More hard-nosed corporate investment analysts have also
Chart 1 - Dow Jones Share Prices Indexes
Sustainability Index vs World Index
1 ,300 1 ,200 1 00 ,1 1 ,000 900 800 700 600 500 Feb 00 Jan 01 Dec 01 No v 02 Oct 03 Sep 04 260 240 220 200 1 80 1 60 1 40 1 20 1 00 A ug 05

Sustainability Index (LHS)


So urce: Yaho o Finance

World Index (RHS)

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turned their attention to the social, ethical and environmental practices of the businesses they invest in, driven not so much by desire to penalise behaviour deemed immoral, as by concern for the financial risks associated with it. In part this may reflect under-estimation of risk in the past. But it seems to be driven more by the fact that the financial penalties associated with being held guilty of improper behaviour are much greater than ever before, whether guilt is in the eyes of the public, NGOs, or the courts. Boards and directors, as well as shareholders and investment analysts, are reacting to this changed risk environment. The USA has led the way in the rising tide of litigiousness which has seen huge damages claims awarded against tobacco and gun manufacturers, those who produce faulty goods, polluters and so on. This phenomenon is not limited to the USA but is affecting business behaviour (and also not-for-profit and government agencies) throughout the world. These phenomena in turn are part of an ongoing process in which the limitations on the liability of businesses and their agents have been steadily unwound, through increases in the penalties applied to corporations and their employees for behaviour perceived to harm individuals or other businesses, and in the range of behaviours which are penalised. The cost of such penalties affects businesses bottom lines. Increasing the range of activities subject to penalty, or the magnitude of penalties imposed, means that a profit-maximising corporation will make increased efforts to ensure that the penalty is avoided after all, that is the point of raising penalties in the first place. In summary, a business whose sole purpose is to generate returns for its shareholders has good reason to avoid the costs of acting unethically - whether it is to protect a corporate or brand image, to avoid the damaging effects of consumer boycotts, to attract and retain the investment dollars of shareholders concerned to invest ethically or investment managers concerned at the risks of unethical investment, or to escape the widening net of corporate crimes and liabilities and the increasing penalties they attract. The financial rewards of virtue and costs of transgression represent a strong business case for behaving ethically.

Trends in CSR
Australias legislation does not require corporations to specifically take into consideration the interests of stakeholders other than shareholders, nor are companies required to report on the social and environmental dimensions of their activities. However, despite this the evidence is that companies are increasingly taking these factors into consideration in their operations. The International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting, conducted annually by KPMG, found that 14 out of Australias top 100 companies prepared corporate responsibility reports in addition to their annual reports in 2002. By 2005, this number had risen to 23 out of Australias top 100 companiesxi.

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The take-up of responsibility reporting among the Australian corporate community has been slower than in other countries. According to the KPMG report, an average of 33 out of the top 100 companies operating in 16 developed countries had prepared stand alone responsibility reports in 2005. Nonetheless, other surveys have also demonstrated an awareness of social responsibility among Australian businesses. A survey of 115 large public and private Australian entities, conducted in 2000 by the Centre for Corporate Public Affairs and the Business Council of Australiaxii, found that 85 per cent of participants recognised that their businesses had a social obligation and supported some form of involvement with the community. In addition, a New South Wales State Chamber of Commerce survey found that 74 per cent of business leaders recognised that their businesses needed to strike a balance between the objectives of building a better society and generating profits. It also found that 78 per cent of Australian companies had a code of ethics or an equivalent statementxiii. This evidence suggests that corporate social responsibility matters to Australian businesses. It matters primarily because the shifts in public opinion towards concerns for the social, cultural and environmental consequences of economic activity have occurred at a time when the public have a greater willingness and capacity to monitor business activities than ever before. Through this, the public has a greater ability to reward and penalise behaviour of which they approve or disapprove, through co-ordinated or individual actions as consumers, investors, voters and litigants. This is probably the key reason for the increased incidence of explicitly stakeholder-oriented policies in businesses across Australia - they are to a large degree compatible with, and even conducive to, the promotion of shareholder interests. This is discussed in further detail below.

Current Practices
Australian companies are governed by the Corporations Act, the purpose of which is to regulate the formation, operation and closure of corporations and the role of directors and officers. Its purpose is not to set environmental or social standards, nor require a company to behave in a particular way. Where there is a need to establish minimum standards of behaviour or to prescribe certain types of behaviour, this is appropriately dealt with in specific purpose legislation. In this regard, Australian companies are governed by a large range of legislation, including environmental, financial services, human rights, equal opportunity, sex and racial discrimination, industrial relations, native title, occupational health and safety, taxation and trade practices and fair trading.

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In 2002, the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) Corporate Governance Council developed a set of guidelines, Principles of Good Corporate Governance and Best Practice Recommendations. This document articulates 10 core principles that the ASX Corporate Governance Council believes underlie good corporate governance. Attached to these principles are 28 practice recommendations. Whilst not mandatory, under ASX Listing Rule 4.10, companies are required to provide a statement in their annual report disclosing the extent to which they have followed these best practice recommendations in the reporting period. Where companies have not followed all the recommendations, they must identify the recommendations that have not been followed and give reasons for not following them the if not why not approach. The ASX Best Practice Principles are detailed in Appendix B. The Australian business communitys response to CSR is a compelling example of where, without Government intervention, business has developed sophisticated responses to community issues. Without the need for prescriptive legislation, Australian corporations are already engaged in a wide range of corporate social responsibility activities, developed to suit the particular needs of the corporations and the communities they relate to. Increasingly, corporations are voluntarily reporting their performances in these areas and subjecting themselves to independent auditing and rating. Some Australian corporations are world leaders in this field. Even where other corporations are not as well advanced in their approaches, there is clear evidence that Australian corporations are progressively increasing the range and sophistication of their corporate social responsibility activities. One of the primary mechanisms to report on CSR is through the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). The GRI is a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. These Guidelines are for voluntary use by organisations for reporting on the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of their activities, products, and services. Further details on the GRI Guidelines are provided in Appendix C. There are numerous examples of Australian companies that have embraced corporate social responsibility, and provide detailed sustainability reports on the basis of the internationally accepted GRI Guidelines. Example: BHP Billiton BHP Billiton espouses an overriding commitment to health, safety, environmental responsibility and sustainable development. This commitment is reinforced by publicly reporting on its sustainability performance (which it has done since 1997) and in 2002 it adopted the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, and it has been progressively improving its compliance with these guidelines. As part of its 2005 Sustainability Report, BHP Billiton has included a GRI Navigator, which represents its assessment against each of the GRI Guidelines, and in 2005 took the additional

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step of reporting on a number of new indicators detailed in the GRI Mining and Metal Supplement, which at this stage has not been finalised. BHP Billiton requires all operations to produce annual public site sustainability reports. It is the intent of these site-based reports to provide a review of the Health, Safety, Environmental and Community (HSEC) issues and performance specific to their site circumstances, regional context and stakeholder needs. Its 2005 Sustainability Report was also independently reviewed by an external assessor URS Australia, which found that the Report fairly represents the health, safety, environment, community and socio-economic performance of BHP Billitonand that the Report has been prepared in accordance with the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002xiv. BHP Billiton participates in a number of key external benchmarking initiatives that attempt to measure the Companys sustainable development performance against others in its sector through the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexxv, the FTSE4Goodxvi and the Storebrand Best in Classxvii.

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Issues in Relation to CSR


Conflicting Priorities and Values
Stakeholder entitlement requires operational decision-makers to resolve conflicts between values, objectives and stakeholders interests. This is difficult because the interests of stakeholders conflict and views on ethical behaviour and social responsibilities differ. Among a firms stakeholders, the interests of customers and employees, employees and owners, owners and the community in which the business is operated, the local community and more distant suppliers, are obviously going to conflict on occasion. More basic questions arise. Who is a stakeholder (virtually anyone, according to Freemansxviii definition)? Are all stakeholders given equal weight, or do some get more consideration than others (e.g. full-time compared to part-time employees)? How are managers to know what all stakeholders interests are? What if an activity harms some stakeholders and benefits others? What happens when the members of a class of stakeholders have preferences which are not identical (e.g. some employees want weekend work, others dont)? Most importantly, given the difficulty of knowing what stakeholders interests are and of eliminating conflicts between them, how is a balance to be achieved? Commenting on a similar list of conflicts and questions, Elaine Sternbergxix argues that:
It may now be objected that such problems are, nonetheless, routinely resolved in practice. And indeed they are. But the way that they are managed, is by using the substantive goal of the organisation as a decisive criterion. If the purpose of the corporation is to maximise long-term owner value, or to produce the environmentally-friendliest widgets, or to provide employment for the blind, that purpose enables managers to identify which groups need to be considered, and which of their perceived benefits are relevant and legitimate; it indicates how benefits are to be ranked, and how conflicts are to be resolved. To be workable, stakeholder theory must employ the very substantive objectives that it explicitly rejects.

Not only that, but Sternberg points out that the theory of stakeholder entitlement is not compatible with any organisation (not just a business) having any substantive objective. Under stakeholder theory, environmental protection, educational excellence, community health, employment of the disabled, care for the aged, equal opportunity or sporting success are no more legitimate as primary aims of an organisation than maximising shareholder value. Each assumes that some stakeholder interests are so important they override others, and in stakeholder theory that assumption is not accepted.

Accountability and Governance


Even if these questions of entitlement can be resolved, harder problems of accountability remain.

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Under the shareholder model, the ethical values that underpin the concept of shareholder value maximisation are based on three related principles: Respect for individuals dignity and autonomy, which implies a preference for voluntarism and co-operation over coercion. Respect for property rights, which demands that no person should have the right to direct someone elses property to a particular use without their consent (or, fair compensation); and Respect for contracts, which should be honoured for ethical as well as legal and practical reasons.

The case for stakeholder orientation beyond that consistent with maximising shareholder value is based on a different set of principles. As described by Elaine Sternbergxx, the stakeholder entitlement view has as its central tenet:
that organisations, and particularly businesses, must do more than just take their shareholders into account. It maintains that organisations must instead be accountable to all their stakeholders, and that the proper objective of management is to balance their competing interests.

Both the shareholder and stakeholder oriented view of the role of business raise fundamental questions about accountability. However, the latter proves much more difficult for firms to address. Accountability requires that individuals must account to others for the decisions they make and the way they behave. It also requires defined authority, so that those to whom agents are accountable are entitled to exact penalties on agents who fail to perform. In a typical shareholder model corporation, directors are accountable to shareholders while employees and other agents are accountable, through managers, to directors. However, under stakeholder theory Sternbergxxi points out that both of these types of accountability are repudiated. In their place, it proposes a structure of accountability which is so diffuse as to be unenforceable. For example, any bad management decision or employee action can be justified on the grounds that it is in the interest of some stakeholder group. With employees and managers acting as both agents and stakeholders, the chain of accountability turns into a self-referential loop in which the exercise of authority to the advantage of some stakeholders against others can be legitimised. To the extent that all stakeholders interests must be taken into account when significant decisions are made, management is likely to be cumbersome and unresponsive.

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For such a model to be effective would demand profound changes in law and corporate governance. At present, shareholders unhappy with the way a board manages their assets are free to invest elsewhere, or, if a majority of shareholders agree, to dismiss the board. Managements which do not maximise shareholder value are at risk of hostile takeover. Employees who do not carry out the instructions of management can be sacked. These structures of incentive and accountability are explicitly designed to ensure that management has a strong incentive to put shareholder interests first, within the constraints of the law. They are based on and reinforced by a structure of corporate governance rules which recognise that managements might not of their own volition always pursue shareholder value as their central priority, and which try to ensure that as near as possible they are made to do so. This is an environment in which both custom and law aim to ensure a management team which consistently made decisions which are not in the interests of its shareholders does not last. For as long as shareholders retain the freedom to buy and sell shares and the right to sack directors, those directors are likely to continue to accord special priority to shareholders wishes. Whether a legal structure based on accountability to other stakeholders as well as shareholders could be made workable is debatable. What is certain is that such a model would bear little relationship to the system of economic freedom and property rights which underpins our current system. This does not mean that such stakeholders have no sanctions against the firm; but it means that those sanctions are exercised by means other that its ownership and governance structures. Employees unhappy with a businesss employment practices can negotiate changes, resign or take up their grievances through a trades union. Suppliers and customers can stipulate contract conditions, or failing this take their business elsewhere or pursue legal redress when appropriate. Local communities use planning, pollution, trading and other laws and regulations to set limits and conditions on the way businesses operate. Governments apply a plethora of laws to ensure that environmental conditions and social and other protections are enforced by business. Where the wider aims of corporate social responsibility are pursued by management authority, at the very least the effect is to politicise business. Milton Friedman arguesxxii:that it is actually more akin to theft than social responsibility:

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What does it mean to say that the corporate executive has a social responsibility in his capacity as businessman? If this statement is not pure rhetoric, it must mean that he is to act in some way that is not in the interest of his employers. [in pursuing such interests] the corporate executive would be spending someone else's money for a general social interest. Insofar as his actions in accord with his social responsibility reduce returns to stockholders, he is spending their money. Insofar as his actions raise the price to customers, he is spending the customers' money. Insofar as his actions lower the wages of some employees, he is spending their money.

Even if such pursuit of social and environmental objectives with other peoples resources was legitimate, the manner of that pursuit is unaccountable and undemocratic. In democracies like Australia, most people are familiar with, and unperturbed by, the processes by which property rights are routinely constrained or removed in the service of the common good, whether through the payment of taxes to support government services and transfers, through laws limiting pollution and noise, zoning restrictions on the use of buildings, and so on. We might disagree fiercely about how much tax should be raised, from whom, and how the money should be spent. Opinions differ no less on appropriate legislation and regulation, whether the issues are the location of heavy industry, the suburban speed limit or the fencing of swimming pools. In a democracy, these controversies about how to tax and how much to tax, what to spend and what laws to pass, are subject to public and media scrutiny and community consultation, institutional restraints and the final test of the ballot box. As Friedman describes it, the use by business leaders of other peoples money in pursuit of a broader social objective is analogous to the governments role as taxer, re-distributor and regulator, but without the accountability:
We have a system of checks and balances to separate the legislative function of imposing taxes and enacting expenditures from the executive function of collecting taxes and administering expenditure programs and from the judicial function of mediating disputes and interpreting the law. Here, the businessman self-selected or appointed directly or indirectly by stockholders - is to be simultaneously legislator, executive and jurist. He is to decide whom to tax by how much and for what purpose, and he is to spend the proceeds - all this guided only by general exhortations from on high to restrain inflation, improve the environment, fight poverty and so on and on.

In effect, the business person becomes a public (civil) servant, and must be made accountable in a similar manner:
On grounds of political principle, it is intolerable that such civil servants - insofar as their actions in the name of social responsibility are real and not just window dressing - should be selected as they are now. If they are to be civil servants, then they must be selected through a political process. If they are to impose taxes and make expenditures to foster social objectives, then political machinery must be set up to guide the assessment of taxes and to determine through a political process the objectives to be served.

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Stakeholder orientation beyond that which is consistent with maximising shareholder value opens a whole range of issues of principle concerning property rights and freedom of choice, corporate governance, transparency and political, social and commercial accountability.

The Wider Case Against Regulation


The discussions above present a case against imposing government regulations to compel businesses to consider the interests of stakeholders other than shareholders. Public and Private Regulation This does not mean that businesses should be free of environmental, social, safety or other regulation such rules remain a necessary and important role of government. Nor does it mean that businesses should or will disregard their impact on the environment and the community. As discussed above, doing business ethically and with regard for the interests of stakeholders is increasingly important to long-term profitability. Rather, it points out that regulation to achieve ill-specified, ambiguous or conflicting objectives on business is likely to be ineffective or counter-productive. US Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspanxxiii has summed up this policy imperative. Although specifically directed to the regulation of financial instruments, the principles he outlined broadly apply to any form of regulation:
In making such evaluations, it is critically important to recognize that no market is ever truly unregulated. The self-interest of market participants generates private market regulation. Thus, the real question is not whether a market should be regulated. Rather, the real question is whether government intervention strengthens or weakens private regulation. If incentives for private market regulation are weak or if market participants lack the capabilities to pursue their interests effectively, then the introduction of government regulation may improve regulation. But if private market regulation is effective, then government regulation is at best unnecessary.

It is nave and inappropriate to expect businesses to assume social and environmental responsibilities beyond those which comply with the negative imperatives of conventional regulation (dont pollute, pay no less than minimum wages, etc) and maximise shareholder value. Profiting from Corporate Social Responsibility Elaine Sternberg and others point out that having regard for the interests and preferences of stakeholders is good business practice and benefits shareholders, stakeholders and the wider community. There is another sense, however, in which adopting the rhetoric of corporate social responsibility, triple bottom line etc. can be profitable for the wrong reasons by artificially inflating demand for a businesss products under the guise of promoting community wellbeing through mechanisms, which in reality, deliver little or no real community benefit.

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For example, Gary Johns, a senior fellow with the Institute of Public Affairsxxiv, gave a fairly cynical interpretation of the recent involvement of Insurance Australia Group (IAG) in the debate over climate change and the claim that it will increase the risk of damaging climaterelated events:
an insurance company cannot change the climate, but it can change the climate for customers. IAG is using the data to scare people to take out insurance. In other words, it is doing what it normally does, drum up business but in this instance it is using the cover of the greenhouse issue. IAG is indulging in public policy debate in order to win customers. The Kyoto Protocol is being used as a dog whistle on climate change to have people takeout insurance on weather damage to their properties. Good for business, bad for public policy.

This example highlights a more fundamental argument against corporate social responsibility as a claim to public virtue. Although it can be profitable to be seen as socially and environmentally responsible and costly to be seen as irresponsible, there are dangers in pandering to public opinion when that opinion is not based on facts and good policy. A paper by David Hendersonxxv, a former chief economist at the OECD, highlights this clearly:
It may indeed be true, or eventually become true, that a general adoption of CSR [corporate social responsibility] would promote the objective of making MNEs [multi-national enterprises] better liked and appreciated, and thus help to keep them alive and profitable in an unfriendly world. But this would come at the cost of accepting false beliefs, yielding to unjustified attacks, and impairing the functioning of the market economy.

This raises a fundamental problem with the concept of corporate social responsibility: it assumes that triple bottom line accounting, ethical investment, stakeholder entitlement and similar theories will yield better outcomes (for some parties, at least) than an economy in which firms are primarily engaged in maximising long-term value for their shareholders within a framework of laws. This reflects the widely-held view that good outcomes can only arise from good intentions and that the profit motive is intrinsically distasteful. Above all, it is indicative of a lack of faith in the capacity of the invisible hand of the free market to deliver a better economic, environmental and social outcome than the good intentions of business leaders, suitably stiffened by laws, incentives and stakeholder responsibilities. Proponents of this view point to the failure of free markets to deliver social, economic and environmental outcomes as good as we might wish, and conclude that the economic system is a failure. But those who doubt the efficacy of markets have never yet been able to point to an economy or society where a visible hand has done better, whether that hand is guided by the state, a plurality of stakeholders, or well-intentioned business leaders. The real virtue of the good corporate citizen is that it generates returns for investors by providing customers with the goods and services they want, at prices they are prepared to pay, while proving trustworthy and responsive enough to earn repeat business.

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In the process, it creates jobs, bids up wages, pays taxes, and innovates in the perpetual search for an advantage over its competitors. All of this contributes far more to society than pious good intentions. In all of this, government has a proper role in shaping the regulatory environment where good business practice alone might not result in efficient outcomes. This is achieved in Australia through provisions in corporations and trade practices law, health and safety standards, environmental protection regulations, anti-discrimination and labour protection laws, and competition and consumer protection initiatives. But by increasing business costs, blurring accountability and impeding the efficient operation of capital markets, the advocates of mandated corporate social responsibility and stakeholder entitlements would impede the business sectors capacity to make this valuable contribution to the economy and society. David Hendersons paper concludes with a warning of the potential damage which corporate social responsibility and related movements could inflict. Though lengthy, it is worth quoting in full:
CSR is often presented, by moderates and enthusiasts alike, as a sober and judicious response to challenges that have to be met and new developments on the world scene. Such a description does not fit the facts. Many of the alleged new developments have not in fact taken place: they are part of the mythology of global Salvationism. Because the myths are largely believed, because the rationale and functioning of a market economy are not well understood, and because of widespread acceptance of the need for deliverance from above, the assessment of issues and events by many international businesses, and by others in the business milieu, appears as neither judicious nor informed. Appeasement, and the wish to disarm opposition, go together with a large measure of sympathy with, and acceptance of, a collectivist perspective. The views and demands of NGOs and other hostile critics are treated as more soundly based and more representative than they really are. A misleading view of the world is uncritically accepted. CSR is flawed in its prescription as well as its diagnosis. What it proposes for individual businesses, through 'stakeholder engagement' and giving effect to the 'triple bottom line', would bring far-reaching changes in corporate philosophy and practice, for purposes that are open to question and with worrying implications for the efficient conduct of enterprises. Across economic systems and political boundaries, it would strengthen existing tendencies to regulate transactions, and to limit competition, in ways that would further restrict the opportunities and freedom of choice of people and enterprises. These various effects, both within firms and beyond them, would undermine the market economy and reduce welfare. Despite the attractions of the phrase and the hopes that it appears to offer, the adoption of CSR marks an aberration on the part of the many businesses concerned, and its growing hold on opinion generally is a matter for concern.

Alternative Measures to Regulation


Voluntary mechanisms can encourage operational decision makers to have regard for stakeholder interests without the need for prescriptive forms of regulation. This is because commercial self-interest is a powerful motivation for firms to behave ethically. Voluntary measures that go beyond shareholder maximisation are likely to be limited in their application. The NSW State Chamber of Commerce paper on corporate social responsibility

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encapsulates the difficulty that operational decision makers face in embracing stakeholder interests outside of those that increase shareholder value:
Most Australian business leaders would like their company to have a positive impact on society and the environment. Yet in the day-to-day commercial pressures to maximise shareholder value and profitability, managers are wondering if they can afford to have fuzzy feelings about their business operations.

Irrespective of voluntary measures and/or regulation, reporting is often seen as a means by which stakeholders can keep corporations accountable for their social and environmental performance (the triple bottom line) in the same vein that financial reporting keeps boards of directors and chief executives accountable to owners. However, it is not logical that a companys social and environmental practices be separately disclosed to maintain accountability in the same way that financial information is disclosed. It is considerably easier to compare financial performance across firms than it is to compare social and environmental performance. Are users, whether stakeholders or ethical investment funds, expected to judge whether one entitys involvement with indigenous communities is better than donations made by another entity to a childrens charity? Information about a corporations social and environmental activities is not material like financial information. Shareholders and stakeholders do not derive benefit from knowing what practices are employed but from the effects of such practices.

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Appendix A: Terms of Reference


In March 2005, the Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasurer, the Hon. Chris Pearce MP, wrote to the Convenor of the Advisory Committee in the following terms.
I am writing to refer an issue to the Corporations and Markets Advisory Committee (CAMAC) for consideration and advice. The issue concerns the extent to which the duties of directors under the Corporations Act 2001 (the Corporations Act) should include corporate social responsibilities or explicit obligations to take account of the interests of certain classes of stakeholders other than shareholders. Under both the Corporations Act and the common law, directors have a duty to act in the best interests of the corporation. In this regard, they are required to consider the interests of shareholders and, in some limited circumstances, creditors. This position reflects the long-standing view of the corporate officer as an agent of shareholders. Legislation other than the Corporations Act imposes additional obligations on companies and their directors in relation to employees and the environment. For example, companies must pay their employees at least minimum rates of pay and they must comply with occupational health and safety, anti-discrimination and equal opportunity requirements. Companies must also comply with a wide range of environmental requirements. In modern society, a great deal of business and other activities are conducted by corporate entities. Given the broad economic, social and environmental impact of these activities, there is an understandable interest in the legal framework in which corporations make decisions. A question that has been raised from time to time is whether the current legal framework allows corporate decision makers to take appropriate account of the interests of persons other than shareholders. Apart from the question of clarifying the legal position of directors, there may be a positive role for Government to play in promoting socially responsible behaviour by companies through various initiatives such as voluntary codes of practice. A related issue is whether to introduce mandatory requirements for larger companies to include with their annual reports, a report on the social and environmental impact of the companys activities. This could either be in the form of a narrative or quantified report. Mandatory reporting of such information could allow interested investors to take account of these matters in making investment decisions. Having regard to the matters discussed above, I request that CAMAC consider and report on the following matters:

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Should the Corporations Act be revised to clarify the extent to which directors may take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions? Should the Corporations Act be revised to require directors to take into account the interests of specific classes of stakeholders or the broader community when making corporate decisions? Should Australian companies be encouraged to adopt socially and environmentally responsible business practices and if so, how? Should the Corporations Act require certain types of companies to report on the social and environmental impact of their activities?

2.

3.

4.

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Appendix B ASX Best Practice Principles


The ASX Corporate Governance Council developed a set of guidelines, Principles of Good Corporate Governance and Best Practice Recommendations. This document articulates 10 core principles that the ASX Corporate Governance Council believes underlie good corporate governance. A company should: 1. Lay solid foundations for management and oversight Recognise and publish the respective roles and responsibilities of board and management. 2. Structure the board to add value Have a board of an effective composition, size and commitment to adequately discharge its responsibilities and duties. 3. Promote ethical and responsible decision-making Actively promote ethical and responsible decision-making. 4. Safeguard integrity in financial reporting Have a structure to independently verify and safeguard the integrity of the company's financial reporting. 5. Make timely and balanced disclosure Promote timely and balanced disclosure of all material matters concerning the company. 6. Respect the rights of shareholders Respect the rights of shareholders and facilitate the effective exercise of those rights. 7. Recognise and manage risk Establish a sound system of risk oversight and management and internal control. 8. Encourage enhanced performance Fairly review and actively encourage enhanced board and management effectiveness. 9. Remunerate fairly and responsibly Ensure that the level and composition of remuneration is sufficient and reasonable and that its relationship to corporate and individual performance is defined. 10. Recognise the legitimate interests of stakeholders Recognise legal and other obligations to all legitimate stakeholders.

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Appendix C GRI Guidelines


The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (GRI, 2002). These Guidelines are for voluntary use by organisations for reporting on the economic, environmental, and social dimensions of their activities, products, and services. It seeks to elevate sustainability reporting to the same level of rigour, comparability, credibility, and verifiability expected of financial reporting, while serving the information needs of a broad array of stakeholders from civil society, government, labour, and the private business community itself. The GRI Guidelines identify the information for inclusion in a GRI-based report, and are designed to be flexible, with a range of options suitable for reporting organisations at any level of experience and sophistication. The GRI recognises the need for many organisations to build their reporting capacity in an incremental fashion, moving gradually toward greater coverage, transparency, and structure in terms of continuity and consistency from year to year. Organisations that choose this incremental approach may informally use the Guidelines, and select certain principles, elements, and indicators to begin their reporting programmes. Getting started is the critical first step. Other organisations, aspiring to leadership roles in the sustainability arena, may wish to identify their reports as prepared in accordance with the 2002 GRI Guidelines. To use this term, reporters must meet certain minimum requirements specified in the Guidelines.

In Accordance Requirements
1. Report on the organisational profile, governance and management systems. 2. Include a GRI Content Index, linking GRI components to information actually contained in the report. 3. Respond to each core indicator by either (a) reporting on it, or (b) explaining its omission. 4. Ensure that the report is consistent with GRIs reporting principles. 5. Include a statement signed by the board or CEO indicating that the report was prepared in accordance with the 2002 GRI Guidelines and represents a balanced and reasonable presentation of the organisations sustainability performance. The GRI reporting principles are the underpinnings of report content. They are the foundation of credible reporting, equal in importance to the content itself. The reporting principles are: Transparency: Full disclosure of the processes, procedures and assumptions in report preparation are essential to its credibility.
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Inclusiveness: The reporting organisation should engage its stakeholders in preparing and enhancing the quality of reports. Auditability: Reported information should be recorded, compiled, analysed and disclosed in a way that enables internal auditors or external assurance providers to attest to its reliability. Completeness: All material information should appear in the report. Relevance: Reporting organisations should use the degree of importance that report users assign to particular information in determining report content. Sustainability Context: Reporting organisations should seek to place their performance in the broader context of ecological, social or other issues where such context adds significant meaning to the reported information. Accuracy: Reports should achieve a degree of exactness and low margin of error to enable users to make decisions with a high degree of confidence. Neutrality: Reports should avoid bias in selection and presentation of information and provide a balanced account of performance. Comparability: Reports should be framed so as to facilitate comparison to earlier reports as well as to reports of comparable organisations. Clarity: Information should be presented in a manner that is understandable by a maximum number of users while still maintaining a suitable level of detail. Timeliness: Reports should provide information on a regular schedule that meets user needs and comports with the nature of the information itself.

Report Content
The Guidelines recommends that five sections appear in a sustainability report: 1. Vision and Strategy: A statement from the CEO and discussion of the reporting organisations sustainability strategy. 2. Profile: An overview of the reporters organisation, operations, stakeholders, and the scope of the report. 3. Governance Structure and Management Systems: A description of the reporters organisational structure, policies, management systems, and stakeholder engagement efforts.

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4. GRI Content Index: A cross-referenced table that identifies the location of specified information to allow users to clearly understand the degree to which the reporting organisation has covered the content in the GRI Guidelines. 5. Performance Indicators: Measures of performance of the reporting organisation divided into economic, environmental, and social performance indicators. Organisations may adopt this format or modify it to enhance usefulness of the report to its stakeholders.

Environmental and Social Performance Indicators


Environmental indicators concern an organisations impacts on living and non-living natural systems, including eco-systems, land, air and water. Included within environmental indicators are the environmental impacts of products and services; energy, material and water use; greenhouse gas and other emissions; effluents and waste generation; impacts on biodiversity; use of hazardous materials; recycling, pollution, waste reduction and other environmental programmes; environmental expenditures; and fines and penalties for non-compliance. The GRI list 16 Core Indicators for Environmental Performance. There are also a number of environmental indicators specific to the mining and metals sector, as detailed in the GRI Mining and Metals Supplement Pilot Version 1.0.

Social indicators concern an organisations impacts on the social systems within which it operates. GRI social indicators are grouped into three clusters: labour practices (e.g. diversity, employee health and safety), human rights (e.g. child labour, compliance issues), and broader social issues affecting consumers, communities, and other stakeholders (e.g. bribery and corruption, community relations). The GRI list 11 Core Indicators for Labour Practices and Decent Work, seven Core Indicators for Human Rights, three Core Indicators for Society and three Core Indicators for Product Responsibility. There are also a number of social indicators specific to the mining and metals sector, as detailed in the GRI Mining and Metals Supplement Pilot Version 1.0.

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Notes and References


Bibliography
ASX Corporate Governance Council, 2003, Principles of Good Corporate Governance and Best Practice Recommendations, Sydney. Chamber of Commerce and Industry of WA: 2002 (January). Shareholders, Stakeholders, Ethics and Social Responsibility: a Discussion of Views of Business Accountability 2003( February) CCI Response to Focus on the Future: The WA State Sustainability Strategy Friedman, Milton. The Social Responsibility Of Business Is To Increase Its Profits, article in originally printed in the New York Times (1970), accessed from http://homepages.bw.edu/~dkrueger/BUS329/readings/friedman.html Sternberg, Elaine The Stakeholder Concept: A Mistaken Doctrine, Foundation for Business Responsibilities, Issue Paper No. 4, November 1999. Sternberg differentiates between two essentially

Comments and Notes


i

Friedman, Milton (1962), Capitalism and Freedom, University of Chicago Press. Lord Chancellor of England Edward First Baron Thurlow, cited in Business & Society Review, No. 72, Winter 1990, p. 51 iii Sternberg, Elaine The Stakeholder Concept: A Mistaken Doctrine, Foundation for Business Responsibilities, Issue Paper No. 4, November 1999. iv Quotation taken from Peters, P. Tony Blairs Stakeholder Economy: A Midterm Assessment, October 1999, on the Lexington Institutes web site. Original source. v Taking The First Steps: An Overview Of Corporate Social Responsibility In Australia NSW State Chamber of Commerce, February 2001, page 6. First paper in a series entitled the common good. vi See http://www.corpwatch.org. vii In 2004, industrial firm James Hardy was the subject of boycotts and public scrutiny after it stalled on payouts to cancer victims whose illnesses were brought on through the use of James Hardy products containing asbestos. In 2002, Alcoa came under intense public scrutiny in WA after it was forced to shut down a piece of refinery equipment blamed for causing serious health effects. Alcoa resolved several multi-million dollar compensation claims from its workforce and it bought up several houses from nearby residents. In 2005, Tasmanian potato farmers launched a nationwide campaign demanding that McDonalds demonstrate more social responsibility. Tasmanian food processor Simplot lost half its McDonalds french fries contract to New Zealand, creating a loss of about $50 million to the Tasmanian economy. viii For example, the cases of Brent Spa and McDonalds. In the Brent Spa case, Greenpeace ran a campaign which included a range of assertions subsequently shown to be false, but which nonetheless led Shell Expro to abandon plans to sink its Brent Spar installation in the North Sea. In the case of McDonalds, the 2004 documentary Super Size Me by Morgan Spurlock led to the fast food outlet phasing out its trademark super size fries and drinks in its U.S. restaurants even though, as McDonalds pointed out, Spurlocks decision to eat nothing but McDonalds food for a month was irresponsible. ix In an article on the financial and market information website TheMotleyFool, Chris Rugaber concludes that socially responsible investment funds do not necessarily yield lower rates of return, but that differences in performance may be short-term effects of differences in portfolio composition. Fees and expenses tend to be higher than for other comparable investment funds. See Rugaber, socially responsible investing 28 March 2001, on http://www.fool.com/Specials/2001/sp010329.htm.
ii

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Corporate Social Responsibility Submission

February 2006

The Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes were launched in 1999 and are the first global indexes to track the financial performance of the leading sustainability-driven companies worldwide. Selection in based on an independent benchmark based on economic, environmental and social criteria. See http://www.sustainability-index.com. xi KPMG Sustainability Services, International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting 2005. Page 10. xii Centre for Corporate Public Affairs in conjunction with Business Council of Australia, Corporate Community Involvement: Establishing a Business Case. Page 11. xiii Taking The First Steps: An Overview Of Corporate Social Responsibility In Australia NSW State Chamber of Commerce, February 2001, page 11. First paper in a series entitled the common good. xiv URS Australia, 2005, Assurance Statement, Melbourne. xv The index consists of more than 300 companies that represent the top 10 per cent of leading sustainability companies in 59 industry groups in 34 countries. The index selects the top 10 per cent of companies in the global metals and mining sector, based on over 90 different performance indicators. xvi This index is designed to measure the performance of companies that meet globally recognised corporate responsibility standards and to facilitate investment in those companies. xvii One of the leading proponents of socially responsible investing, Storebrand in Norway, researched the mining industry and ranked BHP Billiton 'best in class' for its environmental and social performance out of 21 metals and mining companies covered. Storebrands analysis is based on a best-in-class approach. Only sector leaders companies ranking in the top 30th-percentile in both environmental and social dimensions qualify for investment in socially responsible portfolios managed by Storebrand. In this way, the analysis identifies those companies which are moving their industry toward sustainable solutions. xviii Evan, W and Freeman, R (1993) A Stakeholder Theory of the Modem Corporation: Kantian Capitalism, in Beauchamp and Bowie, Ethical Theory and Business, p. 82. xix Sternberg, Elaine The Stakeholder Concept: A Mistaken Doctrine, Foundation for Business Responsibilities, Issue Paper No. 4, November 1999. xx Sternberg, Elaine The Stakeholder Concept: A Mistaken Doctrine, Foundation for Business Responsibilities, Issue Paper No. 4, November 1999. Sternberg differentiates between two essentially benign ideas about stakeholders and a third strand she calls stakeholder entitlement theory: Two of usages of 'stakeholding' are commonplace and unobjectionable. The first is a conventional observation about motivation: people are more likely to take an interest in a process when they consider that they have a stake in its outcome; the stake need not be financial. The second innocuous usage is simply a reminder that the world is complex: many factors must ordinarily be considered when pursuing even ostensibly simple outcomes. This is a basic truth that successful businesses have long understood and respected xxi Creating and Maintaining an Ethical Corporate Climate, Woodstock Theological Center Seminar in Business Ethics, Georgetown University Press, 1990. xxii Friedman, Milton. The Social Responsibility Of Business Is To Increase Its Profits, article in originally printed in the New York Times (1970), accessed from http://homepages.bw.edu/~dkrueger/BUS329/readings/friedman.html xxiii Remarks by Federal Reserve Chairman, Alan Greenspan. Government Regulation and Derivative Contracts, at the Financial Markets Conference of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Coral Gables, Florida. February 21, 1997. xxiv Insurance Company Whips Up a Storm, by Gary Johns. The Australian Financial Review Opinion. 16 August, 2005. xxv Henderson, David. Misguided Virtue: False Notions Of Corporate Social Responsibility, New Zealand Business Roundtable, June 2001. p.86

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