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Will Adams December 14, 2011 CP Biology Chapter 7 Test Important Vocabulary/Concepts - Active Transport: Requires energy in the

the form of ATP; process that moves particles across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. -Passive Transport: Does not require energy; process in which particles move across the cell membrane with the concentration gradient. -Concentration Gradient: The net flow of a substance through the cell membrane. -Protein Channels: Proteins in a cell membrane; allow particles to pass through the cell membrane by facilitated diffusion. -Phospholipid Bilayer: Double-layer of phospholipids that form most cell membranes; contain protein channels, described as a fluid mosaic. -Solution: A mix of fluids with a solvent and at least one solute. -Solute: Substance dissolved within a solvent in a solution. Ex: salt. -Solvent: Base substance of a solution in which solute dissolves within. Ex: water. -Tonicity: Concentration of solute in a solution. -Hypotonic: A solution that has a higher tonicity than the material within the cell is hypotonic. -Hypertonic: A solution that has a lower tonicity than the material within the cell is hypotonic. -Isotonic: A solution that has the same tonicity as the material within the cell is isotonic. -Equilibrium: When molecules are completely diffused, they reach equilibrium. -Diffusion: The process in which particles collide due to constant motion and spread out, eventual to reach equilibrium. -Net flow: The direction in which the majority of particles pass through a selective permeable. -Facilitated Diffusion: Diffusion through protein channels.

-Selective Permeable Membrane: A barrier in which particles, if small enough, can pass through; phospholipid bilayer. -Osmosis: Diffusion involving the use of water. -Endocytosis: Process in which cell folds its membrane around a large particle and engulfs it. -Phagocytosis: Process in which extensions on a cell surround a large particle and engulf it. -Exocytosis: Process in which a cell excretes a large amount of material. -Turger Pressure: Pressure that occurs in a cell in a hypotonic environment. Cell gets larger and exerts turger pressure on the cell wall, causing the cell to become turgid. -Lysis: Process in which a cell is in a hypertonic environment, and the cell eventually breaks apart. -Plasmolosis: Process in which a plant cell is in a hypertonic environment, looses cytoplasm, and shrinks. -Crenation: Process in which an animal cell is in a hypertonic environment, looses cytoplasm, and shrinks. -Prokaryotic Cell: Cell of an organism from the bacteria or archaea kingdoms. -Eukaryotic Cell: Cell of an organism from the animal, plant, or fungi kingdoms. -Nucleus: Organelle in the center of a cell containing genetic information; DNA, RNA. Where ribosomes form. -Nuclear Membrane: Double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus. -Nucleolus: Hard, dense area within the nucleus. -Ribosome: A type of protein found within a cell responsible for assembling amino acids into proteins. -Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Responsible for transporting the proteins formed in the Rough ER. -Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: The area where ribosomes translate mRNA into proteins. -Golgi Apparatus: An organelle found in eukaryotes responsible for packaging proteins to be transported elsewhere.

-Centrioles: Responsible for organizing the microtubules within a cell. -Cilia: Short, hair-like things on the outside of eukaryotes responsible for sensing. -Vacuole: A large organelle found in plant cells that contains waste, such as water. -Chromatin: Material found within the nucleus. -Chromosome: Structures made of coiled DNA found in the nucleus of a cell. -Mitochondrion: Energy-generating organelle, takes part in respiration, and the production of ATP. -Cytoskeleton: Network of protein filaments within some cells that act as a skeleton in helping maintain the cells shape. -Microtubule: Hollow protein tube that helps maintain a cells structure. -Chloroplast: An organelle found within a plant cell that is responsible for photosynthesis. -Lysosome: An organelle found in eukaryotes that break down waste and recycle materials. -Thylakoid Membrane: Membrane within chloroplasts primarily responsible for photosynthesis. -Mesosome: Indents in the cell membrane of prokaryotes that often occur when a prokaryote changes shape. -Cell Wall: A hard, second membrane surrounding plant cells and prokaryotes. Supports cell structure. -Capsule: A layer of material surrounding prokaryotes that helps protect the cell from viruses. -Flagella: Long tubes that stick out of certain cells which help the cells maneuver. -Pili: Small, hair-like things that stick out of prokaryotes. -Plasmid: Fluid found within a Prokaryote. -Photosynthesis: Process plant cells use to gain food/energy by absorbing sunlight. -Respiration: The process used in animal cells to produce energy for the cell.