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# Molar Math I. Avogadro's Number The Mole II. AMU and Molar Mass A. AMU 1. Atomic Mass B.

. Molar Mass 1. GAM 2. GMM 3. GFM III. Molar Volume of a gas IV. Calculation Circle V. % Composition VI. Formulas A. Empirical B. Molecular C. Molecular / Empirical Ratios VII. Empirical Formula from % Composition VIII. Density of a gas

Molar Math I. The Mole A. Avogadro's number = 1 Mole = 6.02x1023 Amedeo Avogadro pic (1) How big is this number? 88.5 trillion times the population of the Earth 1 mole of pennies would pay all the expenses of the US for the next billion years. 1 mole of sand would cover the US 1cm thick. Why is the mole so large?

B. Practice: a. 1 mole = 6.02x1023 b. 1/4 mole = c. 1/2 mole = d. 2 moles = e. 4 moles = f. 10 moles =

II. AMU and Molar MassA. Definition - the standardized mass used to mass atoms Equal to 1/12 the mass of C12 isotope B. Determination 1. Chemists use a mass spectrometer to determine the relative masses and abundance of atoms (isotopes). a. The masses of atoms are in a ratio to each other: C - 12 amu , He - 4 amu, H - 1 amu b. It follows then that 12g C, 4g He and 1g H all have the same number of

particles. What is the number of particles associated with these gram masses?

3. FORMULA

II. Molar Mass - the mass in grams of 1 mole of ..... A. Gram Atomic Mass (gam)- the mass in grams of 1 mole of atoms - (I count any decimals between .2 and .8 in atomic mass, everything else is rounded to nearest whole #) 1. gam H = 1 g/mol 2. gam C = 12 g/mol 3. gam O = 16 g/mol 4. gam N = 14 g/mol 5. gam Na = 23 g/mol 6. gam Cl = 35.5 g/mol

B. Gram Molecular Mass (gmm)- the mass in grams of 1 mole of molecules (simply add up all atomic masses in the molecule) 1. gmm Hydrogen , H2 = 2g/mol 2. gmm O2 = 32 g/mol 3. gmm Cl2 = 71 g/mol 4. gmm = He = 4 g/mol 5. gmm H2O = 18 g/mol 6. gmm NH3 = 17 g/mol 7. gmm CO2 = 44 g/mol 8. gmm C6H12O6 = 180 g/mol C. Gram Formula Mass (gfm)- the mass in grams of 1 mole of formula units(ionic) 1. NaCl = 58.5 g/mol 2. CaCO3 = 100 g/mol 3. NH4NO3 = 80 g/mol

## 58.5 g NaCl, 90 g C6H12O6, 4 g He, 48 g H2O

III. Molar Volume of a Gas A. One mole of any gas at STP occupies 22.4 L. 1. why? Gases are composed of molecules that are extremely far apart from each other (in relation to their size) therefore the volume of the molecules is negligible compared to the volume of the overall gas.

B. Practice: 1. 1 mol Cl2(g) = _____ L 2. .5 mol H2O(g) = _____ L 3. 3 moles NH3(g) = _____ L 4. 33.6 L He(g) = ______ mol 5. 2.2L O2(g) = _____ mol

## A. multiply going out, divide going in!

V. % Composition -

The percent composition by mass of any constituents is calculated using the following formula:

## % Comp = (mass part / mass whole) x 100

A. Examples: 1. % O in H2O = (16g/mol / 18 g/mol) x 100 = 88.9% O % H in H2O = (2g/mol / 18 g/mol) x 100 = 11.19% H 2. % Cu in CuSO4 = (63.5g/mol / 159.5g/mol) x 100= 39.8% Cu % S in CuSO4 = (32g/mol / 159.5g/mol) x 100= 20.1% S % O in CuSO4 = (4(16g/mol) / 159.5g/mol) x 100= 40.1% O

B. Practice: 1. % H2O in MgCl2 . 3H20 2. % C, %H, %O in C2H5OH 3. %O in iron III dichromate tetrahydrate

VI. Formula Varieties A. Empirical Formula: A formula written in lowest terms (lowest whole number ratio)

Examples: 1. H2O 2. NH3 3. CO2 4. NaCl 5. C6H12O6 - CH2O C3H15O9 - CH5O3 H2O2 - HO

B. Molecular Formula: The formula of a substance as it exists in nature. (contains all atoms in the molecule/cmpd) 1. C6H12O6 2. C6H6 3. H2O2 4. H2O 5. NH3 C. Molecular / Empirical Ratios The molecular formula is always some multiple of the empirical formula.

## Molecular Formula = (Empirical Formula)x

1. Steps to take: a. Determine molar mass of the empirical formula. b. Divide molecular mass / empirical mass to determine ratio! c. Then, multiply empirical formula by ratio factor to derive molecular formula. 2.
Example:

a. The empirical formula is P2O5. Experiments have determined the formula mass to be 283.889g/mol. What is the molecular formula? What is it's name? Step 1 - molar mass of P2O5= 137g/mol Step 2 - Determine Ratio: x empirical formula Step 3 - Multiply through: 3. Practice: a. The empirical formula is CH, the molecuar mass is 78.110 g/mol. Determine the molecular formula. 2(P2O5) = P4O10
tetraphosphorus decoxide

## 283.889 g/mol / 137 g/mol = 2.07 or molecular formula = 2

VII. Empirical Formulas from % Composition A. Steps to Solve: 1. turn % to grams (assume 100 gram sample) 2. convert grams to moles 3. determine ratio of atoms by dividing large # by small # 4. if ratio is not whole # multiply by 2 B. Examples: 1. A sample is 50.0% Sulfur and 50.0%Oxygen by mass. Determine its empirical formula. a.) First turn % to grams 50.0g S 50. 0g O b.) Second, turn grams to moles: 50.0g S / 32.1g/mol = 1.66 mol S 50.0g O / 16.0g/mol = 3.125 mol O c. Third, find the ratio or the moles of each element by dividing the number of moles of each by the smallest number of moles. 3.125 mol O / 1 66 mol S EMPIRICAL FORMULA = SO2 = 2 mol O / 1 mol S

2. Find the empirical formula of a compound that is 43.90% carbon, 7.32% hydrogen, and 48.78% oxygen by mass. a. First turn % to grams b. Second, turn grams to moles: (43.90 g C) (1 mol/ 12.0 g C) = 3.66 mol C (7.32 g H) (1 mol/ 1.0 g H) = 7.32 mol H (48.78 g O) (1 mol/ 16.0 g O) = 3.05 mol O c. Third, find the ratio or the moles of each element by dividing the number of moles of each by the smallest number of moles. (3.05 mol O/ 3.05) = 1 mol O

(3.66 mol C/ 3.05) = 1.2 mol C (7.32 mol H/ 3.05) = 2.4 mol H d. Lastly, multiply until you reach lowest whole numbers. (1 mol O) (5) = 5 mol O (1.2 mol C) (5) = 6 mol C (2.4 mol H) (5) = 12 mol H

## EMPIRICAL FORMULA = C6H12O5

3. A compound has the following mass% composition. Determine the empirical formula if Hg:91.3% and F:8.65%. a. First turn % to grams b. Second, turn grams to moles: Hg: 91.3/200.59=0.4552 mol F: 8.65/18.9984=0.4553 mol c. Third, find the ratio or the moles of each element by dividing the number of moles of each by the smallest number of moles. Since they are both the same it is clearly a 1:1 ratio, therefore the empirical formula is:

HgF
Practice: a. A sample is 35. 93% N and 74.-7% O by mass. Determine its empirical formula. b. A sample contains 0.44 g H and 6.92 g O. If its molecular mass = 34.00 g/mol what is it's molecular formula?

C. Practice problems: click here VIII. Density of a gas By knowing the molar mass and molar volume of a gas (at STP) it is possible to determine the density of any gas,

For example: What is the density of Carbon Monoxide at STP? A. Solution: The molar mass of CO is 12+16=28 g/mol. Therefore D=M / V D= 28g / 22.4L = 1.25 g/L