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General Introduction into Servohydraulic

Hydraulic Drives Schematic Working Component / Actuator


a

Controler and Sensors

Control element

PLC / Axis Controller

Pump Unit

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Tank
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Moog Product Portfolio


Regelung und Sensorik

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Directional control valve/Function The function of the directional control valve is to control the flow of hydraulic energy in its direction and value (Flow / Pressure).

P T
Neutral Position All ports are blocked

P T
1st Endpostion Flow P->A Flow B->T -> The pistion moves out

P T
2nd Endpositon Flow P->B Flow A->T -> The pistion moves in
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-> The pistion stops


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Directional control valve / Term Directional control valve are named according to their numbers of ports (*1) and by the numbers of switching position
Example : 4/3 way Valve valve has 4 ports and 3 possible switching position A
a

B
o
b

X Y

P T

Example: 4/3 way valve P : Pump, system pressure T : Tank , return line , drain A;B : control ports X : pressure port for pilotstage Y : return port for piltostage a,o,b : switching position of valve

Naming according to the ISO Norm


Valves are always drawn in their neutral position.
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*1: the ports for the pilotstage are not considered at the naming

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Directional control valve / Type Two different types of Valves are used in the hydraulic directional control valve

Valve with a spool


Body

Cartridge valve

Sleeve

Spool with cone Spool

Valve seat

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Definition / Proportional

Proportional Valves: proportional relation between a variable input signal and the hydraulic output (Flow/Pressure). Therefore the hydraulic output of the valve can take infinite values and states.
Flow (Q)

Flow (Q)

Input signal (V)

Switching threshold

Input signal (V)


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In contradiction to the Proportional Valves the solenoid valve can only take two positions or states. Open (max. Flow) or closed (no Flow).
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Use of proportional valve technology

Scenario with a solenoid valve:


Start End

Description: Three cups on the plate should be moved from the position Start to position End by using a piston which is controlled by an standard solenoid valve.

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Question: What will happen with the cups if the solenoid valve will be supplied with electrical power?
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Use of proportional valve technology

Scenario with a solenoid valve:


Start End

Answer: Due to the inertia of the cups, they will fall down from the plate. Explanation: As soon as the solenoid valve is electrically supplied, the valve will be completely opened and the maximum flow will pass the valve. The piston will be immediatelly accelerated to the maximum speed and decelerate to zero speed if the valve is closed.

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Use of proportional valve technology

Scenario with a solenoid valve:


Phase of acceleration and velocity Phase of deceleration

Start

End

Start

End

P
Velocity (v)

T
Velocity (v)

T
Position reached

acceleration distance

deceleration distance

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Use of proportional valve technology

?
What can be done to avoid the drop and crash of the cups?
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Use of proportional valve technology

Scenario with a proportional valve:


Start End

Answer: The solenoid valve will be replaced by a proportional valve. Due to the possibility of a variable output, the machinery controler can be programmed and adapted to several physical and environmental conditions of the application. Now the cups can be moved softly during the different phases of the movements

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Use of proportional valve technology

Scenario with a proportional valve:


Phase of acceleration Phase of constant speed

Start

End

Start

End

P
Distance

T
Distance

speed Acceleration time


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Acceleration time
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Use of proportional valve technology

Scenario with a proportional valve:


Phase of deceleration Position reached

Start

End

Start

End

P
Distance

P
Distance

T
Position

Deceleration speed Acceleration time

Deceleration speed

Acceleration time
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Use of proportional valve technology

Summary Proportional valves will be used if pressure, flow or position have to be changed individually due to the various application demands. They will be used at applications with high requirements (high dynamic / precise positioning) to the close or open loop controler of the application. The variable hydraulic values which are controled by the valve are : Flow (Q) and Pressure (p) These valves are suitable for electrohydraulic position, velocity, pressure or force controled system, including those with high dynamic response requirements.
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Proportional valve / Terms Like the solenoid valves, the proportional valves are also named acccording to the numbers of valve ports. However due to the possibilty to have endless position inside the maximum stroke, the number of the switching position will not be named.
A
a

B
o
b

Example: The schematics beside shows a 4 way valve The proportional feature of the valve is showen by the arrow (here red coloured)

X Y

P T

All other terms are named as for the solenoid valves


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Subdivisions of Proportional-Valves

Moog classified

Proportional valves

into two categories

Servovalves

Proportional valves

Valves with Bushing Spool Assembly

Valves with spool directly installed into the valve body

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Subdivisions of Proportional-Valves

Servovalve versus Proportional valves


Precise axis cut Higher Pressure gain (80% pressure at 2% input signal) better controler accuracy possible Higher dynamic characteristic, especially for pressure controling Higher manufacturing cost caused by the additional bushing.

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Principle concepts of Moog valves

The proportional characteristic of Moogs proportional valves can be realized with two different feedback mechanism

Valve
Mechanical FeedBack
valve (MFB)

Electrical FeedBack
valve (EFB/DDV)

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Principle concepts of Moog valves

Mechanical Feedback Valve


The feedback of the spool position will be realized by a feedbackwire.

Nozzel Flapper Servovalve

Jet Pipe Servovalve

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Principle concepts of Moog valves

Electrical Feedback Valve


The electrical feeback valves are controlled by an intergrated electronic board with a intergrated spool position sensor.

Direct Drive Valve

2 Stage Proportional Valve

2 or 3 Stage Servovalve Ventil

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