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Data collection
A systematic investigation t to find answers to a problem-Burns Research is more or less known to us. To commit a social research it is very much needed to collect data. In this way, we need to know or identify the sources of data collection. Generally, data can be collected from two sources, as: 1. Primary source 2. Secondary source
Methods of data collection

Secondary source Documents -Govt. publication -Earlier research -Census -Personal records -Client histories Service records Nonparticipant Participant

Primary source





Mailed questionnaire

Unstructured Collective questionnaire

Figure: Methods of data collection 1. Primary Source: Data are collected from the field level for primary data collection. When data are collected from the field level in a research, then the source is called as primary source. Primary source is the basic source of data collection. Types of primary source: Basically primary sources can be classified into three categories, as: a) Observation b) Interviewing c) Questionnaire

Observation can be defined as seeing any visible thing orderly-P. V. Young Elements of observation method: Observation method has three basic components, as: I. II. III. Sensation Attention Perception

Types of observation method: Generally observation method can be divided into two types: i. ii. Participant Non-participant


Participant: Participant observation in when a researcher, participate in the activities of the group being observed in the same manner as its members, with or without their knowing that they are being observed.

Advantages: 1. Pure and same data can be collected 2. It is easy to know or observe any matter in close investigation than apart from the others. 3. More dependency can be grown. Disadvantages: 1. Time consuming. 2. Biased method. 3. Critical to generalize. ii. Non-participant:

Non-participant is when a researcher, does not get involved in the activities of the group but remains a passive observer, watching and listening to its activities and drawing conclusions from this. Advantages: 1. Less painful and minimum risk 2. It can be possible to collect data from safe distance. 3. No need to memorize.

Disadvantages: 1. Internal data cannot be collected. 2. Possibility of collecting partial data. 3. It is not effective to examine the norms and values of a group. Strategies to apply observation method: The strategies to apply observation method are: a. To acquire proper knowledge about research methods and topics. b. Collecting data about the target group. c. Ability to adjust with the target group. d. Necessary materials need to be existed. e. Own value. Real application of observation method: If we want to conduct a research on a social problem named, eve teasing then, if we apply this observation method, then what will happen? We can observe that, if a researcher wants to conduct a research s/he must collect data. To collect data a researcher need to collect data from both the eve teaser and the victim. In this way, generally, the observation method is not properly effective. On the other hand, if non-participant observation method is used then it may be effective sometimes. In this case, such social problem (eve teasing), observation method is not properly effective and other methods of data collection needed to be used. Disadvantages of observation method: 1. When individuals or groups become aware that they are being observed, they may change their behavior.

2. There is always the possibility of observer bias. 3. The interpretation drawn from observation may vary from observer to observer. 4. There is the possibility of incomplete observation.

We should look through the differences between the two words hearing and listening. Both of them mean to hear but hearing refers to hear consciously and unconsciously and listening indicates to hear consciously. Interview refers to listening. An interview is a formal meeting or setting with a view to ascertaining facts for preparing a report.-Singh, 19, 1991. The interview is face to face interpersonal situation in which one person, the interviewer, asks a person being interviewed, the respondent.-Fred N. Kerlimger, 176, 1984. In short, we can say that interviewing in social science, refers to a condition in which an interviewer asks the respondents the questions relevant to research directly/in telephone/internet and the respondent provide the answers. Types of interview: Interview is basically of two types: 1. Structured. 2. Unstructured.

1. Structured interview: Here, the questionnaire, time all are predetermined and the researcher ask nothing else outside the questionnaire. 2. Unstructured interview: The researcher asks questions that are not predetermined. It is divided into 4 types: I. In-depth interview:

It is a repeated face to face encounter between the researcher and informants directed towards understanding informants perspectives in their lives, experiences or situation or expressed in their own words.-Taylor and Bogdan. Two aspects of this definition-repeated face to face encounters and understanding informants perspectives are noticeable. In-depth interview is a repeated process and it aims at knowing the respondents perspective about his life, experience. II. Focus group:

Here, the researcher collects information from a group of respondents. The difference between focus group and in-depth interview is that the former is with a group and the later is with a single person. III. Narrative:

The respondents tell about his/her life, experience as story and the interviewer listen to him/her. IV. Oral history:

The respondent describes as describing a history.

Preparation for interview: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Conception about research topic. Preparing guideline for interview. Selecting respondents Proper training. Employment of interviewer.

Condition for successful interview: a) Encouraging b) Conception about respondents psychology. c) Proper dress up. d) Consciousness. e) Avoiding disturbance. f) Consciousness about data recording. g) No comments. h) An analytical audience. i) Knowing past history of people. j) Building rapport. k) Consensus with the people. l) Overcoming problems of first introduction m) Questioning n) Cognitive environment. Common rules for asking questions: I. The respondents should be asked according to questionnaire. The questions can be changed, if needed, but not hindering the main objectives. II. Asking questions slowly.


Maintaining continuity. All necessary questions should be asked.

Interaction with respondents: I. II. III. IV. The interviewer can explain the question if necessary. The interviewer should not ask irrelevant questions. The interviewer should not provide any information spontaneously. Giving gratitude and thanks.

Arranging answers: 1. The information should be recorded clearly. 2. The interviewer should not give his own opinion. 3. The interviewer should not show his interest to the answers of respondents. 4. No comments as right or wrong. Advantages: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. Flexibility Participation Participation at higher level Non-verbal behavior Helpful for collecting information from disabled Helpful for collecting information from uninterested Accessibility to depth Spontaneous Environmental control The respondents provide answers


Completeness Time-based interview Use of complex questions Concept transaction Opportunity of using language considering the educational qualities

Disadvantages: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. Costly method. Time consuming. Problems of reliability. Risk of changing meaning. Partiality. Less opportunity for discussion. Disturbance. Less opportunity of hiding identity. Difficult to reach to respondent. The quality of information depends on the interaction. The quality of interview depends on interviewer.

Questionnaire pattern
Collecting data through making questionnaire and using it is one of the ways of collecting data in social research. The questionnaire pattern is called as the heart of a survey operation. Questionnaire pattern is a well known and used system. Generally, it is an effective process for collecting data from a large population.


In questionnaire process, questionnaire plays an important role. Its successfulness depends on the making of questionnaire and its management. According to Devendra Thakur, Questionnaire is a set of questions made constructively and serially to collect data from the people linked with a problem. Types of questionnaire: Questionnaire can be divided into several types from different perspectives. From structural point of view questionnaire can be of the following types: 1. Structured questionnaire 2. Unstructured questionnaire On the basis of answer: 1. Open ended 2. Close ended Besides there are more two types: 1. Contingent questions 2. Matrix questions Structured questionnaire: Structured questionnaire is made for a particular aim. The questions are predetermined here. Similar pattern of words and serials are presented to all respondents. All respondents answer the same set of questions. For example, Do you think that eve teasing is problem? Yes or no


Unstructured questionnaire: This is not a predetermined system. No questions are predetermined here. The respondents can give answers spontaneously. Answers are recorded in the same language of the respondents. Open ended question: The answer of question can be predetermined or open. In open ended question, the answer is not predetermined. Respondent give any answer as he like. For example, What is your opinion about eve teasing? Close ended question: In close ended system there are some probable answers in the answer sheet and respondent have to choose from those given in the sheet. There is no scope of giving answer spontaneously. Contingent question: Some questions in the questionnaire are applicable for particular respondents and not applicable for other respondents. These questions evolve in the process of searching about a problem elaborately. For example, there are 500 respondents in a research. Among them 300 are students and the rest 200 are not students. Now if the question is about the reaction of eve teasing within an institutional campus, then the question will be applicable to the students only. Matrix question: When several answers are of same type, then matrix question is used. In this some questions and their answers are presented on a rectangular box.


Generally, several questions and their answers are arranged in rows and columns in that box. Characteristics of an ideal answer sheet: There are some characteristics of an ideal answer sheet. They are: 1. The topic of the questionnaire will represent the objective of the research. 2. Questionnaire should be as short as possible. 3. Questionnaire language should be simple and clear. 4. Maintaining sequence is a must in a questionnaire. 5. Sensitive questions should be avoided.

Problem of eve teasing in recent times: A study on Rajshahi University

Research questions (For male) (Information will be used only for research work) Name: Age: Class:

1. Do you think that eve teasing is a problem? Yes No 2. What is your opinion about eve teasing as a university student? 3. How do you warn a friend if he is involved in eve teasing? 4. If one of your family members becomes a victim of eve teasing, what would you do? o Get help of law enforcement o Beat the teaser


o Other 5. How can you help a victim of eve teasing? 6. What are the causes of eve teasing? 7. What type of teasing occurs most? o Whistling o Slang sms o Bad sound o Slang comments o Other 8. In which age boys tease most? o 10-14 o 15-19 o 20-24 o 25-29 9. Where does eve teasing occur most? o Bus o Street o Educational institution o Other 10. How much do you know about the steps taken by the govt. against eve teasing? 11. What should be the role of society to stop eve teasing?


Problem of eve teasing in recent times: A study on Rajshahi University

Research questions (For female) (Information will be used only for research work) Name: Age: Class:

1. Have you ever been a victim of eve teasing? o Yes o No

2. What type of teasing occurs most? o Whistling o Slang sms o Bad sound o Slang comments o Other 3. What problems do you face as victim of eve teasing? 4. In which age you were a victim of eve teasing? o 12-15 o 16-19 o 20-23 o 24-27


5. In which places you were attacked most? o Bus o Street o Educational institution o Other 6. Did you inform your family after being victimized? o Yes o No 7. How was their reaction after hearing? 8. What are the causes of eve teasing? 9. How much do you know about the steps taken by the govt. against eve teasing? 10. What should be the role of society to stop eve teasing? The above two questionnaire contains all the characteristics of an ideal questionnaire. So it can be said that all the questions are logical and relevant to collect data about eve teasing.