Sie sind auf Seite 1von 67

DAFFODIL INTERNATIONL UNIVERSITY.

Department of Textile Engineering

REPORT ON PROJECT WORK Product Development of Knit Fabric SUPERVISING TEACHER Prof. Dr. MD Mahabubul Haque D.I.U Dhaka-1208 SUBMITTED BY: S/N NAME ID DEPT

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

TO THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED TO LEARN

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
DIU has given us the opportunity to perform the project work. We are obliged to Prof. Dr. MD Mahabubul Haque, Head, TE and supervising Teacher of the University for giving us the opportunity to accomplish of the project work. Heartfelt thanks goes to Senior Textile Engineers of various industries (Anlima, Turag, INDUSTRY.) from whom we collect the sample. Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our University and especially of FMT department for their kind inspiration and help, which remain us the backdrop of all our efforts. Finally, we would like to convey our acknowledgement that we remain responsible for the inadequacies and errors, which doubtless remain.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

ABSTRACT
At first we collect some of Order Sheet along with required data which are needed to commence our project work with effective analysis. We also analysis the fabrics according to their class so that we can establish an acceptable result which will be perfect for effective use and will help to carry out further activities depending on the established form of work. During our industrial attachment we manage to watch carefully and effectively the knitted fabric specification along with machine specification and the major factors which are necessary to calculate different types of variation and variable on which the whole fabric construction depends. Our efforts were to develop a dependable way so that we can easily visualize or can forecast the resulting fabric specification with required configuration. S We have tried our best to emphasize on the adjustable points on which fabric G.S.M., stitch length, fabric width, & compactness directly or indirectly depends. The theoretical as well as the practical knowledge that we gathered from our classes and in the industry, help us to perform our project with credit and for this we specially convey thanks to our honorable teachers.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter


1.0

Page

INTRODUCTION---------------------------------------------------------- 9

2.0 Literature Survey 2.1 Fabrics-------------------------------------------------------------------------11 2.2 The Manufacturing Process of Fabric-------------------------------------11 2.3 Knitting----------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 2.4 Type of knit Fabric---------------------------------------------------------14 2.5.1 Details about fabric Relaxation state (K-Factors) --------------------- 14 2.5.2 Dimensionally Relaxation states-----------------------------------------19 2.6 Dimensional Stability-------------------------------------------------------- 21 2.7.1 Spirality--------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 2.7.2 Causes of spirality---------------------------------------------------------- 23 2.7.3 Theory of spirality ---------------------------------------------------------23 2.7.4 Measurement of Spirality------------------------------------------------- 25 2.7.5 Reduction of Spirality -----------------------------------------------------25 3.0 Experimental Procedure

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

3.1 Study of Flow Chart of Knit fabric development------------------------ 29 3.2 Details of Flow Chart -------------------------------------------------------30 3.3.1 Design & Development -------------------------------------------------- 36 3.3.2 Product Engineering -----------------------------------------------------36 3.3.3 CAD Drawing and Patterns-----------------------------------------36 3.3.4 Pre-production Samples and Prototyping------------------------36 3.3.5 Design Documentation ---------------------------------------------36 3.3.6 Jig and Fixture Design ---------------------------------------------37 3.4 Measurement & Adjustment of Stitch length----------------------37 3.5. Measurement of GSM -----------------------------------------------38 3.6 Order sheet ---------------------------------------------------------- 39-40 3.6.1 Single Jersey 3.6.2 Double Jersey (Rib): 3.6.3 Dimond Mesh 3.6.4 Fleece Fabric Development process of knit fabric 3.7 Production of single-jersey fabric on a circular Knitting machine---- 42 3.8 Double jersey Rib fabric -------------------------------------------------- 44 3.9 Fleece knitting Machine ------------------------------------------------- 46 3.10 Jacquard Fabric ----------------------------------------------------------- 48 3.11 Experimental Data -------------------------------------------------------- 50
6

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

3.12. Particularlars of some widely produced single jersey fabric------- 53-59 3.13 Effect of stitch length on GSM ----------------------------------------- 59-65

4.0 Discussion of results --------------------------------------------------- 67 5.0 Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------- 69 7.3 References-------------------------------------------------------------- 70

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

Chapter 01

Introduction

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Now a days knit fabric is very popular in the hole world. Its manufacturing process is very easy. And its comfortable to wear. It is Incorporated has now developed a system (a program) that will allow a manufacturer or user to knit fabrics to fully understand and control the selection of yarn and knitting machine through Machine dia, M/C Gauge, Yarn Count, Stitch Length,GSM processing. A manufacturer or user of cotton knit fabrics accumulates large amount of data as related to dimensions of the fabrics (such as weight, width and shrinkage). This project will show that knit fabric performance and its production procedure. Fabric is a manufactured assembly of fibers and yarns that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient cohesion to give the assembly useful mechanical strength. Fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted but the term includes assemblies produced by felting, lace making, net making, non woven processes and tufting. Our project basically is on knitted fabric specification and machines which are related to knitted fabric production. Our project work is Product development of knitted fabric and other related machine specification. There are problem in our industries to produce knitted fabrics of required G.S.M. Other specification like fabric width, fabric thickness is generally maintained in industries by previous data sheet. For this reason there are problem if any order comes which didnt produced in previous. Our intention is to find out the easy process to get decision about yarn count selection, loop length selection, machine Diameter selection & machine gauge selection.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

Chapter 02

Literature Review

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

10

Literature Survey
2.1 Fabrics
Fabric refers to any textile material made through weaving, knitting, braiding or plaiting and bonding of fibers. The term fabric has its origin in the Latin term fabric meaning a workshop. It means that which is put together like building. Fabric can be classified based on various criteria. On the basis of fiber used for manufacturing, it can be classified as natural fabrics such as Cashmere, Cotton, Hemp, Jute, Linen, Ramie, Silk, Wool and synthetic or man-made fabrics like Acetate, Acrylic, Chiffon, Denim, Georgette, Latex, Nylon, Organza, Polyester Fabrics, Rayon, Satin, Velvet etc. It can also be categorized on the basis of its usage for making Apparel, Curtains, Drapery, Home Furnishing, Quilting, Upholstery among others. Other than the traditional fabrics, in view of the increased demand of textile for technical and industrial use, many specialty fabrics have also gained importance. Among these are included Abrasive, Aluminized, Awning, Blended, Carbon, Fiberglass, Flame Resistant, Narrow, Tarpaulin, Vinyl Fabric to name a few.

2.2 The Manufacturing Process of Fabric


There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers. Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming. These days, the vast majority of spinning is done by spinning wheel. The fibers are drawn across the wheel, and as it spins, the fibers are collected on a cylindrical object called a bobbin. The bobbin holds the spun fibers, which are now connected into a long strand of thread or yarn. In the next step, the bobbins will be transferred to another machine, where the yarn will continue on its journey into fabric. After the raw materials have been converted into yarn, they're ready for the second step in the production process, which involves joining these individual threads together to form fabric. This process of joining the yarn together is called knitting. knitting. is done on a machine known as a knitting machine and requires sets of yarn. The first set, called the cone set, is strung tautly across a metal frame. The second, called the feeding, is connected to feeder, with one thread per feeder. The is knitting machine controlled by a computer, Finally, it's ready to be shipped out to clothing and textile manufacturers.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

11

2.3 Knitting

Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitting consists of consecutive loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a final product, often a garment. After weaving, the most prevalent method of fabric construction is knitting. The yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path ,forming symmetric loops or stitches. When the interlocking loops run lengthwise, each row is called a wale. A wale can be compared with the warp in weaving. When the loops run across the fabric, each row is called a course. A course corresponds to the filling, or weft. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting. In weft knitting, one continuous yarn forms courses across the fabric. In warp knitting, a series of yarns form Wales in the lengthwise direction of the fabric. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. By hand, numerous styles and methods of knitting exist.

Courses and Wales

Structure of stockinet, a common knitted fabric... The meandering red path defines one course, the path of the yarn through the fabric. The uppermost white loops are unsecured and "active", but they secure the red loops suspended from them. In turn, the red loops secure the white loops just below them, which in turn secure the loops below them, and so on.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

12

Alternating Wales of red and white knit stitches. Each stitch in a wale is suspended from the one above it. Like weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread. In weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads). By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a course), forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different directions, which gives knitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics; depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. For this reason, knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearer's motions, such as socks and hosiery. For comparison, woven garments stretch mainly along one direction (the bias) and are not very elastic, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. Knitted garments are often more form-fitting than woven garments, since their elasticity allows them to follow the body's curvature closely; by contrast, curvature is introduced into most woven garments only with sewn darts, flares, gussets and gores, the seams of which lower the elasticity of the woven fabric still further. Extra curvature can be introduced into knitted garments without seams, as in the heel of a sock; the effect of darts, flares, etc. can be obtained with short rows or by increasing/decreasing the number of stitches. Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting, which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric. If they are not secured, the loops of a knitted course will come undone when their yarn is pulled; this is known as ripping out, unraveling knitting, or humorously, fogging (because you 'rip it'). To secure a stitch, at least one new loop is passed through it. Although the new stitch is itself unsecured ("active" or "live"), it secures the stitch (as) suspended from it. A sequence of stitches in which each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale. To secure the initial stitches of a knitted fabric, a method for casting on is used; to secure the final stitches in a wale, one uses a method of binding off. During knitting, the active stitches are secured mechanically, either from individual hooks (in knitting machines) or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

13

2.4 Type of knit Fabric :


single jersey Single lacoste Double lacoste Polo pique Plain interlock 11 Rib 21 Rib 22 Rib Flat back rib 3 Thread fleece

2.5.1 Details about fabric Relaxation state (K-Factors ) : Obviously, the most critical considerations for developing a product are the construction variables on the knitting machine and the length processing tensions applied in the dyehouse. In this study, different combinations of constructions, yarns, machines, and finishes were evaluated. The basic constructions studied were single jersey, interlock, single pique and 1x1 rib. Evaluations were performed in the greige and after each separate processing step throughout dyeing and finishing. Analysis of all this data yielded "K-Factors" which relates the structure to its processing. These factors became the basis for the predictions of fabric performance. "K-Factors" are constants derived from empirical data measured in the reference state. The data most important are those of stitch length, yarn count and the courses and wales per inch. The "Reference State" of a fabric is the dimensions of the substrate when it will not shrink any further. "Reference state" is also known as the "relaxed state." The consumer is normally the only person who experiences the fabric in this state of normalcy. Reference conditions are reached when the fabrics have been washed and tumble dried until no further shrinking occurs. On nearly all fabrics, this state will be achieved after five cycles of washing and tumble drying.Cotton Incorporated believes that to be most effective, each plant must calculate the "K-Factors" for each of their processing lines. From this k-factor GSM formula is following: GSM = Ks Tex/ Stitch length ( mm) Where, Ks is a constant. Its value is different for different fabric structure and fabric type. Ks is calculated and estimated as below:

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

14

Ks = GSM Stitch length/ Tex

Fabric Type Single jersey Single lacoste Double lacoste Polo pique Plain interlock 11 Rib 11 Rib 21 Rib Flat back rib 3 Thread fleece

Color Avarag e Avarag e Avarag e Avarag e Avarag e Light Avarag e Avarag e

Value of Ks 19.55 22.4 22.75 25 39.3 24.5 26.5 28.3 81 40.92

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

15

2.5.2 Dimensionally Relaxation states :


Changes in dimensions after knitting can create major problems in garments and fabrics especially those produced from hydrophilic fibres such as wool and cotton. As synthetic thermoplastic fibres can be heat set, their shape or dimensions are least affected. The changes of dimensions with wool fibres are magnified by felting shrinkage, however with shrink (felting) resist finish in wool yarns, the problem can be much reduced. During knitting, the loop structure is subjected to tension from sources such as yarn feeding and fabric takes down mechanism. In order to avoid further dimensional changes as the fabric is taken out of the machine, the knitted fabric should attain a stable of equilibrium. A number of stable states are suggested by various research workers by which relaxation conditions are possible so that the yarn and structure can create high internal restrictive forces and thus inhibit recovery. The three important dimensionally stable states are: (i) (ii) (iii) Dry relaxed state. Wet relaxed state Finished relaxed state Dry Relaxed State

The fabric has been taken off the knitting machine and allowed to lie freely for a sufficient length of time. Eventually the fabric attains a dimensionally stable condition, called by dry relaxed state. In this state, the natural configuration of yarn is almost straight so that when it is unproved, the yarn takes up an approximately straight form. A plain fabric knitted from worsted yarn will recover from a 60-80 % extension in length to its natural length after 48 hours if allowed to relax freely in the dry state, whereas a cotton fabric will retain permanently 10-20% of the extension in length.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

16

In dry state, therefore plain knit wool fabrics may be expected to return to their strain free conditions more freely than the cotton fabrics.

Wet Relaxed State

If the fabric is soaked in water and allowed to dry flat, the wet relaxed state is attained, again a dimensionally stable condition. The equilibrium is reached after static relaxation in water and subsequent drying. In this state, the natural configuration of yarn is not straight but is set into a form approximating the loop shape in the fabric. Wet relaxation is carried out in water at 30oC containing 0.1% wetting agent, allowed to lay for 24 hours, hydro extracted and dried naturally for at least three days. Finished Relaxed State

In order to reach this stable condition, the fabric is subjected to agitation in water or steam, and a denser fabric results. The fully relaxed condition is obtained by subjecting the samples into gentle agitation at 80oC for 2 hours, tumbles dried at 80oC for 2 hours in a domestic top loading washing machine, and finally conditioned in the standard atmosphere for at least 24 hours. A satisfactory relaxation technique applied during the finishing of cotton fabric in continuous length form is the compacting or compressive shrinkage technique. The fabric is passed between two sets of roller nips with the feed rollers turning at a faster rate than the withdrawal rollers so that the courses are pushed towards each other and the fabric is positively encouraged to shrink in length. This technique can create difficulties with interlock fabric which tends to buckle outwards three-dimensionally to produce ripples on the surface known technically as orange peel.

2.6 Dimensional Stability:


The yarns after knitting, which were originally straight and desire to return to the straight state, were prevented from doing so by the frictional forces acting over the regions of loop interlacing. 17

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

Thus an apparent equilibrium of loop shape may be purely due to instantaneous equilibrium between restorative and frictional forces and not because the loop has attained the interlocking points are of high friction in addition, the yarns are often temporarily distorted by the throw of the needle during knitting. The knitting strains therefore are dissipated only gradually on standing, as the fabric tends towards its state of minimum energy. Thus this gradual relaxation mechanism causes instability in the dimensional behaviour of knitted fabrics. In most cases the dimension of the fabric decreases. The dimensional stability of knitted fabrics is an important area of the knitting industry. Fabric shrinkage is the ultimate problem if the dimensional stability of the knitted fabrics is not properly taken care. There are various factors that influence the dimensional stability as well as the shrinkage of the knitted fabrics. Factors such as fibres characteristics, stitch length, machine gauge, yarn twist, knitting tension and washing and drying methods causes dimensional variations, the first factor mostly responsible is the relaxation of internal stress, since these have been imposed on the yarn during the knitting processes. The second factor is the swelling of the yarn when the fabrics are subjected to wet treatments. When cotton is swollen in water its cross-sectional area increases by 20% to 40% but its length changes very little. Thus shrinkage of fibres has no role to play in the shrinkage of fabric; it is the change in cross-sectional changes in fabrics. The configuration of the loops change due to yarn swelling. It is important to examine the exact geometrical loop change upon swelling and further to associate the fabric shrinkage with loop geometry.

2.7.1 Spirality:
Spirality is a dimensional distortion in circular plain knitted fabrics. The Wales or needle lines, should occupy a truly vertical line in the fabric and should always be right angles to the cross wise courses of stitches.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

18

This perpendicular of Wales to the courses is frequently, not the case and many times the Wales may skew to the right or left forming an angle, which appears in the form of a twilled surface. This geometrical defect has been termed Spirality of knitting in circular fabrics. The following Figure shows the fabrics with normal loop position and with Spirality having wale skew ness. Spirality has definite influence on both the functional and aesthetic performance of knitted fabrics and their garments. Displacement or shifting of seams during the garment make-up, mismatched patterns due to wale skewness, sewing difficulties etc., are some important practical difficulties due to Spirality. As the dimensional properties of the fabrics are affected by Spirality, it is very essential to minimize or eliminate it altogether. This Spirality problem is often corrected in finishing treatments by imposing distortion to fabrics so that the Wales straighten out and subsequently set in new form. Though the setting by finishing treatments are normally achieved by using resins, heat, steam, mercerization etc, it is not permanent and after repeated washings, the wale skew ness takes place.

2.7.2 Causes of spirality:


The following are some predominant causes of Spirality in knitted fabrics. Yarn twist multiplier is the principle cause of Spirality and it is directly proportional. Residual torque in the yarn or the twist liveliness. Number of feeders-though higher feeder numbers increases production, Spirality also increased. Different spinning technologies such as ring, rotor, air jet etc., also influence Spirality. The physical properties of these yarns, their geometrical characteristics, their basic fibre properties (i.e. modules, fineness, cross section etc.) and blends are the causes Variation in knitting tension, yarn frictional properties, yarn/metal coefficient of friction, yarn lubrication, number of contact points in the knitting zone i.e. needles and sinkers) also influence Spirality. 19

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

Washing wet treatments increases fabric relaxation and also increases Spirality. Direction of machine rotation has little influence on Spirality. Slight inclination of loops occurs in the direction of machine rotation. Multifeed machines rotating clockwise produce Spirality to the left and machines rotating anti clock wise produce Spirality to the right.

2.7.3 Theory of spirality:


The Spirality occurred in knitted fabrics is shown in Fig. 10.3. The fabric is assumed to be knitted with Z twist yarn on a multi feed circular machine, revolving clockwise. Let F = total number of feeders, c = courses per unit length n = total number of needles w = Wales per unit length.

Let

DD1 = position of a wale when total Spirality occurs. BB1 = position of a wale when total Spirality occurs due to number of feeders.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

20

XX1 = position of a course when total Spirality occurs. XA = position of a course when Spirality occurs due to number of feeders. X1A = F/C = displace between two consecutive courses knitted by the same feed XX1 =n/w = Open width of the fabric.

Let

Y = angle of spirality due to yarn. F = angle of spirality due to number of feeder. YF = total spirality. = F/c X w/n

Course displacement F/c tanf = ------------------------- = ----------Fabric width n/w Now w = Kw/l & c = Kc/l

therefore, loop factor = Kc/Kw = c/w

tanf = Fw/cn = F/nR Therefore f = tan-1 (F/nR) Now, the above relationship shows that the angle of spirality depends on. (i) (ii) (iii) Number of feeders of the machine. Shape of the loop in a particular state of relaxation, and Number of active needles in the machine which depends on machine gauge and diameter.

2.7.4 Measurement of Spirality


The fabric sample is laid freely over a platform without any wrinkles and crimp. The spirality can be analyzed using a mini drafter/L-Square scale and the angle of deviation is calculated. The amount of spirality can be obtained using the following formula. = tan-1(d/L) Where d is the displacement of the course from a normal line to the wales of the fabric measured at a distance L from the identified wale line. The spirality measurements can be taken for the three states of fabric samples such as dry relaxed, wet relaxed and fully relaxed. 21

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

2.7.5 Reduction of Spirality:


As the spirality is caused by several aspects such as yarn, machine and fabric finishing treatments as discussed earlier, in the same way it can be reduced or eliminated by the following techniques. (i).With machines that rotate clockwise, the Wales will be inclined to left, giving an Sskew spirality and with machines of counter, clockwise rotation to the right giving Zspirality. The Z-twist yarns make Wales to go to the right, giving Z-skew and S-twist yarns make the wales to go to the left, giving S-skew to the fabric. Therefore, to minimize spirality, the Z-twist yarns should be knitted on clockwise rotating machines and S-twist yarns on counter clockwise rotating machine. (ii). As derived by equation 10.6 the angle of spirality increase with more number of feeders. However, with the knitting of yarns that give no spirality (e.g. flat yarns) and running them on clockwise rotating machines, the total spirality would be to the left, under such circumstances, use of large number of yarn feeders is beneficial rather than detrimental with respect to spirality. (iii). Fabrics knitted with more tightness factor (i.e. tighter fabric) exhibit less loop movement and yarn movement. Such fabrics give less spirality compared to looser fabrics. (iv). High twist multiple yarns have high snarling tendency and thereby increase spirality. Finer yarns and high twist multiples resulted in higher yarn twist liveliness. Therefore, lively yarns have to be knitted as tightly as possible on a machine of the finest possible gauge. (v). As per equation (10.6), use of more number of needles i.e. finer gauge machines reduce spirality as they increase fabric tightness factor as well as take care of yarn liveliness. (vi). Torque relief or twist setting in yarn reduces spirality. As untreated yarns have highest snarling tendency and exhibit high spirality, the following yarn treatments may reduce spirality.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

22

a) Autoclave treatment of steam and vacuum considerable reduce yarn snarling and hence angle of spirality. Dry-relaxed state. Higher number of treatments (i.e. number of cycles) reduce snarling and thus spirality). b) Sizing treatment set the yarn, reduces the fibre movement during bedding, reduce snarling and thus reduce spirality. c) Small percentage of low melt polyester fibres can be blended with cotton and heat treated. Low melt polyester will bind to cotton fibres, thus reduce fibre movement, results in low snarling and less Spiral d) Yarn dyeing is a promising way to reduce spirality. During dyeing, a wet hot treatment set the yarn twist, reduce snarling thereby the spirality. Spirality increases with fully relaxed states. (vii) By plying two identical single yarns and twisting them in a direction opposite to the spinners twist, twist stable yarns can be produced. They are more stable, if they are package dyed. Such yarns produce zero spirality in both dry and fully relaxed states. This plying is a very effective way to avoid completely the spirality. (viii) Plating is an effective way to produce spirality free fabric. By plating one yarn of Ztwist and other yarn of S-twist in knitting, zero Spirality fabric can be produced both in dry and fully relaxed states. (ix) In 3-thread fleece fabrics, the relationship between the binder and ground yarn is as similar as plaiting 2 yarns. By using two yarns of different twist distribution as binder and ground yarns, spirality can be reduced considerably. (x) Use of 50/50 Polyester/Cotton bladed yarns exhibit lower snarling tendency than 100% cotton yarns and give less spirality. Auto clave treatment effectively sets the polyester fibres in the blend. (xi) The yarns spun with different spinning technology produce different angle of spirality. The angle of spirality of friction, ring, rotor and air jet spun yarns are of the decreasing order as studied by De Araujo let. Al. This trend applied for both dry relaxed and fully relaxed states. The lowest twist multiples and minimum snarling tendency of both rotor and air jet yarns lead to lowest angle of spirality in both dry and fully relaxed states. (xii) Interestingly, this spiral effect can be used for the production of fancy fabrics. For example by knitting four threads of normal twist and four of reverse twist yarns consequently on a eight feeder machine, a fabric closely resembling the familiar shadow stripe fabric of the warp loom can be made. Also by knitting alternate ends of normal and reverse twist yarns, quite a successful imitation of crepe fabric is possible.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

23

Chapter - 3

Experimental Procedure

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

24

3.1 Study of Flow Chart of Knit fabric development:


Bayer Sample choose Receive Analysis Yes/Not for check Point to point Analysis Machine selection Design selection Yarn selection Sample knitting (Check list, Design check, GSM check) Sample Dyeing After finishing treatment Shrinkage, Fastness, Spirality
Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 25

Check the design after dyeing Not Ok If OK send to the buyer If sample approved send it for the production Order confirm From marketing send a balk order Start for the production

3.2 Details of Flow Chart:


1. Buyer sample choice :This is the first step for development a knit product. Buyer gives a sample or knitting production to manager or merchandiser chooses the sample with his experience. 2. Receive sample:Knitting production manager receive the sample from merchendiser.Before receiving the sample the manager visualize the sample by his experience. For this process highly experienced person is need the manager should be highly experienced about 3 to 5 year. 3. Analysis: Manufacturer point out the knit design. And discus with knit manager the possibility to develop the design. 4.Yes/Not for check:After visualizing the sample the manager say yes or not for check. This is totally depends on knitting manager. if he thought this design can be made by this machine he say yes or he thought can not be produce he say not to merchandiser. 5.Point to point Analysis: In this analysis knit manager decide which machine is suitable for this design. 6. Machine Selection: 1. Machine gauge. 2. Machine Diameter. 3. Needle gauge. They are described below:

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

26

1. MACHINE GAUGE: No. of needles per inch present in a needle bed of a knitting machine is called machine gauge for that knitting machine. A term giving a notational indication of the no. of needles per unit length along a needle bed or needle bar of a knitting machine in current practice, a common unit length of one English inch (25.4mm) is used for all types of warp and weft knitting machine. Selection of machine gauge depends upon yarn diameter. Yarn diameter depends upon the following: a.Yarn count b. Fibre type c.Yarn twist d.Yarn finished General practice of yarn count and machine gauge in different industries in Bangladesh given below: TYPICAL SELECTION OF M/C GAUGE FOR DIFFERENT COUNT YARN: M/C Gauge 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 2. MACHINE DIAMETER : Machine diameter is mainly diameter of cylinder. It is important for fabric width. Only diameter does not determine the fabric width.It need helps machine gauge and wales space which is depend upon yarn count and loop length. 3.NEEDLE GAUGE: Thickness of needle express by the needle gauge. It is important for selection ofmachine gauge. Needle gauge is different for the different gauge and different Brand.Some needle gauge found in industries is given below: Ne 14.0/1 23.5/1 18.0/1 26.0/1 21.5/1 29.5/1 23.5/1 35.5/1 26.0/1 41.5/1 29.5/1 47.5/1 35.5/1 59.0/1 41.5/1 70.0/1

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

27

Machine gauge 24 28

Needle thickness in (mm) 0.52 0.41

Requirements of Smooth knit fabric production: I. Long lasting and trouble free quality functioning of the knitting machine could be possible by proper maintenance care and lubrication. II. Proper horizontal installation of the machine, III. Tension free yarn feeding, IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Flawless yarn guides and needles, Exact cantering of needle bed towards one another, Proper fabric take-off proper lubrication is the basic quality needs of a knitting machine Machine setting :

Optimum setting is based on yarn type and knitted structure. Following factors are to be considered during setting: a) Balanced yarn tension prior and after to feeder. b) Lower fabric take up tension. Proper needle timings of dial and cylinder needles in order to obtain loose or tight structures. 7. Design Selection: From the buyer given fabric sample merchandiser pick out the design.And as design cam and needle should be set up in the machine. 8.Yarn Selection: AS buyer requirement. Yarn quality parameters i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Evenness, Breaking strength, Elongation, Twist, Moisture contents, Yarn winding, Yarn lubrication, Yarn hairiness is to be considered for quality raw material feed to knitting.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

28

(i) Suitable yarn count: Selection of suitable yarn count should be based on: a) Machine gauge Yarn Tex = {100/G}2 b) Machine types which are having varied needle strength hook sizes and dial and cylinder distances. c) Knitted structures which are produced with from one feeder (Plain, rib etc.,) to 3 or 4 feeders (blister and multicolour jacquards). More number of feeders necessitates the use of finer counts. (ii) Machine setting: Optimum setting is based on yarn type and knitted structure. Following factors are to be considered during setting: c) Balanced yarn tension prior and after to feeder. d) Lower fabric take up tension. e) Proper needle timings of dial and cylinder needles in order to obtain loose or tight structures. (iii) Yarn storage: For the yarns to have sufficient moisture for processing, they should be stored at 20 oc and 65% RH. Storage under extreme temperatures must be avoided. Higher temperature leads to paraffin migration and lower temperature leads to water condensation. Lot to lot variation is also a very important in handling quality matters, particularly after dyeing. (iv) Air conditioning: Air conditioning of knitting plant prevents yarn dry-up, reduces yarn breaks (holes) and improves the surface structure of fabric. The recommended conditioning is 55% + 10% RH and 25o C + 3oC temperature. 9. Sample Knitting: If the sample knitting is complete then folling these things have to be checked (Check list , Design check, GSM check) 10. Sample Dyeing: Firstly buyer gives a died fabric or any color shed. From this shed manufacturer pick out the basic color from this shed. And adjusting the color. Then go for sample dyeing through sample dyeing machine. 11. After finishing treatment: When knitting and dying is complete then Shrinkage, Fastness and Spirality test is done. a. Crocking/Rubbing fastness: Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 29

Sample: 1. Dyed fabric 15 cm x 5 cm. 2. White Test cloth 5 cm x 5 cm. Procedure: 1. White test cloth is put on to grating and stag by steel wire. 2. The sample is run twenty times manually for ten seconds. And the rubbing fastness of the sample cloth and degree of staining is accessed. 3. For rubbing fastness (wet), the rubbing cloth is placed in water and socked and squeeze. The wet rubbing cloth is placed on the grating and stag with stainless steel wire and run ten times manually then assesses the attaining on to the rubbing cloth and the rubbing fastness of the sample cloth is accessed. Results: Change of shade of the sample is measured with the grey scale and degree of staining of the white test cloth is measured by staining scale. b. Dimensional stability (Shrinkage and spirituality): Sample: Two piece of 50 cm x 50 cm fabric is taken for test. Procedure: 1. Conditioning: Put the sample in the table for 4 hours conditioning before starting test. 2. Cut the sample 50 x 50 cm & benchmark should be 35 x 35 cm. Stitch the sample (3 sides) by over lock sewing machine. 3. Put sample in washing machine and run according to buyers choice. 4. Drying: All buyers requirement is tumble Dry except ECHO SCOURING is flat dry. Shrinkage test Calculation : Shrinkage% = S1/S2 *100 S1=After Washing S2=Before Washing c. Spirality test calculation: b a Spirality = 35 cm 35 cm Where, a=37 (Across the line) b=39 (Across the line) =39-37 =2*100=200=200/39=5.13 % d. Color fastness: The color fastness of a colored textile is defined as its resistance to these changes when subjected to particulars of conditions. It follows that color fastness must be specified in terms of these changes and expressed in terms to the magnitude. Required materials: 1. Sample size 40 x 100 mm. Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 30

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Multifiber at 40 x 100 mm. ECE detergent (WOB) 4g/L. Sodium per borate (Na2BO3.H2O2-1g/L)-1g/L. Distilled water. Normal cold water. Steel balls.

Procedure: 1. Cut sample & multifiber at 40 x 100 mm. 2. 50 ml ECE detergent (WOB) & 50 ML Sodium per borate is taken with the sample. For marks & Spencer, the solution is taken by the following formula: (Sample fabric + Multifiber weight) x 50 ml. 3. The sample is kept in 600C for 30 minutes in Rota Wash machine. 4. Rinse the sample twice with cold water. 5. Dry at 600C by hanging or by Flat iron precision but temperature should be more than 1500C. Results: Dry the specimen and the change of shade & degree of staining is measured by grey scale & staining scale. 12. Check the design after dyeing :The design should be checked after dyeing because some faults are prominent after dyeing.Such as relavation of fabric increase spirality,shade variation,fabric bow & skewness, GSMcna be changed after dyeing.For this reason fabric should be rechecked after dyeing. 13. Not ok:After checking the sample is not similar with the buyer sample the knitting manager again point to point analyse the sample & try to remove the previous fault such as proper m/c selection,yarn selection,knitting,dyeing &finishing fault. 14.If ok send to buyer :After checking the sample design after dyeing if it is similar with the buyer sample then the knitting maneger send the sample to merchandiser & the merchendisre send the sample to buyer & wait for approval. 15. If the sample approved send it for the production :When the merchandiser get approved sample he send it knitting manager for bulk production & wai for conform order which amount of fabric need for buyer. 16. Order conform :Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 31

Then the merchandiser deal with the buyer for conform the order.Buyer inform the merchandiser what amount of fabric he need. 17.From marketing send a bulk order: When the Marketing department confirm the order then they tell to the knit section to go for bulk production. 18. Start for the production: As the buyer recommended manufacturer go to the bulk Production.

3.3.1 Design & Development In engineering associates can assist from concept to completion in developing and manufacturing product, working with you to ensure that buyer exact requirements are met. Whether they need design support, prototypes or product evaluation, experienced engineers with professional training in fabric technology are ready to assist. Expertise and experience allow us to successfully complete projects that are too complicated for many others. Manufacturer are ready to help complete project no matter what stage it is in. Commitment to flexibility allows to react quickly to their needs. If they looking for a completely new source for their product, if it is seasonal, or just need help occasionally with overflow we can help.

3.3.2 Product Engineering


At Core Products International can help design and develop idea from concept to distribution. No matter what stage product-it will help bring ideas to life, help engineer product and provide a professional product. It is goal to work hand in hand with in every aspect of developing and delivering product.

3.3.3 CAD Drawing and Patterns


It full size, full scale CAD system ensures that every pattern is perfect, and brings unlimited flexibility in quickly making design changes.

3.3.4 Pre-production Samples and Prototyping


It will provide with initial prototypes that will redefine and make necessary changes to after buyer have tested it. It will then provide with a final sample for their complete approval. 32

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

3.3.5 Design Documentation


Engineering staff follow a detailed documentation process with every product Core manufactures. When a product is complete and ready for production, a final design document along with a product control will be brought to the production staff for training and quality assurance. Core Products follows the guidelines set by ISO9000 for documentation making products easily CE Certified.

3.4 Measurement & Adjustment of Stitch length


MEASUREMENT OF STITCH LENGTH: Stitch length is theoretically a single length of yarn which includes one needle loop and adjacent needle loops on either side of it. Loop exits in coarse in course length and it is that which influence fabric dimension and other properties including weight. In order to determine the stitch length, we count 100 no wales or stitch and count its length by hanging the yarn on the stitch counter. The reading is found in mm unit. Another Formula is : Knitted fabric length=1 inch Yarn Length=11 inch 1 Inch=2.54 Wales per inch=72 1 cm=10 mm Stitch Length-1 inch (initial) =11*2.54 =27.94 =27.94/72 =0.388*10

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

33

=3.88 mm

3.12 MEASUREMENT OF GSM:


GSM is a very important parameter for specified a certain quality of knitted fabric. The production of knitted fabric is calculated in weight. The GSM cutter is very popular and easy usable GSM testing instrument used in most knitted factory. But the construction of this cutter is very simple. It is circular disk of 100 square cm area with sharp blade attached to its edge. So 100 square cm of fabric can easily cut by it and weighted at the electric balance to get GSM reading.

GSM:
There are two formulas for calculating the GSM of a knitted fabric. i.e. First formula is GSM = Course per inch Stitch length Tex 39.37 39.37 /1000 x 1000 GSM =WPI CPI SL(mm) / Count (Ne) x 0.9155 Or Yarn Cunt *Loop Length*GSM=K

Where K is Constant K varies for the single jersey with different gsm, count, and loop length CONSTANT AT A GLANCE: Fabric Sinlgle jersey plain Double Lacoste 1 X 1 Rib 2 X 1 Rib Interlock Constant 12068.509 14855.2 16431.497 19005.333 24013.8

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

34

3.6 Order sheet:


3.6.1 Single Jersey :
Machine Dia=34 Gauge=24, Buyer= ZARA, Order No=CALA-NIERA Order Quatity= 812 Kg Fabric Type = Single Jersey, Final GSM=170/180 Yarn Type=24/CD Colour =Avg, Final Dia=93.7 cm (Tube) Stich Lingth=2.85

3.6.2 Double Jersey (Rib):


Machine Dia=38 inch Gauge=18, Buyer= NKD, Order Quatity= 1461KgFull Feeder Lycra Fabric Type = Rib, Final GSM=210 Yarn Type=30/CD+70 D/ly Colour =Avg, Final Dia=23 inch (Tube) Stich Length=2.80

3.6.3 Dimond Mesh: 75D 72 Filament-2ply


(Mono-filament) F.C-PQ577-8237 D.N-DIMOND MESH Composition-97% Micro polyester

(75 D Bright polyester ) 1ply

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

35

Width-3% Mono 72/74 inch Wals=72 Course=92 Stitch Length =3.88 mm Weight-272G/yd, 158 G/M2

3.6.4 Fleece Fabric


M/C Dia=32inch, Gauge =20 Feeder=96 Fabric Type=30/1CD+75 D Polyester+20 D ly Colour=Navy,Final Dia=73 inch (op) Stich Langth=40/30/15 Grey GSM=270-275

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

36

Development process of knit fabric:

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

37

3.4 Production of single-jersey fabric on a circular Knitting machine:


Most single-jersey fabric is produced on circular machines whose latch needle cylinder and sinker ring revolve through the stationary knitting cam systems that, together with their yarn feeders, are situated at regular intervals around the circumference of the cylinder. The yarn is supplied from cones, placed either on an integral overhead bobbin stand or on a free-standing creel, through tensioners, stop motions and guide eyes down to the yarn feeder guides. The fabric, in tubular form, is drawn downwards from inside the needle cylinder by tension rollers and is wound onto the fabric-batching roller of the winding-down frame. The winding-down mechanism revolves in unison with the cylinder and fabric tube and is rack-lever operated via cam-followers running on the underside of a profiled cam ring. As the sinker cam-plate is mounted outside on the needle circle, the centre of the cylinder is open and the machine is referred to as an open top or sinker top machine. M/c Name: Terrot-20 Fabric : Single jersey G.G.S.M : 135 F.G.S.M : 160 Yarn SAMPLE M/c GG: 23 24 GG S. length : 2.85 F. Dia. : 60 cm (tube) : 26s /1 CB pacific L- 083 NOTATION DIAGRAM

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

38

CAM SETTING

NEEDLE ARRANGEMENT S L S L

N.B: = Knit stitch = Knit cam

S= Short butt needle L= Long butt needle

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

39

Figure 2: Loop diagram of single jersey fabric

3.6 Double jersey Rib fabric:

Rib has a vertical cord appearance because the face loop wales tend to move over and in front of the reverse loop wales.As the face loops show a reverse loop intermeshing on the other side, 11 rib has the appearance of the technical face of plain fabric on both sides until stretched to reveal the reverse loop wales in between. 1 1 rib is production of by two sets of needles being alternately set or gated between each other. Relaxed 1 1 rib is theoretically twice the thickness and half the width of an equivalent plain fabric, but it has twice as much width-wise recoverable stretch. In practice, 1 1 rib normally relaxes by approximately 30 per cent compared with its knitting width. 1 1 rib is balanced by alternate wales of face loops on each side; it therefore lies flat without curl when cut. It is a more expensive fabric to produce than plain and is a heavier structure; the rib machine also requires finer yarn than a similar gauge plain machine. Like all weft-knitted fabrics, it can be unroved from the end
Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 40

knitted last by drawing the free loop heads through to the back of each stitch. It can be distinguished from plain by the fact that the loops of certain wales are withdrawn in one direction and the others in the opposite direction, whereas the loops of plain are always withdrawn in the same direction, from the technical face to the technical back.
The knitting action of the circular rib machine The knitting action of a circular rib machine is : (a) Clearing. The cylinder and dial needles move out to clear the plain and rib loops formed in the previous cycle. (b) Yarn Feeding. The needles are withdrawn into their tricks so that the old loops are covered by the open latches and the new yarn is fed into the open hooks. (c) Knocking-over. The needles are withdrawn into their tricks so that the old loops are cast off and the new loops are drawn through them.

M/c Name: Orizio-16 Fabric : 1 1 Rib G.G.S.M : 156/160 F.G.S.M : 210 Yarn : 26s /1 CB pacific L- 2629

M/c GG: 36 18 GG S. length : 2.75 F. Dia. : 75 (open)

SAMPLE

CAM SETTING

NEEDLE ARRANGEMENT

DL DS L Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

L S S 41

LC SC L S N.B: = Knit cam L = Long butt needle S = Short butt needle L S

3.7 Fleece knitting Machine:

Fleece Knit: Technically, fleece fabrics are not truly a pile construction. Fleece fabrics are knitted so that, when finished, they will have a short to medium nap that has a soft, pleasant hand, will provide warmth and body, as well as moisture wicking and absorption, if desired. The kinds of fibers used are dependent upon the use objective. They Are used for such purposes as liners, active sports, outerwear, and plush toys. Fleece knits can be made on circular knit machines in any one of three different types of construction. The machines may be complex, utilizing either spring or latch needles employing sinker-top,dial,cylinder,or dial/cylinder mechanisms. With this equipment, various effects can be produced. One type of fleece knit construction is the three-yarn system, where three yarns are fed sequentially from separate yarn positions around the cylinder of the machine. The first yarn is the backing or fleece yarn. The second and third yarns are the tie-in and ground yarns which are fed successively in plating

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

42

relationship and kind so that the fleece yarn is caught at predetermined intervals between them. The results in the fleece yarn being floated on the technical back of the fabric and held in place by the Wales of plaited tie-in ground yarns. The fleece yarn, which may be coarse spun and low twist, can thus subsequently be readily napped and given other surface finishes. M/c Name: Orizio-09 Fabric : Fleece Loop/1.44 G.G.S.M : 210/215 F.G.S.M : 280 Yarn : 30s /1 CD padma L- 3071 + 24s /2 P.C padma L-11 M/c GG: 30 20 GG S. length : S/4.20 + B/4.80 +

SAMPLE CAM SETTING NEEDLARRANGEMENT 1 T T T T 2 3 4 N.B: 1= One butt needle 2= Two butt needle 3= Three butt needle 4= Four butt needle

= Miss cam = Knit cam

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

43

3.8 Jacquard Fabric:


Single jersey Jacqurd Design: A pattern Single jersey weft knitted fabric ,usually made from two or more yarns of differing color or texture to give aconstruction that consist essentially of knitted and float loops ,but may in corporate tuck loops. The surface pattern is derived from from the chosen arrangement of the yarns and of the knitted and float loops. The inclusion of tuck loops into the construction eliminates long length of floating threads from the back of the fabric . The floats of single jersey jacquard to some extent reduce the lateral extensibility of the garments and when continuous filament yarns are used in gauges of E18(npi) or less , the floats on the technical back can create problems of snagging. Single cylinder sock machines may knit 1*1 float stitch jacquard ,odd needles binge selected for knit and miss whilst even needles knit at every feed ,thus reducing the colored yarn floats on the technical back to a single wale. The clarity of the colored pattern area is only slightly impaired. The following squared diagram illustrates part of a three color jacquard design, each face stitch being represented by a square. Using the running thread notation , provide a representation of the design for single-jersey knit/ miss jacquard.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

44

Experimental Data

Experimental Data: As part of our experimental study we have collected


information from various factories having single jersey fabric, Lycra single jersey fabric, Rib & Interlock facility. The detail information is discussed below.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

45

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

46

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

47

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

48

3.10.1 Particulars of some widely produced single jersey fabric.


The detail product information about single jersey fabric was collected from Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fiber Ltd. and is given

M/C Yarn Stitch Finish CPcm WPcm Finish Dia(Gauge) count length G.S.M width in Cm of fabric in Cm 26(24) 30S 0.260 150 21.13 15.92 152.4 0 30(18) 30(18) 30(24) 30(18) 30(24) 30(28) 34S 30S 26S 30S 26S 24S 0.250 0.265 0.295 0.270 0.280 0.270 135 145 160 140 165 180 22.40 21.13 18.98 20.74 20.00 20.74 16.88 15.92 14.30 15.63 15.07 15.63 147.3 2 152.4 0 162.5 6 152.4 0 157.4 8 157.4 8

Fabric Type

Full Feeder Single jersey Half Feeder ly S/J Half Feeder ly S/J Half Feeder ly S/J Full Feeder Single jersey Full Feeder Single jersey Full Feeder Singlejersey

Table-: Particulars of some widely produced single jersey fabrics 96 feeder, 2260 needle.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

49

M/C Dia(Ga uge) 30(28)

Yan cont

Stitch length in Cm 0.280

Finish G.S.M

CPcm

WPcm

24S

180

20.0 0 19.31

15.07

Finish width of fabric in Cm 121.9 2 121.9 2

Fabric Type

30(24)

24S

0.290

170

14.55

Full Feeder Single jersey Full Feeder Single jersey

Table : Particulars of some widely produced single jersey fabrics 69 feeder, 1734 needle.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

50

M/C Dia(Gauge)

Yarn count

Stitch length in Cm 0.290

Finish G.S.M

CPcm

WPcm

30(18)

30S

140

19.3 1 21.54

14.55

Finish width of fabric in Cm 121.9 2 121.9 2

Fabric Type

30(24)

26S

0.260

170

16.33

Full Feeder Single jersey Full Feeder Single jersey

Table : Particulars of some widely produced single jersey 72 feeder, 1808 needle.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

51

M/C Dia(Gauge)

Yarn count
30S+ 20D

Stitch length in Cm
0.315

Finish CPcm G.S.M


200 18.67

WPcm

Fabric Finish width of Type fabric in Cm 162.56 Full Feeder Lycra Single jersey Half Feeder ly S/J Half Feeder ly S/J Half Feeder ly S/J Full Feeder Lycra Single jersey Full Feeer Lycra Single jersey

30(24)

14.07

30(24) 30(24) 30(24) 30(24)

30S+ 20D 30S+ 20D 30S+ 20D 34S+ 20D

0.310 0.300 0.320 0.308

195 180 190 180

18.07 18.67 17.50 18.18

13.61 14.07 13.19 13.70

165.10 165.10 152.40 142.24

30(28)

30S+ 20D

0.320

210

17.50

13.19

152.40

Table : Particulars of some widely produced single jersey 96 feeder, 2260 needle.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

52

M/C Dia(Gauge)

Yarn count

Stitch length in Cm 0.290

Finish G.S.M

CPcm

WPcm

30(24)

26S

160

19.3 1 20.74

14.55

Finish width of fabric in Cm 127.9 6 195.5 8

Fabric Type

30(24)

26S

0.280

165

15.63

Full Feeder Single jersey Full Feeder Singlej ersey

Table : Particulars of some widely produced single jersey 108 feeder,2712 needle. .

Details of Lycra single jersey fabric


The detail product information about Lycra single jersey fabric was collected from Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given

Table: Particulars of some widely produced Lycra single jersey fabrics

M/C Yarn Dia(Gauge) count

Stitch Finish CPcm WPcm Finish Fabric length G.S.M width Type in Cm of fabric in Cm
0.280 160 20.00 15.07 99.0 6

30(18)

40S+ 20D

Full Feeder Lycra Single jersey

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

53

Table : Particulars of some widely produced Lycra single jersey fabrics 63 feeder,1582 needle.

Details of single Lacost fabric


The detail product information about Lacost was collected from Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given

M/C Yarn Dia(Gauge) count

Stitch length in Cm
0.240

Finish CPcm G.S.M

WPcm

Finish width of fabric in Cm


121.92

20" Dia and 24G). 20" Dia and 24G). 20" Dia and 24G). 20" Dia and 24G).

30S

180

23.33

17.58

30S

0.245

170

22.86

17.22

121.92

30S

0.250

165

22.40

16.88

121.92

26S

0.255

200

21.96

16.55

129.54

Table : Particulars of some widely produced single Lacost fabric 60 feeder,1508 needle.

M/C Yarn Dia(Gauge) count 30(24) 30(24)


26S 26S

Stitch Finish CPcm length G.S.M in Cm


0.255 0.250 180 200 21.96 22.40

WPcm Finish width of fabric in Cm


16.55 16.08 182.88 172.72

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

54

Table : Particulars of some widely produced single Lacost fabrics 84 feeder,2110 needle.

Details of (1x1) Rib


The detail product information about (1x1) Rib was collected from Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given in table:

M/C Yarn Dia(Gauge) count 30(28) 38(28) 30(28)


24S 24S 24S

Stitch Finish CPcm length G.S.M in Cm


0.275 0.270 0.280 235 240 220 20.36 20.74 23.14

WPcm Finish Fabric width of Type fabric in Cm


15.35 15.63 17.44 198.12 198.12 182.88 1*1H.F Rib 1*1H.F Rib 1*1H.F Rib

Table : Particulars of some widely produced for (1x1) Rib fabric (38" Dia and 18G). 68 feeder, 4296 needle.

Details of (1x1) lycra Rib


The detail product information about (1x1) Lycra Rib was collected from Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given

M/C Yarn Dia(Gauge) count

Stitch Finish CPcm length G.S.M in Cm


0.290 0.290 0.310 280 240 240 19.31 19.31 18.07

WPcm

Finish width of fabric in Cm


152.40 137.16 137.16

Fabric Type

(34" Dia and 16G). (34" Dia and 16G). (34" Dia and 16G).

24S+ 30D 30S+ 40D 26S+ 40D

14.55 14.55 13.61

1*1H.F Ly Rib 1*1H.F Ly Rib 1*1H.F Ly Rib 55

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

Table : Particulars of some widely produced for (1x1) Lycra Rib 68 feeder, 3416 needle.

Details of Interlock Fabric


The detail product information about interlock fabric was collected from Anlima textile Ltd. and Micro Fibre Ltd. and is given

M/C Yarn Dia(Gauge) count

Stitch Finish CPcm WPcm Finish Fabric length G.S.M width Type in Cm of fabric in Cm
0.320 180 35.00 26.3 8 152.40 Full Feeder Interlock

30" Dia

40S

and 24G).

Table : Particulars of some widely produced for interlock fabric No. of feeder 96 No. of needle 4520

3.10.
i)

Effect of stitch length on GSM of single jersey knit fabrics:

figure shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM decreases. This is due to the fact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops becomes larger so that both the course/inch and Wales/inch will decrease and the amount yarn in the certain amount of fabric will decrease so that GSM will be lower.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

56

185 180 175 170 165 160

GSM

155 28

Stitch length

28.5

29

29.5

Figure : Effect of Stitch length on GSM (23 Dia, 24G,24S cotton) GSM
155 150 145 140 135 130 125 26 26.5 27 27.5

Stitch length Figure: Effect of Stitch length on GSM (30 Dia, 24G, 30S cotton)

ii)

Effect of Stitch length on GSM of Lycra single jersey fabric

figure shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM increases. This is due to the fact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops size will increase but the tension on

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

57

lycra will also increase so that the fabric shrinkage will be higher as a result the GSM will be higher.

GSM
215 210 205 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 30 Stitch length 31 31.5 32

Figure : Effect of Stitch length on GSM (30 Dia, 24G, 30S+20D cotton

iii)

Effect of Stitch length on GSM of single Lacost

figure shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM decreases. This is due to the fact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops becomes larger so that both the course/inch and Wales/inch will decrease and the amount yarn in the certain amount of fabric will decrease so that GSM will be lower. Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 58

GSM

185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 24 24.5
Stitch length Figure : Effect of Stitch length on GSM (38 Dia, 18G, 24S cotton

25

25.5

iv)

Effect of Stitch length on GSM of (1x1) Rib


Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 59

figure shows that as the stitch length increases the GSM decreases. This is due to the fact that as the stitch length increases the knitted loops becomes larger so that both the course/inch and Wales/inch will decrease and the amount yarn in the certain amount of fabric will decrease so that GSM will be lower.

GSM

260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190


`

27

Stitch length

27.5

28

28.5

Figure: Effect of Stitch length on GSM (20 Dia, 24G, 30S cotton)

v)

Effect of Count on GSM of single jersey fabric


Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 60

figure shows that as the yarn count increases the GSM decreases. This is due to the fact that as the yarn count increases the yarn is finnier and the fabric will be lower weight so that GSM will be lower.

GSM

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 24 26


Count Figure : Effect of Count on GSM (24" Dia, 24G machine and stitch length 27.0)

28

30

3.11 Effect of change of stitch length on GSM


From the table change of GSM for 1 mm change of stitch was calculated and shown in table:- 13 and figure:- 16. It can be seen in the table and graph that GSM is highly Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric. 61

affected by change in stitch length for Rib structure while the effect lowest for single jersey. The effect of Lycra S/J, Lacost and (1x1) Rib is in between. Fabric type Single jersey Lycra single jersey Lacost (1x1) Rib Stitch length in mm 1 1 1 1 GSM 1 1.5 1.67 2.67

GSM
3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 S/jesey Stitch Length Lycra S/J Lacost (1x1) Rib

Figure : Effect of stitch length on GSM for 1mm.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

62

Chapter 04

Discussion of results

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

63

Product development is a very important aspect of export oriented knit production. This is because knit construction is relatively a open structure so that after dyeing and finishing processes the structure changes a lot. Due to the openness of the structure the extent change is relatively high. In the present study we have collected information about development of various types of knit product. The information implies that in order to produce a knit product having certain courses/cm, wales/cm, GSM need to be care from very beginning. Factors that needs to be considered before knitting are (i) gauge, (ii) yarn count, (iii) stitch length etc.. Knit fabric quality is also affected by the take down tension as well. Processes like dyeing, finishing and washing also affect the quality of knit fabric substantially. Therefore the influences of these processes also need to be considered. We have analyzed some of the data and found that in most cases as the stitch length increases the GSM decreases. This is due to the fact that as the stitch length increases the loop becomes larger so that after any wet process they get more space to shrink or contract but with lower loop size the extent of contraction is less. In the case of lycra however the trend is different where the GSM was found to be increases as the stitch length increases. This may be due to the fact at higher loop length of lycra yarn there is greater possibility of shrinking and contraction.

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

64

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

Chapter 05

65

CONCLUSION

Conclusion:
Manufacturing of knitted products will require some developed conception and skill to meet with customer specifications without having too much difficulty. Xisting methods are good but not always reliable. Wrong match with customer specification may result in dangerous consequences. Our target is to find out the easy process to get decision about yarn count selection, loop length selection, machine Diameter selection & machine gauge selection. We strongly think that by

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

66

this process we can get decision about yarn count, loop length, machine gauge, and machine diameter for the single jersey, Rib fabric.

Refarance: 1. Anlima Knit Composite 2. Turag Garments & Hosiery Mils Ltd. 3. http://www.scribd.(project-on-knitted-fabric-parametre) 4. http://www.scribd.com/knitted-fabric-analysis-calculation

Project Report On Product development of Knit fabric.

67