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STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATION REPORT

Site No.:

Site Name:

Site Address:

Project Name:

REVISION 1

Prepared By:

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TAB LE OF CO NTENTS

  • 1 CRITERIA / DESIGN S PECIFICATI ONS

3

1

.1

Impor tance Fact or

3

1

.2

Expos ure Catego ry /Wind S peed‐up

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1

.3

Wind Speed / Wi nd Pressure

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1

.4

Desig n Consider ations

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1

.5

Mater ial Strengt h

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1

.6

Codes And Refer

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  • 2 INVESTIG ATION REP ORT

5

2

.1

Introd uction

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2

.2

Scope of Work

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2

.3

Towe r Descriptio ns

5

2

.4

Resul ts And Fin dings

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2

.5

Concl usions and Recommen dations

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2

.6

Surve y Photo

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  • 3 DESIGN CO MPUTATIO NS Calcul ations of W ind Forces

3

.1

11

11

3

.2

EXIST ING TOWE R

19

33..22..11

S TAAD Inpu t

19

33..22..22

S TAAD Resu lt Analysis: Existing

26

3 .3 EXIST ING W/ AD DITIONAL 4 .5M HEIGH T + PROPO SED

33

 

33..33..11

S TAAD Inpu t

33

33..33..22

S TAAD Resu lt Analysys : 4.5M Heig ht Plus Pro posed

42

3 .4 ANCH OR BOLTS AND BASE PLATE

55

  • 4 DRAWING S

 

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  • 5 STRUCTU RAL CERTIF ICATION

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  • 1 CRITER IA / DESIG N SPECIFIC ATIONS For the structural investigatio n, analysis and design of the self‐ supporting 4‐legged antenn a tower, the provisions of the Nati onal Struc tural Code of the Phil ippines, 6 th Edit ion were u sed in comp uting the w ind forces that act on the tower, a ntennas and app urtenances . The De sign and an alysis of the tower wer performed using STA AD Pro 200 8 edition softwar e from Rese arch Engin eers and cu stomized el ectronic spr eadsheet so ftware.

    • 1.1 IMPOR TANCE FA CTOR The Im portance Factor wil l be in a ccordance with the NSCP whe rein for commu nication fac ilities whic h fall unde r the Essen tial Facilitie s in the Oc cupancy Categor y, the value of the sam e is taken as , I w = 1.15.

    • 1.2 EXPOS URE CATEG ORY /WIN D SPEEDU P Site

___ _____________ _

is situate d in a lot with escar pment. Th e Site elev ation is

approxi mately 150 ‐meter abo ve from loc al ground l evel. For si tes on ope terrain with sc attered obs tructions, E xposure C ategory C is considere d. The Top ographic Factor, for above m entioned e scarpment, shall be tak en as K zt = 1.20 and c omputed as :

K zt = (1 + K 1 x K 2 x K 3 ) 2

Where K 1 , K 2 and K 3 are give n in Figure 2 07‐2 of the NSCP, Refe r to 3.1 for values.

  • 1.3 WIND S PEED / WI ND PRESSU RE Site

___ _____________ _______

is lo cated in Bo ntoc, Moun tain Provin ce. Accor dingly in

Table 2 07‐1 of th e NSCP, si te is withi n Zone II o f the Win d Zone Ma p of the

Philippi nes where the basic wi nd speed, V is 200 kph.

The vel ocity press ure, q z eva luated at a ny given h eight shall be calculat ed using NSCP e quation 207 ‐1:

Qz = 47.3 x 10 6 K z K d

K zt V 2 I w

Where:

K z = veloci ty exposure coefficient evaluated a t height z ( NSCP Table 207‐2) K zt = topog raphic facto r K d = Wind directionali ty factor V = basic w ind speed, k ph I w = Import ance Factor

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  • 1.4 DESIGN CONSIDE RATIONS In the a nalysis/de sign of the tower whic h in additio n to the ex isting anten nas, the design t ake into co nsideration for the pro posed expan sion, the fo llowing: 1.4.1 A ntenna Loa ds

Based on S MART criter ia, the towe r shall be a nalyze with the followi ng antenna loa ds:

3 Units GSM 900

3 Units GSM 1800

3 Units 3G 2100

3 Units 3G 850

3 Units WiMax 3 Units LTE

  6 Units Canopy (Br o)

For Self Sup port Towe r, 2 units of 3m diamete r microwav e antennas at highest fea sible locatio n shall be c onsider in c ase for retr ofitting desi gn.

  • 1.5 MATER IAL STREN GTH Materia l strength used for structural steel ass umed to have comp ly with interna tionally re cognized s tandards a nd have t he followi ng minimu m yield strengt h.

All steel pipe as sumed to c onform to A STM A53 G rade with

Min imum Yield Stress of 2 40 MPa. Stru ctural Stee l Plate assu med to have minimum yield s stren gth of

240 MPa. Stru ctural Con nection Bolt s assumed t o conform t o ASTM A3 25

Anc hor Bolts a ssumed to c onform to A STM A572 with minim um yiel d strength o f 414 MPa.

Concret e compress ive strengt h of reinforc ed concret e foundatio n assumed t o have a compre ssive stren gth of 21 MPa. Rei nforcing st eel bars al so assume d to be interme diate grade with minim um compr essive stren gth of 275 MPa.

  • 1.6 CODES AND REFE RENCES

National St ructural Co de of the Ph ilippines, Vo l.1 6 th Editi on, 2001 AISC Steel C onstruction Manual, 13 t h Edition AISC LRFD “ Load and Re sistance Fac tor Design” Vol. 1, 3 nd ed ition

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  • 2 INVEST IGATION R EPORT

    • 2.1 INTRO DUCTION This re port summ arizes the s tructural en gineering i nvestigation of the exis ting 48‐ meter f our legged self support ing tower mounted on a reinforce d concrete pedestal on gro und level.

The tow er is a la tticed steel structure on which several

telecom munication s antennas are installe d. In view of

_________. Expans ion Project, the aforesa id tower sh all be utiliz ed to carry additional a ntennas.

___________ _____________

For thi s reason, a structural investigati on is bein g conducte d to determ ine the structu ral integrity of the towe r to suppor t the additi onal loads.

  • 2.2 SCOPE OF WORK Below l ist of activi ty conducte d :

    • 2.2.1 C onduct fiel d investiga tion and ocular insp ection of t he existin g tower. ins pection en gineers and riggers co nducted to wer inspect ion and as ‐builting wo rks. Cond ucted dime nsioning t ower mem bers, memb er connect ion and an tenna load.

    • 2.2.2 P repare stru ctural desig n of tower b ased on exi sting loads.

    • 2.2.3 P repare stru ctural desig n based on existing loa d and propo sed antenn a loads.

    • 2.2.4 P repare retro fitting desi gn if tower s found ina dequate.

    • 2.2.5 P repare towe r as‐built d rawing.

    • 2.2.6 P repare towe r retrofittin g drawing i f required.

  • 2.3 TOWER DESCRIPT IONS The exi sting threelegged self supporting tower has a total heig ht of 48 me ters and mounte d on an ind ividual rein forced con crete pedes tals. It has a tapering width of 7.0 met ers at the b ase to 2.50 meters at 4 2‐meter hei ght from th e base. Th ence, the tower i s vertical f or the upp er topmost 6.0 meters . The stru cture confi guration consist s of x‐bracin g system fo r the entire tower. The structure i s made of st ructural steel sp ace frame c omposed of pipe sectio n for all the tower legs and diagon al braces and ste el angle for the horizon tal braces. The tow er structur e is loaded with BTS pa nels and m icrowave an tennas. Th e largest installe d microwa ve antenna is 2.0‐me ter. Cable ladder an d man ladd er were installe d all throug h‐out of the tower heig ht.

  • 2.4 RESUL TS AND FI NDINGS

    • 2.4.1 Existing To wer Plus Ex isting Ante nna Loads

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    The existin g tower is A DEQUATE to support its present loading as i ndicated in the STA AD analysis results. Th e maximum stress rati o of 0.685 i s within allowable r atio of 1.0 w hich is the stress crite rion for str uctural adeq uacy.

    • 2.4.2 Existing To wer with Pr oposed Add itional 4.5 M Height an d Antenna L oads The existin g tower is ADEQUAT E to suppo rt an addit tional heigh t of 4.5 meters to m ount the p roposed 2 units of 3.2 M diameter MW at elev ation 39 and 51‐me ters respec tively. The maximum stress ratio of 0.963 i s within allowable r atio of 1.0 w hich is the stress crite rion for str uctural adeq uacy .

    • 2.5 CONCL USIONS AN D RECOMM ENDATION S CONCL USION: Bas ed from t he results of the cal culations, the existin g tower SATISF IES the AIS C LRFD S TRESS CRIT ERIA in b oth the tw o loading patterns, describ ed in parag raph 2.4 abo ve. RECOM MENDATIO N: Althoug h the tower members do not requ ire retrofit ting, the undersi gned recom mends, pri or to the ins tallation of the additio nal antenna s, works describ ed below sh all be unde rtaken:

    Inspect all connections , bolts and nuts that ar e missing sh ould be rep laced. All connect ion bolts sh all be retig htened to s nug‐fit, rep lace bolts/n uts that cannot be t ightened du e to corrosi on, damage d threads & the likes;

    Octo ber 10, 2011

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    • 2.6 SURVE Y PHOTO

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    Tower I sometric Vi ew

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    To wer Elevati on at Anten nas

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    Base Plat e and Anch or Bolt

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    Base Plate & Anc hor Bolt

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    Measur ing of Anch or Bolt

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    Measuring o f Tower Le g Section

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    Tower Leg and Diagon al

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    Measu ring of Conn ection Bolt

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    Meas uring of Stif fener Plate

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    MW Anten nas

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    1.2M M W Antenna

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    Towe r leg Conne ction

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    Diagonal m ember con nection

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    Tower D iagonal

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    Member C onnection

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    MW Ant enna

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    MW An tenna

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    Top o f tower

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    Showing 4 legged towe r

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    BTS Ant enna

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    Anten na Cable

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    Site Phot o

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    • 3 DESI GN COMPUTATI ONS

      • 3.1 CALC ULATIONS OF W IND FORCES : E XISTING

     

    Panel No.]

    Leg Spread

    Height

    Gross

    Tower Leg

    Main horizon tal

    Main diag onal

    Sec. hori zontal

    Sec. d iagonal

    Solid

    Range, M

    Base

    Top

    Area

    Width

    Σ Leng th

    Width

    Σ Le ngth

    Width

    Σ L ength

    Width

    Σ Length

    Width

     

    Σ Length

    Area

    1] 0~6.0

    7.00

    6.36

    6.00

       
    • 40.07 6.6

      • 0.324 0.063

    • 12.00 8

     

    0.102

    1

    7.96

           

    6.14

    2] 6.0~12.0

    6.36

    5.71

    6.00

       
    • 36.22 6.0

      • 0.273 0.063

    • 12.00 4

     

    0.102

    1

    7.02

           

    5.39

    3] 12.0~18.0

    5.71

    5.07

    6.00

       
    • 32.36 5.3

      • 0.273 0.063

    • 12.00 9

     

    0.102

    1

    6.13

           

    5.26

    4] 18.0~24.0

    5.07

    4.43

    6.00

       
    • 28.50 4.7

      • 0.273 0.063

    • 12.00 5

     

    0.102

    1

    5.31

           

    5.14

    5] 24.0~30.0

    4.43

    3.79

    6.00

       
    • 0.219 0.050

    • 24.64 4.1

    • 12.00 1

     

    0.089

    1

    4.54

           

    4.13

    6] 30.0~36.0

    3.79

    3.14

    6.00

       
    • 0.168 0.050

    • 20.78 3.4

    • 12.00 6

     

    0.089

    1

    3.86

           

    3.42

    7] 36.0~42.0

    3.14

    2.50

    6.00

       
    • 16.93 5.6

      • 0.141 0.050

    • 12.00 4

     

    0.073

    1

    6.48

           

    3.18

    8] 42.0~48.0

    2.50

    2.50

    6.00

       
    • 15.00 7.5

      • 0.114 0.050

    • 12.00 0

     

    0.073

    1

    5.63

           

    2.88

    II] Design Wind Data

     

    1.

    Wind Speed ( kph)

     

    200

    W ind +Z

     

    2.

    Importance F actor , Iw

    1.15

    2. Importance F a ctor , I w 1.15

    3.

    Exposure Cate gory

    C

    Wind + X+Z

     
    3. Exposure Cat e gory C Wind + X +Z Wind ‐ X+Z
     

    Wind X+Z

    4.

    Tower height on 0.5‐m pedestal, h (m)

     

    48.50

     

    5.

    Force coeffici ent for Trussed Tow ers, Cf Cf = 4.0 ε 2 ‐5 .9 ε + 4.0 (Square c ross section )

     
    5. Force coeffici e nt for Trussed Tow ers, C f C f = 4.0 ε

    Reduction F actor for tower with rounded members Rf = 0.51ε 2 + 0.57 > 1.00

     
    Reduction F actor for tower with rounded members Rf = 0.51ε 2 + 0.57 > 1.00
     

    6.

    Site is away fr om hills or escarpm ent by at least 1 km

     

    Wind +X

         

    Wind X

    Site Topograp hy Factor, Kzt

    K1 =0.26 K2 =0.50

    K3 =0.73

    1.2

     

    7.

    8.

    Gust Effect Fa ctor, Gf

    Wind Directio nality Factor, Kd

     

    0.85

    0.85

    7. 8. Gust Effect Fa c tor, G f Wind Directio nality Factor, K d 0.85
    7. 8. Gust Effect Fa c tor, G f Wind Directio nality Factor, K d 0.85
     

    9.

    Velocity Press ure, qz = 47.3x10 ‐6 K z Kzt Kd V 2 Iw (kPa )

     

    Kz = 2.0 1(z/zg) 2/a

     

    zg = 275

    a = 9.5

    Wind + XZ

     

    Wind XZ

    W ind Z

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    III] Calculation of Velocity Pressur e, Solidity and Force Coefficient Panel No.]

    Range, M

    z

     

    K

    z

    qz

    So lid area

    Gross are a

    e

     

    Cf

    Rf

    1+ 0.75e

     

    1] 0~6.0

    3.50

    0.

    85

     
    • 2.219 40.07

    6.14

     

    0.153

    3.

    190

    • 0.582 1.115

     

    2] 6.0~12.0

    9.50

    0.

    99

     
    • 2.584 36.22

    5.39

     

    0.149

    3.

    210

    • 0.581 1.112

     

    3] 12.0~18.0

     

    1.

    10

    • 15.50 5.26

    • 2.864 32.36

     

    0.163

    3.

    146

    • 0.583 1.122

     

    4] 18.0~24.0

     

    1.

    18

    • 21.50 5.14

    • 3.069 28.50

     

    0.180

    3.

    067

    • 0.587 1.135

     

    5] 24.0~30.0

     

    1.

    44

    • 57.00 4.13

    • 3.768 24.64

     

    0.168

    3.

    124

     
    • 0.584 1.126

    6] 30.0~36.0

     

    1.

    29

    • 33.50 3.42

    • 3.369 20.78

     

    0.165

    3.

    137

    • 0.584 1.123

     

    7] 36.0~42.0

     

    1.

    35

    • 41.00 3.18

    • 3.515 16.93

     

    0.188

    3.

    033

    • 0.588 1.141

     

    8] 42.0~48.0

     

    1.

    38

    • 45.00 2.88

    • 3.515 15.00

     

    0.192

    3.

    013

     
    • 0.589 1.144

    IV] Tower Mem ber Wind Force @ Wind Normal Design win d pressure, p = qz G f (kPa)

     

    Af = width of to wer member in met er

    Force in tow er member, F = p C f Rf Af (kN/m) Panel No.]

         

    Tower Leg

    Main Horizon tal

     

    Sec. Horizontal

    Sec. Diagonal

    Range, M

    qz

     

    G

    f

    p

    Af

    F

    Af

     

    F

    Main Dia gonal Af

    F

    Af

    F

    Af

    F

    1] 0~6.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 2.219 0.324

    • 1.886 0.964

     

    0.063

    0.

    188

     
    • 0.102 0.304

           

    2] 6.0~12.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 2.584 0.273

    • 2.196 0.951

     

    0.063

    0.

    219

    • 0.102 0.355

             

    3] 12.0~18.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 2.864 0.273

    • 2.435 1.037

     

    0.063

    0.

    239

     
    • 0.102 0.388

           

    4] 18.0~24.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 3.069 0.273

    • 2.608 1.089

     

    0.063

    0.

    251

     
    • 0.102 0.407

           

    5] 24.0~30.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 3.768 0.219

    • 3.203 1.088

     

    0.050

    0.

    248

    • 0.089 0.442

             

    6] 30.0~36.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 3.369 0.168

    • 2.864 0.749

     

    0.050

    0.

    223

     
    • 0.089 0.397

           

    7] 36.0~42.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 3.515 0.141

    • 2.988 0.639

     

    0.050

    0.

    227

    • 0.073 0.331

             

    8] 42.0~48.0

     
    • 0.8 50

    • 3.515 0.114

    • 2.988 0.514

     

    0.050

    0.

    225

     
    • 0.073 0.329

           
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    V] Tower Memb er Wind Force @ Wi nd along Tower Dia gonal Design wind pressure, p = qz Gf (kPa) Force in towe r member, F = p Cf R f Af (kN/m) Panel No.] Ran ge,

    Af = width of tower m ember in meter

           

    To wer Leg

     

    Main Horizontal

     

    Sec. Hori zontal

     

    M

    qz

    Gf

    p

    Af

    F

     

    Af

    F

    Main Diago nal Af

    F

    Af

    F

    Sec. Diagon al Af

    F

    1] 0~6.0

     
    • 2.219 1.886

    0.850

     

    0.324

    1.075

     

    0.063

    0.148

    0.102

    0.239

           

    2] 6.0~12.0

     
    • 2.584 2.196

    0.850

     

    0.273

    1.057

     

    0.063

    0.173

    0.102

    0.279

           

    3] 12.0~18.0

     
    • 2.864 2.435

    0.850

     

    0.273

    1.164

     

    0.063

    0.190

    0.102

    0.307

           

    4] 18.0~24.0

     
    • 3.069 2.608

    0.850

     

    0.273

    1.236

     

    0.063

    0.202

    0.102

    0.327

           

    5] 24.0~30.0

     
    • 3.768 3.203

    0.850

     

    0.219

    1.225

     

    0.050

    0.198

    0.089

    0.352

           

    6] 30.0~36.0

     
    • 3.369 2.864

    0.850

     

    0.168

    0.841

     

    0.050

    0.177

    0.089

    0.315

           

    7] 36.0~42.0

     
    • 3.515 2.988

    0.850

     

    0.141

    0.729

     

    0.050

    0.183

    0.073

    0.267

           

    8] 42.0~48.0

     
    • 3.515 2.988

    0.850

     

    0.114

    0.588

     

    0.050

    0.182

    0.073

    0.266

           

    VI. Cable Ladde r and Man Ladder

     

    Cable Ladder W eight, kN/m

     

    =

    0.118

    Access Ladder W eight (kN/m)

    =

    0.123

    Co‐Axial Cable W eight, kN/m

    =

    0.194

    Weight per linea r meter, (kN/m)

     

    0.435

         

    Area

                 

    Ele vation

    Dead Load

    Project ed

    z

     

    Kz

    qz

    Cf

    G

    Wind

    Bottom

    Top

    Total (Fy)

    Fy / 4

             

    FX

                         

    0.000

     
    • 6.000 0.095

    0.378

     

    1.950

    3.500

     

    0.850

    2.219

    1.200

    0.850

    0.938

    6.000

    12.000

    0.378

    0.095

    1.950

    9.500

     

    0.990

    2.584

    1.200

    0.850

    1.092

    12.000

    18.000

    0.378

    0.095

    1.950

    15.500

     

    1.097

    2.864

    1.200

    0.850

    1.211

    18.000

    24.000

    0.378

    0.095

    1.950

    21.500

     

    1.175

    3.069

    1.200

    0.850

    1.297

    24.000

    30.000

    0.378

    0.095

    1.950

    27.500

     

    1.238

    3.232

    1.200

    0.850

    1.366

    30.000

    36.000

    0.378

    0.095

    1.950

    33.500

     

    1.290

    3.369

    1.200

    0.850

    1.424

    36.000

    42.000

    0.378

    0.095

    1.950

    39.500

     

    1.336

    3.488

    1.200

    0.850

    1.474

    42.000

    48.000

    0.378

    0.095

    1.950

    45.500

     

    1.376

    3.593

    1.200

    0.850

    1.519

    Struct ural Investigati on DesignRepo rt u Existin g 48M 4Legged S ST n S V]

    13

    Struct ural Investigati on DesignRepo rt

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    Existin g 48M 4Legged S ST

    n

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    VII. Antenna Lo ad Computation Antenna Type

    Lo cation

    Nos.

     

    Elevation

    Weight

    Dime nsion

    Ap

    Kz

    q z

    Cf

    G

    Fx

                           
       

    (m)

    (kN)

     

    ( m)

    (m 2 )

    kN

    Existing

                             

    GSM 900

    H‐F rame

    3

    unit

     

    47.5

    0.412

    1.936

    x 0.262

    0.507

     
    • 1.389 1.2

      • 3.0 82

     

    0.85

    • 1.5 95

    Canopy (Bro)

    H‐F rame

    6

    unit

     

    48.0

    0.303

    0.299

    x 0.086

    0.051

     
    • 1.392 1.2

      • 3.0 89

     

    0.85

    • 0.1 62

    GSM 1800

    Leg A, B, C

    3

    unit

     

    41.0

    0.368

    1.302

    x 0.156

    0.202

     
    • 1.346 1.2

      • 2.9 88

     

    0.85

    • 0.6 15

    MW

    Leg A

    1

    unit

     

    45.5

    3.434

     

    2

    3.142

     
    • 1.376 1.2

      • 3.0 54

     

    0.85

    • 9.7 88

    MW

    Leg B

    1

    unit

     

    21.0

    1.373

    1

    .2

    1.131

     
    • 1.170 1.2

      • 2.5 96

     

    0.85

    • 2.9 94

    MW

    Leg B

    1

    unit

     

    15.0

    0.932

    0

    .6

    0.283

     
    • 1.090 1.2

      • 2.4 18

     

    0.85

    • 0.6 97

    MW

    Leg B

    1

    unit

     

    15.0

    0.932

    0

    .6

    0.283

     
    • 1.090 1.2

      • 2.4 18

     

    0.85

    • 0.6 97

    MW

    Leg B

    1

    unit

     

    13.0

    0.932

    0

    .6

    0.283

     
    • 1.057 1.2

      • 2.3 46

     

    0.85

    • 0.6 77

    Proposed Load

                             

    MW

    Leg A

    1

    unit

     

    39.0

    4.611

    3

    .2

    8.042

     
    • 1.332 1.2

      • 2.9 57

     

    0.85

    • 24.2 56

    MW

    Leg B

    1

    unit

     

    51.0

    4.611

    3

    .2

    8.042

     
    • 1.410 1.2

      • 3.1 29

     

    0.85

    • 25.6 66

    Struct ural Investigati on DesignRepo rt u Existin g 48M 4Legged S ST n S VII.

    14

    Struct ural Investigati on DesignRepo rt

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    Existin g 48M 4Legged S ST

    n

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    • 3.2 CALC ULATIONS OF W IND FORCES : W ITH ADDITION AL 4.5M ANTEN NA HEIGHTS A ND ANTENNA L OADS

    I] Gross and Soli d Area of one tower face (unit ‐ meter)

    Panel No.] Ran ge,

    Leg Spread

    Height

    Gross

    Tower Leg

    Main horizon tal

    Main diag onal

    Sec. hor izontal

    Sec. d iagonal

    Soli d

     
     

    M

    Base

    Top

    Area

    Width

    Σ Leng th

    Width

    Σ Le ngth

    Width

    Σ Length

    Width

     

    Σ Length

    Width

    Σ Length

    Area

    1] 0~6.0

     

    6.36

    • 7.00 40.07

    6.00

       
    • 0.324 0.102

    12.00

    0.063

    6.

    68

     

    17.96

           

    6.14

     

    2] 6.0~12.0

     

    5.71

    • 6.36 36.22

    6.00

       
    • 0.273 0.102

    12.00

    0.063

    6.

    04

     

    17.02

           

    5.39

     

    3] 12.0~18.0

     

    5.07

    • 5.71 32.36

    6.00

       
    • 0.273 0.102

    12.00

    0.063

    5.

    39

     

    16.13

           

    5.26

     

    4] 18.0~24.0

     

    4.43

    • 5.07 28.50

    6.00

       
    • 0.273 0.102

    12.00

    0.063

    4.

    75

     

    15.31

           

    5.14

     

    5] 24.0~30.0

     

    3.79

    • 4.43 24.64

    6.00

       
    • 0.219 0.089

    12.00

    0.050

    4.

    11

     

    14.54

           

    4.13

     

    6] 30.0~36.0

     

    3.14

    • 3.79 20.78

    6.00

       
    • 0.168 0.089

    12.00

    0.050

    3.

    46

     

    13.86

           

    3.42

     

    7] 36.0~42.0

     

    2.50

    • 3.14 16.93

    6.00

       
    • 0.141 0.073

    12.00

    0.050

    5.

    64

     

    16.48

           

    3.18

     

    8] 42.0~48.0

     

    2.50

    • 2.50 15.00

    6.00

       
    • 0.114 0.073

    12.00

    0.050

    7.

    50

     

    15.63

           

    2.88

     

    9] 48.0~52.5

     

    2.50

    • 2.50 11.25

    4.50

       
    • 0.114 0.050

    9.00

    0.050

    7.

    50

     

    13.44

           

    2.07

     

    II] Design Wind Data

     

    1.

    Wind Speed ( kph)

    200

    2.

    Importance F actor , Iw

     

    1.15

    W ind +Z

     
       
    Panel No.] Ran g e, Leg Spread Height Gross Tower Leg Main horizo n tal Main
    Panel No.] Ran g e, Leg Spread Height Gross Tower Leg Main horizo n tal Main
    Panel No.] Ran g e, Leg Spread Height Gross Tower Leg Main horizo n tal Main
    Panel No.] Ran g e, Leg Spread Height Gross Tower Leg Main horizo n tal Main
     

    3.

    Exposure Cate gory

    C

    Wind + X+Z

    Wind X+Z

    4.

    Tower heigth on 0.5‐m pedestal, h (m)

     

    52.50

    5.

    Force coeffici ent for Trussed Tow ers, Cf

     

    Cf = 4.0 ε 2 ‐5 .9 ε + 4.0 (Square c ross section ) Reduction F actor for tower with rounded members Rf = 0.51ε 2 + 0.57 > 1.00

     

    6.

    Site is away fr om hills or escarpm ent by at least 1 km

     

    Wind +X

    Wind X

     

    Site Topogrph y Factor, Kzt

     

    K1 =0.26 K2 =0.50

    K3 =0.73

    1.2

     

    7.

    8.

    Gust Effect Fa ctor, Gf

    Wind Directio nality Factor, Kd

    0.85

    0.85

    7. 8. Gust Effect Fa c tor, G f Wind Directio nality Factor, K d 0.85
    7. 8. Gust Effect Fa c tor, G f Wind Directio nality Factor, K d 0.85

    9.

    Velocity Press ure, qz = 47.3x10 ‐6 K z Kzt Kd V 2 Iw (kPa )

     

    Kz = 2.0 1(z/zg) 2/a

     

    zg g = 275

    a = 9.5

    Wind + XZ

     

    W ind Z

     

    Wind XZ

    15

    15

    Struct ural Investigati on DesignRepo rt

    u

    Existin g 48M 4Legged S ST

    n

    S

    III] Calculation of Velocity Pressur e, Solidity and Force Coefficient Panel No.]

    Range, M

    z

    K

    z

    qz

    So lid area

    Gross are a

    e

     

    Cf

    Rf

    1+ 0.75e

     

    1] 0~6.0

    • 3.50 85

    0.

     
    • 1.886 40.07

    6.14

     

    0.153

    3.

    190

    0.582

    1.115

    2] 6.0~12.0

    • 9.50 99

    0.

     

    5.39

    • 2.196 36.22

     

    0.149

    3.

    210

    0.581

    1.112

    3] 12.0~18.0

    • 15.50 10

    1.

     
    • 2.435 32.36

    5.26

     

    0.163

    3.

    146

    0.583

    1.122

    4] 18.0~24.0

    • 21.50 18

    1.

     
    • 2.608 28.50

    5.14

     

    0.180

    3.

    067

    0.587

    1.135

    5] 24.0~30.0

    • 57.00 44

    1.

     
    • 3.203 24.64

    4.13

     

    0.168

    3.

    124

    0.584

    1.126

    6] 30.0~36.0

    • 33.50 29

    1.

     
    • 2.864 20.78

    3.42

     

    0.165

    3.

    137

    0.584

    1.123

    7] 36.0~42.0

    • 41.00 35

    1.

     
    • 2.988 16.93

    3.18

     

    0.188

    3.

    033

    0.588

    1.141

    8] 42.0~48.0

    • 45.50 38

    1.

     
    • 3.054 15.00

    2.88

     

    0.192

    3.

    013

    0.589

    1.144

    9] 48.0~52.5

    • 50.75 41

    1.

     
    • 3.125 11.25

    2.07

     

    0.184

    3.

    049

    0.587

    1.138

    IV] Tower Mem ber Wind Force @ Wind Normal Design win d pressure, p = qz G f (kPa)

     

    Af = width of to wer member in met er