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# Digital Logic Design (EEN1036) Tutorial No.

1 Introduction to Digital Logic Design, Number Systems and Binary Arithmetic 1. When designing a digital system for a specific application, the selection of the logic gates has to be made properly. Several factors have to be contemplated: immunity to induced noise, temperature range of the operating environment, gate switching speed requirements, loading effects upon the gates and power supply requirements. For the first factor, a figure below describes common noise margins of a logic gate:
Gate 1 output Gate 2 input

## Actual high-level output range

VOH(m ) in
Worst-case high-level noise margin

## Allowable highlevel input range

VIH(m ) in
Worst-case low-level noise margin

VIL(m ) ax VOL(mx) a
Allowable lowlevel input range

## Actual low level-output range

Calculate the amount of induced noise that can be added to the input of a standard TTL NAND gate for logic-0 and logic-1 (positive logic is to be employed here) by referring to the figure above. The parameters for a standard TTL NAND are VOL(max) =0.4V, VIL(max) =0.8V, VIH(min) =2V, VOH(min) =2.4V. 2. The transmission of information over a long distance can be made either through analog or digital signals. Normally, the channels (mediums) conveying the signals are not perfect. They often introduce noise and attenuation. For analog signals, we use amplifiers to amplify back the attenuated signals. As for digital signals, repeaters are employed. Draw the signals+noise received at the destination for the digital signal in figure below. Discuss the impact of digital signals+noise after passing repeaters (to overcome attenuation, more than one repeaters needed). Draw the conclusion of digital signals immunity towards noise.
Digital Logic Design (EEN1036)

1 4V 0V Digital Signal

0.3V Channel
Noise

*P.S: Use the common characteristics of TTL 3. Convert the following binary numbers in decimal: 101110; 1110101; and 110110100. 4. Convert the following decimal numbers to the bases indicated. a. 7562 to octal b. 1938 to hexadecimal c. 175 to binary 5. Show the value of all bits of a 12-bit register that hold the number equivalent to decimal 215 in (a) binary; (b) octal; (c) hexadecimal; (d) binary-coded decimal (BCD). 6. A computer represents information in groups of 48 bits. How many different integers can be represented in (a) binary, (b) BCD, and (c) 8-bit ASCII, all using 48 bits? 7. The following calculation was performed by a particular breed of unusually intelligent chicken. If the radix r used by the chicken corresponds to its total number of toes, how many toes does the chicken have on each foot? ((35)r + (24)r) (21)r = (1501)r

## Digital Logic Design (EEN1036)

8. Convert the following numbers from the given base to the other three bases listed in the table: (correct to 3 decimal places) Decimal 289.45 ? ? ? Binary ? 1000101.111 ? ? Octal ? ? 235.5 ? Hexadecimal ? ? ? E5A8.A