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Nicole Lim

STUDY GUIDE AP Art History Test #2 (Greek and Etruscan)

9/22-23/11 Map This is in the area of Athens We've been talking about areas down around Peloponesis, but now were looking at art that centers in Athens. Athens had a settlement on the acropolis, which obviously is a high place. Some Mycenean people settled there for a while. After th;werey disappeared and new settlers came in, the city expanded so they moved down to area around the acropolis and acropolis became place for sacred things. City was walled for protection and there were various gates to the city and one of them was an area in a place with an adjoining cemetery. One of the things were going to look at is called dipylon ware, which comes from that cemetery. Mycenaeans and Minoans disappeared around 1100 and dont know what happened to them. And we have a period of around 100 years where we know practically nothing about them, certainly there is no art remaining, except when we get to the end of that period we begin to see some of these big pots. Sometimes this period is called the dark ages because there is nothing known about the people then or what they were doing. We can guess some of what they were doing simply b/c they set a precedent for later. At any rate, in 9th and 8th centuries, we begin to see these pots. Krater with Lid These were not to hold wine or oil or water or anything. They are meant to mark graves. The way they were used was that the base of the vase was set into the ground and had holes on the bottom. If you wanted to give oil to your relative or ancestor, you poured oil in the vase and it supposedly went down to underworld. This is interesting because it has a lid, and a lid obviously is going to be easily detached from the pot and more easily broken. But this is a tighting piece because the lid has surprise. The handle is sort of a pot in itself, the kind that you might have used to bring oil in to pour into the pot and into the ground. The decoration on this is purely geometric, simply suggested by the circularity of the base. You have bands that circle the base. Prominent about them is the Greek key design, the continuous design right below lid. We call this geometric ware and we think of this as the geometric period. Nevertheless, the style that you see here gets its name from the period. Youll notice two figureshorses. Were going to find that horses are very rare in Greece simply because there is little land for pasture, so only the very wealthy would have horses. If we see horses we know he/she is wealthy and powerful, and as we go on in history well see that horses mark power. So perhaps that what it suggested here, that this particular person whose burial this marked was an important person. Amphora ( This base is also a funeral marker and is about 5 ft tall. It also has lots of bands of geometric decoration and you can see that Greek key, and then you have a figurative band on the middle ,and further up into the neck you see that repeat and above that a band of what looks like deer grazing or some other sort of four-legged creature. This also would have had holes in the vase and it would have served the same purpose. The handles looks like ears and wouldnt help you hold it because youre not going to move the vase ever. It looks like it was found in pieces and put together. Looking more closely at the pattern of figures prominently displayed on the neck of the face. We have a figure, obviously the deceased, so this is the representation of morning, and there is a bid where the body has been placed. Body has been turned on nits side so you can see the upper torso, the head is in profile and the rest of the body also. But again, they want to show

you the upper portion of the body, and its titled, which is the only way they can show you a figure lying on the bed. If we were trying to represent what we could see, it would look different. Behind the figure, you have this pattern of blocks in black and white or black and the color of the vase. Whether it is hanging on the wall behind the figure or tiling, we dont know, but it makes for an interesting contrast to the figure. Beneath the beard you have four mourners, two seated on stools and two kneelingnotice all are same height and same size, which means they simply adjusted the size of the figure to the places they had for them. And you also have mourners on both sides. Looking at all of these figures, youll notice that they are very geometric in shape. Also, because theyre shoulders form the broad side of the pyramid, and the apex of the pyramid is down at the base. If you extended the arms on up, they would form an even larger pyramid. The rest of the body is less geometric, but still the rest suggests that were still in the geometric period. If you look between all the figures, there are xs/shapes/star figures (fear of empty spaces). There is some communication or knowledge of what is going on in other places If you were in Greece today and you went out in the country somewhere and had a death and had a time to mourn the deceased, you might higher professional mourners to create some sort of a scene, and they would pretend to pull their hair out. In the theological stories, we have an instance in which we discover that when Greeks actually did, probably upper class Greeks, were mourning, when they went to visit a tomb, they would cut off a lock of their hair to show that they were there. The idea is that you pull out your hair because you are mourning. Deer Nursing a Faun (,1.0&wid=636&cell=636,524&cvt=jpeg) This is a figure of a doe and a faun nursing. Its something you could easily pick up with your hand and hold. Youll notice that this has a number of shapes in it that seems to suggest geometry more than realism as far as the animal is concerned. This is bronze. You can see patterns that are purely geometric. In her four legs, back on the hex here up in those horns, notice that they are again very stylized and a representation. And all of the legs are very skinny, so try to imagine this piece if you didnt have a base underneath. If you tried to stand it up on the legs, the smallest push could tip it over. So they put the figure on a base, so its called platform sculpture because there is a little platform on which the sculpture is attached to steady it and allow it to stand. Youll notice on the rump of the doe there is a rooster. Dont know why/there is probably an important meaning like announcing the day as broken or birth of a fawn, but there it is. Warrior We also have a human figure, and this is a soldier. You have to take that on faith because his spear and shield are missing. This is also a bronze piece Here, again, we have a 3-D figure the legs arent separated farther up, __ dont know if it was on a platform or the purpose, but if you look at the proportions youll notice an overly large head, which will be the case in other sculptures as well. Krater This is a later vase still, and here the design is quite different. This is obviously not a memorial or a tombstone; its probably to carry water or wine and you have two large handles. You have registers here, and youll find that a good bit of early art here uses registers in a way weve seen in other places. If we look at the subject matter here, The geometry is gone and youll see swan, a goose, lions, a board, etc.; a variety of animals. Those come probably from the east (Mesopotamia was big on animals as subjects). This is called a Corinthian vase because it was probably influenced by styles that appeared in Corinth, not that it was necessarily made in Corinth.

Lady of Auxerre (Archaic) She is not life-sizeshes about 5 feet tall (well move on from here to figures that are life size). You can still see some of the effect of that geometric shape in the way in which her shoulders are broad and narrow waist, and even in the construction of her face her chin is rather pointed and the upper portion is a bit broadertriangle-ish. She is wearing a gown of some sort with a sort of tape over her back, and her hair is very wiggy. Youre going to see that the Greeks in creating human figures were tremendously influenced by the Egyptians. Whereever the sculpture is created, there has been some visual sighting of Egyptian sculpture because youll see a great number of similarities, and one of the similarties weve seen his this wig-like hair. Here feautures dont really set back into her face, the eyes protrude, the nose is a large, as is the mouth, and the whole head is large for the figure. From the waist down she is enclosed in a skirt of some sort, but there is no hint as to her anatomy. You cant tell where her knees are, or any portion of her knee on down, and then you see her feet. Shes interesting but there are few female figures from this period, most of what we find are male figures.

New York Kouros This is the marble kouros, one of the earliest examples of life-size statuary in Greece. It is named the NY Kouros because its in the Met. The Greek kouros emulates the stance of Egyptian statues (remember Menkaure)the figure is rigidly formal with left foot slightly in front and arms beside body with fists clenched. Like most Egyptian statues, this kouros was a funerary statue. It stood over a grave in the countryside somewhere near Athens. Statues like this one replaced the huge bases from geometric times (i.e. krater with lid). Different from Egyptian statues: (1) figures are not on original stone block [Egyptians were obsessed with constancy/immortality, but that idea was lost on Greeks, who wanted to find ways to represent motion instead of stability], (2) kouroi are nude and because they dont have identifying attributes, are formally indistinguishable from Greek images of deities with their perfect bodies exposed for all to see. Head is too big for body; face is very long. Traits similar to Lady of Auxerre: triangular shape of head and hair, flatness of face (Daedalic style!); eyes, nose, and mouth all sit on the front of the head, and the ears on the sides Also, has the slim waist of earlier Greek statues. Calf Bearer Man is bringing an offering to Athena to thank her for his prosperity. He stands with left-foot forward, like the NY Kouros, but has a beard and is therefore no longer a youth. He wears a thin cloak (once painted to set it off from the otherwise nude body), but no one dresses like this in Athens. You can see the Archaic love of pattern in the representation of the man and animal together. The calfs legs and moschophoros (the calf-bearers) arms form a bold X that unites the two bodies both physically and formally. The calf-bearers face differs from earlier Greek statues because the man smiles an Archaic smile. It indicates that the person is alive, which signaled a very different intention for the figure than in Egypt.

Kouros from Anavysos This was a grave marker at the grave of Korisos, a young man who died a heroic death in battle. The statue shows increased naturalism in its proportions and more rounded modeling of face, torso, and limbs. It has that distinctive Archaic smile, but is still not a portrait of a specific youth. However, it is much more naturalistic than the NY kouros because it came two generations later. The face is not too big for the body anymore and the face is more rounded, with swelling cheeks to replace the flat panes from before. This figure also has rounded hips, while the NY kouros had a V-shape to it.

Kore in Ionian Dress (Acropolis) (Archaic) These are called kore figures. Unlike men, women are always clothed in Archaic statues. Here, the Greek sculptor has clothing/fabric hanging down in a cleat, but the clothes are very snut. You see the same features on the face. Her arms are broken but we know that one would have been at her side as she weer holding the fabrick. Her backside, however, is not completely covered. You can see that similar pleated garment, but she looks nude. The asymmetry of the folds greatly relieves the stiff frontality of the body and makes the figure appear much more life-like than contemporary kouroi. The sculptor achieved added variety by showing the kore grasping part of her chiton in her left hand (broken off) to lift off the ground in order to take a step forward.

Charioteer of Delphi (c. 470) (Early and High Classical Greek) Delphi is on the side of the mountain, is subject to earthquakes, and the portion of the mountain at the top sometimes comes tumbling down and knocks everything down in front of it. Originally he had a chariot and 4 horses, and the reign from his hand to the bit of his four horses. This is the only thing thats been found in near completion. Hes just missing an arm, but hes a pretty complete piece. There are pieces of one of the horses and part of the chariot, but thats it. The other stuff was probably melted downif you needed bronze for war or weapons or other things, you melted bronze statues. This is life-size, and you can see form looking at it here that he has inset eyes that are still there and hes wearing a long toga that a charioteer might have worn for this particular occasion. His head is turned slightly to his right and has a slight sense of contrapposto, though it isnt dramatic because its not during a race, its after. It is made by hollow-casting life-size bronze statues. If you look at back of his figure, you begin to see gravity in the way in which the fabric fallsits more realistic now. If you look at the head, you have to understand that this figure would have sit on top of a chariot and it would be on a mountain. You wouldnt see the top of the head, so sculpture didnt pother much with top but you can see curls on side. He also has eyelashes. The feet: if you look carefully, you can see a vein going across and some other details, so sculptor was detailed in how the feet looked looked. Also had to think about how chariot drivers would have ridden in this chariot because they didnt have a floor, they had a board across that they stood on, so you had to hang on and clutch with your toes to keep from falling off. Thats what this figure is doingclutching on with his toes. It has a more realistic feel that the figure is actually standing on something.

Riace Warrior (c. 460-450) (Early and High Classical Greek) -Hollow-casting life-size bronze statues (book page 122) -This, and a companion feels, were founded in 80s ish, fairly recently -It was found in the waters off the southern portion of Italy called Riace, so theyre called the Riace bronzes. One day two men were out snorkeling and one man put his head in the water and saw an arm stretching out and upon closer examination realizes its a sculpture, and looked more closely and saw two of them there. -We think these were made in the middle of the 5th century, and this is the height of the classic period, and they are so melded and such beautiful pieces of work that they would like to attribute them to a specific sculptor, but we dont know to whom. -This figure doesnt have a helmet on, he has a band around his head, but he originally held a shield and probably there was a spear that ran through the other hand. Notice that he has complete, set-in eyes made of glass case or something of the sort. -Notice the different colors. His lips are a different colorcopper. There is even a touch of white, silver probably for his teeth. And nipples are the same as his teethgives it color. Originally, he had a helmet, and this is a kind of protector or something for the helmet, and you can even see something that looks like it was used to hold the helmet on. Zeus or Poseidon (Early and High Classical Greek) -Hollow-casting life-size bronze statues (book page 122) -This was also found in the water is and is probably a result of a shipwreck found close to shore. When Greeks sailed, they didnt go far out in the water, they hugged the shore, and this piece probably sunk with them one night. -Probably Zeus or Poseidon and the figure is hurling something, either thunderbolt (Zeus) or a trident (Poseidon) -Magnificent figure, also with inset eyes. -He has long hair with a braid wrapped around. If youre looking at Greek sculptures and trying to date them, one of the things that will give you a clue is the hair style. This longer hair is earlier, short cut hair is later. This hair dates it to early 5th century. Its a piece thats arranged in a such a way that looks best looking with torso forward. -In text, the figure is off-center. Its tempting to say this is not a truly 3D piece because piece should look terrific all the way around and if there is something that throws it off, it was likely only meant to be seen from a certain point of view, which is okay. -Defined eyebrows Diskobolos (Discus Thrower) (Early and High Classical Greek) -these are two Roman copies of a Greek original, which was in bronze. This is one of those pieces that was so famous that when something happened to the bronze, they wanted to make copies of it -both of them are up because they are not both the same. One with head looking down, one with head looking over shoulder. Artist obviously had not seen original so he was just guessing the placement of the head -also notice the expression of his face: looks more stoic/blank than youd expect when hurling a discus -this is what happens after the archaic with trying to put a smile, but now we have the absence of any expression -when the Romans make a copy, always in marble not in bronze, they have a support leg to make sure the sculpture stays there -it looks like hes not sure about the hand, which is away from the leg on the left hand one, and there is a little prop in

Propylaia Acropolis This is the gateway to the Acropolis. It was built during the 5th century BCE. The four main 5th century BCE buildings on the Acropolis were the Parthenon,, Propylaia, Erechtheion, and the Temple of Athena Nike. Parthenon This was build by Iktinos and Kallikrates, two architects of the time. The statue of Athena in the cella was made by Phidias, who also oversaw the temples sculptural decoration. It is a Doric temple and thought to be the epitome or best example of the Doric order, largely because it was built in a time of piece. There was money left in the treasury that was supposed to be used to fight wars and there was a leader, Pericles, who wanted this build, so he provided money and jobs to many men. It was built in the 5th century so time could be spent on it. There isnt anything hugely different about this. You have a cella and a colonnade all around, etc., but whats different are the refinements that other temples didnt have because no time to do them. The columns are not absolutely straight. They slant inward to create the optical illusion of them being straight. Its only an inch or inch and a half at most, but it makes it look level/horizontalanother optical illusions. This was hard to reproduce because the column drums were different as you went along. *A mix of Doric and Ionic features characterizes the 5th century BCE buildings of the Acropolis as a whole. Here, were looking at the eastern side, which would have been the main entrance. But people wouldnt go inside. Rather, they would look through a series of doors to Athena. If you look in the corner of the pediment, you can see a reclining figure and horse heads, and you can see how those figures are squeezed into narrow corners of the triangles. The purpose of this changed depending on who ruled the area, so in the Byzantine empire it was created into a Byzantine church and later a Roman Catholic church, and then a mosque after the Ottomans conquered Greece. What youre looking at through here are the walls of the cella. All you see now is completely restoration, and you can see that the triglyphs and metopes are not in great condition. This was for housing a giant statue of Athena. Athena Parthenos This is a huge 38-foot statue of Athena Parthenos, the Virgin, fully armed and holding Nike (Victory) in her extended right hand. To accommodate such a huge statue, the cella had to be wider than usual. Athena is fully armed with a shield, spear, and helmet, and she held Nike, the winged female personification of Victory, in her right hand. Nike refers to the victory of 479 BCE over the Persians. Other allusions to Persian defeat are on her sandals and on her shield (high reliefs depicting the battle of Greeks and Amazons where Amazons were driven out of Athens. Each of these mythological contests was a metaphor for the triumph of order over chaos, of civilization over

barbarism, and of Athens over Persia.

Pedimental Sculpture Here, you have three figure, likely goddesses, in attendance either at the birth of Athena or another event. Here, you see botht he anatomy beneath the clothing and the clothing itself. Heads arent there, but we have a good idea of how they were posed. This work in the pediment is thought to have been done by Phidias himself. It is thought that he did the statue of Athena and pediments, or at least some of them.

In this figure of Dionysos, you see the birth of Athena. At the left, the horses of Helios (the Sun) emerge from the pediments floor, suggesting the sun rising above the horizon at dawn. Panathenaic Procession (frieze) This is a long procession and theyre bringing a new robe to Athena, which they do every four years; everyone is involved. This frieze demonstrates, again, how Athenians thought highly of themselves, enough to include them in sculptures like this. Here, we have some deities sitting watching the procession. This is obviously the classic period. By the time you get to the middle of the 5th century, you get to a style called classic, which is supposed to be the highpoint of both architecture and structure. 9/28/11 Erectheion -Ionic temple -Honored Athena -Karyatids exhibit appropriate weight shift (one foot is in slightly in front of the other) -figures suggest a degree of flexibility to suggest a living body

Temple of Athena NikeNike fastening her sandal (High Classical) Ionic building that referred to the victory over Persians. Nikes image was repeated dozens of times in the building, always in different attitudes, sometimes erecting trophies dedecked with Persian spoils and sometimes bringing forward sacrificial bulls to Athena. This relief shows Nike adjusting her sandal. It shows the body beneath the clothes as well as details of the clothing itself (i.e. intricate drapery) ParxitelesAphrodite of Knidos (Late Classical) The first nude statue of a goddess (goddess of love) caused a sensation in the 4th century BCE. But whats famous about this is that the marble looks like soft flesh. Female nudity was rare in early Greek art, only being seen on paintings on vases for household use. Also, women depicted were usually courtesans or slave girlsnot noblewomen or goddesses. Moreover, this is not a cold or remote imagethe goddess is in a trivial act, about to take a bath (she draped her garment over a water pitcher). Original lost. ParxitelesHermes and the Infant Dionysos (Late Classical) Praxiteles humanized the Olympian deities. This Hermes is as sensuous as the sculptors Aphrodite and gazes dreamily into space while he dangles grapes as temptation for the infant god of wine. This kind of tender interaction between adult and child was not seen in Greek statues before 4th century BCE. Original lost.

LysipposApoxyomenos (Scraper) Lysippos introduced a new canon of proportions and a nervous energy to his statues. He also broke down the dominance of the frontal view and encouraged viewing his statues from multiple angles. Because Lysippose showed the athlete with his right arm bodly thrust forward, the figure breaks the shallow rectangular box that defined the boundaries of earlier statues. You have to look at the statue from an angle that looks at more than just his front to comprehend the action. Original lost. LysipposHerakles Farnese Again, in order to fully comprehend whats going on here, you have to look at this statue from multiple angles. It shows Herakles, a hero after he got the golden apples ironically so weary that he must lean on his club for support. Original lost. 10/3/11 Theater at Epidaurus (Late Classical Greece) The Greeks always situated their theaters on hillsides, which supported the stone seats overlooking the circular orchestra. The actors would perform at the bottom of the hillno theaters, like the Romans used. It is still used today to perform ancient Greek dramas. There are no backs to seats, just benches, but in the areas with just pieces of stone, there would be chairs for special people, like priests. The orchestra, or circular area in front,is where actors would perform, but there werent many actors; most people were in the chorus. Performances were only in the daytime or afternoon because of no electricity. It was done in honor of Dionysus. The way it is arranged fits into nature and the acoustics are greatthe shape of the bowl projects very well. Philoxenos or Helen of Egypt (Late Classical) This is considered one of the greatest paintings of antiquity where Philoxenos captured the psychological intensity of the confrontation between the two kings. Its a battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III. Some say that this mosaic is a copy of a painting by one of the few Greek female artists, Helen of Egypt. The Battle of Issus (this mosaic) shows a good mastery of shading and facial expressions. It was found in Pompeii, in the House of the Faun. Altar of Zeus (Hellenistic) This is the most famous Hellenistic sculptural ensemble. It has been reconstructed in Berlin. When Greeks were invaded by Romans, they made their altars bigger. The shape of this building is in a U-shape. The entire thing is part of a centera number of other buildings are related to it .It seems very un-Greek because it was strongly influenced by other cultures. This altar shows a battle of Zeus and the gods against the giants, which alludes to the victory of King Attalos I over the Gauls of Asia Minor. Sculpture of Athena battle Alkyoneos This frieze has a lot of emotional power, showing the violent movement, swirling draperies, and vivid depictions of suffering. Wounded figures writhe in pain and faces reveal anguish. Athena is grabbing a giant by the hair and his mother is begging her to release him. Its a very deeply cut relief sculpture in the baroque style. The figures are larger than life with almost overdone emotion in their faces. It is full of movement and energy.

Dying Gaul Both figures are possibly made by Epigonos. They are severely wounded; you can see thisone holding his leg as though hes trying to stop the flow of blood from his wound. The sculptor sees the differences between Greek and a Gaulhe has bushy hair, a mustache, and wears a torque around his neck. Hes not an ideal figure and has a bony chest, rolls on stomach, and probably around 30, which was considered older around this period. The Greeks recognized these people as honorable fighters, even though they were the enemy. Gallic Chieftain Killing Himself and his Wife This is also thought to be done by Epigonos. The enemy becomes a subject for Greek sculptors, which is a new phenomenon. This chieftain would rather kill himself than surrender, and he has already killed his wife, who would have been sold as a slave if captured. Again, you fully appreciated this piece by walking around it to see the Gauls intensely expressive face, his powerful torso, and the womans limp and almost lifeless body. Nike of Samothrace Samothrace is an island in the northeast corner of the Aegean. It was first found in the figure of Nike, then found the part of the boat she is landing on. You get a sense that she is just landing with how her wings are extended out and her clothes are flowingwet drapery. There are no props or support for the wingsit was done by a Greek who knew the weight of the marble and knew that he didnt need additional support for the wings. The placement of the statue in a fountain of splashing water heightened the dramatic visual effect. Old Market Woman This was likely commissioned by a wealthy person to look down on the subject. It would have been a conversation piece; shock art of the time. It is a subject from everyday life. Her body is stooped and bent and shows age, as does the pained expression on her face. Her clothes are falling off her shoulder to reveal one breast, a situation would not have permitted to a carefully chaperoned upper class woman, which also indicates her social status. Prior to the Hellenistic period, subjects tended to be gods or idealized figures with little or no reference to the everyday world. Patronage here was by the individual citizen who had free choice of subject, while classic figures were usually commissioned by state or religious authorities. Agesandros, Athanadorus, & Polydoros of Rhodes This statue of sea serpents attacking Laocoon, a Trajan priest, and his two sons matches the account given in the Aeneid. It Is a presentation piece of a scene that has been staged, but its not very successfully if seen from the back. There is a feeling of torment seen on their faces. Three sculptors worked on this. The three Trojans writhe in pain as they struggle to free themselves from the death grip of the serpents.

10/10/11 Temple, model, plan and elevation of a typical 6th century BCE Etruscan temple None of these temples have survived. We have remnants/basics, but nothing major so its more guesswork than others. They are important because they contributed to temple building in Rome. The temple is built on a high base. Unlike the Greek temple, you dont go up stairs to the stylobate. You can only enter from one entrance/set of steps. When you look at the plan, you can see that it has a huge porch with a second row of columns. The cella is divided into three, which means there must have been 3 gods worshipped here instead of just one. Also, whats different is that you have a pediment formed by the roofline, but there is no sculpture put in the pediment. Instead of sculptural decoration there, they put it along the roofline. Where it comes to a point the roof usually has a ridge-point, and thats where they put sculpture. A lot of figures are put on the ridgepole. We dont know why they chose that place, but they did. Its decorated in a different way than a Greek temple. Etruscan temples resembled Greek temples, but had widely spaced unfluted wooden columns only at the front, walls of sun-dried mud brick, and a narrow staircase at the center of the faade. Apollo of Veii (Archaic) He is obviously badly damaged, so he may have been blown off or knocked off the ridgepole. He is clearly caught in mid-action. The clothes are still sticking to the skin instead of moving with the body. And he is clothedin Greece, he would have been nude. Youll notice here the third leg to help the figure balance. There is a black-round whole of sorts that the ridgepole went through to anchor is down to the roofline. We cant help but think of this as a peculiar place to place a figure, but they did and it must work reasonably well when you see the condition of the figures, considering how they were kept. What is distinctly Etruscan are the gods vigorous motion and gesticulating arms and the placement of the statue on the roof. This demonstrates the energy and excitement that characterize Archaic Etruscan art in general. Sarcophagus with reclining couple from Cerveteri, Italy (Archaic) This is made of terracotta and depicts a husband and wife. The work primarily reveals the influence of ancient Greece. The pose of the figures suggests that they are banqueting. Estruscans were known for the relative equality of women. Tomb of Reliefs from Cerveteri, Italy Were inclined to think this is a reproduction of an Etruscan house. If you look at the ceiling, it looks like it is imitating wooden paneling. The columns and walls are decorated with things the owner would likely want to take with him/her to the underworld. These tombs are not for one person; they are for a family. There are number of places for bodies to be placed, but this one is nice because youll notice pillows carved out of stones. You can also see a bench carved right below the niche and a pair of sandals.

Capitoline Wolf (Classical) This was made bronze and shows the she-wolf that nursed the infants Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome. The animal has a tense, gaunt body (you can see ribs), and an unforgettable psychic intensity. It is slightly larger than life size. The two children were added later, but the original Etruscan work was only of the wolf. There are tiny culrs around her neck, which we saw in things from Mesopotamia when looking at bronze helmets, so its the same stylization. She has that same design on the ridge of her back. There is enough realism to make it clear that she is a nursing mother. Chimera of Arezzo This is also cast in bronze and dates to around century later than the Capitoline Wolf. The chimera is a Greek monster with a lions head and body but a serpents tail. A second head, the head of a goat, grows out of the lions left side and slew the composite piece. The chimera was a composite monster slain by the Greek hero Ballerophon. In this Etruscan statue, the artist depicted the wounded beast posed to attack and growling fiercely even though it is injured. The musculature seems relatively well defined, though the lion itself looks gaunt (you can see ribs and bones/muscles pretty clearly).

Generalizations (from book)

1. 2. Geometric and Orientalizing art (Greece) 900-600 BCE a. Geometric shapes b. Sometimes symmetry Archaic Art (Estruscan) 600-480 BCE a. Etruscans were influenced by Greek works but didnt copy them i. Temples were made of wood instead of stone and had only one entrance (i.e. on set of columns and stairs) b. Most surviving Etruscan works come from underground family tombs c. Men and women were pretty equal Archaic Art (Greece) 600-480 BCE a. Creepy Archaic smiles were meant to make it look more life like b. 600 BCE is when first life-size stone statues appear in Greece c. red-figure vase painting d. first stone temples with peripteral colonnades and codification of the Doric and Ionic orders Classical (Greece) a. Acropolis (i.e. Pantheon, temple of Athena Nike, Erecthion, and entrance) b. Contrapposto (weight shift) in figures c. Canon of proportions for the perfect statue d. Lots of nude Late Classical (Greece) 400-323 BCE a. More realistic than perfect b. Humanized deities (i.e. hero that needed club for support) c. Architecture: Corinthian capital became increasingly popular, breaking the monopoly of Doric and Ionic orders d. Lots of nude Hellenistic (Greece) 323-30 BCE a. Didnt just sculpt important peopleevery day people and activities i. Realistic b. Not commissioned just by church or state, but by wealthy individuals Classical and Hellenistic (Etruscan) 480-489 BCE a. Capitoline wolf and Chimera of Arezzo