You are on page 1of 7


An Intruder Alarm system is used to detect the entry of an intruder or outsider into a guarded place . An intruder alarm panel basically has inputs and outputs . The inputs are devices which can detect an intrusion . The outputs are devices like sounders which are activated depending upon active states of certain inputs. A set of inputs can be used to monitor a specific area . This area can be classified as a zone. The input devices are wireless or hardwired .In this article we will discuss the features of PIR as an input device. PIIR : The term PIR stands for Passive Infra RED. PR: The PIR does not emit IR rays but only detects IR rays emitted by warm bodies like moving human beings and animals . The PIR basically detects rapid changes in IR levels. Humans emit infrared rays at a wavelength of 9 to 10 micro meters. Therefore the sensors are tuned to be sensitive in the range of typically 8 to 12 micrometers. The PIR focusses into the area of detection in the form of beams. The PIR consists of pyroelectric sensors which produces a output voltage when exposed to IR rays. This sensor has 2 sensing elements. When a person crosses the focussing beam areas of a PIR the sensors are exposed to IR rays 1 by 1. The PIR will have a focussing element called a Fresnel lens. This lens helps increase the field of view and also the detection range of the PIR. Infrared light coming into the sensor is focused on two identical detector elements by the fresnel lens. The detector elements are connected to oppose each other, so only the difference is output. When everything is stationary, the two detectors are equal, and the output is zero. When the IR light is moving, the detectors are unbalanced, and produce a small output. The small output of the detector is amplified.

Voltage from 1 st sensing element

Voltage from 2 nd sensing element

Environmental conditions such as temperature changes and sunlight will affect both the sensing elements simultaneously . This will produce the same amount of output from each element but of opposing polarity and will therefore be cancelled.

Features of MCPIIR-3000 w iirelless PIIR detector from VIISONIIC : Features of MCP R-3000 w re ess P R detector from V SON C : A wireless PIR detector will have a transmitter inbuilt in it apart from the basic detecting element . This feature clearly differentiates a wireless PIR from a wired PIR. The transmitter works at frequencies such as 315,433.92,868.95,869.2625 MHz and other allowable frequencies. Each detector connected to the Main Intruder alarm panel (eg. Powermax) has to have a 24 bit Unique Identification Code . This code is factory preset and cannot be easily duplicated. During programming of the panel , the control panel learns the detectors identity code and responds to it.

Coverage pattern of the PIR detector :

It can be decided by setting a jumper setting , if the intruder has to be detected when he crosses 1 beam , 3 beams or 5 beams . This is called as setting the Pulse Counter.

There are 2 modes in which the detector can operate , NORMAL mode and WALK TEST mode.

The jumper setting as shown above puts the PIR in NORMAL mode . In the normal mode the detector is inhibited for 2 minutes after it detects every intrusion. But in the walk test mode the detector is not inhibited and the pulse counter is also set to 1. The LED blinks for 2 seconds whenever it detects an intrusion (both in NORMAL mode ) We can put the jumper in the OFF position if we do not want the LED to blink and do not want someone to detect the PIRs coverage area. The PIR can be wall mounted , corner mounted or ceiling mounted. The PIR can be fit with swivel brackets BR-1 or BR-2 or BR-3 respectively for these purposes. Apart from sending the 24 bit code to the receiver whenever there is an intrusion the detector transmitter also sends certain other markers. Tamper ON if cover is open , and TAMPER RESTORE if cover is closed. If detector is in alarm condition the ALARM MARKER is set ON. LOW BATTERY is ON whenever the battery is in low condition SUPERVISION marker when set to ON , will tune the receiver to look out for signals from the transmitter every 60 mins Transmitter TYPE indicates , if the transmitter is supervised or non- supervised and also if it informs the end of an alarm condition A checksum at the end of the message ,checks if the complete message is error free. This increases the reliability of the wireless system. The total message transmitted by the MCPIR-3000 is called as POWERCODE message format ( 36 bits in total). TEST mode or

To avoid collisions of the messages transmited by several powercode message transmitters an ANTICOLLISION mechanism is implemented. There is an optional TILT SWITCH in series with the tamper switch. If TILT ON jumper is selected then if the detector is forcibly removed or its position changed a tamper alarm will be generated. The Tilt switch is an option. The battery life of the PIR is around 3 years.

Ceiilliing mounted DIISC PIIR f rom Viisoniic : Ce ng mounted D SC P R f rom V son c :

The DISC pir offers a 360 degree detection pattern. It can be installed at ceiling heights of 3.6 meters (12 ft) The floor coverage area is upto 10.8 meters.. The size of the PIR is 8.6 cm and it blends with any type of interior. The PIR has provisions a terminal block to connect 12 V DC supply, tamper and a NC contact. The NC relay contact is connected to a normally closed zone of the Intruder alarm panel. The relay contacts OPEN when intrusion is detected or when there is a power cut. The tamper contact is connected to a normally closed alarm circuit of the intruder alarm panel. The tamper contact will be open whenever cover is removed.

Coverage pattern of the DISC PIR :

Discovery PIR from Visonic used for Movement based Lighting :

This PIR NC output is connected to the Digital input of a UNITRON Controller.

When this digital input is active ( when movement is detected ) , a digital output of the UNITRON controller is active or high. This digital output is connected to a relay which in turn is connected to the lighting circuit for the room in which the PIR is detecting movement. In case the PIR is located in a place were there is probability of lot of pets moving ,there may be false alarms. To avoid this the Discovery PIR comes with a PET ALLEY , which means that areas near the floor is not detected for movement if a plastic mask is fixed on the lens. The pulse counter can be set to 1, 2 or 3 pulses. There is a terminal for connecting an E.O.L resistance which may be included as per circuit requirements. ******************************