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WHAT IS CRITICAL THINKING?

"Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action" (Scriven, 1996 ).

Critical thinking is the process or method of thinking that questions assumptions.

Characteristic of critical thinking

Dispositions: Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair- mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning.

Argument: Is a statement or proposition with supporting evidence.

Reasoning: The ability to infer a conclusion from one or multiple premises.

Point of View: The way one views the world, which shapes one's construction of meaning.

Procedures for Applying Criteria:

asking questions, making judgments, and identifying assumptions.

Characteristic of critical thinking ● ● ● ● ● Dispositions : Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded,

VS

Critical Thinking

-evaluating the evidence upon which that conclusion is based.

Critical Reading

-discovering

-not necessarily being "critical" and negative

-a specific topic must be addressed

-The result of evaluation can range from positive to negative, from acceptance to rejection or anything in-between.

-terms must be clearly defined

-evidence must be presented

-In productive problem solving we generate ideas (by creativity) and evaluate ideas (by criticality).

VS Critical Thinking -evaluating the evidence upon which that conclusion is based. Critical Reading -discovering -not

-common knowledge must be accounted for

-exceptions must be explained

-causes must be shown to precede effects and to be capable of the effect

-conclusions must be shown to follow logically from earlier arguments and evidence

Habits of mind for Critical Thinker

Point of View—From what point of view is the topic being approached?

Evidence—What evidence is being used to support the argument?

Connections—How are ideas connected within the topic and to other topics?

Alternatives—What alternative viewpoints are there? Significance—Why is this topic important?

Skills of CT

Critical thinking calls for the ability to:

Recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problems Understand the importance of prioritization and order of precedence in problem solving Gather relevant information Recognize unstated assumptions and values

conts ...

Comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discernment Interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments Recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositions Draw warranted conclusions and generalizations Put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives Reconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience Render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life

MELTABRC thinking tool-Seaton High

School in South Australia

M—What are the author’s/presenter’s Main points? E—What Evidence or Examples does the author/presenter provide?

LT—What Language/Techniques does the author/presenter use in his or her line of thinking?

A—What Assumptions does the author/presenter make?

B—What Biases does the author/presenter show in his or her line of thinking?

R—How Relevant is this information?

C—How Credible is the author/presenter? What might the Consequences be if the readers (or listeners, or viewers) believed the author/presenter?

Critical Thinking Case Study

I. Problem Identification

Faith Community Hospital has two main problems that need to be addressed. The first is the increased costs associated with normal operations. The second is the inconsistency with which the staff and partners interpret and follow the hospital’s policies and procedures. These two problems are snowballing into areas that are intertwined by nature. They cross boundaries into finance, ethics, employee morale, and partner relations.

STEPS

1)Criteria, Goal, and Objective Definition-problem of increased

costs, the hospital’s basic business structure needs to be reviewed.

2)Problem Effects-financial obligations, there is only one choice and that would be to close its doors.

3)Problem Cause-decrease in patient population.

4)Alternative-generate enough revenue to continue its operations(negotiate fixed costs, cut costs where needed, reevaluate its current cost to customer, and investigate its competition to see if it can win patients to increase patient population)

5)Decision / Solution-cut expenses 6)Decision Implementation / Rationale for Decision-undergo a staff

reduction program