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Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia http //www.p ssp-mer. org/
:

SEMII{AR TryORKSIIOP
on

FALL PROTECTIOI{ SAFETY


by:

ROMEL C. DELOSO, RSP (DOLE-BWC)


Registration # 1033 -110701-2069 and

EXCAVATION, TRENCHNG & SHORTNG SAFETY


by:

MELVIF{ V. CINANAI{, SAPMT SAPMT Division Coordinator


Dhahran Palace Hotel Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia August 26,2011

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

PHILIPPINE SOCIETY OF SAFETY PRACTITIONERS

Middle East Region

Melvin V. Cunanan
OSHA Certifled

# UO5593805

(PSSP-MER #06-O482)

CSE- 4 units

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP.MER

EI lntroduction

Terminology

EI General Requirements

Soil Classification System

Protective Systems

EI Emergency Procedures EI Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

Enhance trenching and shoring safety philosophy


Engineers.

to Safety

EI EstaUish competency among Safety Practitioners. EI lntroduce basic skilts in the recognition and control of
trenching and shoring hazards.

M Reduction of injury rates during project executions. M


Oaily exposure to job hazards by thousands of workers. improved.

M Efficiency can be greatly

EI lncrease level of awareness in the enforcement of the safety


standard.

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V g g
M M M

site managers
Safety committee members First line supervisors/foremen

M Acclctent investigation team members


lmployees working ln or near excavations safety Engineers and officers satety Practitioners

Employers must;

place of employment free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm or

furnish

injury to employees.

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E E
Ir -

ft
Ir I L

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M
Hundreds of workers killed annually from cave-ins

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EI Thousand of workers injured annually from cave-ins M fatality rate for trenching is twice the level for general
construction

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REASONS TO MAINTAIN AN EFFECTIVE PROGRAM:

EI

Peace

of mind

M
EI EI EI EI

Reduced liability

M M M

EI

lncreased productivity Reduced lost man-hours lmproved employee morale Reduced or eliminated fines lmproved health of employees Reduced injury and illness rates Lower workers' compensation costs Because it's the right thing to do!!!!!!

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

Asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen.


Each time a breath is exhaled the weight of the load restricts inhalation of the next breath. Slow suffocation usually follows unless rescue is immediate.

CAVE-INS RESULT FROM:

/ / { / / /

Vibrations Adjacent structures


Freezingand thawing

the weight of the soil itself Rddition or removal of water


Reduction in frictionaland cohesive capacities of soil

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP-MER

TERMINOLOGY

EI Accepted Engineering Practices


...... those requirements which

are compatible with

standards or practice required by a registered professional engineer.

I P"s- |

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

M Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring


.... pre'engineered shoring

system comprised of aluminum hydraulic cylinders used in conjunction with horizontal


rails.

EI eell-bottom Pier Hole


...... a type of shaft or

Pier Diagram

footing excavation with the bottom larger than the cross section above, to form a belled shape.

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M Benching
the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps, usually with near vertical surfaces between levels.
...... excavating
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M Cave-ln

E E E E E
E E E E
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The separation of a mass

of soil or rock materials from the side of an excavation.

The loss of soil from under a trench shield or support system (with a sudden movement into the excavation).

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M Competent Person

One who is capable

of

identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working conditions, which are dangerous to employees.

One who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate hazards.

M Competent Person

'. . .

'

Soilanalysis Protective systems 29 CFR 1926 Subpart P Detect hazardous conditions - Protective system failures - Hazardous atmospheres - Confined spaces Ability to stop work. -,16. sroP woRK AUrHoRrrY!!!

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l= E EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER


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EI Cross Braces
...... horizontal members of a

shoring system installed perpendicular to the sides of the excavation. The ends bear against either upright or wales.

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CRr}SSERA(IFS

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4

M Excavation
......any man'made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in an earth

surfacg formed by earth removal.

E E E E E E E E E E E
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E E E E E
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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER

M Faces or Sides ...... vertical or inclined earth surfaces formed as a result of excavation work.

M Failure
...... breakage,

displacement, or permanent change of a structure connection which reduces its structural integrity and its supportive capabilities.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER

M Hazardous Atmospheres
...... any atmospheres

which could be explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, i rritating, oxygen d eficient, toxic, or otherwise harmful, and which may cause death, illness or injury.

CSE- 4 units

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

M Ramp
...... any inclined walking

or working surface that is used to gain access to one location from another, and which is constructed from earth or from structural materials such as steel or wood.

M Registered Professional Engineer ...... a person who


is registered as a

professional engineer in the state where the work is being performed.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

EI Sheeting ...... members of the shoring system that retain the earth in position.

M strielu ...... a structure able to withstand the forces im on it by a cave-in.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

M Shoring ...... a structure that supports the sides of an


excavation.

Tlpe A S'lil

M Sloping ...... a method of excavating to form sides that are inclined away from the excavation in order to prevent
cave-ins.

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Tgp*A $oil

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER

M stable Rock ...... any natural solid materialthat


can be excavated with vertical sides and will remain

intact while
exposed.

M Structural Ramp - A structural ramp built of steel or wood, usually used for vehicle access.
- Ramps made of soil or rock are not considered structural ramps.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

EI Support System
A structure such as underpinning, bracing, or shoring, which [provides support to an adjacent structure, underqround

installation, or the sides of an excavation.

VI Tabulated Data
Tables and charts approved by a registered professional

engineer and used to design and construct a protective system.

M Trench

'A

narrow excavation (in relation to it's length) made below the surface of the ground. Width of a trench (measured at the bottom) is not greater

'

than 15 ft. (4.6 meters).

CSE- 4 units

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

ta I

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A

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EI Uprights
Vertical members of a trench shoring system placed in contact with the earth and usually positioned so that individual members do not contact each other.
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.... The horizontal members
Upright (when spaced)
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of a shoring system placed parallel to the excavation


face whose sides bear against the vertical members of the shoring system or earth.
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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

Conclusion:
.... we looked at the terminology used in trenching

and excavation work.


.... by understanding these terms, we

will be able to

better understand the reguirements for trenching


and shoring.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER


I

I
a

I
a

to the weight of one unit of a particular soil. The weight of soil varies with type and moisture content. One cubic foot of soil can weigh from 5okgs (ll0 lbs) to 64kg (140 lbs) or more, and one cubic meter (35.3 cubic feet) of soil can weigh more than l360kgs (3,000
UNIT WEIGHT OF SOILS refers

lbs).

V V V

lnstantaneously
Trenches

5'to 15'deep

With absolutely no warning


ln seemingly safe conditions

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V

With workers in a bent or


lying position

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

BEFORE YOU BEGIN THE EXCAVATION:

M fne site must be assessed M Potential hazards must be determined


EI Known hazards reduced or eliminated EI Emergency procedures established EI Periodic inspection intervals determined EI utility tocations must be staked or marked

CSE

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

Excavation Checklist
i{osc of !:Ess iacidcnE tnd E lial'pea ard all could taw
EI

pr*-oreti t4r using u tlxcrvati* Ssfcry Clhecklisl l -2 m A! ESC slould be u*d for all *cltdier 4 tt) s decpca *c+aBlronr dcetrEr lt4 30 F ( I ft) s'hw Lruicd ,I}ipcliuc* or cablcs uay bc prescut, ud *cavatior:s Iess a}Iau 1,3 n (4 {t) dep tbai sl&v sigrE oFa psteDlial steclrwd daitry insl}ocriod o{ eacaiqrio[g, tlEir protccde sj,':geu< rutr as !|rorieg. ,{r
.ESC requircs coDdEcling a

scavalisn#

Bdi*s p6idedro wk

r.dproced".:l opq

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ed tEidgcs owcr scavztial I : d (4 {i} "!-alksa:'salrt 0-76 h {:}O in.) qr wids cquipped Fifa or dceIf,r $ar!d*d guardr*ls an'l too tr@ds
r*'arD!r14

v6ts

laonr by workcrs cxFokd ro

trdflic

wticultr

benchilg, and strolirg. and adiacct{ eecs whe{e hEards to psfficl cu bc': resccably ffiliciparf,d. l^.tlqi cdrdtrDlcd a daily basis, this stilctured irsgrcctioa approaolr *'ill
hclF climiDa.s incidcnls au5ed try cte-ins, failqc of vatjdl tc)tslicr -{y54ss, FallinE or driving isro brd oth6 }razards The ilems drat should tr+ coiercd in

gl Prcicdioa dd sllpFod of rEiergrssd pipetis ed ebl< in u crpa scar=rirxr l Aacss md ex-it ladd* 1rc*ided s.irfun ?,5 F (2: ft] ol all wod<ers
El l:&tcrs groycrly ictrod @ri dtendi$g 9l d aL@E ttjc dcal'atioE cdge (3 f!)

ESi iacludc

Clerly Erskcd locariftls udlilies, aad sbles

sF

uDdg6utd pipclincs,

gl .A.ntursFhqig gas estidg irrsi+c ercalp.ria&s iieelE the t.2 m ta ft)

Pioler{ioE fiom kpsc rck or soil tl:tt coul(i lsll or rcIl inht at cscar-ation Ccvc-is frorccdoa :-!f,!ctr, ircluding $h<tr;!!, bcDhiDg. or slolring

E &ldxirnutt 2O";

slolrs oE lamFs

gl Ncrslip *urf*e m rerrps ud *zl*reyr

I Rsrtp.al of surl&a Efcr

Gr

dursff

r.Frcr a rairlstoErr

f:rtra maleria! or spoilr rst back d lcosl


thc

0.4)

h (2 ft) from

sge1tiof, cr!*4

r\.dditirnal itens may te add.nd to oD ESC tlut they sholld mi dul'listc safcry $ieddedl or opcra?i{Dill
processca

Sqaflolds uot exccted clDss td the edgc ofas GcavolioR thrd tlrr d(arir ofth+ ciu4t4ti{d
\'chr{1cs oa oldscr than thc dcpth of d}e *rrrtrrcr-s rc rnsidc lbc cxcavdi.rn

sch s n CaId 'Work I'caii, Hat 1\'srk FeE*it, orCotiincd Sta.e Eruo Fmir rcquilmcrrr*-

cxcslttiol, F*rle

F^\ca\si@ {ei lschidg ia ose cf rlE "Fig 6" (}!Emtiod! Pros*sss tlst me+i bc to rchictr safe e.l reli{trle olEreions 'Gslcrcd Anmeo. iD Saudi Afl E:SC is a valushlc t{Nl E) lrclF ehis! rhi$ g@L

OSHR Excavation Standard 29 CFR 1926,

Subpart

,/

Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual

CSE

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP-MER

g g

Don't under estimate the effects of weather Weather can have a drastic effect on the site Daily (or hourly) site inspections must be made Consider protection from:

r Lightning r Flooding r Erosion

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High winds

Hot or Cold Temperatures

'

Surface encumbrances

Hazardous atmospheres

. Utilities
. Access/Egress ' Vehicle traffic

Water accumulation Adjacent structures Loose rock or soil


Fa

lls

. .

Falling loads

Cave-in

Mobile equipment

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER

Underground

o Locate prior to digging


o Certify deactivation

Protect, support, or remove

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CSF- 4 units

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP-MER

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o Aboveground

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. De'energize or
o lsolation from power linr

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{.Structural Ramps should
be;

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' used only by people,


'designed by a "competent person",

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' egress reguired every 25 ft. (lateral) for trenches


+= 4

ft.

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EXCAVATION, TRENGHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

r Note:
Poor housekeeping is the

# I cause of slips, trips and falls

on construction projects. Therefore, e Debris kept cleated from work areas o Mark hazards o Barricade or cover holes

. Egress provided'
o 25'travel distance o ladders

. ramps
o stairs

ACCIDEN T PR EVENTIOI,I METHO DS:

EI

warn and re-route public traffic


post signs, barricades and flagmen
Mandate use of reflective vests

E
EI EI

warn site traffic with stop logs etc. lnstall protective supports systems

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP-MER

. No work under loads


o Operators remain in cab

Warning system . Barricades

. Hand signals . Mechanical signals


. Stop logs . Grade away from
excavation

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

EI rrsflNc

& coNTRoLs

'Oxygen deficiency 'Flammable


atmospheres

'Testing

EI

TNNTRGENCY RESCUE EQUIPMENT:

Availability

- Lifelines

o Displace hazardous gases and


vapors

o Considerations
o Heavier than air or lighter than air
contaminant

o Exhausting or blowing

in

o Volume/time required to lower concentrations to acceptable


levels

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

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= J = L
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Adequate precautions must be taken when working in accumulated water.

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Controlling water and water removal must be monitored by a competent person.


Ditches, dikes or comparable means should be used to prevent surface water from entering
excavations.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER

o Protection of employees from


loose rock or soil
o Scaling o Protective barriers o Placing material at least 2'

from edge
o No work on slopes above

workers

o Any surface 6 feet or more above a lower level shall be


protected by:
o walkways

with guardrail systems especially for crossing over

excavations
o Barriers must be provided for remotely located excavations

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

tr Other options include: r warning lines systems


r
safety monitoring systems

o Protection from cave-in requires a systematic approach

including: . Soil classification . Protective systems

.lnspection

. Employee training

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

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I

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

SOIL CLASSIFICATION

FWhat is a Soil?
Soil is a mixture of Sand, Silts, Clay, Water, and Air.

lt is the

amounts of these ingredients which determine its "cohesiveness", how well a soil will hold together.
OSHA Classifies soils into four categories:

'Solid Rock -Type "A" 'Type "B" 'Type "C"

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP-MER

M SOIL CLASSIFICATION MUST BE DONE BY A COMPETENT

PERSON:

vrsuAl TEsr

' . . . . . '

Check entire worksite Fissured ground Layered soil

Disturbed earth
Seepage

Vibration
Poor drainage

MANUALTEST

. . ' . .

plasticity
Dry strength

Thumb penetration
Pocket penetrameter

Hand operated shear vane

One soil inspection and classification may not be enough. Outside disturbances during excavation may change even the best soil classification. lnspect the soil after any change in conditions.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP-MER

5
5

..C
MAre cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tlsf or greater. MClues that soil is not type A: r lf it is fissured. . lf it is subJect to vibration.
o If it has been previously disturbed. o lf the soil is part of a sloped, layered system. o lf the material is subject to other factors that would require it to be
classified as a less than stable material.
1

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.C
E E E

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e

.C

E E E

I
Are cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength greater

T
than 0.5 t/sf but less than loam and sandy clay loam.
Previously disturbed soils except those which would be classified as
1.5

t/sf.

Types include angular gravel, silt, silt loam, sandy loam, silty clay

I I I I
I I I I I

type C soil.
Dry rock that is not stable.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

M
EI

Are cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength of 0.5

t/sf or less
Are granular soils including gravel, sand, and loamy sand Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping Submerged rock that is not stable

V g

Note:

lf you are uncertain of the soil type Always assume Type C soil!

PROTECTIVE SYSTEM

CSE- 4 units

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

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Each employee must be protected from cave'ins adequately designed system. Exceptions are:

by

an

A E

. Excavations made in stable rock . Excavations less than 5 feet deep


Protective systems must have the capacity to resist all loads

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that are expected to be applied to the system

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DESIGN OF BENCHING AND SLOPING SYSTEMS:

. OPTION 1- Allowable

configurations and slopes

o OPTION 2 - Determination of slopes and configurations

I I I I I I
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using 29 CFR 1926.652 - Requirements for Protective Systems. o OPTION 3 - Designs using other tabulated data o OPTION 4 - Design by a registered professional engineer

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Must be free from damage or defects that might impair proper function. Must be used and maintained in a manner that is consistent with the recommendations of the manufacturer. Must be examined by a competent person if
damage occurs.

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP.MER

F
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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:

/ / /

Support systems must be securely connected.

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Support systems must be installed and removed in a manner that protects from collapse. Support systems must not be subjected to loads
exceeding design specifications.

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T EI
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

/ / /

Additional precautions must be taken to ensure safety before temporary removal begins
Removal must begin at the bottom of the excavation

E E

.5

Backfilling must progress together


support systems from excavations

with the removal of

.E

5 f

-5

.E
CSE- 4 units

I I I

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP-MER

EI

EMPLOYEES MUST NOT BE PERMITTED TO WORK:

/ on the faces of sloped or benched excavations / nt levels above other employees except

when employees at the lower levels are adequately protected from the hazard of falling, rolling or sliding material or

EI TEMPORARY SPOIL

PILES:

, FEEr MTNTMUM

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

IF

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T E
EI SLOPING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

/ / / /

E ! t L I I

Various slope angles are allowed by OSHA

Appendix

to 1926 Subpart P must be consulted Evacuate the excavation if walls show signs of distress
B

lf soil conditions change, re-inspect.

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T

0 Deg
STABLE ROCK

I I I
TYPE A

.t

Maximum

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TYPE C

TYPE B

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

20 FEET MAX

20 FEET MAX

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

20 FEET MAX

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEW PSSP.MER

M GENERAL

/ / /

Shoring provides a framework to work in Shoring uses wales, cross braces and uprights Shoring supports excavation walls

EI OSHA TABLES

/ / {

PROVIDE SHORING DATA soiltype must be known oepth and width of the excavation must be known You must be familiar with the OSHA Tables

REMOVAL

./ ,/ ./

Remove shoring from the bottom up Pull sheeting out from above Backfill immediately after removal of support system
JACKS/CROSSBRACES SHEETING WALES

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tl

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

EI

GENERAL

Shield systems must project at least 18 inches above the lowest point where the excavation face begins to
slope

At least 18 inches

M GENERAL

/ / / /

Shield systems must not be subjected to loads exceeding those which the system was designed to withstand

Shields must

be

installed

to restrict hazardous

movement gmployees must be protected from the hazard of caveins when entering or exiting the areas protected by shields
Employees must not be allowed in shields when shields are being installed, removed, or moved vertically

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rEXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

CSE

- 4 units

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

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Systems may be connected Systems may be stacked

V Configuration must be consistent with the recommendations of the manufacturer


Must be examined by a competent
person if damage occurs

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

CSE- 4 units

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

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lmmediately call the Emergency Response Team Report: - Exact Location - Number of Victims
- Nature of Emergency 'Trench Measurements

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Special Hazards

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Xeep all life'support and dewatering systems operating

Clear workers away from the excavation Snut down heavy equipment
Be prepared

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to meet and brief rescue personnel

What not to do:

'Do not panic! ' Control would'be rescuers


- Do not sacrifice anyone else - Never attempt to dig someone out using motorized equipment

Remember'Your actions could save a life!

CSE

- 4 units

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFETY PSSP.MER

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Lifelines

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CSE- 4 units

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EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER

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STARTING THE JOB!

oErEnurNE THEIR SAFETy pERFoRMANcE REcoRDl

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orrrRNrNE How rHEy wtLL AFFEcT youR
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3.

Detailed written site safety assessments


procedures

2. Detailed written safety

Extensive employee training programs Periodic reinforcement of training

4. 5.

Sufficient discipline regarding implementation

6. Follow'up

CSE

- 4 units

EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND SHORING SAFEry PSSP.MER

Training is the key to success in managing safety in the work environment. Attitude is also a key factor in maintaining a safe workplace. Safety is, and always will be a team effort. Safety starts from the management down to the lowest skilled individual of the company.

CSE

- 4 units