Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

IRREGULAR VERBS

Infinitive (V1) Past Tense (v2) abide alight arise awake be bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend bereave beseech beset bespeak bespread bestrew bestride bet betake bethink bid bide bind bite bleed blend bless blow break breed bring broadcast browbeat abode, abided alighted, alit arose awoke was, were bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereaved, bereft besought, beseeched beset bespoke bespread bestrewed bestrode bet, betted betook bethought bade, bid bode, bided bound bit bled blended, blent blessed, blest blew broke bred brought broadcast, broadcasted browbeat Past Participle (V3) abode, abided alighted, alit arisen awoke, awaked been borne, born beaten become befallen begotten, begot begun beheld bent bereaved, bereft besought, beseeched beset bespoken, bespoke bespread bestrewed, bestrewn bestridden, bestrid, bestrode bet, betted betaken bethought bidden, bid bided bound bitten, bit bled blended, blent blessed, blest blown broken bred brought broadcast, broadcasted browbeaten 1

build burn burst buy can cast catch chide choose cleave cleave cling clothe come cost creep crow cut dare deal dig dispread do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find flee fling fly fly

built burnt, burned burst bought could cast caught chid, chided chose cleaved, cleft, clove clave clung clothed, clad came cost crept crowed, crew cut dared, durst dealt dug dispread did drew dreamed, dreamt drank drove dwelt, dwelled ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew fled

built burnt, burned burst bought cast caught chid, chidden, chided chosen cleaved, cleft cloven clung clothed, clad come cost crept crowed cut dared dealt dug dispread done drawn dreamed, dreamt drunk driven dwelt, dwelled eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown fled 2

fly forbear forbid forecast fordo forego foreknow forerun foresee foreshow foretell forget forgive forsake forswear freeze gainsay get gild gird give go grave grind grow hamstring hang hang have hear heave hew hide hit hold hurt inlay keep

flied forbore forbade, forbad forecast, forecasted fordid forewent foreknew foreran foresaw foreshowed foretold forgot forgave forsook forswore froze gainsaid got gilded, gilt girded, girt gave went graved ground grew

flied forborne forbidden forecast, forecasted fordone foregone foreknown forerun foreseen foreshown foretold forgotten, forgot forgiven forsaken forsworn frozen gainsaid got, gotten gilded girded, girt given gone graven, graved ground grown

hamstringed, hamstrung hamstringed, hamstrung hung hanged had heard heaved, hove hewed hid hit held hurt inlaid kept hung hanged had heard heaved, hove hewed, hewn hidden, hid hit held hurt inlaid kept 3

kneel knit know lade lay lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie lie light light lose make may mean meet melt misdeal misgive mislay mislead mistake

knelt, kneeled knitted, knit knew laded laid led leaned, leant leapt, leaped learnt, learned left lent let lay lied lit lighted lost made might meant met melted misdealt misgave mislaid misled mistook

knelt, kneeled knitted, knit known laded, laden laid led leaned, leant leapt, leaped learnt, learned left lent let lain lied lit lighted lost made meant met melted, melten misdealt misgiven mislaid misled mistaken misunderstood mowed, mown outbidden, outbid outbred outdone outeaten outfought outgone outgrown 4

misunderstand misunderstood mow must ought outbid outbreed outdo outeat outfight outgo outgrow mowed must ought outbade, outbid outbred outdid outate outfought outwent outgrew

outlay outride outrun outsell outshine outshoot outsit outspend outspread outthrow outthrust outwear overbear overbid overblow overbuild overbuy overcast overcome overdo overdraw overdrive overeat overfeed overfly overgrow overhang overhear overlade overlay overleap overlie overpay override overrun oversee oversell overset

outlaid outrode outran outsold outshone outshot outsat outspent outspread outthrew outthrust outwore overbore overbid overblew overbuilt overbought overcast overcame overdid overdrew overdrove overate overfed overflew overgrew overhung overheard overladed overlaid overleapt, overleaped overlay overpaid overrode overran oversaw oversold overset

outlaid outridden outrun outsold outshone outshot outsat outspent outspread outthrown outthrust outworn overborne overbidden, overbid overblown overbuilt overbought overcast overcome overdone overdrawn overdriven overeaten overfed overflown overgrown overhung overheard overladed, overladen overlaid overleapt, overleaped overlain overpaid overridden overrun overseen oversold overset 5

oversew overshoot oversleep overspend overspread overtake overthrow overwind overwrite partake pay precast prechoose prove put quit read reave rebuild recast reeve relay rend repay reset retell rid ride ring rise rive run saw say see seek sell send

oversewed overshot overslept overspent overspread overtook overthrew overwound overwrote partook paid precast prechose proved put quitted, quit read reaved, reft rebuilt recast rove, reeved relaid rent repaid reset retold rid, ridded rode rang rose riven ran sawed said saw sought sold sent

oversewed, oversewn overshot overslept overspent overspread overtaken overthrown overwound overwritten partaken paid precast prechosen proved, proven put quitted, quit read reaved, reft rebuilt recast rove, reeved relaid rent repaid reset retold rid, ridded ridden rung risen riven, rived run sawn, sawed said seen sought sold sent 6

set sew shake shall shave shear shed shine shoe shoot show shred shrink shrive shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spread spring

set sewed shook should shaved sheared shed shone, shined shod, shoed shot showed shredded, shred shrank, shrunk shrove, shrived shut sang, sung sank, sunk sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelt, smelled smote sowed spoke sped, speeded spelt, spelled spent spilt, spilled spun spat, spit split spoilt, spoiled spread sprang, sprung

set sewn, sewed shaken shaved, shaven shorn, sheared shed shone, shined shod, shoed shot shown, showed shredded, shred shrunk, shrunken shriven, shrived shut sung sunk, sunken sat slain slept slid, slidden slung slunk slit smelt, smelled smitten, smote sown, sowed spoken sped, speeded spelt, spelled spent spilt, spilled spun spat, spit split spoilt, spoiled spread sprung 7

stand stave steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive swear sweat sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread unbend unbind unbuild underbid underbuy undercut underdo underfeed undergo underlay underlet underlie

stood staved, stove stole stuck stung stank, stunk strewed strode struck strung strove, strived swore sweat, sweated swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought throve, thrived threw thrust trod unbent unbound unbuilt underbid underbought undercut underdid underfed underwent underlaid underlet underlay

stood staved, stove stolen stuck stung stunk strewn, strewed stridden, strid struck, stricken strung striven, strived sworn sweat, sweated swept swollen, swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thriven, thrived thrown thrust trodden, trod unbent unbound unbuilt underbidden, underbid underbought undercut underdone underfed undergone underlaid underlet underlain 8

underpay underrun undersell underset undershoot understand undertake underwrite undo undraw unfreeze ungird unhang unknit unlade unlay unlearn unmake unreeve unsay unset unsling unspeak unstick unstring unswear unteach unthink untread unweave unwind upbuild upcast uphold uppercut uprise upset upsweep

underpaid underran undersold underset undershot understood undertook underwrote undid undrew unfroze ungirded, ungirt unhung unknitted, unknit unladed unlaid unlearnt, unlearned unmade unrove, unreeved unsaid unset unslung unspoke unstuck unstrung unswore untaught unthought untrod unwove unwound upbuilt upcast upheld uppercut uprose upset upswept

underpaid underrun undersold underset undershot understood undertaken underwritten undone undrawn unfrozen ungirded, ungirt unhung unknitted, unknit unladed, unladen unlaid unlearnt, unlearned unmade unrove, unreeved unsaid unset unslung unspoken unstuck unstrung unsworn untaught unthought untrodden, untrod unwoven unwound upbuilt upcast upheld uppercut uprisen upset upswept 9

upswing wake waylay wear weave wed weep wet will win wind wit withdraw withhold withstand work work wring write

upswung waked, woke waylaid wore wove wedded, wed wept wetted, wet would won winded, wound wist withdrew withheld withstood worked wrought wrung wrote

upswung waked, woken, woke waylaid worn woven wedded, wed wept wetted, wet won winded, wound wist withdrawn withheld withstood worked wrought wrung written

http://heavenawaits.com/biblestudies/hindu.html

What is sin, and how do they get forgiveness for it? Hindus call sin utter illusion, because they believe all material reality is illusory. They seek deliverance from Samsara, the endless cycle of death and rebirth, through reunion with Brahman, which is achieved through devotion, meditation, good works, and self-control. Any wrong or evil they do in this life results in bad karma during their next life. Likewise any good works they do results in good karma during their next life. What happens when they die? Hindus believe that a persons eternal soul is reincarnated repeatedly. This reincarnation may take the form of another person, an animal, a plant, or even inanimate objects, depending on how they lived their previous life. Hindus believe that reincarnation takes them through the great wheel of Samsara, the thousands or even millions of lives, each full of suffering, that
10

each person must endure before reaching Moksha, which is the reunion with the infinite god, Brahman.

Hinduism , also referred to by its practitioners as Sanatana Dharma, a Sanscrit word meaning "the eternal law", is the third largest religion in the world today, after Christianity and Islam. It has an estimated one billion believers, 905 million of whom live in India. The Hindu religion is comprised of many varying beliefs: panentheism, pantheism, monotheism, polytheism, and atheism. A Hindu may believe in one god, many gods, or no god at all, and still be a good Hindu. They do not see this as contradictory, because like other Eastern religions, they believe that a persons perceptions of the world are mostly misleading and illusional. However, most forms of Hinduism are henotheistic: they recognize a single deity, and view other gods and goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that supreme god. However, there are two fundamental beliefs that are the core of the Hindu religion: reincarnation and karma. Karma can be described as cause and effect, and can be either the activities of the body or the mind. Every person is responsible for his or her acts and thoughts, so each person's karma is entirely his or her own. Every thought and action one takes results in good karma or bad karma. Karma from past lives determines the status of the present life, and karma from this life will determine a persons position in the next one. If the karma of an individual is good enough, the next birth will be rewarding; if not, the person may return in a lower life form. In order to achieve good karma it is important to live life according to dharma. Dharma is the path of righteousness and living one's life according to the codes of conduct as described by the Hindu scriptures. There are 10 essential rules for the observance of dharma: Patience, forgiveness, self control, honesty, sanctity, control of senses, reason, knowledge or learning, truthfulness, and absence of anger. Reincarnation is the belief that a person has not one life, but literally thousands of lives. A persons eternal soul must repeatedly be recycled in different forms. This recycled life may take the form of another person, an animal, a plant, or even inanimate objects, depending on how they live their current life. Each life, if they do good things, and so create good karma, brings them closer to Moksha, or "Ultimate Reality", which is the reunion with the infinite god, Brahman. Hindus believe that reincarnation takes them through the great wheel of Samsara, which is the thousands or millions of lives, each full of suffering, that each person must endure before reaching
11

Moksha. The belief in reincarnation is directly opposed to the Biblical teaching that "It is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment." (Heb. 9:27) Hindus believe there are basically three paths to Moksha: the path of works, called dharma; the path of knowledge, called inana; and the path of passionate devotion to a god of your choice, called bhakti. Each path has separate requirements that must be met through many thousands of reincarnations to achieve the ultimate goal of moksha. When following dharma, the path of works, a person must follow his caste occupation, marry within his caste, eat or not eat certain foods, and most of all, raise a son who can make sacrifices to his ancestors, as well as perform other sacrificial and ritual acts. By fulfilling these obligations, a person may hope to attain a better reincarnation, and perhaps after thousands or tens of thousands of reincarnations achieve Moksha. The path of knowledge, or inana, is a more difficult way to achieve Moksha, and is available only to men of the highest castes. This path includes self renunciation, meditation, and yoga, a practice that attempts to control one's consciousness through bodily posture, breath control, and concentration, so that one comes to understand that one's true self is identical with Brahma, or god. The practice of yoga is currently experiencing renewed popularity in America as an exercise, with a supreme lack of understanding of the underlying purpose of the art, which is to attain a state of one-ness with Brahma. These teachings are directly opposite that of the Christian Bible, which teaches that "a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ." (Gal. 2:16) and that "by grace are you saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God." (Eph 2:8) The path of passionate devotion to a god, or Bhakti, is the most popular way to achieve Moksha. This path appeals to the lower classes which comprise the vast majority of the inhabitants of India. It offers a much easier path for their souls to progress through various reincarnations to eventually reach Moksha. The believer may choose any of the 330 million gods, goddesses, or demigods in the Hindu pantheon and passionately worship that particular god. The five major Hindu deities include Shiva, Vishnu, Devi, Surya and Ganesha, with Vishnu and Shiva being the most popular. According to Bhakti tradition, one of these deities is kept in the center as the devotee's preferred God, and the other four surround it. Worship is offered to all the deities. Of course, this is also the opposite of what the Bible teaches: "The LORD our God is one LORD:And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. (Deut. 6:4-5) and "Thou shalt have no other gods before me." (Ex 20:3)
12

"Comparing Christianity & Hinduism" - Rebutting the Errors of Peter Kreeft and the Catholic Church
by Bhratacharya Brahmananda

Peter Kreeft is a Christian scholar who wrongly teaches that Christianity and Hinduism conflict. Below are rebuttals of his nine points of disagreement, from his Comparing Christianity & Hinduism, as published in the May 1987 edition of the "National Catholic Register" and available toread here. 1) Hinduism is not pantheistic. It is panentheistic. In pantheism, the all is God and God is the all. In panentheism, the all is in God and God is in the all. Christianity is also panentheistic. The Bible says that God fills the heavens and the earth (Jeremiah 23:34), that all things are made of the Word of God (Colossians 1:17), and that our true spiritual identity is God himself (Genesis 2:7). Further, that God created everything from nothing is not a Jewish concept, but a Christian one. Jews have considered such a possibility, but some Jews also consider the Hindu idea that all things are formed from God. What the earliest Jews believed is lost to us, but Judaism is nowhere near as dogmatic about useless and uncertain things as Christianity is. This is a common point made by Christians to give their misunderstandings more credence, but it is just dishonesty. 2) Kreeft now returns to the proper understanding of panentheism by saying that God is "in everything." He then denies that God has anything to do with evil and that evil does not originate with God, in contrast to Deuteronomy 30:15 and Isaiah 45:7. Following his logic, that if God is associated with evil, then God is not good and therefore ceases to be a source of absolute morality and divine law, then because the Bible affirms that God is associated with evil, there must be no Biblical divinity or morality. Of course, we know this is false. He further claims that Hinduism differs from Christianity in that Hindus see morality as practical, as a means to purify the soul from desires and attain 'mystical consciousness'. How is this different from Christianity? Is morality not practical (Deuteronomy 30:15-18)? Are we not to use it to cleanse our minds and abandon the world (and its desires, cf. Matthew 18:7-9; Mark 8:36; Luke 9:25; etc.)? Does doing this not lead to eternal bliss in complete Oneness with

13

God (1 Corinthians 6:17) as we partake of the Divine Nature (1 Peter 1:4)? Further, Jews do not identify the cause of morality with religion; rather, it is identified with God. Judaism does teach two natures, but not those specified by Kreeft. Where Kreeft says that humans have a nature to worship and a nature of conscience, Judaism teaches that both of these are of the nature of the Spirit and that the second human nature is of the flesh - it is called the "sin-nature" and is parallel to the "ego" concept within Hinduism, an inconvenient fact for Kreeft. Lastly, he states with quite a prideful bias that only the Jewish God or God of the Bible is righteous, implying that there are other gods who are not. This conflicts with God's numerous statements in the Jewish, Hindu, and other scriptures that there is no God but him. Of course he is the only righteous God; he is the only God! But he is not a Jewish God. He is the God of everyone. 3) The only reason Kreeft can state here that western religion is based in books and creeds is because those who had personal revelation are the ones that wrote the books and creeds, much like the Bhagavad Gita; the Brahmanas of the Rig, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva Vedas; the Puranas and Upanishads; Buddhist Sutras and Tantras; and other eastern texts. Regardless of what exists in modern times, it was originally the private revelations that inspired such texts private revelations that have always expounded on the Hindu Dharma. Further, human experience can never validate or invalidate true scripture. Inspired by the Word of God, all true scripture is unchangeable by human experience. However, in determining what scriptures are true, we must consider their application and practice in our lives, their agreement with logic and reason, established knowledge of the day, and eternal principles of faith - as those men who canonized the Bible did. The only reason Kreeft can make such blanket statements is because he lives in a post-canonical world, where our religious texts are well established, as are their misinterpretations. 4) Kreeft now employs the use of words like "esoteric" and "exoteric", whose complete meanings are unknown to the average person, in an attempt to guide their thinking where he wants. Of course, he leads them into the wrong direction. Hinduism is not "esoteric" by Kreeft's definition. Just as Christianity is not "exoteric". All true religions have both layers. "Esoteric" means "hidden" and refers to religious truths not apparent based on the experience of the senses. These truths require a mystical sense, a spiritual awareness, to understand intimately and practically, beyond the intellect. "Exoteric" means "apparent" and refers to obvious truths. "God is love" is one such truth. Hinduism has two primary traditions, or siddhantas. Dvaita, or duality, sees the universe as dual. There is God and there is creation. He created us, and we are separate from him. Advaita, or nonduality, sees the universe as monistic. All is God. Nothing exists except for God and the universe that he formed from himself. The truth is that both of these traditions are valid. Dvaitism is apparent, knowable by the senses. Advaitism is hidden or revealed, knowable only through spiritual experience. Kreeft uses words like "public" and "democratic" to describe Christianity, aiming at an audience knowledgeable about a free society, in order to direct their thinking to the conclusion that Christianity is superior in its mass value. But Christianity is neither "public" nor "democratic." Public means "of the people." How is Christianity of the people? It is for the people. It is direct atthe people. But it does not come from the people. The truths transcend them. It is open to them, but this does not define its publicity, only its cultural validity. "Democratic" refers to a system of governance whereby the people have direct power over end results. They can vote. Can we vote on what scriptures to ignore, as so many Churches seem to do? No. Can we impeach God if we don't like how he governs the Universe? No. Can we push through new laws to replace the commandments of old? No. Further, Hinduism is never, never, never, never, NEVER polytheistic. This implies a highly immature spiritual system whereby there are many independent, powerful but not absolute "gods". Hinduism does not teach this. Admittedly, there are corrupted gurus that do, but this does not speak for Hinduism any more than Fred Phelps speaks for Christianity when he declares that"God Hates Fags" and that we should "Thank God for Dead Soldiers". Lastly, in true Hinduism, real truth is never relative. 5) This does not conflict with Christianity when you properly understand it. Kreeft does, however, state that illusion does not imply "not real", only transient. He holds however that Hinduism finds conflict with Christianity when it teaches that we are all a united Self, implying that we cannot love our neighbors. How can identity negate love? Can a person not love himself? Knowing our Spirits are God himself (Genesis 2:7), can we not love God? It simply doesn't follow. Further, Kreeft oversteps in his declaration that the divine pronouncement, "I am", is illusion. Hinduism holds that there is only one true "I" - God. 6) How does any of this conflict with Christianity, that is, from the religion started by Jesus andnot the religion proselytized by liars and cheaters? The Bible teaches that we are not separate from God eternally. God fills the entire creation (Jeremiah 23:34), as does Heaven (Luke 17:21). When we are "born again" or spiritually "twice-born", we become one spirit with God (1 Corinthians 6:17) and we partake of his very nature (1 Peter 1:4). If we are not separate from God for eternity, there is no eternal will aside from God's. If there is no eternal will aside from God's, there is no

14

eternal state of rebellion against that will. If there is no eternal state of rebellion against God's will, there is no eternal Hell, something made very clear by the scriptures. In Jewish belief, Hell does not exist. Purgatory does, as it does in Hindu belief. The Bible speaks of two Hells - one where we are cleansed of misdeed (1 Corinthians 3:13; 1 Peter 1:6-7) and one where we are destroyed for all eternity; we cease to exist (Ezekiel 28:19; Matthew 7:13; Jude 1:7). Nowhere in the Bible is there a Hell that would punish anyone for eternity; neither could there exist such a place if "God is love." Lastly, Hinduism does not deny sin. It teaches people to overcome it. It does not deny guilt. It teaches people to transcend it. It does not deny Hell. It teaches people to avoid it. 7) Kreeft completely misses the boat on this one, and drowns in his own ignorance. Neither sin nor salvation are missing in Hinduism. Much of the Bhagavad Gita, the most sacred Hindu scripture, is about overcoming sin and putting faith in God, resulting in salvation, where we become one with God. Even the Catholic Church has taught that Heaven is God. In Hinduism, this salvation is called "moksha." It refers to the liberation from the physical realm, the escape from illusion, and the triumph over death and rebirth. Further, Kreeft says we do not need to be "born again", a concept not invented by Jesus in John 3, but rediscovered by him from Hinduism. An ancient Hindu concept is called being "twice-born". It is compared with a bird. When an egg is laid, the first birth occurs. When the bird emerges, the second birth occurs, revealing the true form. In true Hinduism, a person who chooses to abandon their own will and do only as God desires reveals his or her true form and is "twice born". It is for this reason that the Catholic Church baptizes no one. We baptize ourselves. Baptism is the spiritual rebirth that we take upon ourselves as a conscious choice. The Church does nothing but provide an outward sign. His last statement flies in the face of Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 16, where Krishna explains that there are some who by their own choice abandon God and separate themselves from him, bringing their own destruction. "Threefold is the gate to the destruction of the self," he tells us. "Avoid it."

8) Kreeft attempts to contrast the linear model of traditional Christianity with the cyclic model of true Hinduism. What he fails to recognize is the missing logic in his statement. If God is eternal, and separate from the world as he claims, then no matter how long the timeline may be, millions or billions of years, it is nothing when contrasted with eternity. Even the longest conceivable epoch in time is fleeting in the eternal reality. It is illogical to think that God would simply create a universe for no particular purpose only once. Hinduism answers, however, that the universe is manifested from God and therefore coexists with him. Our Genesis is someone else's Revelation. Our Revelation is someone else's Genesis. Nothing about the Bible declares that all of this is happening once in time. In fact, there are verses that imply a cycle. Peter talks about the first heavens and the first earth being destroyed by the Word of God, recreated by that same Word, sustained now by that same Word, and will once again be destroyed by that same Word (2 Peter 3:5-7). Jeremiah talks about God judging the world, making it "without form and void", implying that something could have, in theory, occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2. 9) Kreeft talks about intellect and consciousness as if they are the same. This is ignorant of the true Hindu Dharma. In Hinduism (and Judaism), intellect is a quality of the ego or sin-nature. Consciousness is a spiritual state, not exclusive to divine will. This alone invalidates his remarks about mysticism. He states this point so matter-of-factly that it would come off to mean that Hindus do not believe in following God's will, loving God, and loving one another. Yet, this is actually a central teaching of the Dharma called "Karma Yoga", or "Yoking with God through work". This is the way to salvation taught by the Buddha, and by Krishna, and by many modern gurus such as myself. Doing God's will rather than our own is more complex in Hinduism. It involves abandoning ownership of our deeds, and stopping striving to serve God. Instead, we allow our bodies to become the unconscious instruments of God, while we, now living in the Spirit, are one with him. This is called "inaction in action." Loving God is central, and is the reason why everyone is taught to acknowledge the divinity within others; for instance, we greet one another with "Namaste", meaning "I bow to you." This means "I acknowledge God within you and bow to that same Self which we share." In doing this faithfully, we see God through others and love God by loving them. Matthew 25:31-46 is one of the most Hindu teachings ever given by Jesus. When it comes down to it, it is easy to see how a Christian scholar such as Kreeft can fall into so many errors. Christians are taught lies from the pulpits in modern times, and their knowledge of the east is worse than their knowledge of their own Judaic roots. The fact is that beyond all degrees of separation conceivable by the human mind, true Christianity and true Hinduism are the same religion. They follow the same path, teach the same things, and come to the same ultimate conclusion: love God and love your neighbor with all your heart.

15

Resource: http://www.truehinduism.com/2011/10/comparing-christianity-hinduism.html

Bhagavad Gita Principles by ShankaracharyaAdi Shanaracharya was one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedanta philosophy and one his major contributions was his commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. The foundational principles of the Gita were prescribed by him in simple terms, as stated below. na yogena na skhyena karma no na vidyay. brahmtmakabodhena moka siddhayati nnyath.. Purify Your Heart The core summary of the principles of the Gt is that man should perform all his tasks and duties with a positive frame of mind with an attitude of detachment towards the rewards of his tasks. This attitude toward work will help him purify his inner being or heart. The only way to purify the heart is to perform work while removing the expectation of rewards from the psyche. Until and unless the heart is purified, man will not develop the burning desire to know the truth - and without this burning desire to know the truth, it is impossible to develop the desire for moksha or liberation.

. ..

16

Develop True Detachment After the heart is purified, vivek or inner knowledge arises in the man of truth. The development of vivek simply means the ability to distinguish between the transitory (or variable) and the eternal (or absolute). All the constituents of the world are transitory (or variable), and only the aatmaa, which is separate from these constituents, is eternal (or absolute). When one can experience this truth, their vivek gains immense strength. This strong sense of vivek leads to the development of true detachment towards the world in the seekers heart. ,

The Path of Renunciation Mans progress towards the strengthening of true renunciation is not possible until he becomes detached towards the attainment of happiness and pleasure - in this world and beyond. Renunciation is the primary path to moksha or liberation - and it is through renunciation that sham-, dam-, titeeksha- and karma- liberation are made possible. It is only
17

after one is liberated from these four elements that the gyana or knowledge which is necessary for attaining moksha arises or dawns onto the seeker. It is impossible to reach the state of moksha without obtaining this gyana in it is purest form. - ,

, ,

What is true Moksha? The paths which lead to anitya or impermanent results cannot lead one to the state of moksha. One needs to assimilate the knowledge that man and the supreme brahman are one and the same, before one can move towards moksha. The complete understanding of this truthful knowledge is indeed the state of moksha. ,

What is Maya? The apparent (false) distinction between man and brahman is because of nature. The removal of this falsehood is only possible by the dawn of knowledge or gyana. Those who believe otherwise remain trapped in the realm of maya or
18

ignorance. And that maya is the cause of a lot of confusion and misery. It is neither the truth - nor is it the untruth - but it is the abode for dvaita or the philosophy which separates man and brahman.

What is truth?

That is why it has been deemed as unattainable. The truth is that maya is also deception. Since untruth cannot be created from truth and truth and untruth can never meet - this means that untruth has no inherent strength. Hence the world is indeed imaginary and dream-like in nature. Gita leads to liberation Bhagwan Shankaracharya is the preacher of the path of liberation and nivritti. He has prescribed that the Gita is the primary path or means for obtaining nivritti. According to him, it is not possible to obtain moksha without committing to sanyasa. This is his repeated teaching. One must keep in mind
19

that Shankaracharya preaches that the path of action or karma is necessary for the purification of the heart and mind. - -

What is true Sanyasa? Shankaracharya does not believe that everyone is deserving of or is entitled to the path of sanyasa. The true sanyasa is that in which one does not deliberately give up or relinquish his possessions ; instead, just like a ripened fruit naturally falls from the tree, the man of sanyasa also becomes automatically detached from the world when his time is ripe. Does one need to wait for instructions on when to release a ball of golden hot metal from his hands? ?

20