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Roman Voda National College

Famous crimes and murderers

Thesis for Certificate of English Competence

Tutor: Mrs.Sorina Danciu Teacher of English

Candidate: Class: Specialization: Philology (English bilingual)

-May 2009-


1. Executive summary

2. Serial killers

2.1. Jack the Ripper 2.2. Charles Manson 2.3. Ted Bundy 2.4. Albert Fish

3. Organized crime

3.1. Organised crime define 3.2. Organised crime in the U.S. 3.3. Organised crime in the UK

4. Celebrity crime

4.1. Death of Abraham Lincoln 4.2. Death of John F. Kennedy 4.3. Death of Malcolm X 4.4. Death of Martin Luther King 4.5. Death of John Lennon 4.6. Death of Tupac Shakur

5. Criminal psychology

5.1. Antisocial personality disorder


5.1.1. Psychopaty 5.2. Sadistic personality disorder 5.2.1 Sadism and masochism 5.2.2. Zoosadism

6. Crime movies

6.1. Silence of the lambs 6.2. The Texas chainsaw massacre 6.3. Saw I

7. Conclusion

8. Bibliography


1. Executive summary

The purpose of this certificate is to help the reader understand what can determine a man to kill and who were the most famous people who become serial killers, or crimes commited to celebrities and even to heads of state. To conclude my work, I mainly included a web-based research, and I also read some magazines and journals, in which I could find significant information for my paper. In the first part, the main interest went on searching for data of most well known murderers as Jack the Ripper,the unidentified serial killer who terrified the whole London in 1888, Charles Manson,an American criminal, Albert Fish, again an American serial killer, cannibal and child molester and last but not least Ted Bundy, a serial killer who murdered 36 young women. I gathered information about their lives and about the murders that they had committed. Next, a briefly review of the organised crime in the U.S.A. and the UK. I looked for some definitions of the organised crime,and read some BBC interviews regarding this subject. All these are being followed by some notorious murders and deaths. In order to describe these famous deaths, I thought I should choose personalities from different areas of celebrity, therefore I included Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States of America, John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States of America, Malcom X, an African American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist, Martin Luther King, American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the African-American civil rights movement, John Lennon, an Academy Award-winning English rock musician, singer, and songwriter and Tupac Shakur, an American rapper.Furthermore, there are presented some psychologycal features that can be met when portraying a serial killer and the review of some movies that are based on murders. Finally, I tried to formulate my own point of view about the subject I have chosen, taking into consideration all the information that I gathered and included in this certificate.


2. Serial killers 2.1. Jack the Ripper

Jack the Ripper is a pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area and adjacent districts of London, England, in late 1888. The name originated in a letter sent to the London Central News Agency by someone claiming to be the murderer. The victims were women earning income as prostitutes. Most victims' throats were slit, after which the bodies were mutilated. The removal of internal organs from three of the victims led some officials at the time of the murders to propose that the killer possessed anatomical or surgical knowledge. Newspapers, whose circulation had been growing during this era, bestowed widespread and enduring notoriety on the killer because of the savagery of the attacks and the failure of the police to capture the murderer.Because the killer's identity has never been confirmed, the legends surrounding the murders have become a combination of genuine historical research, folklore, and pseudohistory. Many authors, historians, and amateur detectives have proposed theories about the identity of the killer and his victims. Known victims Metropolitan Police files show that the investigation began in 1888 and eventually came to encompass eleven separate murders, stretching from 3 April 1888 to 13 February 1891, known in the police docket as the "Whitechapel murders". In addition, authors and historians have connected at least seven other murders and violent attacks with Jack the Ripper. Among the eleven murders actively investigated by the police, five are almost universally agreed upon as the work of a single killer, collectively called the "canonical five" victims: Mary Ann Nichols (nicknamed "Polly") killed Friday 31 August 1888. Her body was discovered by a man named Charles Cross at about 3:40 A.M. on the ground in front of a gated stable entrance in Buck's Row (now Durward Street), a back street in Whitechapel 200 yards from the London Hospital. Her throat was severed deeply by two cuts; the lower part of the abdomen was partly ripped open by a deep, jagged wound. There also were several incisions running across the abdomen, and three or four similar cuts on the right side caused by the same knife used violently and downwards. Annie Chapman (maiden name Eliza Ann Smith, nicknamed "Dark Annie") killed Saturday 8 September 1888. Her body was discovered about 6 a.m., lying on the ground near a doorway in the back yard of 29 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields. Like Mary Ann Nichols's, her throat was severed by two cuts, one deeper than the other. The abdomen was ripped entirely open and the uterus was removed.


Elizabeth Stride (nicknamed "Long Liz") killed Sunday 30 September 1888. Her body was discovered about 1 a.m., lying on the ground in Dutfield's Yard, off Berner Street (now Henriques Street) in Whitechapel. There was one clear-cut incision on the neck; the cause of death was massive blood loss from the nearly severed main artery on the left side. The cut through the tissues on the right side was more superficial, and tapered off below the right jaw. That there also were no mutilations to the abdomen has left some uncertainty about the identity of Elizabeth's murderer, along with the suggestion her killer was disturbed during the attack. Catherine Eddowes (also known as "Kate Conway" and "Mary Ann Kelly," from the surnames of her two "common-law husbands", Thomas Conway and John Kelly) killed Sunday 30 September 1888 (the same day as the previous victim, Elizabeth Stride). Her body was found in Mitre Square, in the City of London. The throat was, as in the former two cases, severed by two cuts; the abdomen was ripped open by a long, deep, jagged wound. The left kidney and the major part of the uterus had been removed. She was 46. Her murder, and the murder of Elizabeth Stride would go on to be called "The Double Event" in the media, and across London. Mary Jane Kelly (called herself "Marie Jeanette Kelly" after a trip to Paris, nicknamed "Ginger") killed Friday 9 November 1888. Her gruesomely mutilated body was discovered shortly after 10:45 A.M., lying on the bed in the single room where she lived at 13 Miller's Court, off Dorset Street, Spitalfields. Her throat had been severed down to the spine, and her abdomen virtually emptied of its organs. Her heart was missing.

Wanted poster issued by the police during the 'autumn of terror', 1888.

The authority of this list rests on a number of authors' opinions, but historically the idea has been based upon the 1894 notes of Sir Melville Macnaghten, Chief Constable of the Metropolitan Police Service Criminal Investigation Department. Macnaghten did not join the force until the year after the murders; and his memorandum, which came to light in 1959, contains serious factual errors about possible suspects. There is considerable disagreement about the value of Macnaghten's assessment of the number of victims. Some researchers have posited that the series may not have been the work of a single murderer, but of an unknown larger number of killers acting independently. Authors Stewart P. Evans and Donald Rumbelow argue that the "canonical five" is a "Ripper myth" and that the probable number of victims could range from three (Nichols, Chapman, and Eddowes) to six (the previous three, plus Stride, Kelly, and Martha Tabram) or more. Macnaghten's opinion of which crimes were committed by the same killer was not shared by other investigating officers, such as Inspector Frederick Abberline. Except Stride, whose attack may have been interrupted, mutilations of the "canonical five" victims became increasingly severe as the series of murders proceeded. Nichols and Stride were not missing any organs; but Chapman's uterus was taken, and Eddowes had her uterus and a kidney carried away and her face mutilated. While only Kelly's heart was missing from her crime scene, many of her internal organs were removed and left in her room. The "canonical five" murders were generally perpetrated in the dark of night, on or close to a weekend, in a secluded site to which the public could gain access, and on a pattern of dates either at the end of a month or a week or so after. Yet every case differed from this pattern in -5-

some manner. Besides the differences already mentioned, Eddowes was the only victim killed within the City of London, though close to the boundary between the City and the metropolis. Nichols was the only victim to be found on an open street, albeit a dark and deserted one. Many sources state that Chapman was killed after the sun had started to rise, though that was not the opinion of the police or the doctors who examined the body. Kelly's murder ended six weeks of inactivity for the murderer. (A week elapsed between the Nichols and Chapman murders; three between Chapman and the "double event".)The large number of horrific attacks against women during this era adds some uncertainty as to exactly how many victims were killed by the same man. Most experts point to deep throat slashes, abdominal and genital-area mutilation, removal of internal organs, and progressive facial mutilations as the distinctive features of Jack the Ripper's modus operandi.

Other victims in the Whitechapel murder file

Six other Whitechapel murders were investigated by the Metropolitan Police at the time, two of which occurred before the "canonical five" and four after. Figures involved in the investigation and later authors have attributed some of these to Jack the Ripper.These two murders occurred before the "canonical five": Emma Elizabeth Smith was attacked on Osborn Street, Whitechapel, on 3 April 1888; a blunt object was inserted into her vagina. She survived the attack and walked back to her lodging-house. Friends brought her to a hospital, where she told police that she was attacked by two or three men, one of whom was a teenager. She fell into a coma and died on 5 April 1888. According to Dr. G. H. Hillier, attending surgeon at the London Hospital, the injuries indicated use of great force, which caused a rupture of the peritoneum and other internal organs, this led to peritonitis, which he deemed the cause of death. Martha Tabram (sometimes spelled as Tabran; maiden name Martha White, alias Emma Turner) killed 7 August 1888. She had a total of 39 stab wounds. Of the non-canonical Whitechapel murders, Tabram is considered another possible Ripper victim for a variety of reasons. The geographic (George Yard Buildings, George Yard, Whitechapel) and period proximity to the attacks considered likely to be those of the Ripper, and is compounded by the evident lack of obvious motive and the attack's noted savagery. However, the attack differs from those of the canonical ones in that the attack consisted of stabbing as opposed to slashing the throat and postmortem injuries. Rose Mylett (true name probably Catherine Mylett, but was also known as Catherine Millett, Elizabeth "Drunken Lizzie" Davis, "Fair" Alice Downey, or simply "Fair Clara") was reportedly strangled "by a cord drawn tightly round the neck" on 20 December 1888, though some investigators believed that she had accidentally suffocated herself on the collar of her dress while in a drunken stupor. Her body was found in Clarke's Yard, High Street, Poplar.

The discovery of the Pinchin Street torso on 10 September 1889 prompted renewed speculation as to the identity of Jack the Ripper: cover of the 21 September 1889, issue of Puck magazine, by cartoonist Tom Merry.


"The Pinchin Street Torso" a headless and legless torso of a woman found under a railway arch in Pinchin Street, Whitechapel on 10 September 1889. The mutilations were similar to the body which was the subject of the "The Whitehall Mystery", though in this case the hands were not severed. It seems probable that the murder had been committed elsewhere and that parts of the dismembered body were dumped at the crime scene. Speculation, at the time, that the remains were of Lydia Hart, a prostitute who had recently disappeared, was disproved when she was soon located in a local infirmary where she was receiving medical treatment to cure the after effects of a "bit of a spree". The identity of the victim was never established. "The Whitehall Mystery" and "The Pinchin Streets Murderer" have been suggested to be part of a series of murders, called the "Thames Mysteries" or "Embankment Murders", committed by a single serial killer, dubbed the "Torso Killer". Whether Jack the Ripper and the "Torso Killer" were the same person or separate serial killers active in the same area has long been debated. The Pinchin Street murder prompted a revival of interest in the Rippermanifested in an illustration from "Puck" showing the Ripper, from behind, looking in a mirror at alternate reflections embodying current speculation as to whom he might be: a doctor, a cleric, a woman, a Jew, a bandit or a policeman. Frances Coles (also known as Frances Coleman, Frances Hawkins and nicknamed "Carrotty Nell") was killed on 13 February 1891. Minor wounds on the back of the head suggest that she was thrown violently to the ground before her throat was cut. Otherwise there were no mutilations to the body. Her body was found under a railway arch at Swallow Gardens, Whitechapel. A man named James Thomas Sadler, seen earlier with her, was arrested by the police and charged with her murder and was briefly thought to be the Ripper himself. However he was discharged from court due to lack of evidence on 3 March 1891. After this eleventh and last "Whitechapel Murder" the case was closed.


2.2. Charles Manson

Charlie Manson is by far the most famous of all murderers. Charles and his "Family" murdered many people. Here is a list of the victims; On two nights in early August of 1969, two horrible murder sprees were committed in Los Angeles. The first night there were five victims, including the actress Sharon Tate, wife of the director Roman Polanski. The second night, a wealthy couple in another section of the city were murdered. The crimes were extraordinarily brutal, committed by gun and knife; the stab wounds were in the hundreds. It was months before the perpetrators were arrested. The leader was Charles Manson, the small, bizarre ex-convict and hippie-like guru of a loosely associated group that was known as the Family. The others were some of his followers, including four middle-class girls, dropouts from society who were fanatically devoted to him. Charles Mansons Biography Born Charles Maddox: Charles Manson was born on November 12, 1934 in Cincinnati, Ohio. His 16-year-old mother, Kathleen Maddox was promiscuous, a criminal, drank too much and failed to take care of her illegitimate child. Soon after his birth, Kathleen was briefly married to William Manson, and Charlie's last name changed from Maddox to Manson. Kathleen grew up in a strict religious home and seemed to rebel against all she was taught. In 1940, she was found guilty of Strong Armed Robbery and sent to prison. Mixed Childhood Messages: Six-year-old Manson was moved to various relatives. His grandmother subjected him to the fanatical religious standards, from which his mother fled. One uncle he stayed with decided Manson was too feminine, so dressed him as a girl for his first day of school. Another uncle, while caring for Manson, killed himself in protest to the authorities taking his land. There were no consistent modes of behavior for Manson to live by, a fact that carried into his adulthood. A Childhood Story: A story Manson often told described the lack of care his mother showed him. "Mom was in a cafe one afternoon with me on her lap. The waitress, a would-be mother without a child of her own, jokingly told my Mom she'd buy me from her. Mom replied, 'A pitcher of beer and he's yours.' The waitress set up the beer, Mom stuck around long enough to finish it off and left the place without me. Several days later my uncle had to search the town for the waitress and take me home." -8-

Mom Chooses Boyfriend Over Manson: Charlie and his mother were reunited for a short time after her release from prison. This ended when Kathleen's boyfriend decided he did not want Charlie around. Kathleen tried but failed to get Manson into foster care. Rejected by his mother, Manson began to steal regularly. Some believe his instant attraction to theft stemmed from his need to call something his own, allowing for him to create an identity for himself. He ended up being sent to the Gibault Home for Boys in Indiana. A Manipulative Loner: This was just the first of a lifetime of incarceration for Manson. Between stays at reform schools, he spent his time as a loner and daydreamer. In school he was manipulative, only performing for those from which he felt the could get something. Charlie Manson's Teen Years: As Manson entered his middle teens, his life was much the same as his late childhood, spending his time either in or escaping out of reform schools. When out he lived on his on, using money from armed robberies and getting around in stolen cars. Charlie proved to be as poor a thief as he was a student, always managing to get caught and ending up back in an institution. While at the Indiana School for Boys in Plainfield, Indiana, Charlie claimed he was repeatedly raped and he soon escaped. From Reform School to Prison: In 1951 Manson's criminal activity moved from state to more serious federal offenses after he was caught driving a stolen vehicle over state lines. For his crime, Charlie graduated from reform school to federal prison. He proved to be a less than model prisoner, with his first year resulting in eight assault charges. He was transferred to another prison and cleaned up his act, resulting in his release in 1954. During the next year, he met and married 17-year-old Rosalie Jean Willis. Charles M. Manson Jr. is Born: Soon after their marriage, the newlyweds took off to California in a stolen car. Rosalie became pregnant, a fact which kept Charlie out of prison after being arrested with the stolen car. Being on probation failed to slow him down, however, and his probation was revoked and he was sent to Terminal Island Prison for three years. Rosalie gave birth to Charles M. Manson, Jr. (who committed suicide in 1993) and left town with a new boyfriend. Charlie never saw his wife or his child again. Pimping and Stealing: Manson was released from prison in 1958 and supported himself as a pimp in Hollywood. By 1959 he was again in front of the courts after being arrested for trying to cash a check stolen from a mailbox. He received a 10-year suspended sentence, allowing him to meet and marry his second wife before his next arrest in June 1960. Again, facing federal charges for crossing state lines for the purpose of prostitution, Manson was found guilty and his probation was revoked. Charles Luther Mason is Born: Manson spent the next seven years first at the McNeil Island Penitentiary in Washington State then at Terminal Island in California. His wife divorced him after the birth of his second son, Charles Luther Manson. Charlie spent prison time learning to play guitar and studying Scientology. He was released in March 1967 and headed to Haight-Ashbury, where he blended in among many other outcasts who gravitated to the area in the 1960s. Mary Brunner: Soon after arriving in the area he met Mary Brunner, who was a college graduate working as a librarian at UC Berkeley. He moved into her apartment and Brunner began falling in love with Manson. Her life changed drastically once Manson became part of it. She accepted his desire to sleep with other women, started doing drugs and soon left her job and began traveling with Manson around California. She was instrumental in helping entice people they met to join the Manson Family. Manson the Guru: Lynette Fromme was one of the first to join Brunner and Manson. The three lived together on Cole Street in San Francisco. Charlie was busy playing his guitar, prophesizing and enjoying his role as mentor to those who found themselves lost in life. The Family began to grow as did Charlie's reputation for having a kind of sixth sense about him. His manipulative traits from childhood, polished during his years in prison, were now refined and his followers believed he was a guru/prophet.


Manson and culture

Recodings American rock band Guns N Roses recorded Manson's "Look at Your Game, Girl," included as an unlisted thirteenth track on their 1993 album "The Spaghetti Incident?" "My Monkey," which appears on Portrait of an American Family by Marilyn Manson (no relation, as is explained below), includes the lyrics "I had a little monkey/I sent him to the country and I fed him on gingerbread/Along came a choo-choo/Knocked my monkey cuckoo/And now my monkeys dead." These lyrics are from Mansons "Mechanical Man," which is heard on LIE. Several of Manson's songs, including "I'm Scratching Peace Symbols on Your Tombstone" (a.k.a. "First They Made Me Sleep in the Closet"), "Garbage Dump", and "I Can't Remember When", are featured in the soundtrack of the 1976 TV-movie Helter Skelter, where they are performed by Steve Railsback, who portrays Manson. According to a popular urban legend, Manson unsuccessfully auditioned for the Monkees in late 1965; this is refuted by the fact that Manson was still incarcerated at McNeil Island at that time. Cultural reverberation Within months of the Tate-LaBianca arrests, Manson was embraced by underground newspapers of the 1960s counterculture from which the Family had emerged. When a Rolling Stone writer visited the Los Angeles District Attorneys office for a June 1970 cover story, he was shocked by a photograph of the bloody "Healter Skelter" that would bind Manson to popular culture. Manson has been a presence in fashion, graphics, music, and movies, as well as on television and the stage. In an afterword composed for the 1994 edition of the non-fiction Helter Skelter, prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi quoted a BBC employee's assertion that a "neo-Manson cult" existing then in Europe was represented by, among other things, approximately 70 rock bands playing songs by Manson and "songs in support of him." Just one specimen of popular music with Manson references is Alkaline Trios "Sadie," whose lyrics include the phrases "Sadie G," "Ms. Susan A," and "Charlies broken .22." "Sadie Mae Glutz" was the name by which Susan Atkins was known within the Family; and as noted earlier, the revolver grip that shattered when Tex Watson used it to bludgeon Wojciech Frykowski was a twenty-two caliber. "Sadies" lyrics are followed by a spoken passage derived from Atkinss testimony in the penalty phase of the trial of Manson and the women. Manson has even influenced the names of musical performers such as Spahn Ranch and Marilyn Manson, the latter a stage name assembled from "Charles Manson" and "Marilyn Monroe." The story of the Family's activities inspired John Morans opera The Manson Family and Stephen Sondheims musical Assassins, the latter of which has Lynette Fromme as a character. The tale has been the subject of several movies, including two television dramatizations of Helter Skelter. In the South Park episode Merry Christmas Charlie Manson, Manson is a comic character whose inmate number is 06660, an apparent reference to 666, the Biblical "number of the beast."

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2.4. Albert Fish

Serial murder is defined by the National Institute of Justice as a "series of two or more murders, committed as separate events, usually but not always, by one offender acting alone. The crimes may occur over a period of time ranging from hours to years. Quite often the motive is psychological, and the offender's behavior and the physical evidence observed at the crime scenes will reflect sadistic, sexual overtones." This definition perfectly describes serial killer Albert Fish. Albert Fish is the man who some believe to be the "most deranged killer in American history" (Rampo Catskill Library system, Biography resource center, Albert Fish ). So much so, that the character, Hannibal Lector in the movie Silence of the Lambs is partially based on him. Murder was not the only thing that Albert Fish indulged in. He also dabbed in cannibalism, fetishism, pedophilia, voyeurism, exhibitionism, and masochism. Albert Fish Biography

Fish was born on May 19,1870 in Washington, D.C. and was placed in an orphanage at age five after his father passed away. During his stay at the orphanage, Fish observed and experienced numerous acts of perversions including forced masturbation in front of other children and brutal beatings. Albert would become sexually aroused by these acts, which helped to further his obsession with sado-masochism. Fish would later say, "That place ruined my mind." Finally, at age 7, Fish was reunited with his mother. Shortly thereafter, he fell from a cherry tree causing severe head trauma causing him dizzy spells and severe headaches. After graduating from high school, Fish started working odd jobs and traveling around the country. This gave him perfect opportunity to commit crimes. In 1910, Fish committed his first murder in which he mutilated and tortured his victim. From that point on, he set his sights on children as he saw them as easy targets. Fish traveled from state to state in the 1920's leaving a trail of victims from molestation to cases of children disappearing. Fish would torture, mutilate and eventually murder his victims using what he called his "Implements of Hell" which consisted of a meat cleaver, a butcher knife, and a saw. Fish also like to inflict pain on himself; he would insert needles far into his body to where they would get stuck. He also liked to have people paddle him with a paddle that had nail sticking out of the end so that it would make him bleed. - 11 -

During his reign of terror, Fish was arrested and detained by police on several different occasions. He was charged with everything from sending obscene mail to being mentally ill. During fits of rage he would stand around screaming at the sky yelling that he was Christ. He even told anyone that would listen that GOD told him to kill. Albert has several stays in mental hospitals but was released because they determined that although he was a little weird, he was sane. In 1928, Fish went to the Budd family house under the alias, Frank Howard, offering the younger boys of the family jobs. His real reason for going to the Budd family house was to get to their daughter, Grace. After spending some time with the family and gaining their trust, he asked if he could take Grace to his niece's birthday party, which they allowed. Grace never made it to the party, as it was a lie to get Grace alone. The Budd family never saw Grace again. Fish took Grace to an abandoned cottage where he strangled and ate her. Six years later, Albert mailed a letter to the Budd family describing in lurid detail what came of their daughter. The authorities were able to track him down by the postmark and he was arrested, tried and convicted. During the trial, Albert Fish pleads insanity but the jury did not believe him and sentenced him to death. On January 16, 1936, he was electrocuted at the Sing Sing Prison. It took two full electrical charges to finally kill Fish. The second charge actually shorted out the electric chair. After his execution, a prison x-ray revealed 29 different needles in his groin, some eroded from time. It was said that after his wife left him, he would stick these needles in his groin as well as taking an alcohol soaked cotton ball, placing it in his anus and lighting it with a match for sexual pleasure.

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3. Organised crime

3.1. Organised crime defined

Albini, Joseph L. says about organised crime: It appears that the most primary distinguishing component of organized crime is found within the term itself, mainly, organization. Interaction is a key concept here: a mere aggregation of individuals performing a criminal act in the presence of one another would not, in itself, constitute an organized act. Organization, then, is the basic distinguishing element between organized and other types of crime. (Albini, 1971: 35) In a very broad sense, then, we can define organized crime as any criminal activity involving two or more individuals, specialized or nonspecialized, encompassing some form of social structure, with some form of leadership, utilizing certain modes of operation, in which the ultimate purpose of the organization is found in the enterprises of the particular group. This definition permits us to view organized crime on a vast continuum allowing for freedom of analyzing and defining a given particular criminal group as an entity in titself possessing a variety of characteristics, as opposed to a rigid classification based upon certain specific attributes. Viewed from this wide perspective there are many forms which organized crime can take, with variations, of course, to be found within each form. (Albini, 1971: 37-38) Rather than developing more complex systems of categorization, we suggest that the description of a criminal group be based upon the nature of a specific criminal act which it has committed at any given time, not on the basis of its possession of certain traits. Criminal groups are dynamic entities, not static ones. As such, they change with the nature of the criminal acts they commit. Only when this is recognized can we begin to appreciate the basic similarities as well as differences between criminal groups.(Albini, 1971: 49) Block, Alan A. says about organised crime: Organized crime is both a social system and a social world. The system is composed of relationships binding professional criminals, politicians, law enforcers, and various entrepreneurs. (Block, 1983: VII) In the Introduction I suggested that organized crime is part of a social system in which reciprocal services are performed by criminals, their clients and politicians. And I would argue that the Seabury investigations provide ample proof of this system, of these relationships. At the same time, this definititon, if strictly followed, seems to preclude many of the organized conspiracies uncovered by Seabury and his staff. The definition demands three distinct entities functioning for some illicit purpose. What, then, do we call all those conspiracies composed of politicians and their upper-world patrons and clients? Are they sufficiently different from conspiracies in which all three elements are present? Part of the problem lies in the need to explain what are clearly organized crimes in which the personnel do not fulfill all the criteria. One way to handle this is to hold that criminal justice agents and politicians involved in criminal conspiracies ace in reality professional criminals in which case they hold two roles. But for many reasons that seems to be confusing. Another even less satisfactory way is to hold that the Seabury examples are forms of organizational deviance. But this only obscures the system of informal power in which these conspiracies are endemic. Much the most economical solution is to treat or term conspiracies lacking one of the three - 13 -

elements as organized criminality. These conspiracies are not only the ones mentioned above, but also those in which one is hard pressed to ind the client. One example should suffice: the vice racket in the Magistrates' Courts which had as racketeers: lawyers, bondsmen, police, professional informers, Magistrates' and so on. By no stretch of the imagination could the women framed be called clients. They were victims, pure and simple. And that racket was an expression of organized criminality. (Block, 1983: 57) Cressey, Donald R. says about organised crime: The organized criminal, by definition, occupies a position in a social system, an `organization`, which has been rationally designed to maximize profits by performing illegal services and providing legally forbidden products demanded by the members of the broader society in which he lives.(Cressey, 1969: 72) The only definition of organized crime really suggested is `continuing criminal activity in concert`, and this sounds like two or more homosexuals practicing their trade in Carnegie Hall. Together, the two criteria apply to members of check-passing rings as well as to Cosa Nostra bosses. (Cressey, 1969: 304) The prior efforts of social scientists to define categories of crime in nonlegal terms are not very helpful in the task of precisely identifying the division of labor which is organized crime, for two reasons. First, one who would define organized crime precisely enough to outlaw the category of behavior itself must be concerned with formal and informal structure. It is the necessity for this concern that puts organized crime in the scholarly domain of systems analysts and other organizational specialists. Second, categories such as `white-collar crime` and `crime against property` can be defined without specific reference to the attitudes and values of the criminals involved, even if nice problems of `criminal intent` arise. this is not true of organized crime, where rules, agreements, and understandings forming the foundation of social structure appear among the individual participants as attitude.Whether a person is properly labeled an `organized criminal` depends in part on whether he exhibits the antilegal attitudes which accompany his adherence to the code of conduct. The social category `organized crime` is being used as if it were a legal category, thus hindering both the understanding and control of a serious economic, political, and social problem. Now we are faced with the task of outlawing a social category of behavior because it consists of more than the legal categories it started out to describe. (Cressey, 1969: 310-1)

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3.2. Organised crime in the U.S.

This study and review explores the substantive and heuristical value of the American concept of "organized crime." In a conceptual-historical examination it investigates the origin of the "organized crime"concept and the changes of its meaning over time based primarily on a content analysis of the New York Times Index and the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology from 1896 and 1910, respectively, until 1995. The common use of the term "organized crime" has undergone fundamental changes from its coinage by the Chicago Crime Commission in 1919 until the end of the 20th century. "Organized crime" originally referred to diffuse patterns of cooperation among criminals within the context of interwoven legal and illegal structures in big cities like Chicago. Through the late 1960s, however, bureaucratic and massmedial processes of simplification redefined "organized crime" as synonymous with a vast criminal organization of Italian-Americans operating outside the conventional American social structure. In later years the public perception was somewhat modified by extending the term "organized crime" to other, allegedly ethnically homogeneous criminal organizations. A systematic, historical review of the "organized crime" literature reveals a variety of alternative, definitional approaches, but no comprehensive theory that can reconcile the confusing and at times conflicting understanding of the term "organized crime." Therefore, a critical examination of the value of the "organized crime"-concept cannot be based on the comparison of elaborate theories and models. It needs to begin more narrowly within a meta-theoretical framework which distinguishes various levels of complexity and accounts for the fact that the issue of "organized crime" has social, economic and political dimensions. The concept of "organized crime" is broken down into propositions regarding the individual characteristics of "organized criminals," the forms and dynamics of criminal groups, organizations and networks, the overarching power structures within illegal markets and within the underworld, and the relationship between legal and illegal social structures. Each proposition drawn from the public and scientific debate, such as on the structural similarity of legal and illegal organizations and on the dynamics of monopolization of illegal markets, is stated more precisely and tested for plausibility and empirical foundation. General concepts (e.g. from organizational theory and economics), and empirical data provided by research and by published personal accounts from "organized criminals" and investigators serve as a yardstick. The detailed analysis leads to a refined and more subtly differentiated understanding of the various aspects of the "organized crime"-problem but it does not lead to a coherent picture of "organized crime." To combine the body of knowledge existing on "organized crime" in the U.S., an analytical model is proposed to represent the complex relations between essential concepts in one scheme. The model puts various expressions of criminal cooperation in context with socio-economic conditions, law-enforcement strategies, and media-attention. The proposed model can only serve to exemplify the potentials of model construction since the available data are still fragmentary, often of questionable validity and reliability, in many instances contradictory, and thus clearly incapable of rendering definite statements on causation and interrelation. The investigation of the American concept of "organized crime" leads to the conclusion that "organized crime" does not exist as an ontological entity, but that the analysis of its pertinent aspects should be incorporated into a single research program.

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3.3. Organised crime in UK

Organised crime bosses have embraced globalisation every bit as enthusiastically as the heads of legitimate international conglomerates. Which means Colombian, Italian, Chinese, Russian and Jamaican gangsters are doing business in London, Manchester, Glasgow and Belfast. Organised crime, as portrayed in TV shows such as The Sopranos or films such as Lock, Stock & Two Smoking Barrels, is often shown as a glamorous, exciting business inhabited by old-style crooks or good-natured gangsters. The reality is very different. Organised crime leads to despair for the many people affected by it on both sides of the law; from prostitutes, illegal immigrants and drug addicts, to the victims of burglary, car crime and muggings which are often carried out to fund drug habits.

Fact file: Organised crime figures The illegal drugs trade in the UK generates about 8.5bn (or 1% of Gross Domestic Product) UK financial institutions reported 14,500 suspicious transactions to police in 1999 52 murders (33 in London) in 1999 were thought to be linked to organised crime 56% of organised crime groups are involved in drug trafficking and of those, 79% are involved in money laundering. There are 930 organised crime groups - or "core nominals" - in the UK.
(Source: NCIS annual report. )

BBC Interviews and opinions regarding organised crime in UK

The National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) says organised crime in the UK is a "multi-billion pound industry". In January the Home Secretary Jack Straw increased NCIS's budget from 49m to 70m a year. Welcoming the increase, the Director General of NCIS, John Abbott, said: "Serious and organised crime is big business. It's invariably international and sophisticated but it also strikes right at the heart of our local communities, creating suffering and misery for its victims and making millions for its insidious perpetrators. "It worms its way into our professions - our lawyers, our accountants, our bankers - it's creeping its way into the new and exciting IT technologies and it's creating miserable victims out of its promises of a better life and the often disgusting exploitation of the most vulnerable people in society." Of the 930 organised crime groups in the UK, the majority of these are indigenous, Britishborn gangs. By far the biggest business for all these gangs is drug smuggling, which accounts for 56% of illegal activity. Much of the crime which makes the headlines is a direct result of organised crimes activities a third of burglaries are carried out by drug addicts, says NCIS.

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Roger Gaspar, director of intelligence at NCIS, told BBC News Online: Organised criminality underpins at a very high level a lot of the criminality that goes on in this country. It is the medium by which drugs are available in local communities, it is the medium by which cigarettes and alcohol which have evaded the proper duties are made available in local communities. It is the means by which illegal immigration takes place in growing numbers. Drugs, tobacco, alcohol and humans In recent years there has been a massive growth in the number of groups getting involved in alcohol and tobacco smuggling, sometimes switching from drug trafficking. Mr Gaspar said: "We have seen in the last two years a very distinct increase in organised criminality moving from one commodity to another. It appears they realise that one day the networks that transfer drugs can also be used to transfer people. Some of the divides between Class A and Class B drugs have certainly been eroded and certainly we've seen people move from the trafficking of drugs to the evading of duties on alcohol and tobacco. That's because these are people who know how to chase their profits, they want to chase the best profits and they move in the marketplace accordingly. The legal penalties for smuggling duty-evaded drink and tobacco are miniscule in comparison to trafficking drugs. But Customs & Excise spokesman Mark Thomson said: "It is true that sentences for excise fraud are much lighter than for drug trafficking, but the profits are not comparable. You can sell cocaine in this country for 10 times what you would pay for it in Colombia, whereas you could only sell cigarettes for twice the price." Human trafficking is another activity on the increase. The full glare of publicity was shone on the trade last summer when 58 Chinese illegal immigrants were found dead in a container lorry at Dover docks. Several people are awaiting trial. Illegal immigrants are sometimes asked to act as drugs couriers by traffickers who pay for their air fare or arrange false passports. Women from deprived countries often pay for false papers to gain passage to the West, only to find out when they get there they have to pay off their "debt" by going into prostitution. Hostile takeovers As with the business world, British crime groups are embracing globalisation and forming joint ventures with foriegn gangs. Mr Gaspar said: When I first started organised criminality was very much a local dimension, for example the Krays, and they had difficulty when they started moving out of their geographical origins. Those days are long behind us now and we have a world without boundaries for criminality. This is the way it is going with commerce, with the freedom of movement of peoples, and unfortunately organised criminality uses those opportunities." But while organised crime groups often act like legitimate businesses, they tend to resort to violence, rather than expensive lawyers, when they fall out.In 1990 Great Train Robber Charlie Wilson, who had branched out into drug trafficking after his release from prison, was gunned down beside his swimming pool on the Costa Del Sol by a hitman. In 1997 Danny Roff, believed to have been that hitman, was himself shot dead in Bromley, Kent. In January 1995 American Hector Portillo was jailed for life for ordering the murder of accountant David Wilson, at his home in Chorley, Lancashire. Wilson, who was helping Portillo launder money from a giant cigarette fraud, was executed for "having his hand in the till". International police co-operation Just as organised crime syndicates work together to achieve results, so can law enforcement agencies from different countries. Mr Gaspar said: We have very good relationships with a number of countries. We actually do very well from our partners overseas but when we get away from Europe one can come to some countries - which are important source countries for

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criminality - where the issue of co-operation is very much tied up with the stability of that country, their economic development and so on, and it therefore becomes very, very difficult. One of the big successes of recent years has been Europol, an agency involving representatives from police forces all over Europe. Europol is more proactive than its older and more famous sister Interpol, which acts mainly as a database and a conduit for information and arrest warrants. But not everyone is convinced the battle is being won. Brian Fremantle is a journalist and author who has investigated organised crime and wrote an expos on crime in Europe, The Octopus. He is pessimistic about the British authorities' ability to defeat organised crime. Mr Fremantle claimed numerous politicians had paid "lip service" to the war against organised crime, while failing to take radical steps. He said there was a need for an FBI-style national police force in the UK and proper antiracketeering legislation, similar to the RICO (Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations) Act introduced in the US 30 years ago. He told BBC News Online: "No-one is properly addressing organised crime, which is why it is winning." NCIS director of intelligence Roger Gaspar agreed that the RICO legislation should be given consideration. "We need to try and work out what are the most effective of these draconian types of law. The trouble with these (laws) is that they go towards the issue of innocent until proven guilty. The more one actually puts the onus upon individuals to explain what they have done, then one is attacking the principle of innocence until guilty, so it's a difficult area of law, but it's one thats essential to examine," he said.

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4. Celebrity crime 4.1. Death of Abraham Lincoln

John Wilkes Booth, born May 10, 1838, was an actor who performed throughout the country in many plays. He was the lead in some of William Shakespeare's most famous works. Additionally, he was a racist and Southern sympathizer during the Civil War. He hated Abraham Lincoln who represented everything Booth was against. Booth blamed Lincoln for all the South's ills. He wanted revenge. In late summer of 1864 Booth began developing plans to kidnap Lincoln, take him to Richmond (the Confederate capital), and hold him in return for Confederate prisoners of war. By January, 1865, Booth had organized a group of co-conspirators that included Samuel Arnold, Michael O'Laughlen, John Surratt, Lewis Powell (alias Paine or Payne), George Atzerodt, and David Herold. Additionally, Booth met with Dr. Samuel Mudd both in Maryland (where Mudd lived) and Washington, and he began using Mary Surratt's boardinghouse to meet with his co-conspirators. On March 17, 1865, the group planned to capture Lincoln who was scheduled to attend a play at a hospital located on the outskirts of Washington. However, the president changed plans and remained in the capital. Thus, Booth's plot to kidnap Lincoln failed. On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox. Two days later Lincoln spoke from the White House to a crowd gathered outside. Booth was present as Lincoln suggested in his speech that voting rights be granted to certain blacks. Infuriated, Booth's plans now turned in the direction of assassination. On the morning of Friday, April 14, 1865, Booth dropped by Ford's Theatre and learned that the president and General Grant were planning to attend the evening performance of Our American Cousin. He held one final meeting with his co-conspirators. He said he would kill Lincoln at the theater. Atzerodt was to kill Vice-President Andrew Johnson at the Kirkwood House where Johnson resided. Powell was assigned to kill Secretary of State William Seward. Herold would accompany Powell. All attacks were to take place simultaneously at approximately 10:15 P.M. that night. Booth hoped the resulting chaos and weakness in the government would lead to a comeback for the South. The presidential party arrived at Ford's at about 8:30 P.M. Armed with a single shot derringer and a hunting knife, Booth arrived at Ford's at about 9:30 P.M. Joseph Burroughs, a boy who worked at the theater, held his horse in the rear alley. Booth went next door to a saloon for a drink. He entered the front of Ford's Theatre around 10:07 P.M. Slowly he made his way toward the State Box where the Lincolns were sitting with Clara Harris and Major Henry Rathbone. Lincoln's bodyguard, John Parker of the Metropolitan Police Force, had left his post. At about 10:15 P.M. Booth opened the door to the State Box, shot Lincoln in the back of the head at near point-blank range, and struggled with Rathbone. Booth stabbed Rathbone in the arm and jumped over 11 feet to the stage below. When he hit the floor he snapped the fibula bone in his left leg just above the ankle. Many in the theater thought he yelled "Sic Semper Tyrannis" (Latin for "As Always to Tyrants"). Mrs. Lincoln screamed, Booth flashed his knife at the audience, and he made his way across the stage in front of more than 1,000 people. Everything happened so fast that no one had time to stop him. Booth went out the back door, climbed on his horse, and escaped from the city using the Navy Yard Bridge.

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Atzerodt made no attempt to kill Johnson, and Powell stabbed Seward but failed to kill him. Herold escaped from the capital using the same bridge as Booth. The two met in Maryland and stopped briefly around midnight at Mary Surratt's leased tavern in Surrattsville where Mrs. Surratt had earlier left the message to have supplies ready and had dropped off a wrapped package that contained Booth's field glasses. About 4:00 A.M. Booth and Herold arrived at Dr. Mudd's home where Mudd set and splinted Booth's broken leg. Back in Washington Lincoln never regained consciousness and passed away at 7:22 A.M. on the morning of April 15, 1865, at the Petersen House (across the street from the theater). Booth and Herold departed from Dr. Mudd's during the afternoon of April 15 and traveled south. Federal authorities caught up with them at Garrett's farm near Port Royal, Virginia, early in the morning of April 26. Hiding in a barn, Harold gave up. Booth refused, so the barn was set on fire. Booth still didn't come out and was shot to death by Sergeant Boston Corbett. Corbett had not been under orders to do this but felt other soldiers might be shot by Booth. Booth's body was searched, and a diary was among the things found. Booth's remains were returned to Washington where positive identification was made and an autopsy performed. Within days the government arrested Booth's co-conspirators (except John Surratt). A military tribunal tried them, and all were found guilty. Mrs. Surratt, Powell, Atzerodt, and Herold were all hanged on July 7, 1865. Dr. Mudd, O'Laughlen, and Arnold were given life terms in prison. Edman "Ned" Spangler, a Ford's stagehand who was convicted of helping Booth escape from the theater, received a sentence of six years in prison. The convictions of Mary Surratt and Dr. Mudd have been hotly debated throughout the years. John Surratt escaped to Canada and then to Europe. He was captured abroad and was tried in 1867 in a civil court. The trial ended with a deadlocked jury, and Surratt went free. O'Laughlen died in prison (Ft. Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas near Key West) in 1867. President Andrew Johnson pardoned Dr. Mudd, Arnold, and Spangler early in 1869.

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4.2. Death of John F. Kennedy

By the fall of 1963, President Kennedy and his political advisers were preparing for the next presidential campaign. Although he had not formally announced his candidacy, it was clear that JFK was going to run and he seemed confidentthough not over-confident about his chances for reelection. At the end of September, the President traveled west speaking in nine different states in less than a week. While the trip was meant to put a spotlight on natural resources and conservation efforts, JFK also used it to sound out themes -- such as education, national security, and world peace -- for his run in 1964. In particular, he cited the achievement of a limited nuclear test ban, which the Senate had just approved and which was a potential issue in the upcoming election. The publics enthusiastic response was encouraging. A month later, the President addressed Democratic gatherings in Boston and Philadelphia. Then, on November 12, he held the first important political planning session for the upcoming election year. At the meeting, JFK stressed the importance of winning Florida and Texas and talked about his plans to visit both states in the next two weeks. Mrs. Kennedy would be accompanying him on the swing through Texas, which would be her first extended public appearance since the loss of their baby, Patrick, in August.

President Kennedy speaks at the Rice Hotel, Houston, Texas, 21 November 1963.

On November 21, the President and First Lady departed on Air Force One for the two-day, five-city tour of Texas. JFK was aware that a feud among party leaders in Texas could jeopardize his chances of carrying the state in 1964, and one of his aims for the trip was to bring Democrats together. He also knew that a relatively small but vocal group of extremists was contributing to the political tensions in Texas and would likely make its presence felt particularly in Dallas, where UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson had been physically attacked a month earlier after making a speech there. Nonetheless, JFK seemed to relish the prospect of leaving Washington, getting out among the people and into the political fray. A light rain was falling on Friday morning, November 22, but a crowd of several thousand stood in the parking lot outside the Texas Hotel where the Kennedys had spent the night. A platform had been set up and the President, wearing no protection against the weather, came out to make some brief remarks. There are no faint hearts in Fort Worth, he began, and I appreciate your being here this morning. Mrs. Kennedy is organizing herself. It takes longer, but, of course, she looks better than we do when she does it. He went on to talk about the nations need for being second to none in defense and in space, for continued growth in the economy and the willingness of citizens of the United States to assume the burdens of leadership. Back inside the hotel the President spoke at a breakfast of the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce, focusing on military preparedness. We are still the keystone in the arch of freedom, he said. We will continue to doour duty, and the people of Texas will be in the lead.

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The presidential party left the hotel and went by motorcade to Carswell Air Force Base for the thirteen-minute flight to Dallas. Arriving at Love Field, President and Mrs. Kennedy disembarked and immediately walked toward a fence where a crowd of well-wishers had gathered, and they spent several minutes shaking hands. The First Lady was presented with a bouquet of red roses, which she brought with her to the waiting limousine. Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie, were already seated in the open convertible as the Kennedys entered and sat behind them. Since it was no longer raining, the plastic bubble top had been left off. The procession left the airport and traveled along a ten-mile route that wound through downtown Dallas on the way to the Trade Mart where the President was scheduled to speak at a luncheon. Crowds of excited people lined the streets waving to the Kennedys as they waved back. The car turned off Main Street at Dealey Plaza around 12:30 p.m. As it was passing the Texas School Book Depository, gunfire suddenly reverberated in the plaza. Bullets struck the Presidents neck and head and he slumped over toward Mrs. Kennedy. The Governor was also hit in the chest. The car sped off to Parkland Memorial Hospital just a few minutes away. But there was little that could be done for the President. A Catholic priest was summoned to administer the last rites and at 1:00 p.m. John F. Kennedy was pronounced dead. Governor Connolly, though seriously wounded, would recover. The Presidents body was brought to Love Field and placed on Air Force One. Before the plane took off, a grim-faced Lyndon B. Johnson stood in the tight, crowded compartment and took the oath of office, administered by U.S. District Court Judge Sarah Hughes. The brief ceremony took place at 2:38 p.m. Less than an hour earlier, police had arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a recently-hired employee at the Texas School Book Depository. He was being held for the assassination of President Kennedy. On Sunday morning, the 24th, Oswald was scheduled to be transferred from police headquarters to the county jail. Viewers across America watching the live TV coverage suddenly saw a man aim a pistol and fire at point blank range. The assailant was identified as Jack Ruby, a local nightclub owner. Oswald died two hours later at Parkland Hospital. That same day, President Kennedys flag-draped casket was moved from the White House to the Capitol on a caisson drawn by six grey horses, accompanied by one riderless black horse. The cortege and other ceremonial details were modeled on the funeral of Abraham Lincoln at Mrs. Kennedys request. Crowds lined Pennsylvania Avenue and many wept openly as the caisson passed. During the 21 hours that the Presidents body lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda, about 250,000 people filed by to pay their respects. On Monday, November 25, 1963 President Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery. The funeral was attended by heads of state and representatives from more than 100 countries, with untold millions more watching on television. Afterward, an eternal flame was lit at the grave site by Mrs. Kennedy and her husbands brothers, Robert and Edward. Perhaps the most indelible images of the day were the salute to his father given by little John F. Kennedy, Jr. (whose third birthday it was), daughter Caroline kneeling next to her mother at the Presidents bier, and the extraordinary grace and dignity shown by Jacqueline Kennedy.

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4.3. Death of Malcolm X

Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 February 21, 1965), also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, was an African American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. His detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history. Early on the morning of February 14, 1965, Malcolm and his family were peacefully asleep in their home in Elmhurst, New York. They were suddenly awakened by the sounds of shattering glass and explosions. Several Molotov cocktails had been thrown through their living room window, engulfing the house in roaring flames. Malcolm and his wife, Betty, quickly gathered their children and rushed out of the burning house. Once safe, they stood outside in the cold air, watching as their home and possessions burned. It was never determined who had tried to kill them, though Malcolm did tell authorities he thought it may have been the NOI. The Audubon Ballroom was almost full on that cold February day in New York City. Only the week before Malcolm had quickly ushered his family out of their firebombed house. Nothing had gone right since then. On the evening of September 20th, right after an OAAU business meeting, Earl Grant, a good friend, had asked Malcolm to spend the night at his apartment. Malcolm expressed concern about the safety of his friend and his family, knowing that the dangers to him could impact those around him. He gently refused Earls kind offer. That next afternoon, over 400 followers of Islam crowded the ballroom, anxiously awaiting the guest speaker, Brother Malcolm X. No uniformed police were visible inside the Audubon, but two were stationed outside the entrance. It was common knowledge that an attempt on Malcolms life was a real possibility. Several dozen police officers were across the street in the hospital, supposedly positioned there at Malcolms request because he thought their presence in front of the ballroom would create discomfort to those coming to hear him speak. Malcolms wife, Betty Shabazz, later denied that her husband ever made such a request. Malcolm always feared being assassinated and would not refuse protection. Inside the Audubon Ballroom, several dark-suited NOI guards were positioned near the stage and towards the rear of the room. As soldiers of the NOI, the militancy of the neatly dressed men was evident in their demeanor, as they surveyed the room, quietly watching the seating of late arrivals. Malcolm X, his pregnant wife and their four children waited in an anteroom. It was a tense and nervous Malcolm X who ordered two of his guards to take his family out into the hall to their seats in a box near the front of the stage. Seemingly irritated and exhausted, Malcolm X mentioned to his aides that he had reservations about speaking. They tried to get him settled down, without success. Malcolms misgivings were reflected in his taut features as his restless eyes darted around the room toward the men. He listened to brother Benjamin Goodman making the opening speech. Getting to his feet, Malcolm waved away the men guarding him and forced a slight smile, Malcolm calmly waited backstage. At approximately 3:08 pm, brother Benjamin ended his speech and introduced Malcolm X, who walked out onto the stage to a lengthy ovation. Malcolm stepped up to a wooden podium and looked out at the audience. When the applause finally settled down, he offered the - 23 -

audience the Muslim greeting and smiled when they responded in-kind. Just as he began to speak again, a commotion broke out near the rear of the ballroom. Two men jumped up, knocking wooden folding-chairs to the floor, as one of the men yelled, Get your hand out of my pocket! As Malcolm responded with, Cool it there, brothers, a loud explosion suddenly erupted in the back of the room, which began to fill with smoke. Malcolms bodyguards and aides hardly had time to react as the well coordinated ruses effectively diverted their attention from him, allowing unopposed gunmen to begin their attack. A man rose from the front row and pulled out a double-barreled, sawed-off shotgun from under his coat and fired twice at Malcolm. Both shots tore through the podium, striking Malcolm in the middle of his chest. Simultaneously, as Malcolm was falling backwards and clutching his bloody chest, two more men jumped up and fired pistols at him as they rushed the stage. Although Malcolm was down, the two men repeatedly fired bullets into his body before turning and running to flee the premises. More shots were fired as they ran. Several of Malcolms followers rushed to his aid. By the time they reached him the entire ballroom was in total chaos. Most of the panicked crowd attempted to flee the smoke-filled room and frightening onslaught, while others rushed to violently attack the fleeing perpetrators. Betty Shabazz, shielded her children with her body beneath a bench. As soon as the shooting ceased, she rushed toward the still body of her husband as she screamed,Theyre killing my husband! Theyre killing my husband! When she reached his side she realized he was dead, despite the frantic efforts of followers trying to stop the flow of blood from his bullet riddled body. One of the assassins managed to escape by climbing through a bathroom window, while two other accomplices tried to flee down a flight of stairs and were pummeled with chairs and whatever else the angry and frightened crowd could find. One suspect, 22-year old Talmadge Hayer (aka. Thomas Hagan), was shot in the leg by one of Malcolms bodyguards and was unable to flee the wrath of the angry mob that followed him out of the building. Hayer was being kicked and beaten before two uniformed policemen rescued him from possible death. His fellow accomplice managed to escape after being knocked down by an undercover policeman named Gene Roberts, a member of BOSS (Bureau of Special Services). Roberts had grown so close to Malcolm X that the leader and his followers called him brother Gene. Roberts then rushed to the stage and attempted to resuscitate the profusely bleeding Malcolm X. A litter was provided from the hospital across the street and Malcolm was quickly taken to the emergency room, where the attending heart surgeon tried to revive him. A few minutes later, Malcolm X was pronounced dead.

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4.4. Death of Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the African-American civil rights movement. His main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States and he is frequently referenced as a human rights icon today. King is recognized as a Saint by two Christian churches. A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, serving as its first president. King's efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history. On April 4, 1968 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated by a sniper as he stood on the balcony of his hotel room in Memphis, TN. News of his death was greeted with an outpouring of grief and rage. Riots erupted all over the country, primarily in black urban areas. At least 110 cities experienced violence and destruction in the next few days, resulting in roughly $50 million in damage. Of the 39 people who died, 34 were black. The worst riots were in Chicago, Baltimore and Washington, D.C. Over 22,000 federal troops and 34,000 national guard were sent to aid local police -- the largest ever called to deal with domestic civil disturbance. In many cities the devastation was so great that left a permanent scar, which was still evident decades later. In Atlanta, King's family and his organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), arranged his funeral. A controversial public figure, repeatedly praised and vilified, his life had been threatened many times. King himself had said that he did not expect to live a long life. Sympathy poured forth from all over the world. In several countries marches were held to honor his memory. In this country, schools were closed in some cities and workers given time off to participate in services and commemorative events. Senator Edward Kennedy chartered a plane to take King's body home. At least thirty planes and one hundred busses were chartered from around the country to bring mourners to Atlanta. On April 9 he was buried in the family plot at South View cemetery; eventually his remains were moved to the King Center for Non-Violence.

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Riot in Chicago In Chicago, violence erupted in the black ghetto on the west side, eventually consuming a 28-block stretch of West Madison Street. Looting and arson took place primarily in the corridor between Roosevelt Rd. on the south and Chicago Ave. on the north. The next day Mayor Richard J. Daley imposed a curfew on anyone under age 21, closed streets to automobile traffic and banned the sale of guns, ammunition and inflammable materials. About 10,500 police were sent in to protect the fire fighters, soon joined by 6,700 Illinois National Guards. After President Lyndon Johnson ordered 5,000 troops into the city, the General in charge declared that no one, including residents, would be allowed to congregate in riot areas. He ordered his troops to use tear gas against looters; Mayor Daley told the Chicago police to shoot to kill. It took two days to restore order, though some youth bands continued sporadic looting and burning. There were over 125 fires. Eleven people - all black - were dead and over five hundred were injured. Almost three thousand persons were arrested. Many buildings were burned to the ground; others were damaged so badly they had to be taken down before they collapsed. The 210 buildings affected were worth roughly $10 million. Power lines and telephone lines were knocked out. At least a thousand people were left homeless. The destruction was concentrated on the west side, though there was some in the south side ghetto and the near north side. The south side ghetto escaped the devastation that plagued the west side one primarily because two large and well-organized street gangs, the Blackstone Rangers and the East Side Disciples, co-operated in controlling their own neighborhoods. Their leaders did not want to see them ravaged and ruined. The looted stores were largely black stores in black neighborhoods. Much of the looting involved crimes of opportunity; men's clothing stores were particularly hard hit, followed by liquor, furniture, appliances and food. When the riots ended there was a food shortage in the area, barely met by volunteers bringing in food from other areas. Some stores escaped destruction by writing "soul brother" on the windows. While the destruction was selective, some made no sense. A health clinic in Chicago which provided free health care to infants and children was burned to the ground.

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4.5. Death of John Lennon

John Lennon was an English rock musician who gained worldwide fame as one of the founders of The Beatles, for his subsequent solo career, and for his political activism. He was shot to death by Mark David Chapman at the entrance of the building where he lived, The Dakota, on December 8, 1980; Lennon had just returned from the Record Plant Studio with his wife, Yoko OnoAs Lennon and Ono walked to their limousine, they were approached by several people seeking autographs, among them Chapman. He silently handed Lennon a copy of Double Fantasy, and Lennon obliged with an autograph. After signing the album Lennon asked him, "Is this all you want?" Chapman nodded in agreement. Photographer and Lennon fan Paul Goresh snapped photos of them both. The Lennons spent several hours at the Record Plant studio before returning to the Dakota at about 10:50 p.m. Lennon decided against eating out so he could be home in time to say goodnight to five-year-old son Sean before he went to sleep. They exited their limousine on 72nd Street, even though the car could have been driven into the more secure courtyard. The Dakota's doorman, Jose Perdomo, and a cab driver saw Chapman standing in the shadows by the archway. Ono walked ahead of Lennon and into the reception area. As Lennon passed by, Chapman fired five hollow-point bullets at Lennon from a Charter Arms .38 Special revolver. There was an isolated radio and newspaper claim at the time that, before firing, Chapman called out "Mr. Lennon" and dropped into a "combat stance", but this is not stated in court hearings or witness interviews. Chapman has said he did not remember calling out Lennon's name before he shot him. One shot missed, passing over Lennon's head and hitting a window of the Dakota building. However, two shots struck Lennon in the left side of his back and two more penetrated his left shoulder. All four bullets inflicted severe gunshot wounds, with at least one of them piercing Lennon's aorta. Lennon staggered up five steps to the security/reception area, said, "I'm shot," and collapsed. Concierge Jay Hastings covered Lennon with his uniform, and removed his glasses; he then summoned the police. Outside, doorman Perdomo shook the gun out of Chapman's hand then kicked it across the sidewalk.Chapman then removed his coat and hat in preparation for the police arrival to show he was not carrying any concealed weapons and sat down on the sidewalk. Doorman Perdomo shouted at Chapman, "Do you know what you've done?", to which Chapman calmly replied, "Yes, I just shot John Lennon." The first policemen to arrive were Steve Spiro and Peter Cullen, who were at 72nd Street and Broadway when they heard a report of shots fired at the Dakota. The officers found Chapman sitting "very calmly" on the sidewalk. They reported that Chapman had dropped the revolver to the ground, and was holding a paperback book, J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. Chapman had scribbled a message on the book's inside front cover: "This is my statement. -- The Catcher in the Rye." He would later claim that his life mirrored that of Holden Caulfield, the main protagonist of the book.

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The second team, Officers Bill Gamble and James Moran, arrived a few minutes later. They immediately carried Lennon into their squad car and rushed him to Roosevelt Hospital. Officer Moran said they placed Lennon on the back seat. Moran asked, "Do you know who you are?". There are conflicting accounts on what happened next. In one account, Lennon nodded slightly and tried to speak, but could only manage to make a gurgling sound, and lost consciousness shortly thereafter. Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival in the emergency room at the Roosevelt Hospital at 11:07 p.m. by Dr. Stephan Lynn. The cause of death was reported as hypovolemic shock, caused by the loss of more than 80% of blood volume. Dr. Elliott M. Gross, the Chief Medical Examiner, said that no one could have lived more than a few minutes with such multiple bullet injuries. As Lennon was shot four times using hollow-point bullets, which expand upon entering the target and severely disrupt more tissue as it travels through the target, Lennon's affected organs were virtually destroyed upon impact. Ono, crying "Oh no, no, no, no... tell me it's not true," was taken to Roosevelt Hospital and led away in shock after she learned that her husband was dead. The following day, Ono issued a statement: "There is no funeral for John. John loved and prayed for the human race. Please do the same for him. Love, Yoko and Sean." Lennon was cremated on December 10, 1980, at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York, and his ashes were given to Ono. Chapman pleaded guilty to second degree murder and was sentenced to 20 years to life. He is still in prison, having been denied parole five times.

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4.6. Death of Tupac Shakur

"Live by the gun, die by the gun.

Tupac Shakur was born Tupac Amaru Shakur (Tupac means "shining serpent" in Inca) in New York City in 1971. He went on to have very successful careers as an actor & rapper. On September 7, 1996, Tupac was in Las Vegas to attend a boxing match between Mike Tyson and Bruce Seldon. He was staying at the Luxor HotelCasino. The fight was being held at the MGM Grand Hotel, and he was attending with Marion Suge Knight. Knight is the co-founder and owner of Death Row Records which was Tupacs recording label. They sat at ringside along with bodyguard Frank Alexander and another friend of Suges, in $1000. seats. Also seated at ringside were actors Louis Gossett Jr. and Charlie Sheen, as well as baseball great Reggie Jackson and the Reverend Jesse Jackson. A song that Tupac had written for Tyson, Wrote the Glory, was played over the public address system as Tyson made his entrance. Tyson won the fight in less than two minutes and everyone got up to leave while Iron Mike fed on the carcass. As Tupac, Suge, and their entourage made their way through the lobby of the MGM to the entrance, they became involved in a scuffle with Orlando Anderson, of Compton, California. Exactly how it started is unknown, but the incident was recorded on the hotel cameras. It was broken up by security guards. Tupac and company left, and Anderson declined to follow through with any charges against the group. Tupac and his crew then headed one block south to the Luxor Hotel. Tupac was sharing a room with Quincy Joness daughter, Kidada. After changing his clothes, he and the rest of the crew headed to Suge Knights house in the Paradise Alley Township of Las Vegas. Kidada stayed behind at the hotel. Tupac was wearing a black and white basketball tank top, with baggy blue jeans and black and white leather sports shoes. Around his neck, on a heavy gold chain, he wore a large gold medallion. Around 10 PM, the group left Knights house to head for Club 662, a nightclub that Suge owned on 1700 East Flamingo Road. Tupac was going to perform with the rap group Run DMC. Tupac was riding in the passenger seat of a black 1996 750 BMW sedan, with Knight driving, and four cars following them. They headed out on the Las Vegas Strip. At 11:05, Knight was stopped on the south end of the Strip by a bicycle cop for playing his music too loudly, and for not having license plates displayed on the BMW. While the car was stopped, a photographer took a picture. It would be the last picture taken of Tupac alive. After talking with the police officer and opening his car trunk, Knight was let go without getting a ticket. The entourage then made a left on to Flamingo Road, drove past the Ballys hotel-casino, and headed towards Club 662 two miles away. The convoy came to a stop for a red light at Koval Lane, which was a half-mile from the Strip. Knights car was boxed in by cars in front and back of him. To the left of the BMW was a Chrysler sedan with four young black women seated inside. They smiled at Knight and Shakur, and the two men smiled back. Then a white late model Cadillac pulled up to the right of the BMW. In it were three or four men. One man stuck a handgun out from the left rear window, and fired thirteen bullets into the BMW. Five bullets pierced the passenger door. Tupac tried to get into the back seat, but he was wearing his seat belt. He was hit three times, once in his chest, another in his right hip, and the third in his right hand. Knight was hit in the back of his neck. Two of the BMWs tires were shot out. The Cadillac then made a right turn - 29 -

onto Koval Lane and took off. Hearing the gunshots, police arrived at the scene. My friend EJ Fleming sends us this, "Suge said that after they were shot, he turned to Tupac and said, "Are you OK Pac?." Tupac saw the blood on Knight's head and said, "Me? You're the one shot in the mother-fuckin' head!" Knight then decided to drive Tupac to the hospital. Trying to drive through heavy traffic on the Strip, his car hit the median, and caused a third tire to go flat, forcing the car to stop. The police arrived, and paramedics were called. Suge and Tupac were taken to University Medical Center, a county hospital nearby. Tupac said over and over, I cant breathe, I cant breathe. As the ambulance got ready to leave, Tupac said, Im dyin, man. At the hospital, he was placed on life support, and underwent three surgeries to try and stop internal bleeding. The second time, his right lung was removed. For six days he was in a drug-induced coma with visitors such as MC Hammer, Mike Tyson, Jasmine Guy, and the Reverend Al Sharpton coming to see him. Tupacs mother, Afeni Shakur, had flown in from Atlanta the day after the shooting. On Friday September 13th, 1996, Tupac Shakur died from his wounds at 4:03 PM. His mother identified his body at 5 PM, and he was taken from the hospital to the morgue three blocks away, where an autopsy was performed. One autopsy photo managed to surface, and here it is. The official cause of death was listed as respiratory failure and cardiopulmonary arrest, in connection with multiple gunshot wounds. After a small service in Las Vegas, Tupac was cremated, and probably scattered at sea. Two more services would be held in Tupacs memory, one in Harlem, and the second in Atlanta. To date, no one has been arrested in connection to the killing. One of the others in the entourage, Yafeu Fala, was in the car behind the BMW. He said that he saw the shooting, and would testify. Two months later, he was murdered in New Jersey. Some say that Tupac was killed due to his ties with gangs, which he denied. Others say that he was killed because his mother was once a Black Panther. There was also a supposed feud between Death Row Records and the New York based Bad Boy Records, run by Sean P. Diddy Combs. He also had an ongoing rivalry with Christopher Wallace, AKA the Notorious B.I.G. His mother continues to release his music, and he has made more money now than when he was alive. Two films featuring Shakur, Gang Related and Gridlockd, were released in 1997.

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5. Criminal psychology 5.1. Antisocial personality disorder

Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual as a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood." Deceit and manipulation are considered essential features of the disorder. Therefore, it is essential in making the diagnosis to collect material from sources other than the individual being diagnosed. Also, the individual must be age 18 or older as well as have a documented history of a conduct disorder before the age of 15. People having antisocial personality disorder are sometimes referred to as "sociopaths" and "psychopaths", although some researchers believe that these terms are not synonymous with ASPD. Diagnostic criteria Three or more of the following are required: Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest; Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure; Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults; Reckless disregard for safety of self or others; Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations; Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another. Symptoms Characteristics of people with antisocial personality disorder may include:

Persistent lying or stealing Superficial charm Apparent lack of remorse or empathy; inability to care about hurting others Inability to keep jobs or stay in school Impulsivity and/or recklessness Lack of realistic, long-term goals -- an inability or persistent failure to develop and execute long-term plans and goals Inability to make or keep friends, or maintain relationships such as marriage Poor behavioral controls -- expressions of irritability, annoyance, impatience, threats, aggression, and verbal abuse; inadequate control of anger and temper Narcissism, elevated self-appraisal or a sense of extreme entitlement A persistent agitated or depressed feeling (dysphoria) A history of childhood conduct disorders Recurring difficulties with the law Tendency to violate the boundaries and "rights" of others Substance abuse

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Aggressive, often violent behavior; prone to getting involved in fights Inability to tolerate boredom Disregard for the safety of self or others People with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder often experience difficulties with authority figures.

5.1.1. Psychopaty
Psychopathy is a psychological construct that describes chronic immoral and antisocial behavior. The term is often used interchangeably with sociopathy. The term is used as a definition in law, for example, "psychopathic personality disorder" under the Mental Health Act 1983 of the UK as well as to denote a severe condition often related to antisocial or dissocial personality disorder as defined by the Psychopathy ChecklistRevised . The term "psychopathy" is often confused with psychotic disorders. It is estimated that approximately one percent of the general population are psychopaths. The psychopath is defined by a psychological gratification in criminal, sexual, or aggressive impulses and the inability to learn from past mistakes. Individuals with this disorder gain satisfaction through their antisocial behavior and lack remorse for their actions. This definition has been met with criticism from Gregory Hilliard stating that these characteristics are present in all human life under a specific set of circumstances, even in the absence of any physical difference in biological brain makeup. Description Lack of a conscience in conjunction with a weak ability to defer gratification and/or control aggressive desires, often leads to antisocial behaviors. Psychopathy does not necessarily lead itself to criminal and violent behavior. Instead, psychopaths high in social cognition may be able to redirect their antisocial desires in a different, non-criminal manner. Psychopaths (and others on the pathological narcissism scale) low in social cognition are more prone to violence against others, failure in occupational settings, and problems maintaining relationships. All psychopaths differ in their impulse control abilities, and overall desires. Psychopaths high in the pathological narcissism scale are more equipped to succeed, but pathological narcissism does not in any way guarantee success.

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5.2. Sadistic personality disorder

Sadistic personality disorder is a diagnosis which only appeared in the revised third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R). The current version of the DSM does not include it, so it is no longer considered a valid diagnostic category. There appears to be a genetic component to the disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria:

Sadistic personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of cruel, demeaning, and aggressive behavior, beginning by early adulthood, as indicated by the repeated occurrence of at least four of the following: Has used physical cruelty or violence for the purpose of establishing dominance in a relationship (not merely to achieve some noninterpersonal goal, such as striking someone in order to rob him/her). Humiliates or demeans people in the presence of others. Has treated or disciplined someone under his/her control unusually harshly. Is amused by, or takes pleasure in, the psychological or physical suffering of others (including animals). Has lied for the purpose of harming or inflicting pain on others (not merely to achieve some other goal). Gets other people to do what he/she wants by frightening them (through intimidation or even terror). Restricts the autonomy of people with whom he or she has a close relationship. Is fascinated by violence, weapons, injury, or torture.

5.2.1 Sadism and masochism

Sadism refers to sexual or non-sexual gratification in the infliction of pain or humiliation upon another person. Masochism refers to sexual or non-sexual gratification from receiving the infliction of pain or humiliation. Often interrelated, the practices are collectively known as sadomasochism as well as S&M or SM. These terms usually refer to consensual practices within the BDSM community.

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Both terms were coined by German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing in his 1886 compilation of case studies Psychopathia Sexualis. Pain and physical violence are not essential in Krafft-Ebing's conception, and he defined masochism (German "Masochismus") entirely in terms of control. Sigmund Freud, a psychoanalyst and a contemporary of KrafftEbing, noted that both were often found in the same individuals, and combined the two into a single dichotomous entity known as sadomasochism (German "Sadomasochismus"). This observation is commonly verified in both literature and practice; many sadists and masochists define themselves as "switchable"capable of taking pleasure in either role. However it has also been argued (Deleuze, Coldness and Cruelty) that the concurrence of sadism and masochism in Freud's model should not be taken for granted. Many theorists, particularly feminist theories, have suggested that sadomasochism is an inherent part of modern Western culture. According to their theories, sex and relationships are both consistently taught to be formulated within a framework of male dominance and female submission. Some of them further link this hypothesized framework to inequalities among gender, class, and race which remain a substantial part of society, despite the efforts of the civil rights movement and feminism. There are a number of reasons commonly given for why a sadomasochist finds the practice of S&M enjoyable, and the answer is largely dependent on the individual. For some, taking on a role of compliance or helplessness offers a form of therapeutic escape; from the stresses of life, from responsibility, or from guilt. For others, being under the power of a strong, controlling presence may evoke the feelings of safety and protection associated with childhood. They likewise may derive satisfaction from earning the approval of that figure. A sadist, on the other hand, may enjoy the feeling of power and authority that comes from playing the dominant role, or receive pleasure vicariously through the suffering of the masochist. It is poorly understood, though, what ultimately connects these emotional experiences to sexual gratification, or how that connection initially forms. Dr. Joseph Merlino, author and psychiatry adviser to the New York Daily News, said in an interview that a sadomasochistic relationship, as long as it is consensual, is not a psychological problem: It's a problem only if it is getting that individual into difficulties, if he or she is not happy with it, or it's causing problems in their personal or professional lives. If it's not, I'm not seeing that as a problem. But assuming that it did, what I would wonder about is what is his or her biology that would cause a tendency toward a problem, and dynamically, what were the experiences this individual had that led him or her toward one of the ends of the spectrum Joseph Merlino With the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1994 new criteria of diagnosis were available describing Sadomasochism clearly not as disorders of sexual preferences. They are now not regarded as illnesses in and of themselves. This asserts that "The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors" must "cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning" in order for sexual sadism or masochism to be considered a disorder. The manuals' latest edition requires that the activity must be the sole means of sexual gratification for a period of six months, and either cause "clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning" or involve a violation of consent to be diagnosed as a paraphilia. Overlays of sexual preference disorders and the practice of Sadomasochism practices can occur, however. without consent, its attempted murder/rape.

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5.2.2. Zoosadism

Zoosadism is a term coined by Ernest Borneman referring to pleasure (sometimes sexual pleasure) derived from cruelty to animals. Zoosadism is part of the Macdonald triad, a set of three behaviors that are a precursor to Sociopathic behavior. Zoosadism is, in a relatively harmless form, frequently exhibited by people who never go on to engage in any type of crime involving the harming of a person or a legally protected entity. The classic example of this subvariety of "schoolyard viciousness" is the child who relishes plucking out a fly's wings, who enjoys sticking beetles with pins and watching them squirm, or who finds pleasure in the expectation that a butterfly caught in a web will soon be exsanguinated by the spider. The seductive, possibly addictive, power of this type of activity, exhibited by even the "good and the great," is attested to both by ancient and modern sources. The Roman writer Plutarch, in his Parallel Lives, claims that the Emperor Domitian amused himself by catching flies and impaling them with needles. The contemporary American humorist David Sedaris (known for his NewYorkeresque sophistication) has said, with seeming navet, that he enjoys feeding insects to spiders and watching as they devour them.

Signs of pet abuse:

Unusually frightened, fearful or subdued Fractures Bruising Eye injuries Scalds and burns Munchausens Syndrome by Proxy Signs of malnutrition Significant matting or other poor grooming indicators Ignored health problems Injury history incompatible with injury or owner refuses to comment on how injury occurred Owner shows lack of concern for animals injuries

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6. Crime movies

6.1. Silence of the lambs

To enter the mind of a killer she must challenge the mind of a madman.

Jodie Foster stars as a young rookie FBI agent Clarice Starling, who is one of many agents working on the case of finding a missing girl. The girl is in the clutches of 'Buffalo Bill', a psychopathic serial killer who skins his victims. As a rookie, Starling is sent on the most routine enquiries - in this case, interviewing an incarcerated serial killer called Hannibal Lecter (Anthony Hopkins), who was once a respected psychiatrist, to see if he can provide any insight into the case. Starling discovers that Lecter may be insane, but he is also quite brilliant, manipulative and dangerous. Starling realises that she will have to play a complicated game to gain Lecter's trust in order to gain the information she needs. Not only does he have requests about his treatment in confinement, but also he wants to look into the recesses of Starling's own complex personal life, and he is only forthcoming if she is. If she is to save the missing girl, she will have to deal with both Lecter and 'Buffalo Bill', which will test both her physical and emotional strength. This was the film that really set the standard for killer thrillers and has yet to be surpassed. The pace is perfect, building tension slowly throughout and not loosing its grip until the end, even through the simple face-to-face conversational scenes between Lecter and Starling. Both actors are truly outstanding, with Anthony Hopkins in particular creating an icon of modern cinema with his portrayal of Lecter. There is absolutely no gratuitous violence - although some of the scenes are extreme, on every occasion it is certainly justified by the story. The look of the film contributes to its atmosphere, as does the fine score. There is really very little to find fault with in this classic of the genre.

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6.2. The Texas chainsaw massacre

Sally Hardesty (Marilyn Burns) and her wheelchair-bound brother Franklin (Paul A. Partain) travel with three friends to a cemetery holding the grave of Hardestys' grandfather. The aim to investigate reports of vandalism and corpse defilement. Afterward, they decide to visit an old Hardesty family homestead, and on the way, the group picks up a hitchhiker (Edwin Neal). The man speaks and acts bizarrely, and then slashes himself and Franklin with a straight razor before being forced from the group's van. The group stops at a gas station to fuel their vehicle, but when they find out from the proprietor (Jim Siedow) that the pumps are empty, the group continues to the homestead. Franklin tells Kirk (William Vail) and Pam (Teri McMinn) about a local swimming hole, and the couple heads off to find it. Instead, they stumble upon a nearby house. Kirk decides to ask the residents for some gas, while Pam waits on the front steps. Receiving no answer but finding the door unlocked, Kirk enters the house; Leatherface (Gunnar Hansen) immediately murders him. Pam enters soon after to find the house filled with furniture made from human bones. She attempts to flee but is caught by Leatherface and impaled on a meathook. At sunset, Sally's boyfriend Jerry (Allen Danziger) heads out to look for the others. Finding the couple's blanket outside the neighboring house, he investigates and finds Pam still alive inside a freezer. Before he can react, Leatherface appears and kills him, stuffing Pam back inside the freezer afterward. With darkness falling, Sally and Franklin set out to find their friends. As they near the killer's house, calling for the others, Leatherface lunges out of the darkness and murders Franklin with a chainsaw. Sally escapes to the house only to find the desiccated remains of an elderly couple in an upstairs room. With Leatherface still pursuing her, she jumps through a window and continues to flee, eventually arriving at the gas station. As she reaches it, Leatherface disappears into the night. The proprietor at first calms her with offers of help, then binds her with rope and forces her into his truck. He drives to the house, arriving at the same time as the hitchhiker, who is his younger brother. The pair bring Sally inside, with the hitchhiker taunting her when he realizes who she is. The men torment the bound and gagged Sally while Leatherface, now dressed as a woman, serves dinner. The old man from upstairs is still alive, and brought to the table to join the meal. During the night, they decide Sally should be killed by "Grandpa" (John Dugan) out of respect for his work at the slaughter house when he was younger. "Grandpa" is too weak to hit Sally with a hammer, repeatedly dropping it. In the confusion, Sally escapes from the house, running out into the road. Leatherface and the hitchhiker give chase, but the hitch hiker is run down and killed by a passing semi-trailer truck. Armed with his chainsaw, Leatherface attacks the truck when the driver stops to help, and is hit in the face with a large wrench. Sally escapes in the bed of a passing pickup truck, as Leatherface waves the chainsaw above his head in frustration.

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6.3. Saw I
Photographer Adam Faulkner (Leigh Whannell) awakens in a bathtub full of water, at one end of a grimy and disused bathroom. At the other end is Dr. Lawrence Gordon (Cary Elwes); both men are chained by the ankle to the plumbing pipes. A corpse holding a revolver and a microcassette recorder lies on the floor between them. Lawrence and Adam each discover tapes in their pockets labeled "Play Me". From these tapes, Adam is told that he must escape the bathroom, while Lawrence is told that he must kill Adam before six o'clock, or else his wife and daughter will be killed and he will be left to die where he sits. They find Hacksaws, though neither is sharp enough to cut through the chains. Adam breaks his and throws it away in frustration. Lawrence realizes that the saws are not meant for the chains, but instead for their feet. Lawrence determines that their captor is the Jigsaw Killer, so named due to his practice of cutting pieces of skin in the shape of a jigsaw puzzle piece from his victims. The name is a misnomer, says Lawrence, as he never directly murders anyone and his intentions are for his victims to survive with a better appreciation of life. In a series of flashbacks of his previous victims are presented, including his only known survivor up to that point, a highly traumatized heroin addict named Amanda Young (Shawnee Smith). She believes that her experience in the test, in which she risked having her jaws ripped apart, has made her a better person. While Adam and Lawrence search for alternative escape routes, Zep Hindle (Michael Emerson) breaks into the Gordon house and captures Lawrence's wife, Alison (Monica Potter), and daughter, Diana (Makenzie Vega). Zep is an orderly at Lawrence's hospital who was present when he was talking with some students about John Kramer's terminal brain cancer. While psychologically toying with Alison and Diana, Zep monitors Adam and Lawrence through video surveillance. Simultaneously, the house is being observed by Detective David Tapp (Danny Glover). Tapp became obsessed with the Jigsaw case after hearing Amanda's testimony. He and his partner, Steven Sing (Ken Leung), illegally broke into a warehouse that turned out to be one of Jigsaw's lairs. In the lair, they saved a man from being killed by drills aimed at his neck. Before they could secure Jigsaw's arrest, however, Sing was killed by a booby trap, and Jigsaw escaped after slashing Tapp's throat. Tapp was dismissed from the police force and is now stalking Lawrence, convinced that he is the Jigsaw Killer. In the bathroom, Lawrence finds a cell phone that can only receive calls. He and Adam try to stage Adam's death, but an electric shock through the latter's ankle chain foils this plan. Following these events, Adam and Lawrence recall their abductions; they were both ambushed and knocked unconscious by a stranger wearing a gruesome pig mask. Lawrence receives a call from Alison, who warns him that Adam knows more than he is telling. Adam explains that he had been paid by Tapp to trail and photograph Lawrence and shows him a pile of pictures that he found with the hacksaws. Lawrence begins to berate Adam, but grows defensive when Adam shows Lawrence evidence that he has been cheating on his wife. The - 38 -

two begin arguing, but are distracted when Adam notices a picture of Zep in Lawrence's house. They deduce that Zep is their abductor. Just as this realization is made, however, Adam points out that it is six o'clock, the deadline. Alison frees herself from Zep, and a struggle ensues. Gunshots are fired, attracting the attention of Tapp, who distracts Zep long enough for Alison and her daughter to flee. Zep shoots Tapp in the chest and races to the sewers, intent on killing Lawrence, who is only aware of the sounds of gunfire and screaming. Desperate to help his family and unable to reach the phone after throwing it aside, he saws off his foot and shoots Adam with the corpse's revolver, using a bullet that had been enclosed with his tape. Zep enters the bathroom to kill Lawrence, but Adam springs up (having suffered a non-fatal wound) and beats Zep to death with a toilet tank cover. Lawrence slowly crawls away, promising to get help and return for Adam. Adam searches Zep's body for a key, but finds another microcassette player instead. Adam learns that Zep was only a pawn in Jigsaw's game, following rules laid down for him in order to get the antidote for a slow poison he had been given. The "corpse" in the middle of the floor slowly rises to its feet, peeling some bloody makeup from its face and revealing itself as John Kramer, the Jigsaw Killer. Adam reaches for Zep's dropped pistol, but Jigsaw stuns him with an electrical shock from a hidden remote control. He tells Adam that the key for his chain was in the bath, which we saw Adam accidentally pull the plug out of with his foot at the beginning of the film. Jigsaw then flicks off the lights and shouts "Game over!" before slamming the door and sealing Adam in the bathroom forever.

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7. Conclusion

I have chosen this subject because I think crimes are a part of the modern society. For most of the people, this subject gives a shiver on their spinal, but we all know that murders existed since the Genesis of the world, when we are told about the first crime, a fratricide - Cain kills his younger brother, Abel- . Along the centuries crimes had changed, for example in the Middle Ages the two most common of crime was theft and murder. People used weapons like swords and daggers to kill with and usually stole rare goods,food and crops. The punishments for some of these crimes could be brutal, one of the punishments was throwing people into rivers after they had been tied up. If they came up for air then they were guilty, if they drowned then they were innocent. Today judgment is very different to what it was back then and it is much more reliable and sophisticated. I think that the 20th century was a century that had a lot of true stories about gangsters, bombings, massacres, and genocide, also taking into consideration the First and Secod World Wars where millions of people died. Another interesting crimes and scandals of the 20th century were Mata Hari Shot for Espionage, the theft of Mona Lisa, the most famous painting in the world, the murder of Rasputin and other crimes similar to these. The punishments for these crimes and the crimes described in this certificate were often represented by the capital punishment. Capital punishment is often the subject of controversy. Opponents of the death penalty argue that it has led to the execution of innocent people, that life imprisonment is an effective and less expensive substitute, that it discriminates against minorities and the poor, and that it violates the criminal's right to life. Supporters believe that the penalty is justified for murderers by the principle of retribution, that life imprisonment is not an equally effective deterrent, and that the death penalty affirms the right to life by punishing those who violate it in the strictest form. Methods of execution include electrocution, the firing squad or other sorts of shooting, stoning in Islamic countries, the gas chamber, hanging, and lethal injection. All in all I tryied to make an incursion in the most famous criminals crime acts, find the cause of deaths of some important personalities, at the end writing something about the death penalty, the punishment that has been to all serial killers.

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8. Bibliography
1. Ayton, Mel (2005). A Racial Crime: James Earl Ray And The Murder Of Martin Luther King Jr.. Archebooks Publishing. 2. Badman, Keith (1999). The Beatles After the Breakup 1970-2000: A day-by-day diary. 3. Begg, Paul. Jack the Ripper: The Facts. Anova Books, 2006 4. Chibnall, Steve; Petley, Julian (2002). British Horror Cinema. Illustrated: Routledge. pp. 16. 5. Cleckley, M.D., Hervey (1982). The Mask of Sanity (Revised ed.). Mosbey Medical Library. 6. David, S. Lifton, Best Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy (1980) 7. Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992. 8. Haines, Richard W. (2003). The Moviegoing Experience, 1968-2001. McFarland. 9. Hoye, Jacob (2006), Tupac: Resurrection, Atria. 10. IMDb Box office/ Business Information for The Silence of the Lambs Retrieved 14 March 2007. 11. James DiEugenio and Lisa Pease, The Assassinations: JFK, MLK, RFK, and Malcolm X (2003) 12. Jim, Bishop. The Day Lincoln Was Shot, 1955. 13. Jim, Marrs, Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy (New ed. 1990) 14. Kirk, John A. (2005). Martin Luther King, Jr.. Pearson Longman. 15. Larry M. Sturdivan, The JFK Myths: A Scientific Investigation of the Kennedy Assassination (2005) 16. Millon, Theodore; Roger D. Davis (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 17. Myers, Walter Dean. Malcolm X By Any Means Necessary. New York: Scholastic, 1993. 18. Pinedo, Isabel Cristina (1997). Recreational Terror: Women and the Pleasures of Horror Film Viewing. SUNY Press. pp. 48. 19. Price, E. "From Thug Life to Legend: Realization of a Black Folk Hero". Harvard University. 2003.

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20. Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years IV. Harcourt, Brace & World, 1936. 21. Seaman, Fred (1991). The Last Days of John Lennon. Birch Lane Press. 23. The Barbara Walters Special, American Broadcast Company, 1992 24. Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Norton, 2007. 25. Vowell, Sarah. Assassination Vacation. Simon and Schuster, 2005. 26. Weaver, James B.; Tamborini, Ronald C. (1996). Horror Films: Current Research on Audience Preferences and Reactions. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 36. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

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