J. Fluid Meoh. (1980), vol. 96, part 2, pp. 299313 
299 
Printed in Great Britain
Local similarity solutions and their limitations
By H. K. MOFFATT AND B. R. DUFFY
School of Mathematics,University of Bristol, England
(Received 16 March 1979)
Two problems exhibiting breakdown in local similarity solutions are discussed, and the appropriate asymptotic form of the exact solution is determined in each case. The first problem is the very elementary problem of pressure driven flow along a duct whose crosssection has a sharp corner of angle 201. When 2a < +T, a local similarity solution is valid, whereas, when 2a > &r, the solution near the corner depends on the global geometry of the crosssection. The transitional behaviour when 2a =5 +T is determined. The second problem concerns lowReynoldsnumber flow in the wedgeshaped region 1/31 < a when either a normal velocity proportional to distance from the vertex is imposed on both boundaries, or a finite flux 2Q is introduced or extracted at the vertex (theJefferyHamel problem). It is shown that the similarity solution in either case is valid only when 2a < 201, z 257.6"; a modified problem is solved exactly revealing the behaviour when a > a,,and the transitional behaviour when E = a, (when the similarity solutions become infinite everywhere),An interesting conclusion for the JefferyHemel problem is that when a _{>} _{a}_{,}_{,}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{a} forces are of dominant importance throughout the flow field no matter how small the source Reynolds number 2Q/v may be.
1. Introduction
Consider Poiseuille flow along a straight duct of crosssection _{9}_{.}_{C}_{h}_{o}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} co
ordinates Oxyz with Oz parallel to the flow, the equation for
V2w = G/p
in
9,
the velocity w(~,y)is
(1.1)
where G is the applied pressure gradient, and ,U the viscosity of the fluid. The boundary condition is
w=O
on
89.
(1.2)
1f the boundary 89 has any sharp corners (as is the case if, for example, it has square or triangular crosssection),then it is very natural to enquire into the nature of the solution of the problem (1.l),(1.2)near the corner. Choosing polar coordinates (r,8)with origin at the corner and with 8 = 0 along the bisector of the angle, so that locally the boundary consists of the two planes 8 = ? a (figure l),one might reasonably conjecture that w must have a local similarity form depending only on r, 8, G/,u and a (i.e. independent of the 'remote' geometry of the duct). If this is so, then on dimensional grounds,
00221 120/80/43608100
w
(GIP)r"f(@
$02.00 0 1980 Cambridge University Press
(1.3)
300
H. K. Moffatt and B. R. Duffy
0
w
V’ w =  GIP
e=(Y
FIGUREI. Poiseuille flow along duct whose crosssection 3 has a corner of angle 2a.
(the dependence on a being implicit), and the only possible form of f(0)compatible with (1.1)and (1.2)is
This solution ‘explodes’when 201 = $7~(and also when 2a = $n),and this leads one to question the validity of the above conjecture.? _{I}_{t} is physically clear that the solution must remain finite when 2a = in,and that the similarity form (1.3) cannot therefore be correct for this angle. The difficulty is in fact quite an elementary one, and we shall resolve _{i}_{t} in _{9} _{2}_{.}
A similar difficulty, which may be described as an inapplicability of a local similarity solution, can however arise in more complex physical contexts, when the means _{o}_{f} resolution of the problem may not be so readily apparent. A second example, which
viscous fluid is contained in the
space 101 < a between two planes 8 = f a which are hinged at their intersection (so that the angle a may be varied), and suppose that the normal velocity is instan taneously prescribed on the planes, by rotating the planes about _{0} as indicated in figure 2(a),as
we shall treat in $9 35, is the following. Suppose that
U,= Trw on 8= +a.
(1.5)
t A similar breakdown was noted by Fraenkel (1961) in the context of inviscid corner flow with constant vorticity; Fraenkel correctly resolved the behaviour when 2a = _{+}_{T}_{,} but, by limiting attention to acute angles, the inapplicability of the similarity solution for 2a _{z} _{&}_{I} (see _{5} 2 below) was not explicitly appreciated. The problem has been touched on in a number of other studies, but the particular difficulty discussed here does not appear to have been explicitly recognized. For example, Collins & Dennis (1976) study flow along a curved duct of triangular crosssection, and they consider particularly the case of a rightangled triangle. They state that the solution of (1.1) is O(r2)near r = 0 ‘ regard less of the angle of the corner ’, but, as suggested by (1.4), and as demonstrated in $2 below, this is not true when 2a > (although the subsequent argument of Collins & Dennis remains sub stantially unaffected). A second example is provided by the work of Allen & Biggin (1974) who studied the flow of a liquid filament down an inclined plane, the shape of the free surface being controlled by surface tension and the contact angle at the 3phase contact line. When this contact angle is a,a local analysis using a zero stress condition on the free surface 8 = 0 and a noslip condition on the solid boundary 0 = a again yields (1.4), which breaks down when a = $77. Alleii & Biggin in fact chose a = in in their numerical computation of the velocity distribution over the crosssection of the filament; a finite element procedure provided an apparently wellbehaved solution. It was in fact through attempting to understand the structure of this solution that we were led to investigate the paradox presented by _{(}_{1}_{.}_{4}_{)} when a _{=}
4
Local similarity solutions
_{3}_{0}_{1}
FIGURE2. (a)The hinged plate problem, wr2/v Q 1.
(b)The JefferyHamel problem, Q/v < 1.
Sufficiently near 0, inertia is clearly negligible, a.nd the stream function $(r,0) satisfies the biharmonic equation
^{V}^{4}^{$} ^{=} ^{0}
^{(}^{1}^{.}^{6}^{)}
and the boundary conditions
Again it is tempting to seek a similarity solution for 9 depending only on CL), r, 0 and a;on dimensional grounds this must have the form
$ = hr2f(0),
(1.8)
and the unique function f(0)compatible with (1.6) and (1.7) (Moffatt 10640)is
sin 20  20 cos 2a
f ()'
= sin 2a  2a cos 2a *
This solution explodes when tan 201 = 2a, i.e. when 2a = 257.45". For this critical angle,f(0)apparently becomes infinite for all (01 4 a, and the corresponding velocity components derived from (1.8) become infinite also. The assertion that the Reynolds number is low near the corner therefore requires reexamination, _{a}_{s} does the relevance of a similarity solution of the form _{(}_{1}_{.}_{8}_{)}_{.} A closely related difficulty has been noted (Fraenkel 1062) in the contest of the low Reynolds number limit of the JefferyHamel problem (Batchelor _{1}_{0}_{6}_{7}_{,} _{$}_{5}_{.}_{6}_{)}_{.} Suppose that the planes 0 = f a are fixed and that fluid is introduced at a volume rate 2& (per unit length) at the intersection (figure _{2}_{b}_{)}_{;} in this case, the low Reynolds number limit of the JefferyHamel stream function (which provides an exact solution of the NavierStokes equations) is
'=
sin 20  20 cos 2a
Qsin2a2acos2a'
^{(}^{1}^{.}^{1}^{0}^{)}
with precisely the same angular dependence _{a}_{s} (1.8) and the same pathological behaviour at 2a _{z} _{2}_{5}_{7}_{'}_{.}
_{3}_{0}_{2}
H.K. Hoffatt and B. R.DzGffv
(U)
(b)
=a
FIGURE3. The sector geometry considered in 52.
The same type of difficulty has been encountered and resolved in an entirely different physical context by Sternberg & Koiter (1958). When an elastic wedge is subjected to a couple that is concentrated at the vertex, the dilsplacement field (which may be derived from a function satisfying the biharmonic equation) involves the same factor (sin2a  2a cos 2a)l which blows up at 261 x 257". Sternberg & Koiter resolved this apparently paradoxical behaviour by spreading out the force field providing the couple over a small neighbourhood of the vertex and solving the resulting problem exactly. We shall follow a similar procedure in the fluid context in _{$}_{$}_{3}_{}_{5}_{,} and shall in this way provide a simultaneous resolution of the hinged plate and Jeffery Hamel paradoxes.
2, The Poiseuille problem at a sharp corner
Considerthe problem definedby (1.1)and (1.2) when 9 ( = Ba)is the domain bounded by the lines f3 = f a and the circular arc T = a. We may consider the full range of angles
0 < 261 < 2n, the limiting case 2a = 2n representing a circular pipe with a radial 'flange' (figure 3).
general solution of (1.1) symmetric
Suppose first that 2a ?= an or #n. Then the about 8 = 0 and satisfying w = 0 on 8 = f a is
where
Gr2 cos28
cos2a
w =  (I)
4p
+ 5 AnrhnC0sA,8,
n
0
A,a
= 4(2n+ l)n, n = 0,1,2,
The coefficients A, are determined by the condition w = 0 on r = a (101 < a);using the orthogonality condition
we find
a:!
cos A, e coa A,
e ae = ad,,,
Local similarity solutions
303
Now A, = nr/2a, so that A, ><2 according as 2a 5 in.Hence the particular integral.
is the dominant part of the solution (2.1) near r = 0 only if 2a < )R. If 2a > in,the solution is dominated near r = 0 by the leading term of the series of eigenfunctions, namely
The particular value of the coefficient A, depends on the 'global' geometry of 9,and so the asymptotic form (2.6)cannot be obtained from purely local considerations. When 2a > &r, A, and A, are both less than 2, and so the first two terms of the series in (2.1) both dominate over w,(r,0) for small r. In the extreme case 201 = 2n (figure 3b), we find
The cases 2a = in and $R expression (2,1),we find
require special attention. If we let 2a = +n+c in the
so that, in the limit E + 0 (i.e. 261 = tn),
2u
Leading terms in
expansion of 'U: near r = 0
ra,then
r2 log r, then r2, then Ts rnlza, then r2,then r3nlza d,then r2 log r, then ra, then rL8 rn12a, then r3n/2a,then r2,then r6n12a
TABLE1
A similar treatment of the neighbourhood of 201 = $71 shows that, when 2a = $n,
w = E ["(log:)
3np
4
cos20+0sin20
1
In this case, the singularity in wo(r,O) is compensated by an equal and opposite singularity in the second term _{(}_{n} _{=} _{1}_{)}_{o}_{f} the series in _{(}_{2}_{.}_{1}_{)}_{.} The above results concerning the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of w(r,0) near T = 0 are summarized in table 1. As noted in the footnote on p. 300, the same type of mathematical problem has
_{3}_{0}_{4}
H. K. Moffatt and B. R.Du#y
(C)
FIGURE4. Flow gmerated in domain gaby rotation of bounding cylinder keeping 6' = f a fixed :
patterns allowing for boundarylayer
(a) assuming no separation; (b)and (c), likely streamline separation.
been considered by Fraenkel (1961)in a different physical context. An example of the sort of situation envisaged by Fraenkel (who limited attention to acute angles 201 < &r) is indicated in figure 4( a), which shows a method of generating a flow with closed streamlines in the domain ga,by rotation of the cylinder r = a with angular velocity Q, keeping the radial boundaries 8 = 1 a fixed. If R = Qa2/v B 1, and if the flow does not separate from the boundary at any point, then the vorticity w is uniform throughout the core region (Batchelor 1956) w = wo say  and the stream function $(r, 8)is determined by
V2$ = wo
in
ga, $= 0
on
8ga.
(2.10)
The solution for $ is then precisely analogous to the solution for w(r,O)described above. The above proviso concerning nonseparation is however physically un realistic. If 2a < T, the flow will separate at some point on 8 = a where the pressure gradient impressed on the boundary layer is adverse (figure _{4}_{b}_{)}_{i}_{;} and if 2a _{>} _{T}_{,} the flow will separate at the sharp vertex (figure _{4}_{c}_{)}_{.} In either case, the vorticity will take different constant values in different subdomains _{o}_{f} _{$}_{B}_{a} separated by thin layers in which viscous forces are nonnegligible; the specification _{(}_{2}_{.}_{1}_{0}_{)} is then clearly in applicable.
t The seoondary eddy so formed will then also presumably separate when R is sufficiently large; and indeed, when R +CO, the limiting steady solution presumably involves an infinite sequence of eddies, within each of which the vorticity takes a different constant value.
Local similarity solutions
_{3}_{0}_{5}
FIGURE5. Modified JefferyHamel problem treated in $5 35. The hinged plate problem is obtained
in the limit a + 00,
Q = +was = constant.
and the conventional JefferyHamel
problem in the limit a + 0, w +CO,
3. A modified JefferyHamel problem
Consider now the following modification of the JefferyHamel problem (figure 5):
suppose that viscous fluid is contained in the space 181 c a between the planes 8 = k 01 on which the radial velocity is zero and the normal velocity uois specifiedas
The total flux introduced into the region _{1}_{8}_{1} c _{a} is then
The ‘hinged plate’ problem described in _{3}_{1} is obtained in the limit _{a}_{+}_{m}_{,} and the JefferyHamel problem is obtained by the limiting process _{a}_{+}_{O}_{,} _{w}_{+}_{m}_{,} with _{Q} constant. The stream function $(r, 8)satisfies the biharmonic equation
V4$ = 0
and the boundary conditions
(3.3)
This problem may be solved by means of the Mellin transform (cf. Tranter 1948, Sternberg & Koiter 1958, who considered problems involving elastic wedges, and Moffatt 19643 in which a similar problem with specified tangential velocity on 0 = f a was treated). This is defined by
with inverse relation
306
H. K. Moffatt and B. R. Duffy
In (3.5),p may be complex, its real part being such that the integral exists; clearly, provided
where e > 0, the integral (3.5) will certainly exist in a neighbourhood of the line Rep =  1 in the complex p planet. We shall find that c =  1 is an appropriate choice for the real constant c in (3.6).The various operations that follow may all be justified under the conditions (3.7),which may be verified retrospectively. Under these conditions, equation (3.3)transforms to
md the boundary conditions (3.4)transform to
i
on
0 = +a.
The (unique) solution of (3.8) and (3.9) is
where

wa*+2 COS (p+2) a sinp8 $(P,O) = 
W(P)
[P
 cospa sin (p+2) 0
P+2
W(p) = (p+l)sin2asin2(p++)a.
Note that
and that
W(P) =  W(P 2)
 p(p, e) = al)iJ(p
2, e).
It follows from (3.6) (with c =  1)that
@(,.
8) = (r/a)2lW/,, 8).
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{9}_{)}
(3.10)
(3.11)
(3.12)
(3.13)
(3.14)
It will therefore be sufficient in what follows to restrict attention to the ‘outer region’ r > a; the stream function in the inner region r < a may then immediately be inferred
from (3.14).
Substitution of (3.10) in (3.6) now gives
^{+}^{(}^{r}^{,}^{e}^{)} ^{=} ^{5}^{1}
2m
1t
() 
W(P)
a
P
1
[ cos(p+2)asinpB cospasin(p+2)8
P
P+2
]dp.
(3.15)
When r > a, this integral may be evaluated by closing the contour by a large semi circle in the righthand halfplane Rep >  1. The integrand has a removable singu larity atp =  1, and poles at the other zeros of the function W(p).We therefore have to locate these zeros, and calculate the corresponding residues. Further progress
t The condition of ‘zero forcing at infinity’ implicit in (3.1) may be relaxed somewhat without affecting the structure of the solution. In particular, if (3.1) is replaced by uB= 7 P(r) where P(r) = O(T8) at 03, o(r8) as r +O, then the same method of solution is applicable with very similar results.
I
LoCal similarity solzctiom
 
=
=
20
20
_{3}_{0}_{7}
FIGURE6(a). For legend 8ee next page.
requires rather careful consideration of the function W(p),which is analysed in the following section.
4. Zeros of the function W(p),Re p >1p
Consider first the real zeros of W(p).Let p + 1 = [/2a; then
and the real zeros of W(p) are given by the intersections of the straight line La:y = m(a)[ and the sine curve S:y = sin<. These intersections are illustrated in figure 6(a)for various values of 2a. Note the following properties which may be easily inferred from the diagram.
(i)For 0 < 2a < 2a, M 159")there is only one real root, namely [ = 2a (correspond ing to p = 0). (This angle was incorrectly given as 156" in Moffatt 1964a; it is the angle below which corner eddies inevitably form in symmetric flow near the corner produced by some symmetric agitation at some distance from the corner.) (ii) The angle 2a1is the first of a sequence of angles (2an}(201, z 168", 2a, E 172"
and asymptotically 2a, N (4n+
_{a}_{,} _{<} _{a} _{<}_{:} there are 2n+ 1 real roots of W(p)= 0 with p >  1. When a = a,, there are 2n such real roots, the largest being a double root. Obviously 2a,+n as
1) n2/[(4n+ l)n+ 21) for which La touches S. When
n+m.
(iii)There is a second similar sequence of angles, {2aA}say, in the range
n < 201 < 2a; z 198",
and a third similar sequence (24}, in the range 2a3 < 2a < 27r (where 2a; M 328").
t The discussion of this section follows a standard pattern established by Haidy (1SO2).
5
4
7
i
1
0
4
Local similarity solutions
1
309
FIGURE7. Sketch of variation of the first few zeros of W(p)as functions of 2a.Where the curves are solid, p, is real; where the curves are dashed, p, is complex, and only the real part of pn is represented.
conjugate pairs, and it will be sufficient to consider those in the first quadrant 5 > 0, 7 > 0. The real and imaginary parts of the equation W(p)= 0 may be written
sin5
 
6
sin2a
2acoshq’
^{(}^{4}^{.}^{4}^{)}
For given a,equations (4.4) and (4.5) represent two families of curves in the (5, 7) plane, and the intersections give the complex roots of W(p).[The intersections of (4.4) with the real axis 7 = 0 give the real roots treated above.] These curves are sketched in figures 6(be) for the four particular choices of the angle 2a represented
310
by the lines La in figure 6 (a),From such curves, we may infer the following properties of the zeros of _{W}_{@}_{)}_{.} (i)For 0 < 2a c 71,in eaoh strip San,where 8, is defined by
H.K. Boffatt and B. R.Duffy
8, 3 {,g;mn< ,g < (m+ l)n,
rn = 1,2,
},
there are either two real zeros of W(p)(as discussed above) or two complex conjugate zeros. We shall denote the two zeros in the strip S,, by pznand pZnfl;if they are real then pznQ pZn+,and if they are complex pZn+,= p& (and we may adopt the con vention Imp,, > 0,Imp,,+, c 0).
there are either two real
zeros of W(p) (232n+l,P,,+~) or two complex conjugate zeros (p2n+a= P&+~).In the strip S,, there are always two real zeros (pl,p2;pl6 p,) which coalesce to form a double zero only for the critical angle _{a} _{=} _{a}_{,}_{.}
(ii) For 7r < 2a c 271, in each strip S2,+, (n = 1,2,3,
)
parts where they are complex)
is indicated in figure 7, over the full range 0 < 2a Q 2n. Note the position of the critical angle 2a, and the denumerable sets {2a,}, (2a3, (2a3 (with limit points 71, n, 27r respectively) on this figure.
The behaviour of the roots p,, p,, p3,
(or their real
5. Asymptotic behaviour of the stream function (3.15)
We are now in a position to evaluate the integral (3.15).When r > a, the contour, closed by a large semicircle in the halfplane Rep >  1, encloses all the poles pn described in the previous section. Suppose first that a is such that all of these poles are
simple (i.e. a $ {a,} U {a;} U {a:} U {ac}); then standard evaluation of (3.15) gives,
r > a,
for
and in thisformula, sincethe poles ere simple,
_{(}_{6}_{.}_{2}_{)}
Note that the complex terms of the series (5.1)occur in complex conjugate pairs. Note further that, from (5.1),for r > a,
W‘(p,) = sin 2a  2a cos 2(pn+1)a + 0.
since W(pn)= 0 and limpl W(p)= W’(0).This provides a check for consistencywith
P+O
(3.2),since the total flux introduced through the boundaries is
$(r, a) $(r, a) = waa = 2Q.
Equation (5.1) has the form
_{+}_{(}_{r}_{,}_{e}_{)} _{=}
CO
c
n= 1
(:)pnjn(e),
r > a,
(5.4)
(5.5)
wheref,(6) depends implicitly on a. The result (3.14) then gives the corresponding expansion
Local similarity solutions
For 2a c 2ac = 267.46', p1 = 0 and
311
(5.7)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f} (0)is as given by (1.9),and so (5.5)gives
$(r,e) N imaf(e) Qf(@ for
r B a,
i.e. the JefferyHamel solution (1.10).Similarly (5.6)gives
$(T,e)
* 'J
(5.8)
(5.9)
which is just the similarity solution given by (1.8). For 2a > 2ac,however, as noted in $4, the smallest root p1lies in the range
where now
fl(e)= (Wl(pl))l[pi1cos (pl+2)a sinpl 8 (pl+2)l cospl a sin (pl+2)81,
(5.10)
(6.11)
(5.12)
and clearly we do not recover the similarity solutions in this situation. The forms (5.10) and (5.11)do however satisfy the basic requirements (3.7),sincep, 2 4. In the JefferyHamel limit (a+O, w+m, Q constant), (5.10)gives, for any fixed T,
$(r, 0)
2&(r/4~~fl(e).
(5.13)
From this, we may construct a local Reynolds number
R (Q/v)(T/u)%
(5.14)
Since p, < 0 when U > a,,it would therefore appear that R > 1 (in the limit a+ 0, r fixed) no matter what the magnitude of the source Reynolds number 2Qlv may be. Inertia forces are then of dominant importance for all T, and a lowReynoldsnumber treatment of the JefferyHamel problem for a > a, would appear to be quite un tenable, no matter how small _{Q}_{/}_{v} may be. As mentioned in the introduction, the breakdown of the JefferyHamel solution at a = ac (when R = 2Q/v + 0) was noted by Fraenkel (1962)who also described a similar behaviour at finite R (see also Fraenkel 1973). From Fraenkel's discussion,it emergesthat there exists a domain 9:a c a,(R)in the aR plane (with ac(0)x 129"), within which the JefferyHamel stream function ?,hJ(8;a,R) is a continuous function of a,and that ?,hJ t 00 (for all 8) as a f a,(R).It may be conjectured from the discussion of the present paper that when a > a,(R), the JefferyHamel solution is irrelevant, and that the flow for such angles must depend on the manner in which the source Q is distributed in the neighbourhood of the vertex, as well as on its net strength. Returning now to the lowReynoldsnumberlimit, when 201 = 2ac, as noted earlier, W has a double zero at p = 0, i.e.
W'(0)= sin 2e  2a cos 2a = 0,
and so the integrand in (3.15) has a double pole at p = 0. The leading term of the
(5.15)
_{3}_{1}_{2}
asymptotic expansion of $ for r 9 a comes from the residue at this double pole and, from (3.15),is given by
H. K. Hoffatt and B. R. Du&

a sinpe
 cospa sin (p+2) 8
P+2
_{2}_{a}_{,}_{2}_{s}_{i}_{n} _{2}_{a}_{,} {log k) [e cos 2a,  4 sin 281 + [ge cos 2e  a sin 20 + ac e sin
w2
2a,l
1
(5.16)
[which again satisfies $(~,a)= &m2, consistent with (3.2)]. Once again, as in the simpler problem treated in 32, a term logarithmic in r appears when the angle 2a is critical. Here, the situation is closely analogous to that resolved in the elasticity
context
that$ N r210grasr+Owhena = a,. We now have the additional interesting complication that W(p) has a double zero [and so the integrand in (3.15) has a double pole] whenever a takes one of the special values (of which there is a countable infinity) for which _{L}_{a}_{i}_{s} tangent to _{S} (see the
by Sternberg & Koiter (1958). For r < a, the correspondence (3.14) shows
discussion of $3). For example, when 2a = 201, z 159", there is a double pole at p, = p3 z 1.78 and the second and third terms of the expansion (4.1) have to be re placed by
+k)W"(P2) dP

2wa2
d
a
p
[
cos (p+2) a sinp8 P

cospa sin (p+2) 0
P+2
llp=p2,
(5.17)
giving a contribution proportional to (a/r)p2log (a/r)for r > a. This contribution is however dominated (when r 9 a) by the leading term of (5.1), which is (5.8) (with 2a = 159"). Similarly when a takes any of the special values a,, a;, a: for which La touches S, evaluation of the residue at the corresponding double pole, p, say, gives
rise to a contribution
to $ proportional to (a/r)pm log (a/r);this is, however, always
dominated by the terms of the series _{(}_{5}_{.}_{1}_{)} with _{n} < _{m}_{.}
Hinged plate limit
rla +o
JefferyHamel limit
r/a + 00
2a < 2a, z 257'
r2,then rp*+2
ro,then rnr
2a = 2a,
r2log (al.), then r2,then rps+2
log (r/a),then ro, then r*a
_{2}_{a} _{>} _{2}_{a}_{,}
rp1f2, then r2,then r)r+2
rpl, then To, then rva
TABLE2. Asymptotic dependence of @(r,0) on r as rla + 0 and rla + 00 for the problem de
(3.3) and (3.4). The exponents p,, p, and p3 are the roots of W(p) = 0 ordered so that
fined by
 1 < p1 < Rep, < Rep, (figure 7).For 2a > 2a,,  4 < p, < 0.
The conclusions of the above analysis are summarized in table 2, which shows the radial dependence of the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of $(r, 6) for r/a+O and rlatco for the problem defined by (3.3) and (3.4).It should perhaps be emphasized that we have assumed throughout that the boundary conditions and resulting flow fields are symmetric about 0 _{=} _{0}_{.} If antisymmetric ingredients are included, then the conclusions of table 2 require modification (see concluding footnote of Sternberg & Koiter 1958). The antisymmetric ingredients can be important in
Local similarity solutions
313
certain circumstances, and in particular in some of the situations envisaged by Jeffrey & Sherwood (1980).
was originally drawn to our
attention by Dr T. J. Pedley, whose provocative observation is gratefully acknow ledged, as is a stimulating discussion of the phenomenon with Dr J. M. Rallison. The
work is supported by S.R.C.Research Grant no. GR/A/5993.4.
The 'explosion' in the solution (1.8) at 2a ;=: 257'
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_{B}_{A}_{T}_{C}_{H}_{E}_{L}_{O}_{R}_{,}_{G}_{.}_{K}_{.} 1967 Int?oduction to Fluid Dyrtamics. Cambridge University Press.
COLLINS,W. M. 8; DENNIS,S. C. R.
1976 Viscous eddies near a 90" and a 45" corner in flow
ALLEN, R. F. & BIGGIN,C. M.
through a curved tube of triangular crosssection. J. Fluid i'fech.
76, 417432.
FRAENKEL,L.E. 1961 On corner eddies in plane inviscid shear flow. J. Fluid Mech. 11,400406.
FRAENKEL,L.E. 1962 Laminar flow in symmetrical channels with slightly curved walls. I.
On the JefferyHamel
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