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The Abiotic and Biotic Conrponents of the Environment


LEARNING OUTCOMES o Identify the abrotrc and brotic components of an ecosystenr o Classify biotic corlponents into trophic levels o Explain the interactions berween biotic componenrs in reration

feeding

Explain the interaction between biotic components competition

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The abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem

An ecosystem consist of the abiotic and biotic components

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The abiotic cornponents

Ecosystem

-.-/
The biotic components

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Producers
autotrophs, consist mainly of plants that synthesise organic substances or food from non- living nutrients
and sunliqht.

Consumers
h et?.rotro
ph

s which depenc

on the photosynthetrc outpu

of producers.
Primary consumers are herbivores which obtain thei

Example: Green plant

energy and nutrients by


eating producers. Example

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caterpillar

Decomposers - Microorganisms lhal break


down waste products and
dead bodies of other organisms into simpler

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econd arv co ns u m e rs are

carnivores which eat primar,

consumers Example: Bird

IeftjerV consumers

are

carnivores that prey on secondary consumers


:

subsfances to be used
agarn by plants. Examples

Examole Snake

bacteria. funoi

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The abroirc Cor--rttr'-,=.rlS

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Humrdity rs hiqher at nrghi but lower during the day Most organisms prefer humrd habitats. For examples, snakes, frogs and mosses. Some organisms regulate therr activities to avoid dehvdration. for instance, woodlice which are usually found under stones

Most organisms can survive well in a neutral or nearlv neutral environment Examples. pi n ea ppl e pl ants prefer acidic soil

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Temperature - Most organisms survive wilhin the temperature range of 0"C to 45'C. - A drop in temperature within a certain range results in a decrease rn the mefabolic actlvifies of the organisms. - Temperatures higher than 45"C usually lead to denaturation of enzvmes. - Certain species can live in extreme temperatures For example. thermophi!ic bacteria can survive in fi.ot spdngs.

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Topography
- The physical features of the land which concern the altitude, gradient and aspecf of a region - The higher altitudes, the lower

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the afmospheric pressures and temperatures. These result in defferent plants growing at different altitudes. For instance, pine trees can be found growing al a hiqher altitude than tropical

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plants.

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Light intensity
Affects lhe di stri b utio n and qrowth of pianis a.,,J animals Examples cf oroanisms: Hict"r ;ntensily tall trees in
aarlhwarmc

Gradient or the sfeepness of a slope is another topographic factor. Steep slopes result in rapid drainage and run-off Therefore, the soil layer is thinner and drier. Another topographic factors is aspect. The slopes of mountains facinq the direction of the wind receive more rain than the slopes shaded from the wind. Thus, the organisms from different slopes of a mountain are different.

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Microclimate
Refers to the climate in a

microhabitat.

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Food charn
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shcws a secue'rce of organisms through whrch enerqv from lhe sun is


nsferred

ra

Sxample

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-

...)
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l,i. z-

'-i-- -, .r\--- .,

,E.-.,

':

'i,N"-_s

flrrcc

-------------| Grasshoppers

frogs =-)
(secondarv
( consumers
) )

snakes

(producers)

primarv -> | ( consurners )

Iteriiarv

)
)

( consumers

b)

Each stage in a food chain is known as a trophic level. Example


:

Grass
1]
t_i

---)

Grasshoppers

frogs

------+

snakes

f,
Second

.)
U
Third
L]

First

Fourth

trophic level

trophic level

trophic

level

trophic level

c)

Complete the table below

Trophic level

Functional group
Producers
Primary consurners

Food chain
Grass

Food chain 2
Water plants

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Rats

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Tadpoles

Secondarv consumers

Snakes

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Draqonflv nvmphs

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Teriiarv consumers

Hawks

roqs

Do activity 8.1 on page 103 of the practical book

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Pyramid of numbers represents the number of indivrduals ai eac.' trophic

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level

of food chain at a parlicular

trrne The number sf grganisrrrs

decreases
up the trophic levels
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trophic level
trophic level 3

tertiarv consumers
secondary collsurners

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Sna xes

trophic level trophic level

2
1

pilmary consumers

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producers

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Food web

a)

A series of interrelated food chains.

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Construct

a food web involving the

following organisms found

in

freshwater pond.
small

fish
algae

water beetles mosquito larvae


water fleas

large carnivorous fish

;.

green

water snails

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tadpoles

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Mosquito
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rvae

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b) Energy Flow

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The producers abscrb so/ar ene;gy;lc;:-. li,e s",a a.,o convert ri


chemical enerqv stored in organrc molecules durrnc photosynfhesis, When a carnivore eats a herbivcre :t'c

rnto

:=:: .l'=

S 3',allable energy is

transferred on to the carnivore. The carnivors aiso ,oseS Bnrgy through

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respiration excretion and {efaec ation. About 90% of the energy lost io iils 6nei13rp-'sr; -:.
into new tissue and storage material.

t 1}Yo is converted

Energy lost to the environmenl

Herbivores

Carnivores

Top carnivores

excretion and
defaecation

excretion and defaecation

Energy flow in a food vreb

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c)

Assume that the grass contains 20 00C flow in the food charn below

ki of en=rgyl calculate the energy


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Grass

grasshopper
.Z

sorder
i

bird
4

Trophic
level

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The interactions between biotic conrponents iri relation to feedirrg

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lnteractions between

organisms )

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Parasitism

A close interaction between different species which live toqether and interacf
each other for an extended period of time.

1.

Symbiosis

with

One partner benefits (commensal) while the other (host)


benefit nor harm.
Tivo types of commensalisms are epiphvtes and epizoics

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Epiphvtes
plants which grow on other plants to obtain sunliqht and support

example: pigeon orchids, staghorn ferns and bird's nest ferns.

Pigeon orchids

Bird's nest ferns


staghorn fern

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Epizoics

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Epizoics are animals which live on the body of other animals. Example

Barnacles which

Barnacles

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attach therrselves to the shell

of crab get a free ride while looking


for food

Example 2' A remora fish gets free transportation and feeds on food scraps left behind by the shark.
remora fish
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Mutualism

A relationship between two species of organisms in which bottb benefit.

Example 1: Association of leguminious plants and Rhizobium.

Leguminous plant

Rhizobium sp.
the

provide

bacteria with
orqanic

. .

lives inside the root nodules of a leguminous plant the nitroqen fixinq bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen inlo ammoni um compounds that are used by the plants

energy-rich compounds.

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Example 2" Lrchen (Associatron of fungus ano aiga)

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Funqus

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supplies carbon dioxide and

The green a,ga

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foodfor

nltrogenous compounds

for
its

itself and for lne r,:io,-;s

the a/qa to
food.

manufacture

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profecfs the alga from drying


out Parasitism
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One organism benefifs (parasite) while the other is harmed (host)

Types

a. Ectoparasites b. Endoparasites

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Ectoparasites

Endoparasltes parasites that live within the tissue of their host. For example, tapeworms attach

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parasites that feed on the

external surface of a host.


obtain food and shelter from the host. Examples: lice,mosquifoes,

themselves to the linings of the digestive system of the host and obtain digested

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rafflesia sp. and aphids

food and shelter. The hosts, which


these parasites.

are

either animals or nurnans. /ose nutrients to

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Tapeworm

Rafflesia sp

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Saprophytism
ciead ana decavinq orEanic matter.

I Liuing organrsil

Saprophytic bacteria a^C funqiare organisnrs that secrete digestive enzymeq to


drgest deaC clganisnrs Exantples cf saprsp'r',n-Ss a:e SaSrophytic bacteria,

mlcor

Sp. and mushrooms.

Mucor sp

Mushrooms

3.
An organism (prey)

Prey-predator
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rs haunted and eaten- by a stronger and bigger organism (predator)

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An increase in prey population followed by an increase in the


population.

predator
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When the prey population decreases due to increasing predation or other factors such as the spread of diseases, the predator's tood supplv becomes
limited and this leads to a decline in the population of predators.

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The prey-predators regulate each other's population in a cyclical manner which maintains the populaiions of both organisms in a dvnamic equiblibrium.

Haunted by the credaio;. Smaller in size compared to the predator The prey populaiion is biqqer than the predator pbputai,on The prey ;'ei:es c:. speed ::'camouflaqe to avoid be;:c cal,.:1.:
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Predators usually have long canine teeth, sharp vision and


sharp claws to capture and kill
their prey. Have hooked beaks to tear the
flesh of their prey.

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Examples of prey-predator:

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Snake (predator) and froq (prey) Owl (predator) and raf (prey)

Lion (predator) and deer (prey)

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Owl (predator)

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rat (prey)

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Complete the graph below after time X

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The interaction between biotic componeRts in retation to competition


Competition

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An interaction between organisms to get the same resources that is limited supply.
Weaker organisms will migrate or die Animals compete for shelter, foqdand breeding mates.
Plants compete for water, nutrients, light and space.

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Types of cornpetition

ntraspecific com petition


Menrbers of the same

lnterspecific competitio n
Competiiion between

species compete for the


same resources.
Examples:

different
Examples
1.

species

Paramecium aurelia
and Paramecium

1. Paramecium aurelia
among themselves.

caudatum 2. maize plants and paddy plants.

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2. naize plants
themselves.

among

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Do activity 8.2 on page 104 of the practical book

Do activity 8.3 on page 108 of the practical book

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8.2

COLONISATION AND SUCCESSION IN AN ECOSYSTEM

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LEARNING OUTCOMES State what an ecosystem is

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Identify the niche, habitat, community and population

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ecosystem Explain the process of colonisation and succession Identify the pioneer: species in an ecosystem Identify the successors in an ecosystem Identify the dominant species in an ecosystem

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Identify the adaptive characteristics of pioneer species. Identify the adaptive characteristics of successors. Explain the changes in habitat caused by pioneer species. Explain the changes in habitat caused by successo:-s at ever,,, succession until a climax community is reachecj Relate the abiotic components with the biotrc coniponents in arecosystem during the process of colonizatio: :nC succession

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Ecosystem

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Specres

Conrntunrty

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MEANING

r. grouD of organisnrs ihat look alike and have

similar

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Populatron

;hai'a;iei-isiics, share the same ecological niche and are

cacari: oi rnterbreedinq and producing fertile offsprina.


For example, duckweeds and water lilies are two different species of water plants. A group of organisms of the same species living in the
same habitat at the same time. For example, a population of elephants living in a jungle Community

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Several populations of different species living in the same habitat in an ecosystem.


For example, a freshwater pond community.

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Ecosystem

A communily of livinq organisms interactina with each


other and with the non-livinq environment. Examples '. a rainforest, a wetland and a pond The role of an organism in the ecosystem. Organisms that
unCergo metamorphosis in their life cycles occupy different nicnes.

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Habital

For example, a tadpole lives entirely in water and utilizes different resources from those of an adult frog which lives
mainly on land.
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naiiial environment where organisms /iye.

Fcr eran-,cie. a srngle tree can be a habitat for caterpillars


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Colon rsation and succession

-cosyslenis underco changes


Colonisation Colonisation occurs Pioneer species

in

passes tirerr structure and function as tinre

in newlvformed

areas where no life existed previously.

a b

grasses and fern' The first colonizers, typically hardY plants such as Generally produce large nunrbers of easily dispersed seeds' have /eaves

which reduce transpiration

and

dense root systems

to bind the

sand

particles and hold water and humus

c.Haveashortlifecycle.Whenltreydie,theirremainsaddtothe
content of the soil.

humus

Modify the environment, creat;pg conditions which are less favourable to are more conducive to other themselves' but establishing

sg!@that

spectes.
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Successor species

a. b.

pioneer species, Grows larger and gradually shades out the original
eventually replacinq it altogether'

successor species are herbaceous plants such as dandelions and weeds. These plants have small wind-dispersible seeds, qrow rapidly They also chanqe which are able to spread, germinate and Examples

of

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the structure and aualitv of the soil, making it more conducive for larger
plants to grow.

Dominant species

a.
b.

species that grow faster and out-compete the slower-growing pioneer


and successorspecies.

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As time passes, the shrubs in turn modify the environment which allows Iarqertreesto grow, which

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replaced by forest-floor species'

Succession

a.

The gradual process where one community changes its environment so that it is replaced by ar-rother

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b.

"e6munity' Ecological succession leads to 2 relatively stable community which is in


equilibrium with its environment'

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Clinrax conrnrunity

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A stable and mature communitY that undergoes little cr no change


species struciure. For example tlre tr opical rarnforest

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(A) Colonisation and succession in a mangrove swamp

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Prot )lems faced by


man grove plants
1

Adaptations

Functions

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Soft
soil

muddv

Avicennia branched
roots.

sp.

have

long, cable

To support themselves

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underground

The roots

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Waterlogged

.
of
soil

Avicennia sp. has

conditions

breathing i . Allow roots called pneumatophores exchanqe


Pores called lenticets found on

gaseous

to take place.

the
decrease

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the
of

am.ount
oxvqen.

the bark of mangrove trees.

Direct exposure

A thick

layer

cuticle covers

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to the rate

sun
of

the leaves.

ryt'ransPiraticn
Tc siore water

leads to a hiqh

The

leaves

a(e thick

ard

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transpiration.

succulent.

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Problenrs faced by

Adaptations

Fu

nctions

ntangrove plants
The surrounding

The cell sap of ihe roofs c3!ls


has a hloher osrncsi,c c'3ssure

To ensure that the roots

cio nol

lose

water

by

water in the soil

than tne soi/


surrounds them.

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:na:

osnlosis,

hvpertonic

as

compared
the cell sap
the root cells

to

of

Have pores on the leaves called I . Excrete the excess salt

hvdathodes.

in the hypertonic water


of the soil which enters
the roots

Seeds

which the

. Seeds

have

viviparv

Able to qerminafe while

fall onto ground

characteristic.

still attached to
mother plants.

the

die

because they are submerged within the soft


and

. Can float
on the water

horizontally
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waterlogged
soil

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Notes

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tvluddy bank

Avicennia sp..
Sonneratia sp

Pneumatophores Prop rools

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A profile transect of a mangrove swamp

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Avicennia sp.
lvluddy bank

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Sonneratia sp. Rhizophora sp. Bruquiera sD.


Land species

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Zonation of mangrove swamps

-Do activity 8.4 on page 109 of the practical book

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-/' Avicennia sp and

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Sonneratia sp. zone ( pioneer

The soi/ becomes more compact and firm


The ground becomes hiqher

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-=---Rhizophora sp. zone (successor species)

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Replace the pioneer species The prop roots trap silt and mud.

The soil firmer, drier and less submerged by sea water

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-=----._-->-

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Bruguiera sp. zone

Replace lhe Rhizophora

sp.

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mud. Modify the sofl structure.


The.roots frap more silt and

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and sp. . Terrestrial forest and then a tropical rainforest is formed after hundred years )
Terrestrial plants like the nipah patm pandanus sp. then replace the bruguiera
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(B) Colonisation and succession in a pond


Colonization

- orsusecj pcno. proniif

b,v pioneei'

soecies

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(phvtoplankton. algae) and' submerqed plant ihydrlia sp caSornba sp e/odea gp.i begin ic Eict, an: caii-v our

photosynthesis.

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when they die anC decornpose crganic matter converieJ :;itc humus at the pond base. tne cond ce,:ci::= shallow

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Succession by floating plants - the condition becomes favourable for floatinq plants such as water hyacinths
(eichornia sp.) and duckweeds (lemna
sp.)

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they spread covering water surface and prevent sunliqht from reaching the submerged plant causing these plants to die since they cannot phofosynthesise. the decomposed plants add more organic m.atter and the pond becomes more

Succession by emergent plants the emerqent plants (sedges. cattails)


replace the floating plants. they grow from the edqe of the pond towards the middle of the pond as the pond becomes more shallow. when these plants die. their decornposed remains are added as sediments to the base of the pond thus reduces the depth oi the pond

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Succession by land plants - ihe conditron becomes suitable for land

plants like small herbaceous weeds. gradually. the land becomes much drier more lani piants (snrubs.bushes,woody
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Climax community a iunale emerges axo r'Jrns into a tropical


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Successor

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Eichornia sp. The surface of the water (pond)


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What is my
name?
\Alhere do I live?

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Tlze surf ace of the water lpondj
i-..------

Cabomba sp.

At the pond base

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POPULATION ECOLOGY LEARNING OUTCOMES ,- Identify the appropriate sarrpling technique ttL study tire population size of organism. o Estimate the population size of an organism in a habitat. o Determine the distribution of organisms in a habitat based on the density, frequency and percentage coverage of the specres. c Correlate the change in population distribution of an organism wi[h the changes in each of the abiotic factors. o Design an experiment to investigate the eflect of a changc rn any one of the abiotic factors on the population growth rate of an organism.

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The sampling technique to study the population size of organism

Quadrat
technique

sampling Sampling techniques

Capture,

mark,

. to study and estimate the


population size of p/anfs

. To estimate

the

population size of animals

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to estimate the population sizes and densiffes of organisms.

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1.
a.

Quadrat sampling technique A quadrat is a square or rectanqular frame made of metal, wood or string

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A sguare quadrat
b.

A rectanqular quadrat

The size of the quadrat depends on the size, distribution and density of the
organisms.

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For example, a quadrat of 10 cm x 10 cm is suitable forestimating the populatron

of smallorganisms such as lichens.


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This technique can be used to determine

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Percentage coverage
Formula

I t
aerral coverage of all quadrats (mr)
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Percentage coverage

number of quadrats x quadrat area

A quadrat to calculate the percentage coverage of


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A large/big plant

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A small organtsm

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(ii)
Density
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Formula
:
]

total number of individuals of a species in alt quadrats


Density
.

number of quadrats x quadrat aiea

(iii)

Frequency

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number of quadrats coriaininq the scec;es
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Formula:

Frequency

number oi quacrats
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Steps to estimate the distribution of plants

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Selec:

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iientifu the soecies of olanls

P:ace 5 c,t ::"-re luadrats randomlv


t'\

r{

^',^.

tisnis wfthin the

boundary

of

the

quadratiesiii:=:e lhe population size of the planls

u -l
rl-

Caicuiate tne averaqe number of Dlants per sctuare metre estimate the Censitv/calculate the percentaqe coveraqe

1f

Do activity 8.5 on page

11 1 of

the practical book

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1l

t,

u
I

2.

Capture, Mark, Release and Recapture Technique


Formula
:

ii il
tf

it

Population
srze

(number of individuals in the first sample) x (number of individuals in the second sample)

number of marked individuals reoaptured

A biologist did a study on a type of bird species in a fruit orchard lt is found that these birds feed on the insect pests. This is useful to the farmers because these birds can help contrcl the ocpulaticn of insect pests. With the assumption that these birds can be
captured easily or can be represented by small objects, design an experiment than can be carrieci cut rn the fieic cr ir ihe laboratory to estimate the size of the bird population." Your field work or experimental planning need to include the following aspects

lll*

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r

Hii'n of investlcaiion Staien^rer,i of hypothesis

Variables List of apoaratus and materials

Technique used

{ ,0

; aoriecied oaia . ?l:s:nt:ijor:i

fvl;rim3nt3i

9;.1131,-.1.e Of methOd

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ilio

Score Iecrcirt'

Prcblenr
sta te trlet--ri
:.n_

L esthate the population eop


To estimate the

poputation What is the effect of increasinq the habitat area to the population size of
I

-l

size of the birds.


l

_[v1c_9Jne1is t"i ai'ra bles

The hraer the habitat area. the rhe larqer the

Manipulated Responding : the populatron size of

habi . habitat area

biqqer the population size of the birds.

birds

\{aie rials

Bird, birds trap, birds food

____i

I I

Rinq
Technrque ' Capture, mark, release and recapture Procedure 1. Se/ect a suifable habitar

technique

i
I

2. Capture

20

or more birds usins a birds trap


a rinq

3. Mark each bird captured with

4. Record the number of birds in the first sample

5.

Release the birds back

to their habitat

6. After three davs,

a second sample of birds is captured at the same


marked birds in the second sample

habitat. Count the number of birds captured in the second sarnpfe.


7. Count the number of,

8. Tabulate the data and estimate the population size of the birds usinq
the formula: (number of birds in the first sampld x (number of birds in the second sample) number of marked birds recaptured
Keys.'

.l
i .l

of birds in the first sample of birds in the second sample c : number of marked birds recaptured
a : number b : numbeir

9. Repeat

the experiment with a larqer habitat area


:

Assumption

, .
.

The marks used must not easilv be detected bv the predators or are poisonous/harmful to the orqanisms The orqanisms are captured randomlv The marked orqanisms are qiven enouqh time to mix with the rest of the population The orqanisms are captured in larqe samples No mortalitv or migration of the orqanisms

205

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d ll il
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data

Collected

r"ot"

t
buds {rorn

iiiaoitat
second caDture
Total

lhe firsl

number (b)

Nuntber oi marked brds 19

?)

Conclusion

-r{t

Hvpothesis accepted. The /arger the habitat area, the bigger the population size of the birds.
Do activity 8.6 on page 113 of the practical book

;l

The effect of the abiotic factors on the population groMh rate of an organism

Temperature

?)

the population distribution of Pleurococcus


hiaher at a mild temperatures

sp

rs

u n T' tf
il'|

Humidity

Light intensity

An experiment to
is

t
i^

hioher

humidil

mild light lntensity

investigate the effect of the abiotic factors on the population groMh


rate of an organism.

is more suitable
iCr ilre gropth of

more favourable for Pleurococcus sp.

if
?)
}

Pieurccc;cus sp

(investigate the population d istribution of Pleurococcus sp.)

il
{

il
Aspects - the aspects such as lower temperatures and loiv light intensities are not suitable for the groMh of Pleurococcus
sp

il tt tt

Do activity 8.7 on page 114 of the practical book

pH value
-ihA PvP u:a r:v \, ,v n^nrti2r',-,^ -,<'r 4 r: ni ii
z'. z

:t
T

Pleurccocct-i

-i:

s \iqi'ter

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t06

A:,^.

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iiri) Sr.rtr. iar-t. "r-

8.4

BIODIVERSITY LEARNING OUTCOMES hxplarn the meanrng of 'bto,iivei.siay


Explain the need for classification of orqanisms State the five kingdoms used 1n in; _i;;;'tai,on of organisms identiFy the main characterist,cs cr.il-r,,sii s ii each kingdom Lrst examples of organisms in eacr \ n,::Jn State the hierarchy in the cias:i::,:::.::. :: :r-:anisrns, using examples

i
f .

Explain through exarnp!es, the rre:::..: the Linnaeus binomial s.vsten, Explain the importans3 sf iii6ir.'-:;5 it

tf

naming organisms using

Biodrversity refers to lhe diverse species

of

plants and animals interactinq

il
t"

with one another on earth.


Organisms need for a classification because there are many of them in the world.

I
*

Classification of organisms into the five kingdoms


Monera
- composed of
org anisrns

prokaryotic

Protis rotista - u n i c el I u I a r. algae, protozoa unic


- merF mernb'rane-bound nuclei and organelles - auto autotrophic heterotrophic or both - exan exarnples' prrooyra sorroc

- unicellular, have cell vralls. no mem brane-bound nuclei and organelles - ohotosvnthetic and nonphotosynthetic - typical shapes: rod, round,spiral - examples

t.

! t i

r:
t_
i
I

sp amoeba sp. par amecrum


-+e.

-4rO,t:"" i i:.'/.2'..i-

i:

Cyanobacteria, I

VyKingdom
Fungi
aulotropnrc euKaryotes
immobile, - multicellu lar eukaryotes - saprophwic, have hyphae called mvcelium. - they have no chlorophvll - examples : yeast

/^f;: l:^/

n^ +j t:i

r.

sp

1-

{1 *l LJ

Animalia
- multicellular

heterotrophic
eukaryotes - w ell d evet o pe d tissues - examples . rnammals.

fish
.->-.

re ot;les

photosynthetic have cellulose cell


;,\:?::S

.1ucor
-

i-._J ,,',r.--f; J. \

eta{t/; ?r.

evamples

sp.

mushrooms

fl,3i',,;rrn; 5,i3n;5

i i<-' -.-if=<

a7i-:,

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Hierarchy in the classification of organisms 1 Lrvrng organlsms are classrfied

into seven hlerarchrcal

levels basic

f-- lri"sd"- f *--l-ir.-Phvr.,n;__) --_--r_-_"

according to
c

their

haracteristics.
the

2 The largest unit is


nuntber of organisms.

r--a;-_l -___'r___-

:{

kinqdom, contains the lgggsl

u
d,

The number of organisms in each unit decreases from

f-- oE--l L_I"*rvJ


r---c"i""---l
(_ sp"c."s_J

it

kinqdoms to species

t t
I

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ir

4.

Example : The hierarchical levels of some organlsms


Cateqory
Kngdom
Phyl.rnr
Class

House

flv

Human Anhalia
Chordata

Corn
Plantae

Mouse
Anrnaln
Chordata
Mammalra

An'rmalia

1f
i

t
dl
{

jt
./ ./ ./ ,/

Aflfrropoda

Irrchaeophyta
Angrospermae

Insecb Dptera
Muscidae lvlusca

Mammala Prmates
Homonidae

Order
Family Genus

Gbmniflofbrae
Maydeae Zea

Rodenb
Murodae Rattus

Homo sapens

Speces

dcmestta

mays

rattus

il

Each organisms is given a scientific name based on the Linnaeus binomial system Each organism has fwo names in Latin. The first name begins with

1l

a capital letter, refers to the genus. a small letter, refers to the specfes.
Wolf
Canus lupis Canus luttis Rana pipiens

f,
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The second name begins with Examples


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Organisms
Genus Species Scientific name

Human

Frog

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homo sapiens

Honn sapiens

Rana nipiens

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208
Bio.-KlI l0

The importance of biodiversity

1
I
J. 4.

Provide varrous brological products to humans timber.

For example, medicine,

food rubber
t

Provide environnrental services. For example, nutrient cycling, climate. pollination Maintain a balanced nature so that no species will extinct.

Diversitv in the genetic pool.

f
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8.5

THE IMPACT OF MICROORGANISMS ON LIFE


LEARNING OUTCOMES o Classify various types

of

microorganisms based

o o o o o o o o c

Explain the effect of a ihange in each abiotic .omponeni activity of microorganisms Explain the role of useful microorganisms Explain the effect of harmful microorganisms
Explain the rneaning of pathogen

characteristics State the abiotic components affecting the activitv of microorganisms

on their basic
on the

Identify the pathogen, vector and symptoms of one particurar disease Explain how the disease spread Describe the methods for controlling pathogens Explain the use of microorganisms in bioteChnology, using examples

Types of microorganisms
To which organisms do the following descriptions apply? X : Yeast j Y : Bread
1

Parasite

mould Z : Baciilus

w:z

2 Saprophyte
3 Form

spores

IX-AT] z i-r-t-i
iY
W

4. A multicellular organism
t

Genetic material is a single strand of RNA

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6 Reproduces by binary fission

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:tD

,'

Bacteria
Cell lvall

Fu

ngi

,spc

res

ribosor"nes

/ \

./ /

:---

^t^^^^ /Pto>",J

membrane

.^^-^^^,,'{ sPoranqtum ) -' ,] -.._:Tt'/-l .. ,- .l " jeveioping / -."


nucor sp
- saFroph ytes/paras ite s.

|;,

-r

nucleoid region (DNA) - unicellular, have cell wal/s (nrace ci polymer called peptidoglycan) plasma nrenrbrane DNA not encloseci in a

sporangium hyphae of the mvcelium

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membrane.
- larqer than viruses, visible under a hoht microscope - reproduce by binarv fission - form spores under unfavourable conditions. - typical shapes: rod (bacillus), sphericai ( coccus),spial (s piril I u m) - examples : Staphy/ococcus sp.,

n uliiceliular eukarvotes have no chlorophvll, stenrs, leaves or rootsr


- cellwalls of chitin - some are visible to the naked

eye
- secrete enzymes that break

down grqanlrc matter before they


are absorbed.

Lactobacillus sp.

t 't
.E
-[

- reproduce by formino spores or buddinq (yeasts) - examples : mucor sp.. veast

Microorganisms
Algae
spiral chloroplast Protozoa

vegetative cell

csb
Euglena sp.

t)

spuogyra sp.
- photosvntheti c, eukaryotic plant-like organisms. - cell walls made of cellulose. - have chloroohvll and chlorop:asts. nc leaves, stems or roots. - unicellular, have nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. - carry out life processes such as respiration, reprod uctio n and excretion. - move using f/aqel/a, cilia or mrcrotubules. - examples Amoeba sp.,

- reproduce by forminq spores sp.

- examples phvtoplankton. spiroqvra

j,{

,')

4
Viruses

Paramecium sp.

- the srnallest microorganism, visible

only

under an

----'capsid

i*
t)

u ,)

electron microscope. te;i incapable of carrying out any


i:v:rg t:'3cesses outsfde a living cell (host) - r-fa.'1cr. r-.-,s: r'rfect living cells lo reproduce. - ::a je :: :: l\i cr RrVA(genetic material) s-:::-:.:-: z protein coal.

.)

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t

cn page 1i8 r,i the practicat book

Do activiii, E

'1C

- -4.

.a

.^r.'C:=..,:Cr.{

=,

tobacco mos?ic =.(3i::3:3s T4 bacteriophaae,


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The effects of abiotic components on the activity of microorganisms


ABIOTIC COMPONEN
I Ci ii--r= d t- -

EFF ECTS

- inactive at low temperature


- the optimum temperature is between 35"C

- 40'C

- beyond 60'C, the growth of microorganisrns is inhibited

- microorganisms and their spores can be destroved al a temperature of about 121"C

.l
Light intensity

The activity of yeast is optimal at a temperature of 35'C.


(

- prefer dark or low light intensities - hiqh intensities of sunlight or ultraviolet rays can kill microorganisms
,

- alqae and photosynthetic bacteria need light to photosynthesise

.i
pH value

The activity of yeast is higher al a lower intensity of light.

most bacteria prefer slightly alkaline conditions (pH


7.4)

- moulds, yeast and protozoans prefer acidic conditions


(pH a.5

pH 5.0)
4

- extreme pH can kill the microorganisms

.:.

The -activity medium.

of yeast is optimum in the gcific


t-

- all microorganisms except yiruses need nutrients and

water for reproduction and groMh


- without nutrients or water, microorganisms will die or

'l

form spores

.l "
-.i ;;irvlty

The higher the concentration of nutrients,


hiqher the activity of yeast.

the

8.1 1 on

page 1 19 of the practical book

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The role of useful microorganisms

1. b$ r a b.

Decorttposition Carrred out by a group of saprophvtic bacteria and fungi, called decomposers.

Secrete enzvmes that break down conrplex organic nutrients into sintp/e inorganrc substances such as carbon droxide, water and mindrals, this redrices
pollution by preventing the accumulation of the remains of decaying organisms Maintain life on earth by recycling and release nutrients into the soil

[fi ;
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I
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n
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c 2.

Nitrogen cycle Atmospheric fixation

til
i

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*rr'li>-i,rn -V,-.-..-<.\'.''fr:zps.
aiK;il r\:- r\

"Hlir7
f^ L\

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Nitrogen-firing SaCter'ra in root


^,od"rles o{ rCUmet

\J - )/ r:i;i /,J : ;,ji Deccnpro:er;: (xrobic

/r: -\li I {l .r \ , ! i \lJ .i' -'r' ,t., '--J


at:d.3nlLr:b;(

.4?.
tr'

d e n

ii!-tl.rrtng

bari?na

barlela ;r..g irjrqi)

ht
I ,j

X'

n 11:.3611rn.r

iN ila -)

bn
t

N;trogeri-iix:irq soil nEde

ri a

Nitrit](ng
b+cteria

il
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j

a.
b
C.

The nrtrogen cycle allows nitrogen to be utilized by organisms and returned io


the physical environment.
Plants can only absorb nitrogen in the form of eftlrn-g.nlgrn. nitr'rte or- nitrate lons Nitrogen fixing bacteria such as Nosfoc sp (lives in the soil) ano Rhizobium sp (lives in the root nodules of legumrnous plants) can converl;rtmospnettc nllrorJen

tI
bd
r.^

;6
og
J

inlo ammonium compounds (NH: ancl NH+) through a pror:ess ca'red nitroglen
fixatio n.

f1-)
-_l:

-B
a

i_6

:-

::J'Lr'l.l')Lri
j I I

d
e

Nltrates are taken up by the roots of plants and conveiled ir.,t When the animals eat tl-re plants, the organic nitrcger, ;s :

lriirt proteinS. :--':"?-:r:c lle body

t...

of animals and beconres aninral protein Waste matter, p/ants and anrnrals which die and Ceccmpcs-. a.: ..r.,,ened into
ammonium compounds
LL

Ammonium compounds are converted into nitrites

anj ni';'3'-= :.: nitrifVinq

bacteria through a process called nitrification.


lr
i

Ammonia converted into nrtrites (NO:-) by Nitrosomonas sp. Nitrites converted into nrtrates (NO:-) by Nitrobacter sp.

Tite cycle is balanced by a contrnuous return of nitrogen tc lhe arrnosphere by denitrifvinq bacteria which break down nitrates and release nrtrogen back into
the atmosphere.
Digestive system in hurnan
I

. .

Symbiotic bacteria in human colon synthesise vitamrn Brz'and vitamin K Deficiency in vitamrn Brz lead to anaemia. vitamin K needed for blood
clotting.
iiq

l Alimentary canal of termites Termites feed on woodwhich contains cellulose, they do noi have the enzymes (cel/u/ase) to digest the cellulose

t'

: .".l
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Trichonympha sp. is a mutuafistic protozoans present rn the alimentary canal of termites and secrete cellulase.
_l j

[,,

'ti

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10
)

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The effect of harrlful microorganisms

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i 'naiiri- ::r,.ic^iganisms can spol the food and substances 2 Mrcroorganrsnrs that cause drseases are called pathogens. -1 O:ca-:sr-s inal tr'ansmit the pathogens are called vector.

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Direct contact
a contagious disease can be spread by contactwith an

(
' -

infected person or using their persona/ items such as towels,


c othrng

ip t

examples ringworm caused by fungi, AlDS and syphilis


lhrouqlr sexual intercourse.

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Food and water

Vectors

microorganisms entei the alimentary


ca

malaria ts caused
by plasmodium sp

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nal

th roug h

transmitted by the

w
ril

I
i

contaminaied food anc'water

lg
J,t

unwashed hands
ano lhe faeces of

How the diseases spread

mcrsquito

anopheles sp. as a
ver:tor

houseflies can
cause food

infected people.
exar-nples; cholera,
lv

H
'l

poisoning and
spread cholera

phoid

id
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Airborne and droplet transmission


airborne transmission is a method where the pathogens can change inio spores ancl then transmitied by air. croplet transmission is a method where liquid dropletr; of the infected person enter other people respiraiory system

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214
I

Bio.'Kll

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PAT HOGENSi DISEASE AT VECTORS

METHOD'OF TRANSMISSION

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS


l

Virus

Dengue fever

Hurnan
intntunodefic

Acqurred

-t*+ person

Vector . Aedes

sp.

_--

--l Fever witlt severe bodv pain

-drcsl'"s
Diseases of the lunqs, brain, eves, weighl /oss and diarrhea

urrprotected sex with

&o,11-.--...- tmmune . I uerlclency t-.lofi vit us (Htv)


I Syndrome

an infected partner

blood transfusion frorrt an infected


preqnant mother to an unborn child
use of contaminated

(AtDS)

Viruses
Hepatitis
A.

-%

contaminated food or J a undic e, dimi nishecJ water and personal nausea, liver cancer contact

;;"^^;::;;1
ap

p etite,

Hepatitis B

gr needles,
intercourse

contaminated blood
sexual

Coronavirus

Severe acute
respiratory syndrome

(sARS)

tnfected person couohs or sneezes

Re,spiratory droplets Hicth fever, drv l.el-eased when an pneumonia

couqh.

Bacterium (vibrio cholerae)

Cholera

contaminated food or water


the faeces of infected

profuse and waterv diarrhea, vomitinq and leq


cramps

- rapid /oss of

bodv fluids teads to dehVdration

and shock

rel?ted food Roisoning Potsonrnd I


(examnle

Bacteria

I l"' Food

I I

I I I

Salntonella

contaminated food contamination of cooked f ood from contact with utensils that were not

Diarr,4,ea, nausea, ,l.,illr,


to 24 ltours

vomitinq and fever witnn tZ

2l-)

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I PATHOGENS/ VECTORS

DISEASE

METHOD OF TRANSMISSION

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Lffi
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I
Malaria

properlv washed after cantact with raw foad Products such as fish, meaf
Veclor

: Anopheles
mosquito

sp.

Hiqh fever. violent shiverinct

nffi

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I

Ringworm (Tinea

i_fl
t

corporis\

is , Rashes on throuqh spread infected pets or direct , with a scalv contact with inf ected

Contaqious and

Iookmt,

the bodv whiclt

'

border.
I

individuals.

s
d
I

_l

Methods of controlling pathogens Vaccines

Antibiotics
Penrcillrn and streptomycin are

a suspension of dead or

i_8

weakened bacteria or viruses


which is inoculated into the body

produced bv microorganisms whlch inhibit the growth or kill other microorg anisrns. esp.
bacteria

u
ri

to lnduce the production of antibodies. Example . BCG


Dis

i_f,
i
l

infectants

Antiseptics
used cn cuts and wounds to kill
and inhibti ir,e gi'o'"r.n cf

hh

solutions used to sterilize surgical equipment krll microorganisms on the floor. Examples . phenol. formaldehyde

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rnicrcorganrsns E:xan-ipies
acrifiavrn, iodine solution

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J'lre use of microorganisms in brotechnology i Brotechnclooy is lls_spp.

glLe.s__pt

of
in d u

ryaterialsfory

strv.
Drnd"^ri^^ t VUUU-'L
I

.accrnes and hormones

anttbioiics are

cbtainec,:::r :r::roorganisnrs
ts

streptomvcin is produced oy Slreplontyces sp., peniciltin

produced by Peniciilrurrr cr;rysogerrurn, both used to treat infectrcns Sabine vaccine used to treal potiomvelitis. Modrfied bacteria are used to produce the hormon large scale.

insurin on

a
I

Cleaning of oil spills


genetlcally engineered bacteria are used to clean the oil spills. these bacferia convert the orl into less harmful enr",ironment friendly.

molecules'which are

-'l
Waste treatment

I
I

Sewage from households and industries usvvdgv rurrr rrousenolds and industries is piped into large settling ianks in sewaoe treatment plants. sewage

Aerobic

I
I

lhe ser^.,age decompose organic matter The s/udqe that setiles ei tne bottom of the setiling tanks is pumpec' intc the sedimentation tanks where fermentation
rn
^t^^^ iJrdue.

b""t.ri,

takes

anaerobic bacteria continue to decompose the organic matler lo methane and carbon dioxicle
Her"e ,

fhe methane gas cc-llecie: is useC as a fuel. ihe otgeste: siL:cge js:i:r-, ,;^, n,iiates and phosphates,
to be usea as f ertilizers

and rs dried

c; iaiirers

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Food processtng

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Fermentation by the yqSJ in bread making produces carbon

dioxide which helps ihe dough to rise.


Beer is brewed tront barlev grains.

:tB
/)

Wine

i.s

nrade by the fermentation of qrape jurces ethanol and

"-b

carbon dioxide are released.


Soy sauce is nrade from fermented sova beans by the fttnqi.
Y_oqhurl is made from fermentation of milk using bacteria
La ct o b ac
il I u

'r
rf
r)

b u lg a rr

cus a nd Strep t ococc u s

he

rnt

l't i

us wh tcir

converi sugar into lactic acid that coagulates casetn (milk


protein) Cheese is made by mrxing bacteria (for exanrple, Streptococcus sp.) with the enzyme rennin. The bacteria ferrlent trilk sugar to

-H

lactic acid The solid part of the milk (the curd) is serparated from the liquid portion (ihe whey) The curds are pressed and moulded
and then lelt to matrrre or npen

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Produciion of brodegradable plastic (broplastrc)
Bioplastic such as Biopol can be broken down into inorganrc

compounds h,y bacteri a.


Bioplastic is produced by culturing bacieria such as Envina sp
rn

:&
,)

nutrients (glucose) A specific nutrient (nitrogen) rs then depleted from the culture
medium.

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The bacterra react by prodr-rcing plastic as a storage componenl their cells


Bioplastic is used to make credit cards bottles, medical gLlxs.

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:$
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'.)10

Bio-litl

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i,H

l)t)

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Two sources of energy that are generated through the activrtres of nticroorganisms are bioqas and -gasoho/. Btogas is a gas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of organrc nratter or waste in a bioreactor Gasohol or biofuel is a conrbinalion of lO % ethanol and 9g% petrol Suqar cane and maize are the nrain sources of gasohol. The cane or maize is crusheci and sucrose is extracted to form

syrup contains glucose and fructose, the fermentation of this syrup by yeast will produce ethanol.

8_6

APP REC IATING BIODIVERSITY

LEARNING OUTCOMES o Justify the importance

of

biodiversity. Preserve and conserve various living things around us.

preservation and conservation of

The lmportance of Preservation and conservation of Biodiversity

i.

' ' .

organisms and ecosystems provide many useful products such as Iood, medicines and sites for recreational actrvities and research.

the ecologtcai equilrbrium which leads to the extinction of many species of organism
defo;estation have drsturbed
conseryation refers to the efforts made in maintaininq the quality of the natural environments and their bioloqical resources For example replanting the trees

Hunlan activities such

as

il

Preservation refers

to the efforts tn protectinq ine eafih s


r.r,,i:n ex

diver-se

ecosystems and wildlife species which are threateneo

lln c tlon.

.ll9