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Informatics Computer School

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access [WiMAX)

Term: Module: Year: Country:

1 3 2011 Philippines



WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), also known as 802.16, is a network standard developed by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area. In the year 2008,WiMAX goes live! The advantage of this technology is the capability to access video, music, voice, and video calls wherever and whenever desired. Average download speeds are between 2 Mbps and 4 Mbps. By 2011s end, Sprint has approximately 100 million users on its network. Using the WiMAX standard, computers or devices with the appropriate WiMAX wireless capability communicate via radio waves with other computers or devices via a WiMAX tower. The WiMAX tower, which can cover up to a 30-mile radius, connects to the Internet or to another WiMAX tower. Two types of WiMAX specifications are fixed wireless and mobile wireless. With fixed wireless WiMAX, a customer accesses the Internet from a desktop computer at home or other permanent location. Mobile wireless WiMAX, by contrast, enables users to access the WiMAX network with mobile computers and mobile devices such as smart phones. Fixed wireless WiMAX has data transfer rates up to 40 Mbps, while mobile wireless WiMAX has data transfer rates up to 15 Mbps. The WiMAX standard provides wireless broadband Internet access at a reasonable cost over long distances to business and home users, including rural and remote areas. WiMAX, similar to Wi-Fi, connects mobile users to the Internet via hot spots. Many computers and mobile devices such as smart phones have built-in WiMAX capability. Some game consoles also support the WiMAX standard.



In the mid 1990's, telecommunication companies developed the idea to use fixed broadband networks for potential last mile solutions to provide an alternate. Means that it needs to deliver Internet connectivity to businesses and individuals. Their aim was to produce a network with the speed, capacity, and reliability of a hardwired network, while maintaining with the flexibility, simplicity, and low costs of a wireless network. This technology would also act as a versatile system for corporate or institutional backhaul distribution networks and would attempt to compete with the leading Internet carriers. The huge potential for this flexible, low cost network generated much attention to two types of fixed wireless broadband technologies: Local Multipoint Distribution Services (LMDS) and Multi-channel Multipoint Distribution Services (MMDS). LMDS was primarily intended to speed up and bridge Metropolitan Area Networks in larger corporations and on University campuses. MMDS was meant to provide a means for local television network distribution and for residential broadband services. However, the high costs, lack of standards, and fear of vendor lock-in prevented LMDS from taking off early on. As a result, in 1999 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) devised the 802.16 standard for LMDS. WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and it is based on standards. The definition according to WiMAX technology forum, an organization dedicated to promoting WiMAX technology and specifications, According to WiMAX forum "WiMAX is a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL. WiMAX Technology will provide fixed, nomadic, portable, and, eventually, mobile wireless broadband connectivity without the need for directs line-of-sight to a base station. In a typical cell radius deployment of 3 to 10 kilometers, WiMAX Forum Certified systems can be expected to deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access applications." The capability to provide multiple channels at 40 Mbps for cell sizes from 3 to 10 kilometers is well above what can be accomplished with standard 801.llg or 802.lla wireless point-to-point. In addition, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) features of some WiMAX technology provide the possibility for better coverage in wooded or congested areas. This standard, which was eventually released in 2001, operated on a point-to-point radio link network by means of line of sight transmissions, and had a frequency range of 10 GHz to 66 GHz. However, since this standard was modeled off of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technology and had

restricted capabilities, developers focused more exclusively on the 802.16 standard that functioned in the range of 2 GHz to 11 GHz. In 2001, the WiMAX Forum was established with the agenda to market and promote the 802.16 standard. There they coined the term WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access). In 2003 the IEEE came out with 802.16a, which transmitted data through non-line of sight radio channels to and from Omni-directional antennas. Later on, in 2004, the 802.16-2004 standardswas released. This standard combined the updates from the IEEE 802.16a, 802.16b, and 802.16c regulations. This broadband system extended the WiMAX service to a 30-mile range and had the ability to disperse its network between hundreds of terminals. Yet the IEEE did not stop there. In 2005, they came out with the first Mobile WiMAX system: 802.16e. This version used a Scalable Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (SOFDMA) engine, which supported over 2,000 subcarriers, optimized handover delay and packet loss, and increased network security. The IEEE continues to update and modify the WiMAX system specifications to further improve its capabilities. They have made a push to publish their next major 802.16 standard named 802.16m. One of the goals for this version is to increase data speeds to 1Gbps. IEEE also looks ahead to approve and deploy the 802.20 standard in the near future, which has dubbed the nickname Mobile-Fi. Many WiMAX Forum certified products for fixed and nomadic applications are currently commercially available and are constantly being developed. It is then no wonder why WiMAX is a leader of emerging wireless standards and continues to write its own history.

WiMAX Standardization History The current WiMAX incarnation, Mobile WiMAX, is based upon IEEE Std 802.16e-2005 which was approved in December 2005. Another version of draft called IEEE Std 802.16-2004 addresses only fixed systems. IEEE 802.16e-2005 improves upon IEEE 802.16-2004 by: Adding support for mobility (hard handover between base stations). This is seen as one of the most important aspects of 802.16e-2005, and is the very basis of Mobile WiMAX. Scaling of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the channel bandwidth in order to keep the carrier spacing constant across different channel bandwidths (typically 1.25 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz or 20 MHz). Constant

carrier spacing results in higher spectrum efficiency in wide channels, and a cost reduction in narrow channels. Advanced antenna diversity schemes, and hybrid automatic repeatrequest (HARQ) Adaptive Antenna Systems (AAS) and MIMO technology Introduction of sub-channelization, thereby improving indoor penetration Introducing Turbo Coding Adding an extra QoS class for VoIP applications.

Recently another amendment to 802.16e-2005 was ratified with name 802.16e-2009 and following MAC/PHY features were amended; H-FDD frame structure for FDD support Persistent allocation (to enhance VOIP capacity) ARQ enhancement ertPS enhancement Handover enhancement Idle mode enhancement MBS enhancement

* Significant Years: 1999 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) devised the 802.16 standard for LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Services) 2000 WiMAX is the standards based technology that was developed 2001 (April)WiMAX Forum was established with the agenda to market and promote the 802.16 standard. There they coined the term WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) April 8, 2002 802.16 standard was first available 2003 The IEEE came out with 802.16a, which transmitted data through non-line of sight radio channels to and from Omni-directional antennas 2004 WiMAX technology becomes progressively more discussed. Although initially designed as a fixed WiMAX technology, it was being conformed in the standards to develop into a mobile technology also known as IEEE 802.16e The 802.16-2004 standards was released Leapfrogging cables and DSL technologies used to fetch wireless broadband access to rural areas

Wireless Broadband (WiBro) Phase 1; it is a wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) standard initially built by the Telecommunication Technology Association (TTA) of South Korea is approved. January, 2005 at a WiMAX conference called WiMAX: beyond the Hype, Gordon Antonello clearly stated that There are no WiMAX networks today. There are no WiMAX form certified products available today. WiMAX Forum certified testing will begin later this year in 2005. Vendors are shipping pre-WiMAX products today.

2005 IEEE came out with the first Mobile WiMAX system: 802.16e. This version used a Scalable Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (SOFDMA) engine, which supported over 2,000 subcarriers, optimized handover delay and packet loss, and increased network security 2008 Fixed WiMAX technology introduced The year of WiMAX by Intel 2009 WiMAX technology widely spread in all over the world Almost 600 WiMAX deployments in USA

*WiMAX is improving with IEEE 802.16m mobile WiMAX standard which is called WiMAX 2. Well Known business leaders make known proposal to speed up WiMAX 2 Technology Solutions built upon IEEE 802.16m. WiMAX 2 Technology is in the final stage of approval and WiMAX 2 technology may be beginning in 2011 and possibly commercialized or deployed in 2012.


Content A. Types of Technology The WiMAX family of standards (802.16) concentrates on two types of usage models a Fixed WiMAX usage model and a Mobile WiMAX usage model. The basic element that differentiates these systems is the ground speed at which the systems are designed to manage. Based on mobility, wireless access systems are designed to operate on the move without any disruption of service; wireless access can be divided into three classes; stationary, pedestrian and vehicular. A mobile WiMAX network access system is one that can address the vehicular class, whereas the fixedWiMAX serves the stationary and pedestrian classes. This raises a question about the nomadic wireless access system, which is referred to as a system that works as a fixed WiMAX network access system but can change its location. a. Fixed WiMAX (802.16d) 802.16d was developed for the sole purpose of linking the last mile to the home or enterprise that has long been the gap between broadband Internet haves and have not. Broadband service and consumer usage of fixed WiMAX access is expected to reflect that of fixed wire-line service, with many of the standardsbased requirements being confined to the air interface. Because communications takes place via wireless links from WiMAX Customer Premise Equipment (WiMAX CPE) to a remote Non Line-of-sight (NLOS) WiMAX base station, requirements for link security are greater than those needed for a wireless service. The security mechanisms within the IEEE 802.16 standards are sufficient for fixed WiMAXaccess service. Another challenge for the fixed WiMAX access air interface is the need to set up high performance radio links capable of data rates comparable to wired broadband service, using equipment that can be self installed indoors by users, as is the case for Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems. IEEE 802.16 standards provide advanced physical (PHY)

layer techniques to achieve link margins capable of supporting high throughput in NLOS environments. b. Mobile WiMAX (802.16e) 802.16e was developed to compete with existing cellular solutions and to expand mobile voice services by adding high-speed mobile data services. Where the cellular industry started with voice and is adding data service, 802.16e started with data and is attempting to add voice. The 802.16a extension, refined in January 2003, uses a lower frequency of 2 to 11 GHz, enabling NLOS connections. The latest 802.16e task group is capitalizing on the new capabilities this provides by working on developing a specification to enable mobile WiMAX clients. These clients will be able to hand off between WiMAX base stations, enabling users to roam between service areas.

Fixed WiMAX

Mobile WiMAX

B. Architecture

The IEEE 802.16e-2005 standard provides the air interface for WiMAX but does not define the full end-to-end WiMAX network. The WiMAX Forum's Network Working Group (NWG), is responsible for developing the end-to-end network requirements, architecture, and protocols for WiMAX, using IEEE 802.16e-2005 as the air interface. The WiMAX NWG has developed a network reference model to serve as an architecture framework for WiMAX deployments and to ensure interoperability among various WiMAX equipment and operators. The network reference model envisions a unified network architecture for supporting fixed, nomadic, and mobile deployments and is based on an IP service model. Below is simplified illustration of an IP-based WiMAX network architecture. The overall network may be logically divided into three parts: 1. Mobile Stations (MS) used by the end user to access the network. 2. The access service network (ASN), which comprises one or more base stations and one or more ASN gateways that form the radio access network at the edge. 3. Connectivity service network (CSN), which provides IP connectivity and all the IP core network functions. The network reference model developed by the WiMAX Forum NWG defines a number of functional entities and interfaces between those entities. Fig below shows some of the more important functional entities.

Base station (BS): The BS is responsible for providing the air interface to the MS. Additional functions that may be part of the BS are micromobility management functions, such as handoff triggering and tunnel establishment, radio resource management, QoS policy enforcement, traffic classification, DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) proxy, key management, session management, and multicast group management. Access service network gateway (ASN-GW): The ASN gateway typically acts as a layer 2 traffic aggregation point within an ASN. Additional functions that may be part of the ASN gateway include intraASN location management and paging, radio resource management and admission control, caching of subscriber profiles and encryption keys, AAA client functionality, establishment and management of mobility tunnel with base stations, QoS and policy enforcement, foreign agent functionality for mobile IP, and routing to the selected CSN. Connectivity service network (CSN): The CSN provides connectivity to the Internet, ASP, other public networks, and corporate networks. The CSN is owned by the NSP and includes AAA servers that support authentication for the devices, users, and specific services. The CSN also provides per user policy management of QoS and security. The

CSN is also responsible for IP address management, support for roaming between different NSPs, location management between ASNs, and mobility and roaming between ASNs.

The WiMAX architecture framework allows for the flexible decomposition and/or combination of functional entities when building the physical entities. For example, the ASN may be decomposed into base station transceivers (BST), base station controllers (BSC), and an ASNGW analogous to the GSM model of BTS, BSC, and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN).

WiMAX Network Typically, one base station can connect to several other base stations by microwave links at high speed. This connection is called backhaul and it allows the existence of WiMAX roaming by maintaining connections on move.

WiMAX vs Wi-Fi

The WiMAX provides high-speed Internet access on a radius around 50 kilometers. The technology doesnt require the receivers to be in a direct line of sight (LOS) with the base station. This is usually called NLOS (Non Line Of Sight). Except the small barriers (like houses, trees), the WiMAX is not capable to bypass hills or large buildings without a significant decrease in the speed. WiMAX provides high-speed connections without the need for cables, so it is a good alternative to classical cable or DSL access. Also, WiMAX is suitable to for the so called last mile areas that are not covered by normal wired technologies. WiMAX allows the existence of Metro Zones having portable outdoor wireless access. While, Wi-Fi only work on Line-ofSigth.

C. Devices Used in WiMAX a. Wimax Equipments WimaxEquipments are not well known because there are very limited subscriber demands for Wimax Products and equipments. Most Wimaxequipments are installed with Wimax Technology chip which are certified by Wimax forum. Wimax forum is leading the way in support and setting standards in WiMAX technology and its deployment. There are many wimax products and equipments available in market with limitations. The necessary equipments required for Wimax Technology consist of Wimax base stations, Wimax receiver, Wimax antenna, and Wimax backhaul. b. WiMAX Base Station Wimax base station consists of indoor Wimaxequipments and a wimax tower. The common range of Wimax base station is up to 10km radius, while a base station can cover 50km or 30miles but in practice it is 10km and 6 miles only .Any node inside the coverage area would be capable to access the internet. Wimax base station work as a media access control layer and allocate uploading and downloading bandwidth according to the subscriber requirements. c. WiMAX receiver The Wimax receiver is a stand alone box or PCMCIA cards which is located in your computer or laptop. It is also called customer promise equipments. d. WiMAX Antenna Wimax antenna is also a standalone box and sits in your laptop or computer.Wimax antenna is just like a WiFi network but the coverage area of wimax is much larger than WiFi wireless network. Wimax antenna used to get better the signal strength of wimax user from base station. The Wimaxs external antenna mostly required in dense areas and high, mountain areas. Wimax antenna connected with the indoor unit via wire to make stronger signals. e. Wimax Backhaul Wimax backhaul is in fact a link system from the access point. It is used to connect system to the backbone. You can connect numerous base stations with one another with the high speed backhaul microwave links. A backhaul allow Wimax user for roaming from one base station to another base station just like a cellular phone.


Description This device is indoor wireless subscriber access product which is designed on protocol IEEE 802.612004 standards. This device compatible to MPM equipment PMP is point Multipoint. Device has multiple Ethernet ports interface including (VoIP). SUI have LED installed on its front side which shows the strength of the signals. This is third generation device (3G). SUI uses technology called Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) technology enables handling rural and urban obstacles like trees, building even mountains to keep the connection to the link WiMAX This external antenna is used to External improve the signal strengths of antenna WiMax subscribers from base station. WiMax external antennas are mostly required when subscriber is located in middle of populated or dense area; it can also be used where high mountains, and tree creates obstacles within base station and subscriber location. Antenna is connected with wire to indoor subscriber unit SUI to strengthened the signals Outdoor This outdoor subscriber unit (SU-O) Subscriber Unit works exactly like SUI. The only (SU-O) different this product is its outdoor usability. It forms connection to WiMax base station to provide broadband access to WiMax subscriber. Its way of functionality is no different than SUI. WiMAX This device works and base station Certified Base for WiMax, it is easy to install and Station very cost effective for deployment. Its low latency makes sure that it provide delivery of good quality and sensitive services, including voice traffic, voice over ip (VoIP), video and data traffic.An-100 designed architecture assures over-the-air facility with help

Name WiMAX indoor subscriber unit(SUI)

of software. It also has dynamic ability of on-the-fly services.

D. Application of WiMAX Wimax network provides the ability for service provider to deploy new era broadband service.Wimax applications are most effective than today. It provides a broad customer base, while adding up a mobility feature to those services. Wimax technology applications are a mean of service providers to present data, video, voice, mobile and internet access. There are various benefits of Wimax technology such as it provides simple based prospective cost saving and service efficiency but to be capable to allow VoIP calling, mobile devices, video making and high speed data transfer a. Connectivity for SMBs Most effective application by Wimax is SMBs which mean the small to medium-sized businesses. Due to Wimax technology the small or medium sized business progressing day by day because Wimax technology offer a connectivity which attract clients and facilitate them with various types of services like hotspot etc. Therefore a lot of regional applicant entered into the broadband internet access and spotlight on this application. b. WiMAX Backhaul The range is the most important application of Wimax Technology because a single tower of Wimax can connect other wimax towers by means of a line-of-sight also known as microwave link. The connectivity of one tower to another tower referred to as a backhaul. A backhaul have the ability to cover up 3,000 miles because Wimax network offer coverage to rural areas or remote areas. c. Nomadic Broadband WiMAX Technology next application is Nomadic Broadband which is under the marvelous plan of WiFi. There are lots of medium or small business companies that might pay for the base station of wimax in key areas for the development of business and commerce. These business companies permit of facilitate their clients to use them for free. WiFi also rolled out for similar aims but WiMAX offer enhanced Quality of Service. Wimax Technology provide less access point but very high security. MAN (Metropolitan area network) a wireless access could supply a solid draw when business leaders attempt to catch the attention of businesses to their region. d. Broadband for Developing Countries There are many countries such as Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe are likely to achieve the most from the fixed wide area wireless networking technology. The analyst of West Technology Research Solutions the developing countries have limited cable transportation, because the expenditure to install a WiMax station in

concurrence with an accessible cellular tower or yet as a private hub will be very small in contrast to developing a wired solution. At the start, computers will require extraordinary add-on WiMax PC cards. Though, Intel is preparation to put WiMax into its Centrino chips. On the whole WiFi and WiMax is becoming the same thing with the option to depend on your preference that which network you connected to. e. Private Networks Mostly small and medium sized business man pay Wimax to get access but big companies having large campuses may finally deploy and control their own WIMAX networks. Such private networks are expected to be the very last WIMAX application. All private networks, Roaming broadband of developing countries are emphasizing the logical position of WIMAX as the wireless technology for the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The Voice over IP is the logic behind the design of Wimax technology and may be could further force both business and residential clients from customary mobile operators and copper wire f. Data and networks Wimax network is offering a network which meets your todays and future need. The cabling system of wimax network are appropriately planned, managed and installed. It provides accurate proficiency in telecommunications and latest technology of hub and routers to get best result during broadcasting. Wimax services make available a customized network for home, business and others. g. CCTV Surveillance Wimax network is allowing various types of devices to communicate. Wimax Servicesfacilitate you with security cameras through which you can secure your business such as colleges, school, offices, shopping mall, jewelry shops, mobile shops etc. Wimax services also providing time lapse security recorder for your home or business security, spy security cameraswhich can protect you from spy, nanny cam, monitors and other equipments through which you can secure your home or any type of business without any fear of theft and make confident about security conditions. h. Home Automation Wimax services offering home automations such as home theatre technology which enable you to get full cinema experience with plasma screen, high quality sound, best quality DVD player and recorder, Through Wimax services you can enjoy long time fun with music, TV cable, and FM radio. Wimax services offering a well design system, wiring installment etc according to client needs and requirements. i. Access Control

The Access control system presented by Wimax services permit the flow of personal data into a site and encrypted unwanted visitors to save your data. Wimax services are providing a range of access control system such as pin codes, swipe card and proxy readers. The CCTV, time and attendance records offered by Wimax services can be incorporated into other systems in the building. j. Intercoms The intercom systems for Wimax services permit inhabitants to speak via a call station with visitor. Intercom systems linked to an internal unit within a handset and control functions. After confirmation of visit the host may allow the visitor to enter home by releasing electronic door. The use of intercom is increasing with the passage of time in big hotels, restaurants, educational institute, collages, universities etc and it is only possible by Wimax services. k. Security Security is such a considerable Wimax service which provides full security with well thought-outwiring for telephone, video, and LAN. It is possible via home theatre and multi room audio. It also provides advanced lighting control via build up system. The other services are control of blinds, flow of water, air conditioning, keyless entry and security, exhaust fans, ceiling fans, and lots of other electric devices from touch screens. The fire alarm, smoke, and heating system, utility bills, and other multimedia equipments are great services provided by Wimax


Security of WiMAX Wireless systems always make some people worried when speaking of security. After all, every wireless system broadcasts, by definition, everything youre doing on the network to the world or at least the part of the world within range. Security is an important consideration in anycommunication system design but is particularly so in wireless communication systems. The fact that connection can be established in a loosen fashion makes it easier to intrude in an ordinary and undetectable manner than is the case for wired access. Further, the sharedwireless medium is often perceived by the general public to be somewhat less secure than its wired counterpart. Therefore, a robust level of security must be built into the design of wirelesssystems. From the point of view of an end user, the primary wimax security concerns are privacy and data integrity. Users need assurance that no one can eavesdrop on their sessions and that the data sent across the communication link is not tampered. This is usually achieved through the use of wimax network encryption. From the service providers point of view, an important WiMAX security consideration is preventing unauthorized use of the network services. This is usually done using strong authentication and access control methods. Authentication and access control can be implemented at various levels of the network such as the physical layer, and the privacy sub layer. The service providers need to prevent fraud should be balanced against the inconvenience that it may impose on the user. A. Authentication An important and creative feature incorporated in 802.16 network is that each SS, (subscriber station) must have X.509 certificate, this certificate will identify the subscriber uniquely, attackers will not be able to get into the legitimate subscribers list by spoofing their identity because of X.509 certificate. X.509 hence provides enough security against major threats to services. However, lacking in base stations and service provider authentication leaves a big loop whole in the authentication mechanism used by WiMax privacy and key management (PKM), this expose WiMax subscribers to different confidentiality and availability attacks by unauthorized users. To protect from such vulnerability, amendments where made in 802.16 standards. Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) was introduced in 802.16e. B. Encryption Introduction of 802.16e and support for the AES provide the strong support of confidentially of data traffic. 802.16 has same issue just like 802.11 management frames are not encrypted, that increases the chances

for attackers or intruders to collect information about subscribers and network. Encryption in WiMAX Technology involves taking a stream or block of data to be protected, called plain text, and using another stream or block of data, called the encryption key, to perform a reversible mathematical operation to generate a ciphertext. The ciphertext is unintelligible and hence can be sent across the network without fear of being eavesdropped. C. Availability WiMAX uses licensed Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum, which provides protection from unauthorized access to some extent. There are tools available which are easy to use for jamming the spectrum from all planned WiMAX deployments. Along with physical layer denial of service attacks, intruders can use legacy management frames to disconnect the current legitimate network connections. D. WiMAX Threats With all efforts to make WiMAX a very secure technology, there are still several potential attacks which are threats to WiMAX usabilit few of them are DOS attacks, Rogue Base Stations, Man in the middle attacks, spoofing of management frames etc. The actual testing of WiMAX security will come into play when WiMAX provider begins wide scale network deployment. This will give attackers good chance and better exposure to manipulate the network security, and access CPE equipment. Until the proper deployment of WiMax technology, Security issues are just speculations. a. Rouge Base Station A rogue base station is an attacker station that duplicates a legitimate base station. The rogue base station puzzles a set of subscribers trying to get service through what they believe to be a legitimate base station. It may result in long disturbance of service. The exact method of attack depends on the type of network. In a WiFi network, which is carrier sense multiple access, the attacker has to capture the identity of a legitimate access point. Then it builds frames using the legitimate access point's identity. It then injects the crafted messages when the medium is available. In a WiMax network, this is more difficult to do because WiMax uses time division multiple access. The attacker must transmit while the rogue base station is transmitting b. Threat of Identity Theft In WiMAX Another major threat to WiMax is Identity Theft; this method includes reprogramming of a device with the hardware

address of another device. The address can be stolen over the air by interrupting management messages. A rogue Base Station (BS) is an attacker station which act as a genuine Base Station (BS). It confuses a set of Subscriber Stations or MobileStations when attempting to get service through what they believe being a genuine BaseStation (BS). It is complicated in WiMax networks because of time division multiple access (TDMA) model. In this case, the attacker must transmit while the real Base Station (BS) is transmitting, with more signal strength and place the real Base Station (BS)s signal in the background, additionally attacker has to capture the identity and wait until a time slot of genuine Base Station (BS) starts transmitting the data.

c. Physical Layer Threats to Wimax Technology Privacy Sub-layer resides on the top of Physical layer in IEEE 802.16 standard, therefore,Wimax networks are open to to physical layer attacks for example, blocking and rushing. Blocking is done by activating a source of strong noise to significantly lowering the capacity of the channel, therefore denying services (DoS) to all stations. d. Application Layer Threats to WiMAX Technology Software based threat management and secure access solutions will be as essential as ever, with a typical security infrastructure comprising components such as firewalls, virtual private networking (VPN), Internet key exchange (IKE) tunnelling, and intrusion prevention systems (IPS), each of which reside at the application layer of WiMAX Infrastructure . e. Data Link Layer Threats to WiMAX In a typical Wi-Fi mechanism, a digital subscriber line (DSL) feeds a packet-ized bit stream into a modem or access point, which in turn broadcasts a radio signal; often encrypted to Wi-Fi enabled clients that de-packet this data into information. In a WiMAX installation, a fixed wireless base station, similar in concept to a cell phone tower, serves an always-on radio signal directly accessible by WiMAX enabled clients, with no need for leased lines or an intermediateaccess point.



WiMAX is the most important of the host of wireless standards emerging from the IEEE and 3G bodies. Its impact will owe much to Wi-Fi, which has created the interest in and market acceptance of wireless networking to enable WiMAX to flourish in the mainstream, not least by attracting Intel into the sector. But its effect on the world of business and consumer internet and wireless access will be far more profound. Within five years, we expect WiMAX to be the dominant technology for wireless networking. By that time it will be fully mobile as well as providing low cost fixed broadband access that will open up regions where internet access has so far not been practical. As the cellular operators move to IP-based fourth generation systems, they will embrace WiMAX as they are doing with the far more limited Wi-Fi. WiMAX will be the catalyst for a shakeout of operators, with some of the small independents falling to the large players, still hunting for a more profitable revenue stream than 3G. Strengths WiMAX Technology is facing many hurdles in market while it has some great advantages which make it a technology of todays. a. WiMAX Coverage The single station of WiMAX can operate and provide coverage for hundred of users at a time and manage sending and receiving of data at very high speed with full of network security. b. WiMAX High Speed The High speed of connectivity over long distance and high speed voice makes it more demanded in hardly populated areas plus compacted areas. c. Multi-functionality within WiMAX Technology WiMAX Technology perform a variety of task at a time such as offering high speed internet, providing telephone service, transformation of data, video streaming, voice application etc. d. Potential and development WiMAX Technology is a great invention for new Era because WiMAX has enough potential for developing and opportunity to offer various types of services for new generation. Now you can connect internet anywhere and browse any site and make possible online conference with mobile internet, multimedia application never let you bored, IPTV stay you up to date etc.

e. Stay in touch with end user WiMAX network always keep stay in touch with your friends and all others using same Wimax network because it provide absolute communication service to the end users to make possible rich communications. f. WiMAX Infrastructure WiMAX infrastructure is very easy and flexible therefore it provides maximum reliability of network and consent to actual access to end users. g. WiMAX, cheap network WiMAX is a well known wireless network now days because it provide a low cost network substitute to internet services offered via ADSL, modem or local area network. h. WiMAX Rich Features WiMAX Technology is offering rich features which make it useful. WiMAX offers separate voice and data channel for fun, the semantic connection make your network more secure than before, fast connectively, license spectrum, liberty of movement etc. i. WiMAX and Wi-Fi The WiMAX network providing much higher speed and very long range as compared to Wi-FiTechnology. j. Smart antenna and Mesh Topology The use of smart antenna in WiMAX network offering high quality widest array which enable you to make possible communication on long route without any encryption. It offers 2.3, 2.7, 3.3, 3.8GHz frequency ranges. The use of Mesh topology in WiMAX network for the expansion is an extensive spectrum of antennas for commercial as well as for residential users. k. Ultra wide Band The unique and excellent infrastructure of WiMAX is offering UltraWideband. Its exclusive design is providing range from 2 to 10 GHz and outstanding time response. l. Homeland Security Security options of WiMAX Technology also offer very high security because of encryption system used by WiMAX. The WiMAX is providing exclusive homeland security. Now you can exchange your data on whole network without any fear of losing data. m. Lack of history

The best advantage of WiMAX vendor technology is lack of history within mobile industry for protection. WiMAX push the existing technologies and forward on steady stream. Only Wimax technology offers first major mobile standard to all mobile broadband infrastructures. It is a foremost mobile transporter. WiMAX technology support both wireless and wired network including cable operator which are now successful due to core networks of WiMAX. *In short WiMAX have great advantages such as it has ability to perform an exclusive list of services over a single station. WiMAX decrease in operating and capital expenditure. The development of application is often a competitive edge.

Weaknesses WiMAX technology was designed to compete with remote locations that presently employs satellite for internet connectivity. WiMAX technology can operate on both licensed and non licensed frequencies. WiMAX Technology is powerful mobile technology but is facing some disadvantages. a. Lack of Quality The WiMAX network has lack of quality service because there are hundreds of people trying to get access at the same tower so due to heavy traffic it is very hard to maintain high quality. b. WiMAX range The other disadvantage of WiMAX network is range. As WiMAX offer 70Mbps in range with moving station but in practice it is quite different because it is possible only in specify or ideal circumstances. If a user staying away from the specified environment then speed can drop considerably. c. WiMAX Bandwidth Like other network Bandwidth is collective amongst clients in a specified zone. But if there are a lot of users in one area the speed decreases which may be 2 to 10 Mbps of shared bandwidth. d. Installation Cost The most disadvantage of WiMAX is its installation and operational cost. Due to heavy structure, tower, antennas etc makes the WiMAX network collectively high cost network. e. Bad Weather

The quality of services decreases in rainy season because the weather condition could interrupt the signal which may cause of bad signal and broadcasting may be stop or interrupted. f. Wireless equipments If you are trying to use much wireless equipment at a time within WiMAX network then these equipments may cause of interference and could interfere your broadcasting data or face some compromised speed. g. Power consuming WiMAX network is very heavy in structure therefore need much electrical support for running the overall network. h. Data Rate The data rate of WiMAX as compared to other network such as fiber optics, satellite, cables etc are very slow.


Bibliography Discovering Computers 2011- Living in a Digital World Complete