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• blastula development splits animal kingdom in half

• if the blastula(first pore) becomes the mouth then its a protostome
• if it becomes the anus it is a deuterostome
• protostomes includes most invertebrates
• deuterostomes are most vertebrates

B. homology-Nicki

• They have similar appearance or functions

• They were inherited from a ancestor that also had them
• examples are the forelimb of a bear, the wing of a bird, your arm all have the same function.
• There can also be nonhomologous stuctural similarities between species.
• In this case the ancestor did not have the anatomical structures as its descendants.

C. analogy- Alex

• The animals have the same form or function, but in different species
• They have no common ancestors
• Example: The wings of a bird and butterfly are analogous structures, because they are similar in
shape and function. However, their wings are quite different inside.
• Analogies may be due to homologies or homoplasies

D. blood proteins/biochemistry

E. DNA/RNA-Heather Heitzenrater

• Animals classified by how much of there DNA is alike.

• They also are classified by the shape and size of there DNA make up.

They use sequences to help categorize them

F. chromosome structure -Dane

-They classify animals by the number of chromosomes that the animal has compared to others.
-They also have them sorted by their eukaryotic which is the level of packaging in raw DNA that are also
packaged with the nuclear membrane.
-Animals are also grouped by Prokaryote which is a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus. These
divide into two domains the the bacteria and the archaea groups.

G. Adaptations- Shaina

• it is a change in an organism over the course of its life that makes it able to live in its
• The theory of adaptation was first made by Jean Baptiste Lamarc.
• Adaptations can be structural, behavioral or physiological.
• Adaptations are raits that have been selected by natural selection.
• Adaptation occurs over many generations, it is a gradual process.
• Some animals have adapted to eat a certain type of food
• others have adapted to avoid being eaten themselves.
• adaption can change the color or structure of an animal over time.
• In the plant world, many flowers have evolved specific structures that help ensure pollination by

the insects they attract.


H. evolution- SamO

• the process by which on organism becomes more sophisitcated over time and in response to it's
• a biological mechanism is driven by natural selection
• has never been fundamentally proven
• ^
• these changes are produced at the gentic level as organisms genes mutate and/or recombine in
different ways during reproduction and are passed on to future generations
• sometimes individuals inherit characteristics that give them a surival and reproductive advantage
• ^

I. geologic evidence

J. behavior- Tessa T
classified by:

• locomotion-examples: flying walking swimming rolling

• You can classify animals using behavior by a more general sense, animals are loosely considered
carnivores if their feeding behavior consists of preying on other animals
• You can classify organisms based on their behavior, for example human behavior, animal
behavior, and psychology.

Any problems in classification (organisms that don't fit)