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Organization is a group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall, common goal or set of goals.

||Business organizations can range in size from two people to tens of thousands. || Information System is an integral part of organization > Key elements of organization are:People, Structure,Operating procedures,Politics,Culture ||Organizations are composed of different levels and specialties ||Their structure reveals a clear cut division of labor. ||Experts are employed and trained for different functions. Common Features of Organization Vision : Members of the organization often have some image in their minds about how the organization should be working, how it should appear when things are going well. Mission :An organization operates according to an overall purpose, or mission Values : All organizations operate according to overall values, or priorities in the nature of how they carry out their activities. These values are the personality, or culture of the organization. Strategic Goals: Organizations members often work to achieve several overall accomplishments, or goals, as they work toward their mission. Strategies : Organizations usually follow several overall general approaches to reach their goals. |Systems and Processes that (Hopefully) Are Aligned With Achieving the Goals: Organizations have major subsystems, such as departments, programs, divisions, teams, etc. |Each of these subsystems has a way of doing things to, along with other subsystems, achieve the overall goals of the organization. |these systems and processes are define by plans, policies and procedures.| >>-An Organization co-ordinates work through a structured hierarchy and formal ,standard operating procedures. ||Organizations Require many different kinds of skills and people.,Managers, Knowledge workers( engineers, architects, scientists), design products and services and create new knowledge,, Data Workers(Secretaries,Booke keepers or clerks) process the organizations paperwork,, Production or service workers(Machinists,assemblers or packers) actually produce the organizations products or services || Each Organization has a unique culture or fundamental set of assumptions, values and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of its members Changing the role of Information System in Organization |One way to divide the organization is based on business functions. |,Accounting, Finance, Marketing and Sales,Production and Operations Management, Customer Support,Human Resource Management, Information Services Traditional View of Organization|The traditional view of an organization is that of a hierarchy. |An individual or small group resides at the top.|The number of individuals increases with each successive level.| Executive Manager,Mid-level managers,supervisors,technical and professional workers,clerical workers >>-The Major Business functions are :,Sales and Marketing,Manufacturing, Finance,Accounting,Human Resource|| ,, Purpose,, Selling the Organizations products and services,, Producing products and services,, Managing the organizations financial assets (Cash,stocks,bonds etc.),, Maintaining the organization's financial records(Receipts,Disbursements, paycheks etc.), accounting for the flow of funds,, Attractive ,developing and maintaining the organizations labor force, maintaining employee records || Accounting,, Score keeping function. Records details of company transactions. Allows organization to keep track of revenue. Allows organization to keep track of Inventory. Software to support Accounting Function. Peachtree and Great Plains (Microsoft) Finance. Responsible for acquiring and managing the financial capital (money) for the organization., Determines source of capital, Issue common stock, Issue bonds, Re-invest profits, Typically works closely with accounting. Marketing and Sales, All activities involved with identifying potential customers and customer preferences.,Customer Relationship Management, Data Mining tools are used to track customer preferences., Order processing systems record customer orders.,Sales tracking systems monitor sales activities.|| Production and Operations Management, Concerned with the acquisition of raw materials and the conversion of those materials into finished products., Numerous information systems are needed to keep track of inventories., Bar code tags are used to track inventory., Radio frequency identification is also used to track inventory. || Customer Support: Involves answering all customer questions prior to or after purchase.,, Involves handling all returns and customer complaints.,, Customer Relationship Management|| Human Resource Management: Responsible for hiring, developing training plans, administering compensation, administering benefit plans, and terminating employees.,, Systems to submit claims electronically.,, Web-based systems to accept resumes. || Information Services: Responsible for providing the computing and communications support for the rest of the organization. ,, Acquires computers, networks, and telecommunications systems. ,, Designs and maintains databases.,, Develops or acquires software programs and applications.|| Organization as a System : A system is an organized collection of parts that are highly integrated in order to accomplish an overall goal.| Systems have inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes. Inputs to the system include resources such as raw materials, money, technologies and people. | These inputs go through a process where they're aligned, moved along and carefully coordinated, ultimately to achieve the goals set for the system. | Outputs are tangible results produced by processes in the system, such as products or services for consumers. ||Another kind of result is outcomes, or benefits for consumers, e.g., jobs for workers, enhanced quality of life for customers, etc. || Systems can be the entire organization, or its departments, groups, processes, etc.|| Feedback comes from, e.g., employees who carry out processes in the organization, customers/clients using the products and services, etc. Feedback also comes from the larger environment of the organization, e.g., influences from government, society, economics, and technologies. How Information system affect Organization Organizations collect and distribute information. In the process, they also distort it. Some distortions are intentional. Sometimes employees are asked to summarize data and report it to their supervisors. By definition, summarizing data means leaving some parts of it out. This is one type of distortion that is intentional. Other times, organizations distort data so much as to changes its meaning and value. >>--

An information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect(or retrieve), process, store and distribute information to support decision making ,co-ordination and control in an organization || Information system may help managers and workers analyze problems ,visualize complex subjects and create new products. || Information system contain information about significant people, places and things within the organization or the environment surrounding it Functions of an Information System || An Information system contains Information about an Organization and its Surrounding environment.||Three basic activities Input, Process and Output-Produce the information organization need.||Feedback is the output returned to appropriate people or activities in the organization to evaluate and refine the input.|| Environmental actors such as customers,suppliers,competitors,stockholders and regulatory agencies interact with the organization and its || Business perspective on an Information System ||Information system is more than a computer|| Using Information system requires understanding of the Management ,Technology and Information system shaping the system|| All Information systems can be described as Organizational and Management solutions to challenges posed by the environment Information Systems : An information system(IS) is a set of interrelated elements or components that collect(input), manipulate(processes), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective. | Open System| Close System || Informal Information System| Formal Information System IS is an interdisciplinary field influenced by Computer Science, Political Science, Psychology, Operations Research, Linguistics, Sociology, and Organizational Theory.IS Challenges Information overload, Employee mistrust, Difficult to built, Security Reasons Opportunities, Enhanced global competitiveness, Capture market opportunities, Support corporate strategy, Enhance worker productivity, Improve quality of goods and services Expanding Roles of IS: Data Processing: 1950s-1960s : Management Reporting: 1960s-1970s : Decision support: 1970s-1980s : Strategic and End User Support: 1980s-1990s: Global Internetworking: 1990s-.

cbis- Computer-based Information SystemAn Information System is an organized combination of people, hardware, software, communication, networks and the data resources that collects, transforms and disseminates information in a organization.

MIS is A Computer based system that provides flexible and speedy access to accurate data. MIS is familiar to most managers working in the private , the public and the Government sectors.|| Many MIS are in widespread use by the managers at operational ,middle and senior levels.||Large number of programmers and system analysts are employed by many organizations to build a variety of management information system||MIS = the study of information technology in business settings|| MIS is also term to refer to class of systems used to support operational and tactical decision-making A Model for Problem Solving| Decision Making Phase| Intelligence gathering| Design| Choice| Implementation| Monitoring Goals of an MIS : Provide managers with information: Regular, routine operations: Control, organize and plan better Functional Perspectives of MIS: Financial MIS Will integrate information from multiple sources |Functions |Costing| P&L reporting| Auditing| |Funds management |Manufacturing |Design and Engineering | Master Production Scheduling |Inventory Control |Materials Planning | Manufacturing and Process Control |Quality Control |Marketing |Market research |Web-based market research |E-commerce Technologies (B-2B,C-2-C,B-2-C)|Pricing |Transportation and Logistics |Route and schedule optimization |Human Resources|Accounting Management: Managers perceive business challenges in the environment | They set the Organizational strategy for responding and allocate the human and financial resources to achieve the strategy and co-ordinate the work. ||Managements job is to make-sense out of the many situations faced by the organizations and formulate action plans to solve organizational problems. || They must also create new products and services and even re-create the organization from time-to-time.||A substantial part of Management responsibility is creative work driven by new knowledge and information|| Information Technology can play a powerful role in redirecting and redesigning the organization. Levels of Management It is important to note that the managerial roles and decisions vary at different levels of the Organization.|| Seniors Managers make long range strategic decisions about products and services to produce || Middle Managers carry out the programs and plans of senior management || Operational Managers are responsible for monitoring the firms daily activities. >>-Operations support systems process data generated by business operations MSS Management Support Systems provide information and support needed for effective decision making by managers| TPS : Transaction processing systems, Process business exchanges, Maintain records about the exchanges, Handle routine, yet critical, tasks ,Perform simple calculations Process control systems monitor and control industrial processes.Office automation systems automate office procedures and enhance office communications and productivity.Management information systems ,Routine information for routine decisions, Operational efficiency, Use transaction data as main input, Databases integrate MIS in different functional areas. Decision Support System Interactive support for non-routine decisions or problems, End-users are more involved in creating a DSS than an MIS Executive information systems provides critical information tailored to the information needs of executives || Expert systems are knowledge-based systems that provides expert advice and act as expert consultants to the users| End user computing systems support the direct, hands on use of computers by end users for operational and managerial applications|Business information systems support the operational and managerial applications of the basic business functions of a firm |Strategic information systems provide a firm which strategic products, services, and capabilities for competitive advantage |Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)Integrated programs that can manage a companys entire set of business operations coordinate planning, inventory control, production and ordering Balance Score Card-MIS No single measures can give a broad picture of the organization's health. Instead of a single measure why not a use a composite scorecard involving a number of different measures. Kaplan and Norton devised a framework based on four perspectives financial, customer, internal and learning and growth. The organization should select critical measures for each of these perspectives. Its a new approach to strategic management that was developed in 90s by Dr. Robert Kaplan and Dr. Davis Norton. They recognized some weaknesses and ambiguity in then prevailing traditional approach to Strategic management and thought of a new approach termed as Balance Score Card (BSC).The traditional approach which relies on accounting data. BSC takes a comprehensive balance view of four business aspects Finance Business Process Customer Perspective Learning and Growth Perspective-People . Hence the new approach is called Balance Score Card. A system of corporate appraisal which looks at financial and non-financial elements from a variety of perspectives. |An approach to the provision of information to management to assist strategic policy formation and achievement.|It provides the user with a set of information which addresses all relevant areas of performance in an objective and unbiased fashion. A set of measures that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business. Allows managers to look at the business from four important perspectives. Provides a balanced picture of overall performance highlighting activities that need to be improved. Combines both qualitative and quantitative measures. Relates assessment of performance to the choice of strategy. Includes measures of efficiency and effectiveness. Assists business in clarifying their vision and strategies and provides a means to translate these into action. ADVANTAGES Balance-The primary benefit of a balanced scorecard is the balance Scalability-the same or related metrics can be used at different levels of operations to assess performance Customer Focus Employee Focus, Proactive Approach \\ It clarifies the Organizations vision and enables to think in terms of more clear strategy for action.\ BSC deals with internal business processes and their outcomes and impact of outcomes on business performance

Perspectives-BSC \\ BSC Approach recommends view of organization in four perspectives with setting clear vision and then for evolving effective competitive strategy.\ The Perspectives are:The learning and growth perspectiveThe business process perspectiveThe Customer perspectiveThe Finance Perspective Tools of Strategic Management The environment of business has undergone a radical change during the last two decades. The new tools of strategic management are: total Quality Management (TQM) Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)Economic Value Added (EVA) Market value added (MVA) The BSC provides managers a tool that they need to navigate to future competitive success. Organizations are competing in complex environment. The BSC is made up of four key elements.The elements are: Learning and Growth, Internal Business Process, Customers, Finance, Learning and Growth: HR Perspective, Identity and Resources of the organizational framework Measures: HR Performance, Employee satisfaction,Training,Empowerment and Knowledge creation\\ This perspective works at the ability of employees, Internal business processes will only succeed if adequately skilled and motivated employees, supplied with accurate and timely information are driving them. Internal Business Process-Efficiency Effectiveness perspectives Critical processes necessary for delivery of superior performance in achieving results in key result areas Measures : Project Performance, Operation Performance, Rejection/Reworks, Cycle Times, Success rates , Repeat Business Value. In this perspective the managers must identify the internal mission critical key processes that are crucial to the organization. Customers Satisfaction and Loyalty perspectiveCritical processes necessary for delivery of superior performance in achieving results in key result areas Measures: Market share, Retention, New Customers and Market segment, satisfaction indices, Customers profitability-Customer retention etc. This perspectives aims at identifying the customer and market segments in which the business units will choose to compete. \\ Financial Perspectives It varies from organization to organization but they are based on the expectancy of of the organizations strategic objective. Mesaures: Revenue, Growth, Reductions, Margins, Profitability, Cash Flow, ROI,Forecasts,Financial Ratios. Dash Boards : Dashboards monitor and measure processes performance. Dashboard is more real time in nature. || Scorecard Scorecard charts progress at a point of time , day, week or month towards reaching objectives. Examples-Sales, order book, receivables , payables etc.