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Methods for the Design of Cams in Translation Motion

A. Popovici, C. Oprisan Technical University Gh. Asachi Iasi B-dul D. Mangeron, nr 61-63, cod 700050, Iasi coprisan@mec.tuiasi.ro

In this paper there are presented aspects of the design of the cam mechanisms in translation motion. There are analyzed the following problems: the choice of the motion laws, the definition of the pressure angle, the computing of the coordinates of the cam follower point of contact. The cams profile is computed with the help of the coordinates transform method. The mathematic model is established for a mechanism with cam follower bilateral contact cam. The relations obtained excel in simplicity, also are easy to apply in the design of the cam profile.

DESIGNING OF THE CAM PROFILE


Gheorghe Adrian POPOVICI, Dumitru LEOHCHI, Cezar OPRISAN. Technical University Gh.Asachi Iasi, Romania.
Abstract. The determination of the cam profile it is the important stage that is materialized at work for designing of the mechanisms with cams. Obvious, if the mechanism has two cams, double or conjugate, the problem will become more complicated because those two profiles are dependent for the same law for movement and for certain geometrical parameters for basis as well as for the parameters of connection element. It is known that, the cam profile again depend and the form of contact cam-follower and of the type motion of the follower, translation or oscillation. In the paper shown the theoretical elements on basis that realized the calculation programmers for MATLAB, utilized for activities didactic and research designing for double cams with translating or oscillating followers. The programmers offered the possibility to obtain both profile of the simple cam and the profile of cam with frontal canal. Keys-words: profile, double cam, follower translating, follower oscillating. Introduction

The cam, it is a work programs of the mechanism and it is characterized by: the space run of the follower, h or a ; the minimum radius of the cam, depended by conditions from durability and from fitting; the maximum radius of the cam that to determined the size of mechanism; the phase angles. These phases are: - phase from climbing when the u s - phase from superior stationary; - phase follower go to away by axis of cam; s c from descend when the follower it is in the motion from approach by the axis of cam; i - phase from inferior stationary. s The shape profile and the size cam are influenced and by the elements of the follower: radius of roller; the initial position of the axis of roller, s0 or 0 ; the position of contact point; the pressure angles, well-defined as sharp angle format between trend of the speed of the follower and trend of the force that to rune in. In the case of the double cams, at these elements of every cam it is added and the characteristic of connection element ( d or ), Figure 1 and Figure 2.. The mechanisms with cams and oscillating follower are proffered that translating follower because they offered better conditions from work and at greater pressure angles. At the double cams, the permissible pressure angles are the some size both in the climbing phase and in the descends phase. These mechanisms are utilized at biggerwork speeds, because the inertia forces not to be able to cut short the contact cam-follower. 1.The common elements of calculation

In the paper it is presented a unitary method from calculation of the cam profile with both types of followers, translating or oscillating, and it is to rely on: the coordinate transformation of a contact point, from a mobile system to joint of the follower in a fixed system joint of the cam; the pressure angle; the coordinate of contact point that they are characterized by an equivalent eccentricity and an equivalent space to will-define as at the translating follower, Figure1.
x P1, 2 = e P1, 2 cos s P1, 2 sin y P1, 2 = e P1, 2 sin + s P1, 2 cos

(1) In function from of the achievement or control technology they are necessary and the polar co-ordinate that are obtained thus:

R1,2 = x P21,2 + y P21,2 f o rx P1,2 0, y P1,2 0 a t a ny(P1,2 / x P1,2 ) a t a ny(P1,2 / x P1,2 ) f o rx P1,2 < 0, y P1,2 > 0 1,2 = + a t a ny(P1,2 / x P1,2 ) f o rx P1,2 < 0, y P1,2 < 0 2 a t a ny( / x ) f o rx > 0, y < 0 P1, 2 P1, 2 P1, 2 P1, 2

(2)

2.The specific relation for translating follower From the Figure 2, result:
e P1 = e L1 r1 sin 1 s P1 = s01 + s r1 cos 1

(3)
s02 = d s01

(4)

e P 2 = e L2 r2 sin 2 s P 2 = [ s02 s r2 cos 2 ]

(5)

[ ] 2 = a tan [( (v2 / 1 ) + (e L2 ) ) /( s02 s )]


1 = a tan ( (v2 / 1 ) + (e L1 ) ) /( s01 + s )

(6)

in that; v2 - speed of the follower, - angular speed 1 of the cam, s - space of the follower released at a rotation of the cam with angle , e - eccentricity of the follower, s01 , s02 - initial position of the axes of the rollers, r , r2 - radius of the rollers. 1 By adequate specifications, they are obtained: x P1 , y P1 - real profile of the cam and x P 2 , y P 2 - theoretical profile, at d = 0 and r2 = 0 ; profile of the cam with frontal canal at d = 0 and r1 = r2 . 3.The specific relation for oscillating follower From the Figure 3, result:
e P1 = d L1 cos( 01 + ) r1 sin( 01 + + 1 ) s P1 = L1 sin( 01 + ) r1 cos( 01 + + 1 )

(7)
02 = 01

(8)
e P 2 = d L2 cos( 02 ) r2 sin( 02 2 ) s P 2 = L2 sin( 02 ) r2 cos( 02 2 )

(9)

[ ] 2 = a tan [ ( (v2 / 1 ) ( L2 d cos( 02 )) ) / ( d sin( 02 ) ) ]


1 = a tan ( (v2 / 1 ) ( L1 d cos( 01 + ) ) / ( d sin( 01 + ) )
(10) in that; v2 = 2 L1, 2 - speed of the point 1 or 2 from follower, L1, 2 - length of the follower, d -distance between from rotation axis of the cam and oscillation axis of the follower, 01 , 02 - initial position the axes of rollers of followers, - angular space of the follower at a rotation of cam with angle , eP1, 2 , s P1, 2 equivalent eccentricity and space defined as at the translating follower, , 2 - the pressure 1

angles, R1, 2 - size of the radius of work cam (1) or closing cam (2), , 2 - angle of the 1 R1, 2 face by the Ox axis . position radius And here, the specifications they are: at = 0 , r2 = 0 resulted the profile of sample cam; for = 0 , r1 = r2 it is obtained the profile of cam with frontal canal. In the Fig.4, they are presented the following cams:

a Fig.4.

a) double cam, with the following data: d =83,33[mm]; L1 = L2 = 61,66[mm]; rmin = 20,58[mm]; rmax =56,1[mm]; r1 = r2 = 20[mm]; =88,533[ ]; 01 = 28,746[ ]; a = 31,04[ ]; si =50[ ]; =150[ ]; ss =20[ ]; =140[ ]. u c b) simple cam, with the some geometrical parameters, but at that =0. c) cam with frontal canal, for that =0 and r1 = r2 . Conclusions The relations they are determined for a cam with rotating motion in a time sense. For different situations it is necessary to introducing adequate signets in the relations (7) and (9). The test of relations upon a set from cams of the tissue machines they are realized. The concordance between real cams with cams calculated it is very good. References [1] Duca C., Popovici A., Oprisan C. (1999): Bazele proiectrii mecanismelor cu came, Editura Gh. Asachi Iasi, Romania. [2] Duca C., Popovici A. (1985): Analytical Method for the Determination of Radius of curvature in the Case of Plane Cams, Bulletin of Polytechnic Institute of.Iasi, n 0 XXXI(XXXV), fasc.1-4, section IV,Iasi, Romania, p.27-33.

[3] Oprisan C., Popovici Gh.A. (1994): O analiz a variaiei unghiului de presiune la mecanismele cu cam si tachet de translatie , PRASIC 94, Brasov, Romania, p.201206. [4] Popovici Gh.A.,Budescu E., Buium F. (1995): An analytical method for the concerning the unitary synthesis of the cam profile, The Congress I.F.To.M.M., Milano,Italy, vol.I, p.723-726. [5] Volmer J.(1969: Getriebetechnik-Lehrbuch, VEB Verlab Technik, Berlin, Germany.