Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

accuracy actinide alkali metal alkaline-earth metal alloy anion Atom atomic mass Atomic number

a description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured any of the elements of the actinide series, which have atomic numbers from 89 (actinium, Ac) through 103 (lawrencium, Lr) one of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium) one of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium) a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals an ion that has a negative charge the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element the mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; the atomic number is the same for all atoms of an element the principle that states that the structure of each successive element is obtained by adding one proton to the nucleus of the atom and one electron to the lowest-energy orbital that is available 6.022 1023, the number of atoms or molecules in 1 mol the energy required to break the bonds in 1 mol of a chemical compound the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy; the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms center of two like atoms that are half the distance from center to bonded together

aufbau principle Avogadros number bond energy bond length bond radius cation Chemical

an ion that has a positive charge Any substance that has a defined composition a change that occurs when one or more substances change into Chemical change entirely new substances with different properties p property of matter that describe a substances ability to participate Chemical property in chemical reactions The process by which one or more substances change to produce one Chemical Reaction or more different substances a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements Compound joined by chemical bonds. a ratio that is derived from the quality of two different units and that Conversion factor can be used to convert from one unit to the other covalent bond crystal lattice a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons the regular pattern in which a crystal is arranged

Density dipole double bond electromagnetic spectrum Electron electron configuration

the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance D=M/V that contains both positively and a molecule or part of a molecule negatively charged regions a covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation a subatomic particle that has a negative electric charge

the arrangement of electrons in an atom the reduction of the attractive force between a positively charged nucleus and its outermost electrons due to the cancellation of some electron shielding of the positive charge by the negative charges of the inner electrons a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electronegativity electrons a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler Element substances by chemical means Endothermic descries a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment Energy the capacity to do work Evaporation the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas a state in which an atom has more energy than it does at its ground excited state state describes a process in which a system releases heat into the Exothermic environment ground state group the lowest energy state of a quantized system a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties one of the elements of Group 17 of the periodic table (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine); halogens combine with most metals to form salts the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures composed of dissimilar components describes something that has a uniform structure or composition throughout the rule that states that for an atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same spin a theory or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge

halogen Heat Heterogeneous Homogeneous

Hunds rule Hypothesis ion

ionization energy the energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion an atom that has the same number of protons (atomic number) as other atoms of the same element but has a different number of isotope neutrons(atomic mass) Kinetic energy the energy of an object that is due to the objects motion a member of the rare-earth series of elements, whose atomic lanthanide numbers range from 58 (cerium) to 71 (lutetium) the energy associated with constructing a crystal lattice relative to lattice energy the energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distances Law a summary of many experimental results and observations Law of conservation of the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can energy be changed from on form to another Law of conservation of the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in mass ordinary chemical and physical changes law of conservation of the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in mass ordinary chemical and physical changes law of definite the law states that a chemical compound always contains the same proportions elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass the law that states that when two elements combine to form two or law of multiple more compounds, the mass of one element that combines with a proportions given mass of the other is in the ratio of small whole numbers a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in Lewis structure covalent bonds main-group element an element in the s-block or p-block of the periodic table Mass a measure of the amount of matter in an object the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons of the nucleus of an Mass number atom Matter anything that has mass and takes up space a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically Mixture combined molar mass the mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms in 12 g of mole carbon-12 the region of high probability that is occupied by an individual electron as it travels with a wavelike motion in the threemolecular orbital dimensional space around one of two or more associated nuclei

the smallest unit of substance that keeps all of the physical and Molecule chemical properties of that substance a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the Neutron nucleus of an atom an unreactive element of Group 18 of the periodic table (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, or radon) that has eight electrons in its noble gas outer level (except for helium, which has two electrons) nonpolar covalent a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted bond to both bonded atoms nuclear reaction Nucleus a reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom an atoms central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons a concept of chemical bonding theory that is based on the assumption that atoms tend to have either empty valence shells or full valence shells of eight electrons a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons the principle that states that two particles of a certain class cannot be in the exact same energy state

octet rule orbital Pauli exclusion principle period

a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table the law that states that the repeating physical and chemical properties periodic law of elements change periodically with their atomic number a change of matter from one form to another without a change in Physical change chemical properties a characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical Physical property change, such as density, color, or hardness polar covalent a covalent bond in which a shared pair of electrons is held more bond closely by one of the atoms polyatomic ion precision Product an ion made of two or more atoms the exactness of a measurement A substance that forms in a chemical reaction a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons of the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties something that has magnitude, size, or amount

Proton Pure Substance Quantity

quantum number a number that specifies the properties of electrons Reactant A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction in chemistry, any one of two or more possible configurations of the resonance same compound that have identical geometry but different structure arrangements of electrons

an ionic compound that forms when a metal atom or a positive salt radical replaces the hydrogen of an acid a series of step followed to solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating Scientific method conclusions a prescribed decimal place that determines the amount of rounding significant figure off to be done based on the precision of the measurement single bond a covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K or 1 Celsius in a specified way given constant pressure and volume The physical forms of matter, which are solid, liquid, gas and plasma an element whose atomic number is greater than 106 a measure of how hot (or col) something is an explanation for some phenomenon that is based n observation, experimentation and reasoning one of the metals that can use the inner shell before using the outer shell to bond a covalent bond in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons a quantity adopted as a standard of measurement the smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the threedimensional pattern of the entire lattice a nonbonding pair of electrons in the valence shell of an atom; also called lone pair an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atoms chemical properties an electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atoms chemical properties a measure of the size of a body or region n three-dimensional space. a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other a measure of gravitational force exerted on an object

Specific heat States of matter superheavy element Temperature Theory transition metal triple bond Unit unit cell unshared pair valence electron valence electron Volume VSEPR theory Weight

Chapter 1 Highlights:
SECTION ONE! What Is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of chemicals, their properties, and the reactions in which

they are involved.


Three of the states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. Matter undergoes both physical changes and chemical changes. Evidence can help to identify the

type of change.

SECTION TWO ! Describing Matter


Matter has both mass and volume; matter thus has density, which is the ratio

of mass to volume.
Mass and weight are not the same thing. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object.

Weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object.


SI units are used in science to express quantities. Derived units are combina- tions of the basic SI

units.
Conversion factors are used to change a given quantity from one unit to another unit. Properties of matter may be either physical or chemical.

SECTION THREE!

How Is Matter Classied?

All matter is made from atoms.


All atoms of an element are alike. Elements may exist as single atoms or as molecules. A molecule usually consists of two or more atoms combined in a denite ratio. Matter can be classied as a pure substance or a mixture. Elements and compounds are pure substances. Mixtures may be homogeneous or heterogeneous.

Chapter 2 Highlights:
SECTION ONE! Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work. Changes in matter can be chemical or physical. However, only chemical changes produce new substances. Every change in matter involves a change in energy. Endothermic processes absorb energy. Exothermic processes release energy. Energy is always conserved. Heat is the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures. Temperature is a measure of the average random kinetic energy of the particles in an object. Specic heat is the relationship between energy transferred as heat to a substance and a substances temperature change.

SECTION TWO ! Studying Matter and Energy


The scientic method is a strategy for conducting research. A hypothesis is an explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested. A variable is a factor that can affect an experiment. A controlled experiment is an experiment in which variables are kept constant. A theory is a well-tested explanation of observations. A law is a statement or mathematical expression that describes the behavior of the world.

SECTION THREE!

Measurements and Calculations in Chemistry

Accuracy is the extent to which a measurement approaches the true value of a quantity. Precision refers to how closely several measurements that are of the same quantity and that are made in the same way agree with one another. Signicant gures are digits known with certainty as well as one estimated, or uncertain, digit. Numbers should be written in scientic notation.

Chapter 3 Highlights:

SECTION ONE! Substances Are Made of Atoms


Three laws support the existence of atoms: the law of denite proportions, the law of conservation of mass, and the law of multiple proportions. Daltons atomic theory contains ve basic principles, some of which have been modied.

SECTION TWO ! Structure of Atoms


Protons, particles that have a positive charge, and neutrons, particles that have a

neutral charge, make up the nuclei of most atoms.


Electrons, particles that have a negative charge and very little mass, occupy the region around the

nucleus.
The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons the atom has. The mass number of an atom

is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.


Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

SECTION THREE!

Electron Conguration

The quantum model describes the probability of locating an electron at any place.
Each electron is assigned four quantum numbers that describe it. No two electrons of an atom can

have the same four quantum numbers.


The electron conguration of an atom reveals the number of electrons an atom has.

SECTION FOUR!!

Counting Atoms

The masses of atoms are expressed in atomic mass units (amu). The mass of an

atom of the carbon-12 isotope is dened as exactly 12 atomic mass units.


The mole is the SI unit for the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are

atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. Avogadros number, 6.022 1023 particles per mole, is the number of particles in a mole.

Chapter 4 Highlights:
SECTION ONE! How Are Elements Organized?

John Newlands, Dmitri Mendeleev, and Henry Moseley contributed to the development of the periodic table. The periodic law states that the properties of elements are periodic functions of the elements atomic numbers. In the periodic table, elements are ordered by increasing atomic number. Rows are called periods. Columns are called groups. Elements in the same period have the same number of occupied energy levels. Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons.

SECTION TWO ! Tour of the Periodic Table


The main-group elements are Group 1 (alkali metals), Group 2 (alkaline-earth metals), Groups 1316, Group 17 (halogens), and Group 18 (noble gases). Hydrogen is in a class by itself. Most elements are metals, which conduct electricity. Metals are also ductile and malleable. Transition metals, including the lanthanides and actinides, occupy the center of the periodic table.

SECTION THREE!

Trends in the Periodic Table

Periodic trends are related to the atomic structure of the elements. Ionization energy, electronegativity, and electron afnity generally increase as you move across a period and decrease as you move down a group. Atomic radius and ionic size generally decrease as you move across a period and increase as you move down a group. Melting points and boiling points pass through two cycles of increasing, peaking, and then decreasing as you move across a period.

SECTION FOUR!!

Where Did the Elements Come From?

The 93 natural elements were formed in the interiors of stars. Synthetic elements (elements whose atomic numbers are greater than 93) are made using particle accelerators.

A transmutation is a nuclear reaction in which one nucleus is changed into another nucleus.

Chapter 5 Highlights:
SECTION ONE! Simple Ions
Atoms may gain or lose electrons to achieve an electron conguration identical to that of a noble gas. Alkali metals and halogens are very reactive when donating and accepting electrons from one another. Electrons in the outermost energy level are known as valence electrons. Ions are electrically charged particles that have different chemical properties than their parent atoms.

SECTION TWO ! Ionic Bonding and Salts


The opposite charges of cations and anions attract to form a tightly packed substance of bonded ions called a crystal lattice. Salts have high melting and boiling points and do not conduct electric current in the solid state, but they do conduct electric current when melted or when dissolved in water. Salts are made of unit cells that have an ordered packing arrangement.

SECTION THREE!

Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds are named by joining the cation and anion names. Formulas for ionic compounds are written to show their balance of overall charge. A polyatomic ion is a group of two or more atoms bonded together that functions as a single unit. Parentheses are used to group polyatomic ions in a chemical formula with a subscript.

Chapter 6 Highlights:
SECTION ONE! Covalent Bonds
Covalent bonds form when atoms share pairs of electrons. Atoms have less potential energy and more stability after they form a covalent bond. The greater the electronegativity difference, the greater the polarity of the bond.

10

The physical and chemical properties of a compound are related to the compounds bond type.

SECTION TWO ! Drawing and Naming Molecules


In a Lewis structure, the elements symbol represents the atoms nucleus and inner-shell electrons, and dots represent the atoms valence electrons. Two atoms form single, double, and triple bonds depending on the number of electron pairs that the atoms share. Some molecules have more than one valid Lewis structure. These structures are called resonance structures. Molecular compounds are named using the elements names, a system of prexes, and -ide as the ending for the second element in the compound.

SECTION THREE!

Molecular Shapes

VSEPR theory states that electron pairs in the valence shell stay as far apart as possible. VSEPR theory can be used to predict the shape of a molecule. Molecular shapes predicted by VSEPR theory include linear, bent, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, and trigonal pyramidal. The shape of a molecule affects the molecules physical and chemical properties.

Chemistry Final Exam Term 1 Review Sheet Three stats of matter: What they are and how to change between them
Gas Evaporation Condensation Liquid Melting Solid Freezing

11

Reactants and Products


A + B C + D A + B = Reactants = A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction C+ D = Products = A substance that forms in a chemical reaction

Observations of a chemical/physical change


- Chemical Change Color Change Precepitate Heat Gas - Physical Change Dissolve

Reactions

No Reactions

Volume, Mass, Weight and density calculations


D=M/V D = Denisity M = Mass V = Volume Difference between mass and weight: Mass : a measure of the amount of matter in an object Weight : a measure of gravitational force exerted on an object

Chemical and physical properties and changes


Chemical Change : a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties Physical Change : a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

Physical Property - observe by density

Mixtures vs. Compounds


Mixture : No bonding, No Reaction Two Type of Mixture : - Hemomgenous : Dissolve - Hetrogenous : Dont Dissolve Compound : reaction, Chemical bond

12

Specic Heat Calculations


C = speci3ic heat at a given pressure q= energy transferred as heat Unti : J/g*K m = mass Delta T = represents the difference between the intial and 3inal tempreatures

Scientic Method

Signicant Figures
Nonzero digits are always signicant. For example, 46.3 m has three signicant gures. For example, 6.295 g has four signicant gures. Zeros between nonzero digits are signicant. For example, 40.7 L has three signicant gures. For example, 87 009 km has ve signicant gures. Zeros in front of nonzero digits are not signicant. For example, 0.0095 87 m has four signicant gures. For example, 0.0009 kg has one signicant gure. Zeros both at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal point are signicant. For example, 85.00 g has four signicant gures. For example, 9.070 000 000 cm has 10 signicant gures. Zeros both at the end of a number but to the left of a decimal point may not be signicant. If a zero has not been measured or estimated, it is not signicant. A decimal point placed after zeros indicates that the zeros are signicant. For example, 2000 m may contain from one to four signicant gures, depending on how many zeros are placeholders. For values given in this book, assume that 2000 m has one signicant gure.

13

Law of Conservation of Mass


the law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes

Law of Conservation of Energy


energy can not be create or destroy but it just change to a different state

Ground stats and Excited State


Normally, if an electron is in a state of lowest possible energy, it is in a ground state. If an electron gains energy, it moves to an excited state. An electron in an excited state will release a specic quantity of energy as it quickly falls back to its ground state. This energy is emitted as certain wavelengths of light, which give each element a unique line-emission spectrum.

Electron Conguration

S : 2 P: 6 D : 10 F 14

Press here to see the video.

Quantum Numbers

a number that specifies the properties of electrons

14

Pauli Exclusion Principle, Aufbau Principle, Hunds rules, Octet Rule


Pauli Exlusion - States that two particles of a certain class cannot be in the exact same energy state - Every electron have the be unique Aufbau Principle - states that the structure of each successive element is obtained by adding one proton to the nucleus of the atom and one electron to the lowest-energy orbital that is available - lowest energy orbitals filled first Hunds Principle
- states that for an atom in the ground state, the number of unpaired electrons is the maximum possible and these unpaired electrons have the same spin

Octet Rule

- Atom have 8 valence electron


For more information about valence electron and octet rule press here

Atoms- Protons, Neutrons, Electrons, Proton Number


Proton : a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons of the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element Neutron: a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom Electron: a subatomic particle that has a negative electric charge Mass Number = (Number of Protons) + (Number of Neutrons) The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom of an element. Atoms must have equal numbers of protons and electrons.

Neutron for Kr = 84 = 36 + (Number of Neutrons) Number of neutrons = Mass number minus Atomic number

15

Periodic Groups - Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Transition Metals, Halogens, Noble Gases, Lanthanides, Actinides, Hydrogen
Group 1: Alkali Metals These elements are less dense than other metals, form ions with a +1 charge, and have the largest atom sizes of elements in their periods. The alkali metals are highly reactive. Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals These metals form many compounds. They have ions with a +2 charge. Their atoms are smaller than those of the alkali metals. Groups 3-12: Transition Metals These elements are very hard, with high melting points and boiling points. The transition metals are good electrical conductors and are very malleable. They form positively charged ions. Group 17: Halogens These nonmetals form ions with a -1 charge. The physical properties of the halogens vary. The halogens are highly reactive. Group 18: Noble Gases These elements are used to make lighted signs, refrigerants, and lasers. The noble gases are not reactive. This is because they have little tendency to gain or lose electrons. Lanthanides The lanthanides are silvery metals that tarnish easily. They are relatively soft metals, with high melting and boiling points. The lanthanides react to form many different compounds. These elements are used in lamps, magnets, lasers, and to improve the properties of other metals. Actinides All of the actinides are radioactive, with positively charged ions. They are reactive metals that form compounds with most nonmetals. The actinides are used in medicines and nuclear devices.

Hydrogen Hydrogen has a single positive charge, like the alkali metals, but at room temperature, it is a gas that doesn't act like a metal. Therefore, hydrogen usually is labeled as a nonmetal.

16

Periodic Trends, Electronegativity, Electron Afnity, Atomic Radii, Ionization Energy


Electronegativity: Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction of an atom for the electrons in a chemical bond. The higher the electronegativity of an atom, the greater its attraction for bonding electrons. Electronegativity is related to ionization energy. Electrons with low ionization energies have low electronegativities because their nuclei do not exert a strong attractive force on electrons. Elements with high ionization energies have high electronegativities due to the strong pull exerted on electrons by the nucleus. In a group, the electronegativity decreases as atomic number increases, as a result of increased distance between the valence electron and nucleus (greater atomic radius). An example of an electropositive (i.e., low electronegativity) element is cesium; an example of a highly electronegative element is fluorine.

Electron Affinity Electron affinity reflects the ability of an atom to accept an electron. It is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom. Atoms with stronger effective nuclear charge have greater electron affinity. Some generalizations can be made about the electron affinities of certain groups in the periodic table. The Group IIA elements, the alkaline earths, have low electron affinity values. These elements are relatively stable because they have filled s subshells. Group VIIA elements, the halogens, have high electron affinities because the addition of an electron to an atom results in a completely filled shell. Group VIII elements, noble gases, have electron affinities near zero, since each atom possesses a stable octet and will not accept an electron readily. Elements of other groups have low electron affinities.

Atomic Radii The atomic radius of an element is half of the distance between the centers of two atoms of that element that are just touching each other. Generally, the atomic radius decreases across a period from left to right and increases down a given group. The atoms with the largest atomic radii are located in Group I and at the bottom of groups.

17

Ionization The ionization energy, or ionization potential, is the energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. The closer and more tightly bound an electron is to the nucleus, the more difficult it will be to remove, and the higher its ionization energy will be. The first ionization energy is the energy required to remove one electron from the parent atom. The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove a second valence electron from the univalent ion to form the divalent ion, and so on. Successive ionization energies increase. The second ionization energy is always greater than the first ionization energy. Ionization energies increase moving from left to right across a period (decreasing atomic radius). Ionization energy decreases moving down a group (increasing atomic radius). Group I elements have low ionization energies because the loss of an electron forms a stable octet.

Ions, Cations Anions, Charges


Ion: an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge Cation: an ion that has a positive charge Anion: an ion that has a negative charge

Ionic Compounds, naming, formulas Video


Ionic - Metal + Non-Metal Formula:

Be2+ + Cl-
Reason : Cross over

BeCl2

Be2+
Naming:

Cl-

The -ide ending is added to the name of a monoatomic ion of an element. (the second atom)

18

Covalent Compounds, naming, formulas VIDEO


a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

Covalent - Non-Metal + Non-Metal Naming: All covalent compounds have two word names. The first word typically corresponds to the first element in the formula and the second corresponds to the second element in the formula except that "-ide" is substituted for the end. As a result, HF is named "hydrogen fluoride", because hydrogen is the first element and fluorine is the second element. If there is more than one atom of an element in a molecule, we need to add prefixes to these words to tell us how many are present. Here are the prefixes you'll need to remember: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mono DiTriTetraPentaHexaHeptaOcta-

Let's see how this works: Examples: P2O5 - this is named diphosphorus pentoxide, because there are two phosphorus atoms and five oxygen atoms. CO - this is carbon monoxide (you need the "mono-" because there's only one oxygen atom). CF4 - this is carbon tetrafluoride, because there's one carbon atom and four fluorine atoms. Properties of Covalent : - Covalent compounds generally have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds. - Covalent compounds are soft and squishy (compared to ionic compounds) - Covalent compounds tend to be more flammable than ionic compounds. - Covalent compounds don't conduct electricity in water. - Covalent compounds aren't usually very soluble in water.

19

Lewis Structure Video


a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds Example : CO2 1) The number of valence electrons is 16. (Carbon has four electrons, and each of the oxygens have six, for a total of 4 + 12 = 16 electrons). 2) The number of octet electrons is equal to 24. (Carbon wants eight electrons, and each of the oxygens want eight electrons, for a total of 8+16 = 24 electrons). 3) The number of bonding electrons is equal to the octet electrons minus the valence electrons, or 8. 4) The number of bonds is equal to the number of bonding electrons divided by two, because there are two electrons per bond. As a result, in CO2, the number of bonds is equal to 4. (Because 8/2 is 4). 5) If we arrange the molecule so that the atoms are held together by four bonds, we find that the only way to do it so that we get the following pattern: O=C=O, where carbon is double-bonded to both oxygen atoms. 6) The number of nonbonding electrons is equal to the number of valence electrons (from #1) minus the number of bonding electrons (from #3), which in our case equals 16 - 8, or 8. Looking at our structure, we see that carbon already has eight electrons around it. Each oxygen, though, only has four electrons around it. To complete the picture, each oxygen needs to have two sets of nonbonding electrons:

Molecular Geometry Video


a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence
electrons surrounding an atom repel each other

There are a whole bunch of common shapes you need to know to accurately think of covalent molecules. Here they are: Tetrahedral: Tetrahedral molecules look like pyramids with four faces. Each point on the pyramid corresponds to an atom that's attached to the central atom. Bond angles are 109.5 degrees. (NO LONE PAIR) Trigonal pyramidal: It's like a tetrahedral molecule, except flatter. It looks kind of like a squished pyramid because one of the atoms in the pyramid is replaced with a lone pair. Bond angles are 107.5 degrees (it's less than tetrahedral molecules because the lone pair shoves the other atoms closer to each other). (LONE PAIR) Trigonal planar: It looks like the hood ornament of a Mercedes automobile, or like a peace sign with that bottom-most line gone. The bond angles are 120 degrees. (NO LONE PAIR) Bent: They look, well, bent. Bond angles can be either 118 degrees for molecules with one lone pair or 104.5 degrees for molecules with two lone pairs. (LONE PAIR) Linear: The atoms in the molecule are in a straight line. This can be either because there are only two atoms in the molecule (in which case there is no bond angle, as there need to be three atoms to get a bond angle) or because the three atoms are lined up in a straight line (corresponding to a 180 degree bond angle). (NO LONE PAIR)

20

Moles, Grams, Avogadros Number


Mole is the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12 Avogadros Number : 6.022 1023, the number of atoms or molecules in 1 mol Mole : N= G/M N = Number of Mole G = Grams M = Molar Mass

Electron Shielding
the reduction of the attractive force between a positively charged nucleus and its outermost electrons due to the cancellation of some of the positive charge by the negative charges of the inner electrons The shielding effect describes the decrease in attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron shell. It is also referred to as the screening effect or atomic shielding. Shielding electrons are the electrons in the energy levels between the nucleus and the valence electrons. They are called "shielding" electrons because they "shield" the valence electrons from the force of attraction exerted by the positive charge in the nucleus.

Lattice Energy
the energy associated with constructing a crystal lattice relative to the energy of all constituent atoms separated by infinite distances

Diagram on page 169

21