Sie sind auf Seite 1von 262

ISSN 0974-200X


Refereed Research Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities

Volume IX

Number II

July 2011


Managing Editor

Madhukar Shyam

Dr. Sudhanshu Kumar Verma

Advisory Board
Dr. Shekhar Shankar Mishra
Dr. P. K. Shukla
Dr. Chandrakant Shukla
Dr. A.N. Jha
Dr. Radha Madhav Bharadwaj
Dr. H.S. Pandey
Dr. Satish Kumar Rai
Dr. Kameshwar Prasad Singh
Dr. Madhu Gupta
Dr. Birendra Nath Prasad
Dr. Umesh Prasad Singh
Dr. Poonam Sahay

Dr. Vijay Prakash

Dr. Ram Kumar Tiwary
Dr. T.K. Singh
Dr. Mahendra Singh
Dr. S.K. Mandal
Dr. B.R. Jha
Dr. Satya Narayan Munda
Dr. Shailendra Prasad Sinha
Dr. S.M. Abbas
Dr. Dhananjay Vasudeo Dwivedi
Shatrughna Kumar Pandey

Published by
Vichaya Educational Trust
Ranchi, Jharkhand (India)

Balihar Road, Morabadi
Ranchi-834 008 Jharkhand (India)
E-mail :
Ph : 09835536035

Annual Subscription
` 500 (India) $ 50 (Overseas)

Published in January and July

Printed, published, owned and edited by Madhukar Shyam on behalf of Vichaya Educational Trust, Balihar Road, Morabadi, Ranchi-834008,
Jharkhand, India & Printed at Kailash Stationers, Saheed Chowk, Ranchi-834001, Jharkhand

Notes for Contributors

The 'Anusandhanika' is a bilingual (English/Hindi) and half yearly Refereed

Research Journal published in January and July. It contains articles, useful for
professionals, scholars, students as well as for those generally interested in the

The 'Anusandhanika' desires to bring to the notice of the contributors that The

Articles should not normally exceed 5000 words.

Manuscripts should be composed in (MS - Word or Adobe Page Maker) double

spaced typed on one side only of A-4 size paper in font size 12 pts. with margins of
1.25" in left/right/top & bottom and Arial fonts for English and Kruti Dev 010 fonts
for Hindi is preferred. The Proposed article should be submitted in original along
with a C.D.

The Editor and Advisory Board is fully empowered to edit, trim and adjust articles in

order to conform to Anusandhanika's format.

While sending an Article to 'Anusandhanika', the author/s should certify that the

article has not been published elsewhere and would not again be submitted for

Normally,articles should be arranged under the heads : (i) Title (ii) An Abstract of

the paper not exceeding 200 words (iii) Keywords - maximum five keywords may
be placed after the abstract (iv) Introduction (v) Materials and Methods (vi) Results
and Discussions (vii) Conclusion and (viii) References.

References should be arranged in this order- Author's name, name of the

book/article/journal, name of Publisher, place of publication, year of publication

and page nos.

Editor and Advisory Board will not be responsible for the views expressed by the

author/s in the Anusandhanika.

Foot notes should be avoided.

Units of measurement should be in the International (metric) system only.

Hindi Kosh and Oxford English Dictionary should be followed for disputed


ISSN 0974-200X


Volume IX Number II

Refereed Research Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities

July 2011


The Baidyanath Cult a Synthesis of Shaiva

and Shakta Tantra

Amar Nath Jha


Women as Mediators of Political Change : An

analytical perspective with special reference
to West Bengal

Ishita Aditya (Ray)

Sarbapriya Ray


Health and Hygiene among the

Pattharkattas : A Case of Lucknow

Dr. Nirja Singh

Dr. Shuchi Srivastava



Conservation of Tribal Heritage in Jharkhand

( An Anthropological Perspective)

Shamsher Alam
Dr. Kanchan Roy



Cities of Bihar in Jain Texts

Dr. Prashant Gaurav



Education, Employment and Migration of

Tribal Women : A case study of Hazaribag
District of Jharkhand

Dr. Kiran Rana



Women in Indian Politics

Dr. Madhu Gupta



Role of Social Media in Changing World


Swarn Suman



Status of Primitive Tribal Groups in


Dr. A.K. Singh

Dipti Nawal


10. The Maritime Economic Activities in Ancient


Dr. Amrendra Kumar


11. Status of Women in India

Dr. Saraswati Modak


12. Satyagraha: Gandhian Way of Life

Dr. Kiran Dwivedi


13. Tribal Agriculture

Akramul Hasan


14. Civil Disobedience Movement as a Milestone

for Women Emancipation in India

Dr. Sudhir Kumar Singh


15. Naxalism in Jharkhand

Tanuja Kumari
Aradhna Kumari


16. The Uncared Population Expolosion in our

country: A cause for serious concern

Dr Pradeep Kumar


17. Indian Independece and the C.P.I. with special

reference to Bihar

Dr. Ashok Kumar Mandal


18. Managing people at work

Rupannita Choudhury


19. An Empirical Study on Ragging

Tapas Kumar Mohanty


20. Maritime Trade Routes in Ancient India

Binod Kumar


21. Tutoring the ESL Learners through Task

Based Approach at UG Level

S. Sivaraja
Dr. G. Natanam


22. Speech Repertoires in Multilingual Setting

Dr. Poonam Sahay

Archana Kumari


23. India Rediscovered in Some Indo - English Novels

Vinay Bharat


ISSN 0974-200X


Volume IX Number II

Refereed Research Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities

July 2011

24. A Fresh Approach to Quantifier Raising

Dr. C.K. Mishra


25. The Shadow Lines : A Political Novel

Dr. Rajesh Kumar


26. Deletion of the English Velar Plosives :

A Phonological Study



27. A Glimpse of Feminism in the Novels of Jane

Austen and Henry James

Deepshika Kumari
Dr. Ashutosh Roy


28. A Suitable Boy for Lata Mehra

Mamta Verma
Dr. Mani Sinha


29. Rukmani in Nectar-in-a-Sieve

Rima Gupta


30. The concept of Dharma in Indian tradition

Dr. Dhananjay Vasudeo Dwivedi

31. yeew efyenej keer efMe#eCe heCeeueer : Ske efJeMues<eCe

32. ceieOe kes Glke<e& kes efJeefJeOe he#e

[e@ efveMeeble kegceej

Deefcee Deevevo


heeflecee Pee
[e@ efJevee kegceej efceee
heoerhe kegceej meent
[e@ Jeer meer hee"ke
keceuesMe kegceej keceuesv
hegvece kegceejer
DeefYeceveg hemeeo
ceveespe kegceej
Deefpele kegceej jee
[e@ ceerje osJeer Jecee&
[e@ efceefLeuesMe
[e@ hekeeMe kegceej
jlvesMe efJe<Jekemesve
keeblesMe kegceej
[e@ DeCee
[e@ efveJeejCe cenLee
[e@ efJekece efmebn
[e@ Sme heer eewyes
meesveer Mecee&
hejceMeeruee kegceejer


(600 F&het - 300 F&het leke)

33. PeejKeC[ kes pevepeeleere meceepe ceW ceefnueeDeeW keer efmLeefle

34. efyenej keer hegjeleeefJeke Oejesnj
35. Yeejleere jepeveerefleke JeJemLee ceW peeefle kee jepeveereflekejCe
36. meecheoeefekelee keer DeeefLe&ke he=Yetefce
37. oef}le Meyo kes efJeefYevve Deeeece
38. efyenej ceW keebeflekeejer Deeboesueve
39. oefuele ceefnueeSB SJeb Gvekee meMeeerkejCe
40. GjebJe pevepeeefle kes mebmkeej
41. ceeveJe Oece& : efnvot, F&meeF& leLee Fm}ece Oece& kes heefjhes#e ceW
42. Yetceb[ueerkejCe kee oewj, pevemebeej ceeOece Deewj efnvoer
43. De%ese kee keeJe peiele
44. efJeeeefveJeeme efcee kes efveyebOeeW ceW meeceeefpeke-Jeweeefjke efebleve
45. ieeBOeer kee efMe#eeoMe&ve
46. cenekeefJe leguemeeroeme Deewj nvegcevveeke
47. heg<eeLe& elege kes Dee}eske ceW Yeejleere meceepe
48. oefuele efJeceMe& kee meebmke=efleke hee" : efYeKeejer "ekegj
49. ye=noejCekeesheefve<eod ceW ceOegefJeee kee cenJe SJeb heeespeve
50. efmLele he%e
51. Deeefoce Oece& kee mebef#ehle Fefleneme SJeb Fmekeer efJeMes<elee


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 1-8

ISSN 0974 - 200X

The Baidyanath Cult a Synthesis of

Shaiva and Shakta Tantra
Amar Nath Jha
Associate Professor
S.S.N. College, University of Delhi, Delhi
Modern Deoghar, geographically a part of the Santhal Parganas region of Jharkhand, has been the
traditional seat of both Shaivism and Shakta sects and the Baidyanath cult. The temple of Baidyanath, one of
the twelve jyotirlingams as mentioned in Puranas is situated in Deoghar itself. Setting aside all disputes,
Deoghar has been accepted as the original seat of Baidyanath. Deoghar is famous not only for the
Baidyanath Sakti Pith but also for Tantricism. - which included Shiva and Shakti cult as well as the Buddhist
Tantrayan cult. Needless to say, Deoghar was certainly a seat of this Buddhist tantra, too. Also, both the Shiva
and the Shakti are eternally present here. Hence the temple of Baidyanath is venerated by devotees of both
Shiva and Shakta Pantheon since the early medieval periods present to age. This article tries to undertake a
holistic study of all these religious sects under a single ruboic of the cult of Shiva-Shaktt at Macro level.

Keywords: Chita-Bhumi, Sacred-Geography, Bali-Pratha, Buddhist-Tantrayan, Purush-Prakriti

to be a cult of common masses and not of any
group of elite alone. Thus the
The religio-cultural world of India is still
Cult becomes the true representative
being interpreted by different scholars from the
which reflects the assimilative
prism of their own ideological frame-work. So
far as the understanding of the Nature and
The study of the Baidyanath Cult has also
formation of Indian Culture is concerned,
us to reconstruct the history and
scholars are confronting each others
the region of Santal Paragnas. Thus
postulations. It has reached to a very chaotic
of the Baidyanath Cult has been
state and historians in India are becoming
at micro-level with the perspective
targets of different motivated political agenda.
the role played by religion in
To some extent this situation is also the result
and to understand the
of the abuse of the historians craft by some
cultural / historical ethos of any given society or
scholars. In this situation the only ray of hope
region through the prism of religion. Since
comes from the common people who, without
nowhere in history books or in any research
indulging into the debate of the making of
paper do we find mention of the history of the
Indian culture, just live in the culture and hence
region of Santal Paragnas, which I believe,
enriching its extra-ordinarily accommodating
forms a separate and continuous Geo-Cultural
characteristics. Therefore, in order to present a
entity from the very beginning of the early
proper understanding of the Indian History,
period, at least from the 7th century
Culture and Religion, we would like to share
study of the Baidyanath Cult
some of the observations of our study of the
important for us.1
Baidyanath Cult, which demonstrates the
synthesis of different steams of faiths prevalent
Materials and Methods
among the people of Santal Pargnas. People
As per the demand of the topic several
following this Cult consciously or unconsciously
books by eminent scholars have been
practice several rituals and customs which
consulted to evolve a theoretical framework for
have different roots and different connotations.
this research paper. Recourse has also been
So in this sense the Baidyanath Cult appears
taken to make use of the published works of

the author. But most of the findings are based

on the field studies conducted by the author.
Thus, conclusions have been derived by
applying the observations and results of our
field studies in the theoretical perspectives of
Shaiva and Shakta Cult.
Results and Discussions
The Temple of Baidyanath is regarded as
one of the twelve jyotirlingams mentioned in
the Puranas. It is situated in the modern city of
Deoghar of the Santal Parganas region of the
modern Jharkhand province of India. We find
temples named after Vaidyanath at lest at 14
different places in India.2 However, the
disputes related to the original seat of
Baidyanath have been settled long before and
Deoghar has been accepted as the seat of
Baidyanath.3 The name 'Deoghar', which
literally means 'home of the gods is a modern
name. The city of Deoghar has an attractive
growth rate at the state level as well as national
level. It is the seventh largest city in Jharkhand
and the largest city of the Santal Paragnas. In
the city of Deoghar, traditionally the population
consists mainly of Pandas (priests), Dhanuks,
Baniyas and Bengalis. The Pandas came here
mainly from Mithila in several waves to conduct
the pooja for Baidyanath. But some of them
have come from central India (Madhyadesha)
and yet some of them from Bengal we are told.4
The Kanyakubja Brahmin Pandas came from
central India and the Radhi or Radh- Brahmin
Pandas came from Bengal, it is believed. But if
we go by the proposition that Radha or RadhDesh is the area of modern Santal Parganas5
then we can simply say that the Radhi
Brahmins might have come from the
countryside of this land itself, though their
settlement in the city of Deoghar as Pandas
may be a later phenomenon than that of the
Maithils.6 But the migration of Mathil Brahmins
in this region started a new era for this land.
They brought both Shaivism and Shakta Cult
along with them from Mithila and hence the
process of acculturation and Sanskritisation
left deep impact on both the Maithila Brahmins
and the local traditions of this area which
ultimately gave rise to the distinct character of
a religious sect of this area to be known as The

Baidyanath Cult. Thus, the Baidyanath Cult

and the cultural horizon of the region is deeply
influenced by the migration of Maithil Brahmins
in this area to a great extent, as a whole.7
During the last few decade people mainly from
modern Bihar have come in large numbers and
have settled here. This trend has changed the
traditional demographic character of the
modern city of Deoghar. However the basic
cultural ethos of Deoghar and this region
emanates from the temple of Baidyanath and
thus despite all demographic changes over the
years the Baidyanath cult remains the lifeline
of the regional culture of the Santal Parganas.
Deoghar is also a famous centre of
Tantricism. Various scriptures have given
different list of Shakti Pithas.The Baidyanath
Shakti Pitha has been mentioned in almost all
scriptures of this genre except Jnanarnava
Tantra. The vast literature related to Shaiva
and Shakti Cult mentions Vaidyanath or
Chitabhoomi Vaidyanath. If we take into
account the Buddhist Tantrayan cult, it may be
said that Deoghar was certainly a seat of this
Buddhist tantra too. But it is very difficult to
segregate the Buddhist Tantrayana, Shaivism
and Shakta tantra from each other in this
region, since these have been intermingled
into the Baidyanath cult inseparably. Hence in
this study the Buddhist Tantrayan has not been
dealt with separately. Therefore, in order to
understand the process of the making of the
Baidyanath Cult, we need to undertake a
holistic study of all these religious sects under
a single rubric of The Study of Shiva-Shakti
Cult .
As has been discussed, from the seventh
century onwards the seat of Dwadash
Jyotirlinga, Vidyanath or Baidyanath becomes
very important. At the same time Baidyanath
also becomes a famous shakti pitha as
suggested by the word Vaidyanatham--Chita
Bhumau.8 This Chita Bhumi has been
identified as Harda Pithha Deoghar, an
important Shakti Pitha. As per the legend the
heart of Sati fell at Baidyanath Dham and
hence this is known as the Hridaya Pitha or
Harda - Pitha. It is on this very spot that the
Jyotirlingam is worshiped and established.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Thus both Shiva and Shakti are eternally

present here. That is why first of all Aarti and
Pooja are offered to Shakti and only then the
doors of Baidyanath Temple are opened every
day. Hence the temple of Baidyanath is
venerated by devotees of both Shaiva and
Shakta Pantheon from the early medieval
periods down to age.
In course of our field study related to the
Baidyanath cult, we studied the sacred
geography of Vaidyanath Kshetra9 and found
that the sacred complex of Baidyanath, the
sacred sub-complex of Basukinath and the
sacred complex of Ajgaibinath--the holy circuit
from Ajgaibinath to Basukinath and its
pedestrian pathconstitute the geographical
area of the Baidyanath cult. Thus we are able
to identify a distinct area of Baidyanatheshwar
Tirtha Kshetra which also covers, besides this
holy circuit, the temples at Burhait, Kathikund,
Chutonath near Dumka, Maluti, Patherol, the
Basta Pahar in the Meharama block and Yogini
Sthan at Pathergama and others as important
clusters related to the Baidyanath Cult. The
city of Deoghar and the temple of Baidyanath
remains the central place of this Baidyanatheshwar
Tirtha Kshetra.
The Baidyanath temple complex consists
of the main Baidyanath temple, where the
Jyotirlingam is installed, and 21 other temples
of different Gods and Goddesses. The
principal temple of Baidyanath stands on the
centre of this area, facing the east, as old
Hindu temples usually do. It is a plain stone
structure, rising to a height of 72 feet on the
slope. Its surface is cut into a check pattern by
plain perpendicular and horizontal moldings.
The temple comprised a single cell of the area
of 15 2 x 15 with the door opening in the east.
A low porch or lobby, 35 x 12 divided into two
parts by a row of 4 pillars, was added sometime
after, and a second porch, a little shorter,
followed at a later date.10
The other three sides of the cell are faced
by pillared verandas which are reserved for the
use of those pilgrims who come to perform
Dharanas to secure special blessings from the
divinity in the temple. The cell is exceedingly
dark. The lobby in front of the cell is like the cell

itself, paved with flags of the basalt. There is a

small inscription on the left side of the entrance
to the cell. There are 12 inscriptions in the
entire temple complex.11 These inscriptions are
the main source of information to reconstruct
the history of the Baidyanath Temple in
particular and the Santal Parganas in
The Study of Shiva-Shakti Cult
The worship of Shiva has been an age old
tradition in the Indian sub-continent. Scholars
have studied this tradition in details. Shaivism
is known as one of the chief ancient religious
cult of India and of the sub-continent as a
whole. Thus this creed which centers round the
worship of Rudra-Shiva has very old tradition.
But even then as we all know the problem of
the origin of Shaivism remains highly
controversial one. Shiva is a complex product
and Shiavism is not a single cult but the
conglomeration of cults writes Ishwar
Chandra Tyagi.13
Shiva is chiefly worshipped in the form of
the linga, usually a short cylindrical pillar with
rounded top, which is the survival of a cult older
than Indian civilization itself. Phalli have been
found in Harappa remains. Early Tamil
literature refers to the setting up of ritual posts,
which seem to have been phallic emblems.
The cult of the linga, at all times followed by
some of the non-Aryan people, was
incorporated into Hinduism around the
beginning of the Christian era, though at first it
was not very important14 observes Prof.
Basham. But in course of time this form of
Shiva worship became most popular. Rightly
says Prof. Upinder singh Shiva is today most
popularly worshipped in temples in his lingo
(phallic) form which represents male
procreative energy and power.15
However, important Indian Philosophers
have denied altogether the phallic character of
the linga. The term linga is interpreted as a
symbol or source of creativity that is invisible
and unmanifested.16 Shankaracharya in his
Saundaryalahari declares that Shiva can
create only when united with Shakti, otherwise
he is unable even to move17. The Agamic texts

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

use the term Purusha-Prakriti to denote this

aspect of Shaivism. In fact, according to the
general teaching of the Tantras, the human
organism is a microcosm, a mini-universe,
which contains a large number of minute
channels (nadi) and connected with these
channels are six great centers (chakra) of the
occult force, described as so many lotuses,
one above the other. Among these six centers,
Brahmin in the form of a linga is the lowest and
the most important centre, and coiled round
this linga, like a serpent, lies the Shakti called
Kundalini. The natural and suggestive realism
of the phallic emblem does not seem to be
accepted in literature, especially among those
whose thoughts were reflected in early
literature. But the beliefs and practices of a
large section of people and the admission of
Shiva to the Brahmanical pantheon ultimately
led to the linga cult being given a convenient
position in the literature. In the late Taittiriya
Aranyaka, we have the reference to linga in the
context of the worship of Shiva.18 In the Kurma
Purana19 we see worshipping the Shiva-linga
as the great generative power for obtaining a
son. Krishna, as we find in the Mahabharata,20
not only obtains a son for his wife Jambavati,
after practicing rigorous asceticism and by the
grace of Shiva; but in the Kurma Purana he
recommends the linga cult and explains its
origin. Drupada in the Udyogaparvan21 and
Somadatta in the Dronaparvan22 of the
Mahabharata worship the phallus of Shiva
mainly for the boon of a son. However, this god
of generation subdued sexual passion and
reduced Kama, the god of sexual love, to
ashes.23 Hence, some scholars like Hazra did
interpret the phallic epithets Urdhvaretah,
Urdhvalinga, Mahalinga, Sthanu (that is, the
linga which is perpetually fixed), lingadhyaksha
etc. ascribed to him in the Mahabharata and
the Puranas as denoting sexual restraint or
symbolic of abstention from creative activity.24
The increasing popularity of the worship of
Shiva was accompanied by the development
of various Shaiva philosophical schools,
whose ideas show considerable over-lap.
The Kapalikas and Kalamukhas were two
important Shaiva sects of the time. No texts of

these sects have survived, and their history

has to be reconstructed on the basis of
inscriptions and highly negative references to
them in the texts of their adversaries. These
sects had monasteries (mathas) and wellorganized priesthoods. The Kapalikas were
Tantric Shaivite ascetics who lived in the forest.
They carried a skull bowl for begging and were
associated with a mahavrata or great vow.
They are described as performing penances,
animal and human sacrifice, and sometimes
practicing self-mutilation. The Kalamukhas
seem to have been an offshoot of the
Pashupatas, and were especially active in the
Karnataka area between the 11th and 14th
centuries. There are many inscriptions
recording gifts to temples and mathas of this
sect. The inscriptional references to various
Shaiva sects in early medieval India studied by
Prof. V. S. Pathak25 provide us a good
framework for this study.
The importance of Jyotirlingam is well
known to all as discussed earlier. Its renowned
sanctity is attached to the Hindu view of the
socio-religious life of India. Jyotirlingam means
the linga of light, i.e. a symbolic form of a stone
tinctured with the cycle of light. It is a very
surprising acknowledgment to a common
Hindu that the twelve lingams spray the rays of
the light in the panorama of our life. It may be
assumed that Jyotirlingams expel the
proceeds of light which is generating with
spiritual and cosmos consciousness for all.
The light of Jyotirlingam is the light of cosmos
which is realized by the power of soul as a
Being one out of the twelve Jyotirlingams,
Baidyanath is famous for all. Deoghar, the
home of gods, is its modern name. In Puranas
we find in its place names like HardraPeetha,
Ketaki van, Haritika van, Chitabhoomi and
Vaidyanath. During this and succeeding
periods, the impact of Tantra was felt not only in
Shaiva and Shakta sects, but also within the
Buddhist fold, although to a much less extent in
Jainism. Hindu and Buddhist Tantra share
some broad similarities, but have many
philosophical differences.26
From the seventh century onwards

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Shakta Tantric ideas began to influence all the

major religious systems of India. Shaivism
during this period was inextricably blended
with Shaktism. Shaivism took a new turn in
Kashmir in the preceding age and it continued
to flourish in the early medieval period.
Abhinavagupta wrote on the Pratyabhijna
system and his works are regarded as most
authoritative by the Shaktas all over India. His
successor was Kshemaraja, the author of the
Pratyabhijnahrdaya. This is regarded as an
important manual of the Shaivas as well as of
the Shaktas. Another school of Shaivism which
flourished in South India during the period
under review, and which still claims as its
followers a large number of Tamils, is Shaiva
Siddhanta according to which the supreme
reality is Shiva. Srikantha, who was probably a
contemporary of Ramanuja, expounded a
system of Shaivism which is called
Among all the Shaiva schools the
Virashaivas or the Lingayatas were more akin
to Shaktism. In fact, the Virashaiva philosophy
is called Shaktivishishtadvaitavada which
means the non-duality of Shiva as qualified by
Shakti. Shakti is the power which eternally
resides in Shiva as his inseparable attribute. It
is the ultimate creative principle, Mulaprakrti or
Maya, which evolves itself into the
phenomenal universe. As heat is to fire and
light is to sun, Shakti is to Shiva, inseparably
united with him as his attribute. It is through his
Shakti that Shiva becomes the cause of the
universe. Shiva lends his own nature to Shakti
and in its discriminative or differentiating
aspect called Vimarshakhya which becomes
the agent of world-manifestation. Out of Shakti
come all beings that constitute the universe.
And in pralaya, all return to Shakti and remain
therein in a seedal form. The Kapalika and
Kalamukha sects were also pro-Shakta.28
Shaivism during this period had
theoretically merged into Shaktism and also
the latter into the former. As we have stated
above two authoritative Shakta texts
Prapanchasara Tantra and Saundaryalahari
are ascribed to Shankar. A section of the
followers of Kashmir Shaivism developed a

peculiar monistic form of Shaktism known as

Shaktyadvayavada; according to which Shakti
is not different from Shiva and as such the
material world is the Parinama or consequence
of Shakti. Somananda criticized this
Shaktyadvayavada for its emphasis on Shakti
as the only substance. Although he was a
Shaiva in conviction, his analysis of Vak is a
valuable contribution to Shakta thought.
Shaktism has also been thoroughly dealt with
in Abhinavaguptas Tantraloka, In Kshemarajas
Pratyabhijnahrdaya, Gorakshas Maharthamanjari
and others, the mystic, theological, epistemic,
psychological and metaphysical aspects of the
Shaiva-Shakta Agamas have been discussed.
According to the Shivadrishti, Ishvarapratyabhijna
and Pratyabhijnahridaya, the important modes
of Shakti are chit (intelligence), ananda (bliss),
iccha (wish), jnana (knowledge) and kriya
(action). With the opening out of Shakti the
world appears, and with her closing it
disappears. There is equilibrium between
Shiva and Shakti, and the latter is conceived of
as the essence of the former. Shakti is called
Prakasha-Vimarashamaya. Of the numerous
meanings of Vimarsha one is vibration, and the
term is used expressly in the case of Shakti
while Shiva is Prakasha. If the example of a
man is used, Prakasha is his mental and
intellectual faculties and the awareness of
those faculties is Vimarsha. According to
Kashmir Shaivism the Supreme Being is at the
same time static and dynamic, changeless and
changing. The dynamic aspect is Shakti, that
power which manifests itself in the world, as a
banyan tree manifests itself from a seed
Vira Shaivism or Lingayatism, which
resorts to the primitive aspects of the ShivaShakti cult, envisages an integral association
between Shiva and Shakti, known as
Shaktivishishtadvaitavada. Here the potential
and material moment of the absolute is called
Shiva while the actual and formal moment is
called Shakti. It holds that creation is the result
of the Vimarsha-Shakti. According to the
Siddhantashikhamani the real nature of Shiva
is like the luminescence of a gem which the
gem itself can not realize. This realization is

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

possible only by Shakti. That is why the relation

between Shiva and Shakti is that of identifying
Tadatmya or Samarasya, as that between heat
and fire, light and sun. Here an objection may
be raised by saying that there may be a subtle
difference between Shakti and its container.
The Virashaiva answer to this point is that in
the case of the heat and fire or the light and the
sun, there is no difference of quality with the
nature of substance. Here quality and
substance can not be differentiated because of
their identity. That is why Shakti is called
Brahmanishtha Sanatani.30 Like Vaishnavism,
the Puranic Shaktism advocates the popular
theory of incarnation. This theory presupposes
the principles of monotheism or the existence
of one god and the other deities are considered
incarnation of the same31. According to the
puranas, Para Shakti descends on earth, to
help gods in the maintenance of law and other
in the world, for the development and welfare
of the masses and the Brahmins32, to destroy
the demonswho harass others for their own
interest or even without interest, to protect the
devotees from some danger or calamity33, and
last of all to establish the importance of her
devotees in the society34. She also promotes
the healthy relations and atmosphere in the
world35 and sometimes assists Vishnu or
Shiva36 in their fights against the demons. The
puranas mention various important incarnations
of Shakti, viz. Kali, Ambika, Vindhyavashini,
Saraswati or Sharada, Lalita, Gauri, Shivaduti,
Tripura Bhairavi, Bhuvaneshwari, Matangi, Meenakshi,
Yoganidra, Yogamaya, Sarvamangala and
others.37 According to Devi purana, Devi has
got sixty manifestations and these sixty forms
have been further divided into three groups
called Satvika, Rajasika and Tamasika
There are several pithas or places where
Shakti is worshiped in different forms. These
are the most pious pilgrimages, and are
considered to be the favorite resorts of the
goddesses, known variously as Devi, Durga
and so on. The legend which seeks to explain
the origin of the pithas, is the well-known epicopuranic account of Dakshas sacrifice,
interrupted by Shiva or Devis wrath. It offers a

mythological explanation of the origin of the

pithas.39 The earlier versions of Dakshas
sacrifice have nothing to do with the creation of
pithas. It was only in the later puranas viz., the
Kalika Purana, Devi Bhagavat Purana,
Mahabhagavat Purana, Brihaddharma Purana
and the Tantras that a new legend is found to
the old story simply for the sake of explaining
the origin of the Pithas.40 Various scriptures
have given different list of Shakti Pithas. The
number of Shakti Pithas is said to be 51, 52, 72,
26, 42, 50 and 108 as per the descriptions
found in different scriptures. While works like
Tantra Chudamani mentions about 52 Shakti
Pithas, the Shiva Charita gives a list of 51
Shakti Pithas. The Kalika purana tells us about
26 upa-Pithas, while as The Devi Geeta
speaks of 72 Devi Pithas. We have a list of 42
Pithas in Kubjika Tantra, at the same time
Jnanarnava Tantra mentions about 50 Pithas.
But Devi Bhagavat Purana says that these are
108 in numbers.
These Pithas are scattered all over the
sub-continent.41 The complete list of 108 Shakti
Places along with the 108 names of the
goddess is found for the first time in the Matsya
Purana.42 The same text has been quoted in
Reva Khanda sub-section of the Avanti
Khanda in the Skanda Purana; in the Srishti
Khand section of the Padma Purana and in the
Devi Bhagavat Purana.
The Baidyanath Shakti Pitha has been
mentioned in almost all scriptures of this genre
except Jnanarnava Tantra.43 Thus, we see that
the vast literature related to Shaiva and Shakti
Cult mentions Vaidyanath or Chitabhoomi
Baidyanath which is evidence of the popularity
of the Baidyanath Cult since the days of the
composition of various puranas. As told earlier
we all know the story about the origin of
Baidyanath shrine. The place where the linga
was deposited has come to be known as
Ravaneshwar Baidyanath Dham, popularly
shortened to Baidyanath Dham. The Matsya
Purana narrates the sanctity of this place as
Arogya Baidyanatha, the holy place where
Shakti lives and assists Shiva in freeing people
from incurable diseases. Thus Deoghar, apart
from being a Shiva-Sthan, is also a very

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

important Siddha Shakti Pitha and Baidyanath

represents both Shiva and Shakti. Both Shiva
and Shakti are eternally present here.
First of all Aarti and Pooja are offered to
Devi and then the doors of Baidyanath Mandir
are opened every day. One of the very
important customs denoting the Shakti pooja
tradition in the Baidyanath Temple complex
and which has continued throughout the ages
despite strong opposition is the daily sacrifice
of a goat as an offering to the temple. There
were many efforts made to stop this practice,
especially during the period when Vaishnavism
and Buddhism were a strong force, but the
custom has survived. The matter was even
brought before the court, but it was settled in
favour of the defendants, as they were able to
substantiate their arguments by quoting
profusely from the shastras in favour of BaliPratha (living sacrifice). Today the government,
being responsible for the upkeep of the temple,
pays for the cost of a goat to be sacrificed daily
at the feet of Shiva and his consort Shakti.44
This evidence is sufficient to establish the fact
that Deoghar has been a traditional seat of the
Shakta-Cult also.
Shiva and Shakti are worshipped in this
entire area. The famous Shakti Pitha of
Tarapeeth is not too far from here. The
Kalyaneshwari Devi temple is also situated in
the cultural zone of the region of Santal
Paragnas. The famous Patherol Kali temple is
very close to Baidyanath Dham Deoghar. The
Yogini Sthan, Pathergama in Godda is also not
far from the seat of Baidyanath. Baidyanath
remains in the centre of the entire world view of
this region. But not only the famous temples of
Baidyanath and Basukinath but several other
Shiva temples as well as Shakti-Pithas are the
centers of cultural activities of this region. In
fact Shiva and Shakti combine together and
become one, as far as the philosophical
background of the Hindu religion in this region
is concerned. So all are Shakta as well as
Shaiva at a time, in this country. Even
Vaishnavites also worship Shiva and Shakti
and hence are followers of the Baidyanath
Cult. Hence, Shiva-Shakti cult becomes the

essence of the Baidyanath Cult and

Baidyanath in his Ardhanarishwar form not
only is worshiped but remains the supreme
deity of this region. All other deities are
connected to him in different ways.45 The
greatest Indian philosopher and saint of 9th
century Shankar in his famous Dwadash
Jyotirlinga Stotram also acknowldges this
essence of Baidyanath Cult, when he offers
his prayer to Baidyanat along with Girija of
Prajvalika Nidhan or Chitabhumi of Deoghar
in this verse: Poorvottare Prajavlika Nidhane,
Sada Vasantam Girija Sametam, Sura Sura
Radhit Pad Padmamm, Shree Vaidyanatham
Tamaham Namami.
1. Jha Amar Nath, Locating The Ancient
History of Santal Parganas, IHC:
Proceedings, 70th session, Delhi, 20092010, pp.185-196
2. Shree Shree Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga
Vangmay, Hindi Vidyapeetha Deoghar,
3. Ibid
4. Narayan S, Sacred Complex of Deoghar
and Rajgir, Concept Publishing Company,
New Delhi, 1983
5. Jha Amar Nath, op.cit
6. Jha Amar Nath, Migration of Maithil
Brahmanas to Santal Parganas,
Anusandhanika / Vol.VIII / No. II / July
2010, pp. 184-189
7. Jha Amar Nath, Religion and Making of a
Region: A Case Study of The Baidyanath
Cult, Anusandhanika / Vol.IX / No. I /
January 2011, pp. 1-11
8. Shiva Puran, Chapter-38, cf. Shree Shree
Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga Vangmay, op.cit.
9. Jha Amar Nath, Locating The Ancient
History Of Santal Parganas, op.cit.
10. Rajendralal Mitra, On The Temples of
Deoghar, JABS. Vol. LII, No. I-IV, 1883,
pp 164-204
11. Ibid
12. Jha Amar Nath, Locating The Ancient
History of Santal Parganas, op. cit.
13. Tyagi Ishwar Chandra, Shaivism in

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011



Ancient India, New Delhi, 1982, p. 2

Basham A. L., The Wonder That Was
India, Rupa and Co. New Delhi, Reprint,
1986, p. 310
Singh Upinder, A History of Ancient and
Early Medieval India, Delhi, 2008, p.434
Agrawala B. S., Shiva-Mahadeva, First
Edition, p. 3
Srinivasan T.N., A Handbook of South
Indian Images, Tirupati, 1954, p. 66
Chakravarti Mahadev, op.cit. p. 135
XIII. 14. 17. cf. Mahadev Chakravarti,

29. Ibid, pp. 146-47

30. Ibid
31. Skanda Purana, 6. 145. 5-7; Devi
Mahtamya, 1. 66; Shiva Purana, 5. 50. 14
32. Skanda Purana 7. Abuda Khand, 22. 28,
op. cit.; Devi Mahatmya, p. XII. 36
33. Skanda Purana 7. Abuda Khand, 22. 28,
op. cit.; Devi Mahatmya, p. XII. 36
34. Ibid
35. Ibid. 22. 65-66
36. Ibid. I. 2. 65. 58, I. 2. 63. 85
37. Kumar Pushpendra, Shakti Cult in Ancient
India, Varanasi, 1974, p. 229

21. Mbh; V.188f.

38. Ibid. p. 231

22. Mbh; Vol. 144f.

39. Sircar D. C., The Shakta Pithas, p. 5

23. Kalidasha, Kumarsambhava, IV.42, cf.

Mahadev Chakravarti, op.cit. p. 136

40. Kumar Pushpendra, op. cit. p. 267

41. Shree Shree Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga
Vangmay, op. cit

24. Hazra R.C., Further Light on the God of

the Famous Mohenjodaro Seals, in Our
Heritage, Vol. XVII, Part1, Jan-Jun, 1969,

42. Kumar Pushpendra, op. cit. pp. 269-270

43. Shree Shree Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga
Vangmay, op. cit.

25. cf. Sing Upinder, op.cit. pp. 612-13

44. This information has been obtained by the

important Pandas and officials of the
Baidyanath Temple

26. Ibid. p. 511

27. Bhattacharyya N. N., History of the Shakta
Religion, Delhi, 2nd revised edition, 1996,

45. Jha Amar Nath, Religion and Making of a

Region: A Case Study of The Baidyanath
Cult, op.cit.

28. Ibid


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 9-18

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Women as Mediators of Political Change: An

analytical perspective with special
reference to West Bengal
Ishita Aditya (Ray)
Assistant Professor, Bejoy Narayan Mahavidyalaya
Burdwan University, West Bengal

Sarbapriya Ray
Assistant Professor, Shyampur Siddheswari Mahavidyalaya
Calcutta University, West Bengal, India

The article tries to outline and evaluate the increasing womens role and challenges faced by them in Indian
political arena with special reference to West Bengal. Following a brief overview of the barriers women face in
becoming representatives and the position of women in the political life of the country, the changes in the
level of womens representation and womens political activity worldwide as well as in India around last few
decades have been analysed. Finally, current change in political scenario of West Bengal with the able
leadership of charismatic lady leader, Mamata Banerjee, has been portraited in an analytical framework.
Finally, the study concludes by hinting some preconditions that a woman leader in India needs for greater
participation in politics.

Keywords: leadership, global scenario, political process, child support

countries have decided to employ some
special mechanisms to change the existing
In India, it is politics which can be
state of affairs, in recognition of the principle of
discussed and debated endlessly and is
gender-balanced representation as a
supposed to be the most sought after subject
necessary step towards eliminating the
among the people of this nation which decided
discrimination of women in public and
to adopt a democratic model on its
economic life.
independence in 1947, and since then it is this
Woman is the half of the world and also
politics and elected leadership which decide
considered as the better half of a man after
the future of this nation by formulating policies
their nuptial knot. Spiritually as well, woman is
and programmes that guide over 121 million
form of the Shakti (the power) and is
people. Again it is politics which works as an
in different names not only in India
adhesive to bind people of different ethnic
over the world. In our country,
traditions from north to south and find its place
are worshipped in
from a roadside kiosk to luxurious apartments.
the Navratri
Whether its urban class or rural class, politics
draws people from all walks of life and thus brings
different mindsets to a common ideological
Laxmi.Since early times, women have been
platform that has been created by different
uniquely viewed as a creative source of human
political parties in this nation to achieve their
life. But in spite of all this perspective of
political goal of forming the government at the
woman, she did never get the place of pride in
centre and in different states of our republic.
the society that she deserved. Women are
The problem of inadequate representation
often left without a voice to express their
of women in political decision making remains
unique needs and concerns. Women and
unsolved in many established democracies
Political Change, focuses on women's issues
around the world. However, numerous
from a current and historical perspective.

This paper aims to outline and evaluate

the increasing womens role and challenges
faced by them in Indian political arena with
special reference to West Bengal.

politician has to learn to balance her time

between politics and her traditional gender role
of social reproduction and housekeeping.
Womens participation in local politics has long
been viewed as an extension of womens
traditional involvement in household management.
This idea can be used either to devalue or to
promote efforts to increase women s numbers
in local government, where their political
activity has so far been most marked.
However, current trends towards the
devolution of power may make holding local
office a far more powerful and prestigious
occupation than it has been up to the present.
Because so many women still shoulder
disproportionate responsibilities for household
management and therefore cannot leave
home for remote capitals, devolution provides
a significant means of making their voices
heard nationally. A Canadian attorney,
speaking on measures to right gender
imbalance in private sector employment as
well as political representation, commented,
They say affirmative action doesnt work. But I
say we really havent tried. In Central and
Eastern Europe, where quotas for many
categories of representation, including gender,
had existed in a wide spectrum of public
institutions before the transition to market
systems in the late 1980s, womens
participation in legislatures dropped sharply
from 22 per cent in 1987 to 6.5 per cent in 1993.
This was largely as a result of competitive
politics introduced in the wake of democracy.
But it has begun to increase once more. In
Hungary, Poland and Turkmenistan, the
proportion of women members of parliaments
has risen respectively to 11.4, 13 and 18 per
cent, the last two figures above the world
average.As womens contributions toward a
strong and vibrant society are increasingly well
documented, there is also growing
understanding of why womens meaningful
participation is essential to building and
sustaining democracy. Womens political
participation results in tangible gains for
democracy, including greater responsiveness
to citizen needs, increased cooperation across
party and ethnic lines, and more sustainable

Materials and Methods

While concentrating on the very topic,
various books, articles of eminent research
scholars, authors have been taken into
consideration to make an objective analysis of
the said article of the authors. Reviews of the
works of eminent scholars and authors,critics
have also been widely consulted.
Results and Discussions
Women in active politics worldwide: There
is growing recognition of the untapped
capacity and talents of women and womens
leadership. In the last 10 years, the rate of
womens representation in national parliaments
globally has grown from 13.1 percent at the
end of 1999 to 18.6 percent at the end of 2009.
Some regions have seen particularly dramatic
increases, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where
the number of women in parliaments has risen
from 10.9 to 17.6 percent. The number of
women ministers worldwide doubled from 3.4
per cent in 1987 to 6.8 percent in 1996.
Globally, 15 countries have achieved the target
of 20 per cent to 30 per cent women at the
ministerial level. In 48 countries, there were no
women ministers. Globally, women held only
9.9 per cent of all sub-ministerial positions
(Deputy Minister, Permanent Secretary and
Deputy Permanent Secretary).In 136
countries, women held no ministerial positions
concerned with the economy. In 1997, two
women headed Governments, while three
others were heads of State.For parliaments,
the record world average of womens
representation was reached in 1988, when
women representatives accounted for 14.8 per
cent of all parliamentarians. In 1995, this
dropped to 11.3 per cent. The current world
average of 11.7 percent still indicates a
situation in which women are regarded at best
as a special-interest group rather than half of
humankind. According to Janet Mukwaya,
Minister of Gender and Community
Development in Uganda, The woman

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Women in Politics in India-Women remain

under-represented in governance and politics
in India. If we consider a global scenario, India
is placed poorly at 97th place among 180
countries in womens representation in the
parliamentary houses. Even Asian developing
countries like Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand and
Indonesia stand better than India. Although no
legal impediments hinder womens participation
in the political process, but there are few
considerations to ponder upon. A 1998 Times
of India report revealed that domestic
responsibilities, lack of financial clout, rising
criminalization of politics and the threat of
character assassination are making it
increasingly difficult for women to be part of the
political framework. A partys concern with
levels of representation of certain groups
within its ranks, and consequences for
legitimacy of the party among the underrepresented groups might be the motive for
including women. Together with kinship link
and state initiatives, an important factor
impacting on womens access to political life
seems to be social and political movements.
Through the experience of the Indian
Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRI), 1 million
women have actively entered political life in
India. Although the Parliament recently
rejected a hard-fought-for female quota for its
members, in 1993 and 1994, constitutional
amendments allotted one third of the seats in
local councils, both urban and rural (gram
Panchayats) to women. Since the creation of
the quota system, local women, the vast
majority of them illiterate and poor have come
to occupy as much as 43 per cent of the seats,
spurring the election of increasing numbers of
women at the district, provincial and national

representation of special interests of women

and providing role models for future female
politicians. Womens participation in politics
are needed for peace operations, treaty
negotiations, constitution development, and
reconciliation and reconstruction efforts.
Womens meaningful participation in politics
affects both the range of policy issues that are
considered and the types of solutions that are
proposed. Research indicates that a
legislators gender has a distinct impact on
policy priorities, making it critical that women
are present in politics to represent the
concerns of women and other marginalized
citizens and help improve the responsiveness
of policy-making and governance.
As more women reach leadership
positions within their political parties, these
parties tend to prioritize issues that impact
health, education and other quality of life
issues. There is a strong evidence that as more
women are elected to office, there is also a
corollary increase in policy-making that
reflects the priorities of families, women, and
ethnic and racial minorities. Womens political
participation has profound positive and
democratic impacts on communities, legislatures,
political parties, and citizens lives.
In places like Croatia, Morocco, Rwanda
and South Africa, an increase in the number of
female lawmakers led to legislation related to
anti-discrimination, domestic violence, family
codes, inheritance, and child support and
protection. Only five years after the womens
suffrage movement achieved the rights of
women to vote and run for office in Kuwait,
newly elected female legislators this year
introduced new labour laws that would give
working mothers mandatory nursing breaks,
and provide onsite childcare for companies
with more than 200 employees.

Womens participation and leadership in

Politics: World scenario: An assessment

Women lawmakers tend to see womens

issues more broadly as social issues, possibly
as a result of the role that women have
traditionally played as mothers and care-givers
in their communities; and more women see
government as a tool to help or serve
underrepresented or minority groups. Women

The ideas of representation lies at the

heart of democracy. There are at least four
reasons of why women need to gain greater
representation in parliament as given by Judith
Squires[ Squires, quoted by Ross, 189] are:
democratic justice, maximisation of resources,

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

lawmakers, therefore, have often been

perceived as more sensitive to community
concerns and more responsive to constituency
needs. Women are deeply committed to
peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction
and have a unique and powerful perspective to
bring to the negotiating table. Women often
suffer disproportionately during armed conflict
and often advocate most strongly for
stabilization, reconstruction and the prevention
of further conflict. Peace agreements, postconflict reconstruction and governance have a
better chance of long-term success when
women are involved. Furthermore, establishing
sustainable peace requires transforming
power relationships, including achieving more
equitable gender relations. Womens peace
groups in Uganda, for example, have used
conflict resolution training to successfully
reduce the level of violence in their
communities. In the face of strong resistance
from male leaders, women have established
cross-community coalitions to open up
dialogue and are operating centers to
rehabilitate former girl abductees and child
soldiers. Womens leadership and conflict
resolution styles often embody democratic
ideals in that women have tended to work in a
less hierarchical, more participatory and more
collaborative way than male colleagues.
Women are also more likely to work across
party lines, even in highly partisan
environments. Since assuming 56 percent of
the seats in the Rwandan parliament in 2008,
women have been responsible for forming the
first cross-party caucus to work on
controversial issues such as land rights and
food security. They have also formed the only
tripartite partnership among civil society and
executive and legislative bodies to coordinate
responsive legislation and ensure basic
services are delivered. Around the world,
women lawmakers are often perceived as
more honest and more responsive than their
male counterparts, qualities that encourage
confidence in democratic and representative
institutions. In a study of 31 democratic
countries, the presence of more women in
legislatures is positively correlated with

enhanced perceptions of government

legitimacy among both men and women.
When women are empowered as political
leaders, countries often experience higher
standards of living with positive developments
in education, infrastructure and health, and
concrete steps being taken to help make
democracy deliver. Using data from 19
member countries of the Organization for
Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD), researchers found that an increase in
women legislators results in an increase in
total educational expenditure. In India,
research showed that West Bengal villages
with greater representation of women in local
councils saw an investment in drinking water
facilities that was double to that of villages with
low levels of elected women, and that the
roads there were almost twice as likely to be in
good condition. The study also revealed that
the presence of a woman council leader
reduces the gender gap in school attendance
by 13 percentage points.
Without a substantial number of women
among the representatives, there is little
chance for women to have any distinct input
into the shaping of the common good.
Moreover, a male -dominated representation is
not a truly representative democracy at least
in the sense that women are only passive
recipients not perceived as capable of
independent judgement and are merely being
taken care of.
The second type of argument relates to
womens interests. It states that women need
to be better represented than they have been
so far because they are one of the groups
marked by political exclusion and marginalization.
Although they represent a majority of the
society, this exclusion has been so persistent
that women still do not have an equal status to
men in all aspects of social and economic life. It
is in this sense that we can talk about a change
in the idea of representation, from the politics
of ideas to the politics of presence.
Another group of arguments pertains to
the notion of development or progress. It is a
well supported claim, that the welfare of

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

children, for example, will not be improved

without targeting women as agents of
development. Similarly, the risks of poverty
and social dislocation that affect women in
often-disproportionate ways will not be
removed without womens involvement as
agents in the process. In societies like India
undergoing economic and political transition,
the argument can be made that the benefits of
this change will not be adequately utilised
without the full participation of women. Another
way to understand womens interests is to look
at more concrete claims made on the basis of
some studies on female politicians and their
work. It is to some extent supported by
research and interviews with both male and
female politicians that certain problems are not
prioritized or considered at all if there are no
adequate womens voices in the parliament.

Then, if they do reach the level of

aspirants, economic reasons, such as
womens less paid jobs and smaller access to
large funds necessary for a successful
campaign put them at a disadvantaged
position. Social reasons, particularly the
expectation placed on women to maintain all
family duties; take care of both children and the
household, make political career extremely
difficult. Indeed, a decision to take up office
often ends in a divorce, and only those women
who are older and have grown up children or
those few who have a partner dedicated to the
running of a household can afford a smoother
political career.
The institutional barriers in the middle of
the selection process affect women who have
already made a decision to run for office or
those who are potentially interested in
becoming a representative. The level of
political party as an institution is promoting or
constraining womens selection, as parties are
undoubtedly the main channels through which
women can be elected and are the key
gatekeepers to public office. But, as an
institution, a party and its actors are subject to
both internal and external constraints, which
affect the selection of women.

Barriers women face in being elected to

Women in the political system face
several barriers on their way to public office.
Usually, the barriers are classified into cultural,
social, economic, bureaucratic and political
obstacles. Among the first level of barriers, the
most powerful is the impact of societal culture,
in particular, persisting gender stereotyping of
the public sphere as a sphere of mens activity
and the perception of politics as mens
business or dirty business. Facing the force
of deeply held stereotypes and beliefs is not
easy, and successful female politicians are still
believed to be unfeminine or, they are even
perceived as honorary men. That is why, most
women give up a chance of a political career
very early on in the selection process, already
at the level of individually motivated decision to
become a candidate. Needless to say, the
stress and guilt women politicians experience
due to these social factors is not shared to the
same extent by men who are not normally
expected to take care of all the everyday needs
of the family. Considering these difficulties,
many potential female candidates are
indirectly prevented from taking up political

There is also the final stage of the

selection process, where the voters decide the
final outcome of the elections. Here the
chances of electing women are still decided by
societal culture (voters opinion of and support
for women as politicians) and certain aspects
of the electoral system, in particular the voting
and counting procedure (whether open or
closed ballot) and the process of the electoral
campaign that might affect voters opinion. The
voters have more impact on the final outcome
in an open-ballot system in as much as they
can nominate particular individuals whom they
want to see winning by putting a mark next to
their name. Interestingly, this system is not
considered as advantageous for women as the
closed ballot, since women candidates must
be individually rather than automatically
nominated for office, and the prevailing
assumption is that most voters traditionally

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

would vote for men. However, this may change

if there is an explicit pro-women campaign
going on, and similarly, it may revert back to
voting for men if a backlash situation or a
negative campaign takes place. However, the
following are the constraints faced by women

Women confront larger hindrance in

entering politics- Prejudice and cultural
perceptions about the role of women,
together with a lack of financial resources,
are among the greatest obstacles to
women entering politics.


Women convey diverse views, perspectives

and talents to politics- It is a common
belief that among the both male and
female that women bring different views,
perspectives and talents to politics.
Women lead efforts to combat genderbased violence and to ensure that issues
such as parental leave, childcare,
pensions, gender-equity laws and
electoral reforms that enhance womens
access to parliament appear on the
legislative agenda.


Lesser in number , the lesser influence on

decision making- There are not enough
women serving on their parliaments
committees. Fewer women means less
influence by women and less progress on
gender equality within parliament, and on
incorporating their perspective in the work
of all committees, whether they are
dedicated to issues of gender equality and
the status of women, or other concerns,
such as finance, national security and
foreign affairs.


Indian landmass stormed the corridor of the

power with their strong comeback. Both
women had strongly motivated the voters in
their state to vote for change. The swing of vote
towards the Jaylalithaa has forced the D.M.K
and Congress to pack up. In West Bengal, the
state had seen the longest elected communist
regime ever in the world history demolished by
the Mamta Benerjee, the Front ranking woman
politician in India. Mamata Banerjee, the
Charismatic lady leader of West Bengal, clad
in any light-colored sari, without cosmetics or
jewellery brought curtains to 34-years
uninterrupted rule of the Left Front .Revenge is
history, change is victory. The target is not to
just overthrow CPI(M). It is to get Bengal back
its glory. Going by these comments of
Trinamool Congress (TMC) leader Mamata
Banerjee, her victory in the recent West Bengal
Assembly elections is just the beginning. She
has been successful in unseating the CPI(M)
for the first time in 34 years. Mamatas
Trinamool Congress made history by routing
the cadre-based Left Front after 34 years of
continuous rule, which failed to bring about the
kind of progress and development its
manpower and intellectual resources should
have seen. With the simplicity of the
commoner in her rubber chappals, Mamata
termed this historic change as the second
independence day.
January 5th, 1955 was the day West
Bengals first woman Chief Minister was born
in a lower middle-class set up of Calcutta.
From the young age, she was regarded as
firepower orator with a stern persona. Mamata
Banerjee got into politics as a young adult
studying in Calcutta with the student wing of
Indian National Congress. Maverick as she is,
she grabbed the public eye by throwing herself
in front of Jayaprakash Narayans car in the
70s when he attempted to organize people
against Indira Gandhi prior to Emergency. And
then began her political career as she rose to
be the General Secretary of Mahila Congress
in West Bengal during 1976-1980. Her quest
with Congress continued as she became the
youngest Member of Parliament ever in the
General Elections of 1984. Having beaten

Difference in identifying
level- Men claim to be most active in
foreign affairs, economic and trade
issues, education and constitutional
affairs, while they report low levels of
activity in gender equality, labour and
womens issues.

The charismatic lady leader and political

change in West Bengal:
Two women from different corner of the

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Communist veteran Somnath Chatterjee in

those elections, she moved on to become the
General Secretary of All India Youth Congress.
As rebellious as she was, in 1996 Banerjee
tagged Congress as a stooge of CPI-M in
West Bengal. Raising her voice against hiked
petroleum prices and standing up against
Congresss ignorant attitude towards West
Bengal, she finally formed her own party called
the Trinamool Congress in 1998. In the Lok
Sabha election same year, the Trinamool
Congress won 7 seats followed by one more in
the 1999 elections. And Mamata Banerjee
went on to become the Union Railway Minister
in 1999 under the NDA rule. But after the
Tehelka expose into defence deals she quit as
the Railway minister and allied with Congress
for 2001 Assembly elections.

She proclaimed to struggle for her land and her

people and became the Union Railway
Minister once again in 2009.
Mamata never failed to strike a chord with
the people of West Bengal. Taking up issues
that CPI-M remained aloof from, she always
had a foot forward. Targeting industrialization
concerns or issues of pension, privatization
and banking sector she thwarted CPI-M chief
Buddhadeb Bhattacherjee on every note.
Along with Nandigram and Singur and the
protests against Rizwanur Rehmans death,
Banerjee made the people of West Bengal
believe that they could do way better devoid
the CPI-M led Left front. Mamata Banerjee and
partys major influence in West Bengal politics
was evident when a staunch Left-wing party
like SUCI became an ally of the Trinamool

What followed this was the downfall of her

party as it failed to grab a hold of the panchayat
elections as well. And eventually, as clichd
politics in India is, Trinamool Congress turned
sides and allied with the NDA in 2004. She was
the Coal and Mines minister till 2004 elections,
where her party won only her seat.

After ups and downs, controversies and

victories, and after a string of wins in
panchayat elections or municipal polls and a
good show at Lok Sabha elctions, Mamata
Banerjee rose to ultimate glory on May 13th
2011. Clean sweeping the Left in West Bengal
Trinamool Congress alliance won 227 seats in
the Assembly, Trinamool Congress alone
winning 184 seats. Ex-Chief Minister
Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee lost his seat from
Jadavpur constituency and that was a proof of
the fact that people of Bengal were weary of
the Left dominance. Either out of that sheer
weariness or out of their love for Ma, Mati,
Manush, people helped Mamata Banerjee
rout the red from West Bengal. Mamata
Banerjee is all set to be the first woman chief
minister of the West Bengal. She broke away
from the Congress party and floated the
monolithic Trinamool Congress in 1998 to take
on the left front in West Bengal. In 13 years,
Mamata has brought down the left front
coalition that ruled the state for 34 years
beginning from 1977 like a pack of cards. In
these years the Gross Domestic Product of
West Bengal has gone down by 1.5%. Within a
decade of the left fronts rule in West Bengal,
most industries closed shop following
uncompromising trade unionism.

Indian politics had ruled out Trinamool

Congress and Mamata Banerjee when she
grabbed eyeballs at the national scene with
Nandigram and Singur. As a stern opposer of
Special Economic Zone (SEZ), she protested
against Left governments orders to develop
SEZ in Nandigram. She urged the Prime
Minister to stop violence and land acquisition
by the CPI-M and eventually the Bhumi
Uchchhed Pratirodh Committee (BUPC) was
formed. Similarly, in 2006 Banerjee stood up
for the land of poor villagers in Singur which
was grabbed by the government for Tata
Motors Nano car project. The Trinamool chief
went on a 25-day hunger-strike in the wake of
these protests at Esplanade in Kolkata which
was soon called off after pleads from PM
Manmohan Singh. Such was the commotion of
Mamata Banerjee that Trinamool Congress
won 2008 civic polls and allied with Congress
in 2009 grabbing 19 of the 42 Lok Sabha seats
in the state. That was the time when her
supporters beloved Didi coined the slogan of
Ma, Mati, Manush in the election campaign.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Trinamool Congress coalition has

attracted 8% swing of votes in their favour. No
one had ever managed such a strong setback
in the history of West Bengal for the Left
parties, but Didi (Elder Sister)had done the

to end the three decade long Left rule in the

Several reasons have been cited for
Mamatas successful sweep. The Lefts dismal
performance on education, health care and
employment has disillusioned the masses.
The scarce resources are available largely to
the CPI(M) loyalists: government jobs,
teaching positions at schools, access to water
from village wells. The CPI(M) backed Unions
stifle economic growth by threatening small
business and large industries alike. What most
offended the Bengali masses and elite alike
was the undue intrusion of Leftist ideology in
affairs of civil society. Though outgoing Chief
Minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee had
reprimanded his party workers against such
interference, the tide had already turned
against the Left.

It was election of delivery Vs. non-delivery.

The left front had made the plot in 34 year to
lose when the people of Bengal realized about
the lost glory of their state and they have voted
from the change. Indian politics is gradually
sifting towards the development centric, as we
see the gain of Narendra Modi, Raman Singh,
Shivraj Singh Chauhan , Nitish Kumar and
Tarun Gogai in the corridor of power. All have
differences but one thing is common among
them they have delivered for their state. So the
development is the key for the consistent
success in this changing environment.
It is simple, if public is rewarding the leader
who have delivered, why dont they punish
them who havent delivered. However, it is
noticeable that Bhudhdev Bhattacharya, the
former Chief Mininister of West Bengal, had
tried his best to change his image as a
reformer, but he was unable to clean the board
that was crafted in 29 year before he had taken
charge of the state.

Mamta Benerjee has taken charge of state

with piled up expectations of the people. Now,
her competitors are not the ruined left parties
but the performing Chief Ministers like Nitish
Kumar, Raman Singh etc. If she follows the
suit of development in agricultural and industry
for the job creation then she will half way
through and rest will depend on her
governance then certainly left will be buried
,but if she fails to do so ,then left will bounce
back soon. It was Mamatas role in fighting for
farmers rights against acquisition of land in
Nandigram and Singur that brought her on a
major collision course with the ruling left front
government and sent the government running
for cover. The greatest challenge for Mamata
will be on issues of governance. The real test of
Mamatas political ingenuity will be her
approach towards the police and bureaucracy
the two institutions she has often criticized for
supporting and perpetuating the Leftist
ideology. Her emphasis on reviving the work
culture in Bengal could result in a
confrontation with the State bureaucracy.

Mamata Banerjees victory is by itself a

huge change for West Bengal but the people of
the state look forward to better education and
employment opportunities, increased industrialization
and improved infrastructure. For Didi (sister)
as she is lovingly called by the people of
Bengal, the job has only begun. TMCs
Election Manifesto outlines a blueprint of the
regeneration and rejuvenation of West
The slogan for Didis election campaign
was maa, maati, manush mother, land and
people. Interestingly, the slogan is drawn from
a famous Bengali jatra (folk-theatre) originally
scripted in 1975 about the time when the Left
Front came to power, defeating the Congress.
With changing times, not only is the original
script of the jatra being reworked by the
authors son, its central message is being used

Now, with this historic win, the issue has

come a full circle. But, Mamata is confident that
the industry as well the farmers will smile under
her regime. She gave an assurance that she
would try to steer clear of land acquisition and

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

try to develop industries in areas where there is

proper infrastructure for the same. She said
there would be no forcible acquisition. When
the need arising she would take the course of

society. The lack of openness in political

decision-making and undemocratic internal
processes are challenging for all newcomers,
but particularly for women. Similarly, the
complex hierarchies in political parties and
legislatures represent a barrier to many
women who enter politics at the local level and
aspire to rise to other levels of leadership.

Mamata has promised the electorate

more than good governance; she hopes to
alter the States political culture. The TMC
election manifesto refers to one of the goals as
above all rejuvenate the culture of the state to
one of hope, resilience and innovation- a
constant theme in Mamatas campaign
speeches during the campaign. Only time will
tell if Didi can rejuvenate West Bengal or will
she be overwhelmed by responsibilities of
making tough decisions, managing an
unpredictable Opposition and responding to
the surge of popular aspirations.

Moreover, there must be the willingness of

citizens to accept new ideas about gender
roles in society. There are still many countries
that discourage women from competing
directly with men or consider childcare and
housekeeping to be the exclusive domain of
women. As such, it is common throughout the
world to see women activists supporting
democratic activities at the grassroots level,
yet to see few women in leadership positions,
thereby creating an absence of women from
whom to draw for higher levels of political
leadership. Concerted efforts must be made to
raise awareness of gender inequality and the
ways in which stereotypical gender roles
create both formal and informal barriers. The
support of male political leaders is also a key
ingredient in creating a political climate that
encourages womens political participation.

From the above discussion, it has been
observed that considerable challenges remain
to womens meaningful political participation.
And while no ideal environment currently
exists to jumpstart the advancement of
womens political advancement, there are
certain conditions that make it easier.
First, women must have reasonable
access to positions of power. Political
leadership is often centralized and informal.
Holding a formal position, even an elected
position, does not necessarily lead to greater
influence, as the real leaders do not always
hold formal titles. Power in democracies is
further built on relationships that often have
existed many years. In countries where
womens public roles are only beginning to
develop, womens absence from this history
can present significant barriers. However, by
giving women the tools they need to lead,
creating the opportunity for advancement and
helping build networks of like-minded men and
women, and ensuring that womens legal
rights are firmly entrenched, a pathway to
power can be developed.

The ability of women to attain financial

autonomy or access to economic resources is
also necessary for their greater participation in
political life. Worldwide, womens lower
economic status, relative poverty and
discriminatory legal frameworks are
substantial hurdles to overcome.
Because women control and have access
to fewer economic resources, they are often
unable to pay the formal and informal costs
associated with gaining a partys nomination
and standing for election.

Next, transparency in the political and

legislative processes is critical to the
advancement of women in political and civil


Bochel Catherine and Jacqui Briggs, Do

Women Make a Difference? Politics 20:2,
2000, pp. 63-68


Caul Miki, Womens Representation in

Parliament: The Role of Political Parties,
Party Politics 5:1, 1999, pp. 79-98
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011


Matland Richard, Enhancing Womens

Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment
and Electoral Systems, in Azza Karam
(ed.) Women in Parliament: Beyond
Numbers, International IDEA, 1998, pp.


Ross Karen, Womens Place in Male

Space: Gender and Effect in Parliamentary
Contexts Parliamentary Affairs (55),
2002, pp 189-202



Karam, (ed.) Women in Parliament:

Beyond Numbers, (Stockholm: International
IDEA, pp 19-42 Quota for Women: an
IDEA Study- University of Stockholm,

Rule Wilma, Electoral Systems, Contextual

Factors and Womens Opportunity for
Election in Twenty -Three Democracies,
West Politics Quarterly (40), 1997, pp.


Constructing Femininity in India by Anna



Guida M. Jackson, Women Who Ruled:

Biographical Encyclopedia, Barnes &
Noble Books, 1998


Banerjee Mamata Paints West Bengal

Green,Instablogs, Vincent Van Ross,
New Delhi: May 13, 2011

10. West Bengals New Chief Minister

Mamata Banerjee has inherited a state of
woes, Darjeling Times, 29th May, 2011

Shvedova Nadezdha, Obstacles to

Womens Participation in Politics in Azza


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 19-26

Health and Hygiene among the Pattharkattas:

A Case of Lucknow
Dr. Nirja Singh
Reader and Head
Department of Anthropology, National P.G. College
(An Autonomous College of University of Lucknow, Lucknow)

Dr. Shuchi Srivastava

Department of Anthropology, National P.G. College
(An Autonomous College of University of Lucknow, Lucknow)

Health is a level of functional and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism. Hygiene refers to the set of practices
associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. The present empirical study has been
conducted to know about the conditions related to health and hygiene among the Pattharkattas, living in
Lucknow. Pattharkatta is a scheduled caste community. It has been found that the hygienic conditions are
very poor among the Pattharkattas, especially among those who are leading a nomadic life. It is directly
affecting their health conditions. The belief in supernatural agency is predominant in the context of health,
disease and treatment. Along with it, poverty, lack of education and unawareness are the hindrance in
improving their health status and making the situation more critical

Keywords: Settled Pattharkattas, Non-settled Pattharkattas, Health, Hygiene


Hygiene refers to the set of practices

associated with the sustenance of health and
healthy living. The word hygiene comes from a
Greek word hygiea that means Goddess for
health and deals with personal and community
health. The concept of health & hygiene are
related to medicine and personal &
professional health care practices in all the
realm of life. The practice helps as preventive
measure to reduce the incidence and
spreading of disease.

Health is the general condition of a person

in all aspects. It is also a level of functional
and/or metabolic efficiency of an organism.
According to Clements (1932), Health is of
universal interest and concern. In 1948 World
Health Organization (WHO) defined health as
a state of complete physical, mental, and
social well-being and not merely the absence
of disease or infirmity. In 1986, the WHO, in
the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, said
that health is a resource for everyday life, not
the objective of living. Health is a positive
concept emphasizing social and personal
resources, as well as physical capacities.
Thus, overall health is achieved through a
combination of physical, mental, and social
well-being, which, together is commonly
referred to as the Health Triangle. Achieving
and maintaining health is an ongoing process.
Effective strategies for staying healthy and
improving one's health include several
elements and hygiene is one of these

The present study is based on empirical

data of the health and hygienic condition of the
Pattharkattas, residing in Lucknow. According
to Crooke (1896), the Pattharkatta is a
subgroup of Kanjar, a tribal group. They are of
Dravidian origin and now included under the
category of Scheduled Caste. The name
Pattharkatta is associated with their traditional
occupation of stone grinding. It is believed that
the word Pattharkatta is composed of two
words Patthar which means stone and
Katta which means to crush. They
manufacture mainly grinding stone (sil-batta),
stone vessel (chakki) and stone idols.

The Pattharkattas are distributed in

different states of India, but their main
concentration is in north and north-western
part of the country, as their large population is
found in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Delhi. In
Uttar Pradesh, their main concentration is in
Aligarh, Mirzapur, Agra, Basti, Gonda,
Bahraich, Gorakhpur, Bijnor and Lucknow.

(Vivekanand Puri Ward); 7. Saadatganj

(Saadatganj Ward); 8. Vikas Nagar (Lala
Lajpat Rai Ward)
It is found that in Chathe Mill Sitapur
road, Chinhat, Kukrail Pul Bandha and
Saadatganj areas, the Pattharkattas are
residing permanently. While, several
Pattharkattas are living in Daliganj, Husadia,
Lekhraj and Vikas Nagar areas, on temporary

The literature on Patharkatta is extremely

sparse. Some scholars have carried out
researches and have helped to enhance our
knowledge about the Kanjars and their
activities (Crooke, 1896; Russell & Hira Lal,
1916; Singh, 1993a; Singh, 1993b). The
specific studies on the Pattharkatta are very
few. Sunar (2008) had conducted research on
the socio-economic and political status of
Pattharkattas, of Kapilvastu district of Nepal.
While, Gopal Krishna (2004) studied about the
health-hazards for stone-cutters of the Lalkuan
area of New Delhi. There are only two major
studies on Pattharkattas, residing in Lucknow.
Quadry & Singh (2007) had given the
ethnographic detail of Pattharkattas. While
Singh (2009) had focused the need of
constitutional safeguards for the Pattharkattas
but no specific study has been conducted on
their health and hygienic conditions.
Therefore, against this backdrop, the present
synchronic study enquires the health and
hygienic conditions among the Pattharkattas
residing in Lucknow.

Thus on the basis of their habitat, these

Pattharkattas have been divided into two
1. Settled Pattharkattas: Those, who have
permanent residence and are living with their
families in huts or brick houses. They daily use
to go to sell their manufactured goods and
items in different lanes, streets and colonies.
2. Non-settled Pattharkattas: Those, who
are living temporarily with their families, on
road sides in either tent, made up of jute,
plastic and polythene sheets with cane or reed
framing or in huts which are in dilapidated
condition. They sell their products on footpath,
just outside their habitat.
Materials and Methods
The basis of this study is extensive field
work. It includes both the primary as well as
secondary sources of data. Through simple
random sampling 100 people have been
selected from their universe. Along with
observation, intensive interview, case study
and photography have been used extensively
for data collection.

The Area and the Sample

The present empirical study has been
done in Lucknow, the state capital of Uttar
Pradesh. The urban setting is divided into 110
wards. The Pattharkattas are scattered over in
different wards of the city, but their
concentration is in the areas, namely, 1.
Chathe Mill Sitapur Road (Bhartendu
Harishchandra Ward); 2. Chinhat (Chinhat
Ward); 3. Daliganj (Daliganj Ward); 4.
Husadiya (Rajeev Gandhi Ward); 5. Kukrail Pul
Bandha (Paper Mill Colony Ward); 6. Lekhraj

The sample for the present study consists

of 100 people, including 50 settled dwellers (25
males & 25 females) and 50 non-settled
dwellers (25 males & 25 females).
Results and Discussions
In the present study, it is found that
generally the Pattharkattas believe that a
person, who is physically fit and active, is a

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

healthy person. They feel that health cannot be

achieved merely by taking a pill every day, or
by observing a few restrictions.

Self-Assessment of Health
Table-1 reveals the self-assessment of the
Pattharkattas about their health status.

Table No. 1
Current Health Status : Their Assessment



Not so well
















houses to live. Some of them are living in either

temporary tent, made up of plastic or in huts on
the sides of the roads. Therefore, there is no
separate kitchen, bathroom and toilet in their
houses. As they are road side dwellers, on
twenty-four and seven basis, constantly they
are surrounded by extremely polluted

Table-1 shows that an overwhelming

majority of the Pattharkattas (50.00%) have
reported not so well health condition, followed
by those who have reported 'unwell' health
condition (29.00%). While 21.00% persons
have stated that they have 'sound' health. Most
of those persons who have reported 'unwell'
health condition are suffering from some kind
of disease. There is no remarkable difference
visible between the assessment of settled and
non-settled Pattharkattas, as well as males
and females.

Hygiene: In the present study, the

hygienic conditions of the Pattharkattas have
been viewed in mainly three aspects:
a. Personal Hygiene: Most of the settled
Pattharkattas of the Chinhat area are aware of
their personal hygiene practices, only a few are
not conscious in this direction. Mostly they use
toothpaste to clean their teeth from tooth
brush. Sometimes they clean their teeth from
finger. Water is easily available at the
residential area as the government has
provided hand pumps. Therefore, most of the
people take regular bath and they wash their
clothes. But these people do not pay attention
towards the hygiene of their kids. Their
children are seen wearing dirty clothes and

Aspects Related to Health

There are many aspects of their life and
culture related to their health and sickness,
which are as follows:
Housing Pattern: The form and structure
of houses are directly related with sanitation
and health. Good arrangement of houses
symbolizes good health. The Pattharkattas of
Pakka Talab area of Chinhat live in one room
kaccha houses. The settled Pattharkattas of
other areas are living in huts and the nonsettled Pattharkattas do not have proper

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

playing at unhygienic places. Except Chinhat

ward, the settled Pattharkattas of other areas
have not shown these type of hygienic

empty plots. There is no bathroom and toilet

facility available in their houses. Therefore,
they take bath in open areas and go for open

In comparison to the settled Pattharkattas,

the hygienic conditions of non-settled
Pattharkattas are extremely pitiable. They are
neither conscious nor bothered about their
personal hygiene. They do not clean their teeth
daily. They do not have proper water facility in
their residential area. As they use to fetch
water from distantly located hand pumps and

Food Habits and Nutrition: The

Pattharkattas of all the areas are both
vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian in their
food habits. They prefer to have nonvegetarian food but they cannot afford it
frequently. But they try to cook non-vegetarian
food on special occasions, such as during
social gatherings, ceremonies, feasts and
festivals. There is no fixed routine for their
meals, whenever they get time they take their
lunch and dinner. Normally males take heavy
diet than female. It is a usual phenomenon that
in the time of scarcity always priority is given to
male members to the access to food. The
overall picture reveals they dont have
balanced diet and their diet lacks protein and
other vital nutrients. No special care is taken
for the diet of kids and pregnant women.

b. Domestic Hygiene: All the activities are

restricted to one room and some open areas.
There is no separate kitchen in their houses,
therefore, they cook their food in open areas on
kaccha chulha (mud hearth). They wash their
utensils with soaps or ash. The domestic
hygienic conditions are not so good, but in
comparison to non-settled Pattharkattas it
seems much better.

Drinks and Drugs: Most of the male

members of Pattharkattas take alcohol daily.
They smoke a great deal of loose tobacco
rolled or wrapped in tendu leaf, i.e. bidi.
Cigarettes and bidis are common among them.
Elderly persons of both the sexes are addicted
to smoking. Most of them have the habit of
chewing betel leaf (tobacco) and other
ingredients like pan masala and gutka etc.
Even the children of young age (10+) are also
seen eating gutkas and pan masalas. They
spend the major part of their income on these
things because of which very little money or no
money is left for other necessary household
things or medicines.

Mostly the settled Pattharkattas of other

areas and non-settled Pattharkattas are not
very much aware towards domestic hygiene.
Scarcity of water and other resources compels
them to act so.
c. Community Hygiene: Unawareness and
unhealthy practices clubbed with the poor
socio-economic conditions manifest
themselves in the form of unhygienic
surroundings at community level. They throw
their garbage on the empty lands or plots
nearby. No facility is provided by the
government for the disposal of their garbage
and cleaning of the streets and surrounding
areas. There is no proper drainage system.
There is no community level effort made for
improving the hygienic condition of their

Birth and Weaning: Looking at the

maternity and child health care aspects, there
is no special care taken of a pregnant woman
among these people. There is no respite from
heavy works to pregnant woman. In most
cases, there is no system of utilizing maternity
and child health services. They approach the
doctor only in case of complication or

The waste water generated after bathing,

washing clothes and cooking food get
collected in pits. After 2-3 days when pit get
filled, then they throw it in the open areas or

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

abnormality. The main reason behind it is that

the Pattharkattas of Uttar Pradesh have been
recently included in the category of the
Schedule Caste. Therefore, most of them are
not aware of the programmes running
especially for the Scheduled Castes. For the
delivery, very few women go to the government
hospitals, where free delivery facility is
available for people living below poverty line. In
Janani Suraksha Yojana free medicines and
some cash are provided to them. But as most
of them are not aware about these facilities,
they do not get benefitted. In the case of
delivery in hospital, the parents vaccinate their
newly born baby but later on, they do not take
their child to hospital for vaccination. However,
the Government workers come to their places
to give Polio drops to the children upto 5 years
of age.

Among the Pattharkattas, the children are

breast fed for more than three years. There is
no fixed duration for sucking the baby.
Main Diseases
At the time of present study, the main
diseases found in settled and non-settled
Pattharkattas are asthma, bone & joint
problems, cholera, cataract, cold & cough,
diarrhea, dysentery, fever (included typhoid),
headache, malaria, skin infection, stomachache
and swelling of body. Although the fever,
headache, stomachache and swelling of body
are not diseases in itself, while the symptoms
of other diseases, but these are conceived as
the diseases among Pattharkattas. One Case
of Polio is seen among the settled
Pattharkattas of Kukrail Pul Bandha, while one
is seen among non-settled Pattharkattas
(Table- 2).

Table No. - 2
Physical Ailments




Bone &
Joint Problems Female
Cold & cough













Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011











Swelling of












*In this sample of 100 respondents, some ailments are reported by several respondents causing an overlap
in the number of responses for various symptoms. It is, therefore, meaningless to calculate percentages
against a definite total. Base here has been given to indicate the number of respondents interviewed
instead of giving the word total.

Table-2 reveals physical ailments among

the Pattharkattas. According to it, majority of
the people (16.00%) are suffering from cold
and cough, followed by bone & joint problems
(15.00%), fever (14.00%), asthma (13.00%),
tuberculosis (10.00%), malaria (9.00%),
cataract (7.00%), diarrhea (7.00%) and
dysentery (7.00%). While the percentage of all
other ailments is less than 6.00%. The
percentage of the cholera, diarrhea, dysentery
and malaria is high among non-settled
Pattharkattas in comparison to settled
Pattharkattas. Unhygienic condition is the
main reason responsible for this high
percentage of their health problems. There is
no major difference between the ailments

among the males and females.

As it is firsthand information, no any
physical examination and clinical testing were
conducted, therefore, it cannot be concluded
that the Pattharkattas do not suffer from other
severe diseases, such as, heart disease and
cancer etc. They might be also suffering from
other diseases. But they do not go to the
hospitals regularly to identify and treat the
ailments, so that they mostly do not know what
the disease they suffer from.
Diseases Causation
The several factors, affecting the health
condition of these people, can be broadly
divided into two categories:

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011


Natural Causes: In this category those

causes of diseases and health destruction
are included which can be explained
logically and have scientific base. These
are of two types:
a. Climatic Causes: Seasonal changes
cause health problems. Lucknow
has tropical climate with three
seasons - winter, summer and rainy
season. These seasonal changes
are severe for the health of these
people, as most of them have not
proper shelter for the protection from
climatic fluctuations. Winters are too
cold and summer is too hot. Rainy
season plays a positive role to
spread the contagious diseases
which specially affects these people.
b. Man Made Causes: Those causes
are included in this category, which
originate due to mainly unawareness
and carelessness of people. The
main man made causes of diseases
among the Pattharkattas are:
i. Inadequate, unbalanced and low
nutritional diet due to lower level of
education and awareness.
ii. Non-availability of essential
nutrients due to socio-economic
iii. The nature and the conditions in
which they work, because hard work
combined with poor nutrition leads to
the state of general disability which is
called deficiency illness.
iv. Various stress and strain due to
socio-economic problems.
v. Environmental conditions, such
as, poor sanitation, lack of basic
amenities, for e.g., unclean water
and improper drainage system tend
to make the environment itself a
health hazard.
vi. Alcoholism, tobacco smoking and
intake of pan masalas and gutkas.
vii. Increasing pollution due to rapid
development in the changing times
and life style create environmental
hazard which affects the health



viii. Neglect and non-adoption of

preventive measures, due to lower
level of education or lack of
awareness or socio-economic
problems made them more prone to
ix. Unavailability or poor quality of
health services.
c. Genetic Causes: Some genetically
transmitted health problems have
also seen.
Supernatural Causes: A m o n g
Pattharkattas many diseases are believed
to be caused by supernatural agencies. If
somebody fall sick seriously and suddenly
or when disease take a sudden bad shape
or when it is derangement of the mental
faculties, these people assign it to a
supernatural cause. These supernatural
causes are evil spirit, sorcery and evil eye.
a. Evil Spirit: There is a belief among
Pattharkattas that the souls of the
person, who have committed suicide
or met with an accident, interfere with
the living persons and harm them.
They bring sickness and misfortunes
of all kinds.
b. Sorcery: These people fear the
magic of the enemy as much as they
fear the evil spirits. An enemy, be a
neighbour or a relative, through
magic of his own or with the help of
sorcerer, can bring disease and
destruction upon another. If the
condition remains undiagnosed and
untreated, it can lead to death.
c. Evil Eye: It is believed among
Pattharkattas that some individuals
have the faculty to cast a spell on
others by just looking at them. Some
do it involuntarily at whosoever
comes in their path; others do it
voluntarily because they are jealous
of others and desire to possess what
others have. The thing may perish,
the person may get ill or more often
have an accident. Children are
believed to be particularly
susceptible to the effect of the evil
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

The health services provided by the
government is not fully utilized. Generally,
Pattharkattas do not prefer to go to
government hospitals or health care services
as their first means of treatment because most
of them have reported that due to their lower
socio-economic condition, the doctors and the
staff misbehave with them. Even sometimes,
they demand undue financial advantages from
For seasonal fever and cold & cough they
buy medicines from local medical stores. But in
case of other health problems, mostly these
people do not seek out for any treatment in the
initial state of sickness. Therefore, in most of
the cases, the sickness becomes chronic.
When the ailments become acute only then
they do seek for some treatment. They lay
hand on domestic remedies for some days but
when the medicine fails to give any relief and
the ailment becomes acute taking a chronic
form, they go to local medicine men or witch
doctors as according to them this is an attack of
an evil-spirit. When the local medicine men or
witch doctors fail to provide any relief they
consult the doctor. There are a few countable
settled Pattharkattas of Chinhat area who
believe in consulting the doctor immediately
after the occurrence of any disease.
The hygienic conditions are very poor
among the Pattharkattas, especially among
those who are leading a nomadic life. It is
directly affecting their health conditions. The
belief in supernatural agency is predominant in
the context of health, disease and treatment.
Along with it poverty, lack of education and
unawareness are the hindrance in improving
their health status and making the situation
more critical. There are several specific
facilities provided by the government for the
welfare of the Scheduled Castes. But neither
these people are aware about these facilities
nor they bother to make any effort in this

direction. Therefore, to make an amen of such

situation it is high time for the government to
ameliorate the health care programmes
according to their needs. The NGOs should
also come forward for giving their services in
implementing these programmes and making
these people aware about these facilities and
their rights.
1. Clements F.E., Primitive Concepts of
Disease, American Archaeology and
Ethnology, 32: 185, 1932: 252
2. Crooke W., The Tribes and Castes of
North Western Provinces and Oudh.
Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of
Government Printing, India, 1896
3. Krishna G., Succumbing to Stone-cutting.
http://www.indiatogether org/2004/feb/hltstonecuts.htm, 2004
4. Q u a d r i N . A . F. a n d S i n g h , U . P.
Pattharkatta / Kanjar: Ek Nrajati Vaigyanik
Addhayan. The Asian Man. Vol. 1, 2007:
5. Russell R.V. and Hira Lal R.B., The Tribes
and Castes of the Central Provinces of
India. Macmillan and Company Limited,
St. Martin's Street, London, 1916
6. Singh K.S., Kanjar / Gihar, All
Communities, Vol. II (H-M), 1993a
7. Singh K.S., Patharkat/ Patharkut, Kanjar /
Patharkut. All Communities, Vol. III (N-Z),
8. Singh U.P., The Patharkatta Kanjars or
Gihar of Uttar Pradesh: A Migrant Tribal
Community in Search of Constitutional
Safeguard, I.J.D.R. & S.A. New Delhi,
9. Sunar N.K., Socio-Economic and Political
Status of Pattharkatta: A Case from
Kapilvastu District, Unpublished Research
Report Submitted to Social Inclusion
Research Fund (SIRF), SNV Nepal,
Bhakundole, Lalitpur, 2008


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 27-33

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Conservation of Tribal Heritage in Jharkhand

( An Anthropological Perspective )
Shamsher Alam
Department of Anthropology, Ranchi University, Ranchi

Dr. Kanchan Roy

Associate Professor
Department of Anthropology, Ranchi University, Ranchi

The present paper attempts to bring out the understanding of cultural heritage and its conservation through
an anthropological vision. It focuses on tracing the origin of culture, its varied attributes, the anthropological
parameters of heritage with reference to the tribals of Jharkhand and importance of heritage conservation.
The tribals of Jharkhand have always been in stake in context to their rapidly de-generating cultural heritage.
In this context the paper also suggests measures to be adopted and implemented for conserving the rapidly
waning cultural heritage of the tribals in general and the same belonging to Jharkhand in particular.

Keywords : Anthropology, Tradition, Values, Culture, Heritage, Conservation

such as agriculture, animal taming and
husbandry, building of house and house-hold
Man in the course of evolution has passed
items, technological development in making of
through several stages to reach the present
tools and weapons, covering of body etc.
stage of development. This stage-wise
Mans interaction with the perceived unseen
development is true both in the case of
world, because of either fear or faith, gave birth
biological progression as well as socio-cultural
to religion, magic and nature-worship.
and technological development. In these
Ascribing of mystic ancestral relationship with
courses of development, man has remained
certain natural objects, led to upcoming of clan
the epicentre of the whole happening.
(gotra) and lineage setup. Concepts of prayer,
Biologically, he has achieved the present state
belief, faith, witchcraft, sorcery, shamanism,
of increased cranial capacity, erect posture,
religious taboos, worshipping of totem etc.
power and precision gripping, stereoscopic
were the other epilogues of this interaction.
binocular vision and several other facets. All
These three basic interactions laid the
these have remarkably affected the other
foundation-stone of CULTURE from the early
perspectives of his life as well. The impacts of
savage state to the present day civilized stage
developed biological features were seen in
of advancement.
three different frontiers vizually his interaction
Materials and Methods
with fellow beings, environment and the
unseen world.
The present study is based on primary as
as secondary sources. Primary data has
The interaction of man with man, led to the
collected through personal interviews
upcoming of social senses leading to
help of question schedule. Secondary
socialization, division of labour, marriage,
data has been collected through available
family, kinship ties, kin based political setup
literature in form of books, Journals, reports
etc. It was a major development from the socioand websites.
cultural point of view. Secondly, the interaction
Results and Discussions
of man with his surroundings (i.e. environment)
was primarily concerned with fulfilling of his
In a common-mans perspective, a person
primary need of food (satisfaction of hunger).
maintaining good manners, etiquettes and skill
The influence of this interaction was also
is referred to as cultured and performing of
visible in the material aspects of human life
finer arts like music, dance, drama, paintings

etc. are referred to as cultural activities. This

is the general understanding of culture.
Kroeber and Kluckhohn, (1952) held that
culture is very ambiguous and has as many as
108 different visualisations like educated
behaviour, character, idealization, intellect,
sophistication, creativity, art etc. In the
traditional Indian Hindu setup, culture is
presaged as performing of Sanskars. It
integrates the different deeds of man for
becoming a social being.

complementary to each other and are parts of

the unified cohesive whole of human existence
; and both are incomplete without the other.
Tribals of Jharkhand and their Cultural
In general usage, the word TRIBE
denotes a primary aggregate of people living in
primitive barbarous condition, usually located
in far flung areas. Often words like Aboriginals, Animists, Savage, Pre-Literate,
Indigenous were brought in use as its
synonym. In Hindi the term Adivasi/Janjati
appears in lieu of tribe. In India prior to 1931,
these words were used interchangeably but
after that, the nomenclature referring to tribes
underwent successive modifications and after
independence, such words were dropped and
the notion of SCHEDULED TRIBE was
incorporated in the constitution. Hence-forth it
became widely accepted.

However speaking in anthropological

connotation, culture refers to the complex
whole of knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws,
custom and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society
(Tylor, 1871). Culture is also often quoted as
the sum total of integrated behaviour pattern
which are characteristics of the members of a
society, and are not the result of biological
inheritance (Hoebel,1958). Thus, culture is a
social heritage, which is given to individuals by
the society.

Anthropologically speaking, tribals are a

group of individual having common language/
dialect, common territory, common economic
system and distinct oral traditions and customs
of unique antiquity which varies quite sharply
from the same of the so-called civilized
societies. Tribals many a times are biologically
identifiable as well.

The above citations make a clear-cut

implication that, the building blocks of culture
has two different facets. The first one is the
material aspect of culture (often referred to as
tangible component of culture) and the other
constitutes the non-material aspect of culture
(alternately designated as non-tangible
component of culture). The former includes all
perceptible things like house, utensils,
ornaments, clothing, worship place, musical
instruments, agricultural implements, objectsde-art, means of transport and communication, industries, weapons etc. In short, all
the physical things come under this category.
In the non-material facet of culture, all the nontangible or abstract aspects are categorized. It
includes knowledge, belief, faith, values,
customs, tradition, law, social organisations,
marriage, rituals, lineage, kinship, religious
setup, political structure etc.

Speaking about Jharkhand, there are 32
identifiable groups under the constitutional
criteria of Scheduled Tribe. They are :-

If viewed in stand-alone scenario these

two aspects of culture, may appear to be quite
unrelated and unconcerned with each other
owing to their antagonistic attributes; but if
analyzed carefully, they are very much

01. Asur

02. Baiga

03. Banjara

04. Bathudi

05. Bedia

06. Bhumij

07. Binjhia

08. Birjhia

09. Birhor

10. Chero

11. Chik-Baraik

12. Gond

13. Gorait

14. Ho

15. Karmali

16. Kharia

17. Khairwar

18. Khond

19. Kisan

20. Koda

21. Kol

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

23. Korwa

24. Lohra

25. Mahali

26. Mal-Paharia

27. Munda

28. Oraon

29. Parhaiya

30. Santhal

31. Sauriya

32. Sawar

symbols, totem pole, worship place (Sarna),

place of cemetery (Sasandiri/Hadgadi), place
of gathering (Akhra), market place, rice beer
(Hadia), market place, art and craft etc. are
some of those which need special attention.
In context to the non-tangible traits and
complexes of culture, the life-style and
panache of the tribals needs to be identified
and conserved. Speaking socially; totemic
clan setup, prohibitive clan practices, lineage
setup, pharatrial and moietial arrangement,
village committees, parha panchayat, clan
exogamy, ways of acquiring marital-mate, kingroups, kinship usages, preferential and
proscriptive forms of marriage, are the ones
which needs to be preserved. Connoting
economically; tribals display a wonderful
balance between ecology and economy. In this
context, their totemic values, traditional folkmedicinal knowledge and practices like JaniShikaar need special addressal. Religiously;
tribals display a wonderful cohesion between
themselves and the super-natural entity. In this
scenario, religious taboos, animism, animatism,
nature-worship (prakriti-puja), totemic practices,
ancestral worship, pre-agricultural and postagricultural rituals, birth and death rituals,
matrimonial practices, associated aspects of
black-magic and white magic, sorcery,
knowledge of witch-doctors, ritualistic
practices of the religious head (Pahan), sacred
and profane beliefs etc. are the ones needy of
conservation. Apart from these, there are a lot
of festivals that needs to be revived in view of
their diminishing ambience such as Karma,
Sohrai, Buru-Parva, Maghe Parva, Phagu,
Sarhul, Chaandi, Jatra Parva, Hareli, Japaad,
Dohrai, Saakraat, Bhagsim, Maghi, Horo,
Jomnana, Kolom, Gangi-Adeya and PunnuAdeya.

These tribal groups can be classified into

different groups in accordance to criterions
such as language/dialect, ethnic morphology,
economy, culture, education, religion,
population etc. They account for about 24 % of
the total population of the state and are
scattered throughout the territorial jurisdiction
of the region.
These earliest settlers of land possess
well-structured socio-cultural and economic
setup well adapted to the type of environment
they inhabit. Their continuity and survival till
the present times, is a proven evidence of well
balanced and stable cultural setup with selfsufficient and stable ingredients, well
synchronized with the ecological ambience of
Jharkhand. These ingredients are the real
heritage which needs to be conserved.
The land of Jharkhand is marked by the
prominent presence of the above mentioned
tribal communities. All these groups have
something or the other which is unique and is
not seen in any of the so called modern day
civilized societies. These special uniques are
very important from the conservation point of
view, as these are the real heritage which
needs to be protected. They are necessary for
maintaining the identity of the group and to
some extent for the survival of the community
as well.
Heritage conservation refers to the
combined whole of preservation of both the
material aspects as well as non-material
aspects of culture. Among the material
aspects, tangible things like the special
huts/houses of the tribals, agricultural
implements, dresses, ornaments, hunting and
gathering equipments, dresses, ornaments,
idols and deities, day to day household items
like utensils, cooking devices, totemic

Apart from these, the legacy of the martyrs

and forerunners of Jharkhand like - Baba Tilka
Manjhi, Bindrai and Sindrai, Birsa Munda,
Budhu Bhagat, Chand-Bhairav, Ganpat Rai,
Jaipal Singh Munda, Jatra Tana Bhagat, Lako
Bodra, Nilambar-Pitambar, Sheikh Bhikhari,
Sido-Kanhu Murmu, Smt. Sinagi Dai, Tikait

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Umrao Singh, Vishwanath Sahdeo etc. are

also among the prized possession of this tribal

also has great importance because a cultural

trait or complex, once lost cannot be restored
ever again. It is an irreparable damage.

Due to the growing influence of Hindi,

English and a few other languages, tribal
languages/dialects like Santhali, Mundari,
Kharia, Ho, Kurukh, Nagpuri, Kurmali, Khortha
and Panch Pargania are loosing their roots.
They need to be put in the priority-list of
preservation. Tribals of Jharkhand also
possess rich folkloric tradition. Associated
attributes like folk-stories, folk-tales, folkmyths, folk-songs, folk-dance, folk-music, folkproverbs, folk-idioms and phrases, folkriddles, folk-welcome songs, folk-riddles, folkabuses etc. are waning-away quite rapidly and
need special attention. Apart from these, the
life-style of tribals, customary laws, beliefs,
faith, youth-dormitories, body-art(tattoo/
godna), oral-traditions, art of using natural
resources, technology applied in various
fields, are also among the non-tangible
aspects which demands due consideration.

Anthropological Perception of Conservation

In popular parlance, heritageconservation refers to preservation of only the
material aspects of the concerned community/
individual which can be displayed. If
liberalized, it goes to the maximum of
performing folk dances or singing tribal songs.
This however is very different from the
anthropological perception of heritage. The
term conservation circumscribing the
anthropological perspective refers to signifying
the entire field or realm of cultural heritage
preservation (both tangible and non-tangible)
from academic inquiry to historical research to
planning and finally technically protecting such
that it maintains its identity along with
incorporating the modern changes (which are
needed for its up-keeping with the contemporary

Importance of Heritage Conservation

Conservation of heritage is observable in

almost every modern society. However its form
and approach varies quite significantly from
culture to culture. Usually, in the nonanthropological methodology of conservation,
the different facets of preservation activities
remain separate, un-integrated and quite
insulated from social contexts. Usually the
tangible things/objects/sites lack the context in
which the society embeds them. These
contexts are values of the associated people,
the function which that heritage-object serves
for the society and the real source of motivation
behind the creation of the concerned object.
Great deal of impetus on conservation is seen
in disciplines like archaeology, architectural
engineering and history, but sadly all of them
focus on the challenges associated with
conservation of physical form rather than its
associated context. Hence, both the tangible
aspects as well as the associated non tangible
context, values, customs, belief, faith,
tradition and other abstract facets along with
the persisting ecological settings, constitutes
heritage and the preservation of this whole can
be designated as conservation in real sense.

Conservation basically refers to saving

the precious. Speaking in context to
anthropology, both the tangible and nontangible aspects of tribals have enormous
importance because they are the representative
of our past sequence of development. They
can be designated as living history or living
fossils of our early stages of development. In
fact, they are the symbols of biological and
socio-cultural past of mankind as a whole.
The chief aim of preserving any form of
culture is to present a holistic historical
perspective to the coming generations as to
what we were in the past. It teaches us about
the past and the cultural values of those who
came before us. It provides a visible evidence
of continuity between the past, present and
future. Apart from this, a sense of pride and
consciousness is also rendered when people
become acquainted with their past.
Academically, it helps in understanding the
socio-cultural, political and associated outlook
for finding similarities or dis-similarities by
means of cross-cultural comparative study. It

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Measures for Heritage Conservation

ICOMOS (International Council of

Monuments and Sites) were closely
involved. The guidelines and vogue
passed in the meeting provides a clear set
of instructions regarding issues and
involved perspectives for cultural and
natural heritage preservation. The same
charter should be adopted and followed
by the agencies in Jharkhand as well.

01. The process of conservation of tribal

heritage emanates with the identification
and ascribing of embedded values in both
the material and non-material aspects of
culture. Also, the environment and
ecological settings in which the tribals
dwell is an important aspect. In this
context the major issues involved include :

(Details at -

Understanding why and for whom an

object/tradition is meaningful and for
whom will it be fruitful and weather it really
needs to be preserved or not?

04. For preserving heritage, the saviour action

should be implemented via a multiple
networking system incorporating conservation
managers of the bureaucracy, concerned
ministerial personnels of central and state
governments, local planning departments,
quasi-public entities conservation
societies, NGOs, legal experts, cultural
activists and even individuals. The role of
bodies like Archaeological Survey of
India, Anthropological Survey of India,
Ministry of Culture (both centre and state
governments) and other related ministries
like Ministry of Tribal Affairs, is quite
crucial in this venture. The role of funding
agencies, businessmen, corporate
houses and governmental agencies
relating to financial assistance cannot be
side lined either. Usually, the degree of
cohesion and integration needed for
successful implementation of conservation
practices is not seen among these bodies.
Proper visionary planning, suitable
organising and above-all co-ordination
between all these involved entities, needs
to be ensured. Governmental laws and
legislation in this context can act as
guidelines for the aforesaid purpose.

Availability and use of resources including

funds, trained personnels, incorporation
of technology and legislative mandate.
These key issues need to be worked out
before instigating the conservation
02. Realistically speaking, the EMICApproach (insiders perspective) about
the importance and conjoined values of a
particular aspect of culture is not fully
understood and assimilated by the keypeople involved in the mechanism. In this
context special mention may be made of
the bureaucrats and ministerial people.
Adding to misery, the tribals, who are the
real bearers of this legacy, are also very
less involved in the process of
conservation. This creates a void between
the top-notch people and the executing
personnels working at the grass-root
level. Without mitigating this void, the
desired motive of conservation cannot be
03. In 2005, the Kyoto declaration on
Protection of Cultural Properties, Historic
Areas and their Settings from Loss in
Disaster established a frame-work on
preservation of cultural properties and
historic areas. It was a major move in
which the UNESCO (The United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization), ICCROM (International
Centre for study of Preservation and
Restoration of Cultural Property) and

05. The whole process of conservation and

preservation needs to be multidisciplinary
in nature. It should include heritage and
conservation experts, historians, archaeologists,
architects, engineers, management
experts, sociologists and anthropologists.
The assignment of preservation, needs
an integrated assessment from expertise

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

of all these disciplines to allow timely

identification of priorities such that the
waning heritage gets due addressal in
time, before it becomes a past.

similar method inclusive of publications,

books and electronic media may be
incorporated. At other higher levels,
protected sites, vernacular architectures,
landscapes, parks etc. needs to be

06. The follow-up process of restoration and

reinstatement needs to be simultaneous
with systematic identification, evaluation,
documentation, regular maintenance and
strict monitoring of responsible degenerating
factors. In this course, anything having
values of human existence representing
their past, present or future needs to be
preserved and/or protected. These facets
enlighten about the sustainable, aesthetic
and culturally appropriate interaction of
the tribals with their environment.

10. Stewardship ensuring that heritage

resources are made available for public
understanding and enjoyment must be
warranted. In context to the environmental
and ethnic environment of Jharkhand,
promotion of Ethno-Tourism and EcoTourism can be a very good alternative for
making people acquainted with the
prevailing heritage of the land. By
incorporating and promoting this kind of
tourism, knowledge about artifacts related
to the genesis and development of
Jharkhand, the environmental ambience,
the tribal martyrs and forerunners of the
state, the monumental and architectural
heritages, megaliths, temples, cemeteries,
socio-political material aspects, archaeological
sites, ethnic artifacts of the generic
people, technological skills, astronomically
important sites, cave and rock arts etc.
can be presented for the people at large.
However, in this venture, the tribals, their
ecology and their culture circumscribing
the involved pre-historic, historic and
future perspectives must be put on the

07. Today with the development of science,

we are fortunate enough to develop
technology for conservation of natural
heritage. Methodologies for proper
handling, delaying deterioration and
preserving are growing at pace. They
need to be implemented by the
conserving agencies.
08. Heritage sites must be considered as
having incomparable value and should
merit stricter standards than otherwise.
Particular attention should be paid to
monitoring and enforcement of
environmental standards facilitating
preservation in the concerned case.
Integrated regional development plans
rendering reduced level of pollution
should be drawn up with participation of
the local community. Adoption of building
norms which maintain the overall heritage
and ambience of the area must be taken
into consideration as well. Translocation
(if really necessary), should not be
hesitated or delayed.

11. In the present time-frame, the tribals of

Jharkhand are undergoing a transition
due to tremendous socio-political,
economic and technological influences.
This has resulted in drastic change in
every walk of their life. The after-effect of
this, many a times - lead to endangering
their cultural identity and putting their
survival at stake. In this scenario, the
heritage of these people is also put under
the risk of elimination. The traits and
complexes of individuals, families,
communities, societies, villages etc. are
put under the shadow of threat. In this
regard, prevention of migration through
proper implementation of developmental

(National Environmental Policy - 2006 ,

Ministry of Environment and Forests,
Government of India)
09. On a personal/family level, one may
preserve genealogies, family albums,
letters, diaries, painting, personal
belongings etc. At the community level,

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

programmes at the grass-root level can

be helpful. However, care should be taken
that the developmental schemes do not
lead to displacement, migration or other
conditions which abrupt their ecological
setting. Also, a friendly and helping
attitude towards the tribals to gradually
change in light of the present day
developmental processes such that it
does not endanger their socio-cultural
and other legacies should be attempted.
As an individual (and at a personal level),
looking after the welfare, survival and
respecting the existence, autonomy and
identity of the tribal people needs to be
ensured. If the same is being ratified, the much
felt need of heritage conservation would be
automatically catered.


Kluckhohn C., Universal Categories of

Culture. In Anthropology Today: An
Encyclopaedic Inventory, edited by A. L.
Kroeber, pp. 507 - 523. University of
Chicago Press, Chicago, 1953


Kroeber A. and Kluckhohn, C., Culture,

Meridian Books, New York, 1952


Kyoto Declaration Report, Protection of

Cultural Properties, Historic Areas and
their Settings from Loss in Disasters held
at the Kyoto Kaikan, 16th January, 2005


Management Policies, U.S. Department

of the Interior National Park Service, 2001


Mason R. et al, Values and Heritage

Conservation Research Report, The
Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles

08. Ministry of Environment and Forests,

National Environmental Policy 2006,
Government of India


Filho W.L, Castles of Tomorrow - Tools of

H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n , Tu Te c h
Innovation GmbH, 2005

09. Pandey Gaya, Bhartiya Janjatiya Sanskriti

(Hindi), Concept Publishing Company,
New Delhi, 2007, p 72


Hasnain N., General Anthropology, 4th

Edition Revised, pp. 3-9, Jawahar
Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi,

10. Roy Kanchan, Excerpts from lecture on

Conservation of Tribal Heritage, INTACH
(Jharkhand Chapter), ICFAI University,
Jharkhand, 2010


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 34-40

Cities of Bihar in Jain Texts

Dr. Prashant Gaurav
Assistant Professor
Department of History
Post Graduate Government College, Chandigarh
Cities took birth in Bihar since the 6th century B. C., So far as the term Bihar is concerned it was used for the
present province of Bihar not before the 13th century A.D. The Jain texts which throw light on the urban
centres of Bihar are mostly of the 7th century onwards. The cities of Rajgriha (capital of Magadh), Pataliputra
(capital of Magadha), Mithila (capital of Videha), Vaisali (capital of Videha), and Champa (capital of Anga)
have been discussed in the jain texts. These urban centres were situated in the modern region of Bihar
province. According to Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram Rajagiha or Rajagriha was the capital of Magadha
during the 7th century B. C. The Jain text gives a picture of social condition and many rich merchants of the
city of Champa. Pataliputra became the capital city of Magadha empire. The city was a good trade centre of
Uttarapatha. Mihila or Mithil (Janakapur) was the capital of Videha. There was one of the famous business
centres during 5th century B.C. The town of Vaisali was another capital of Videha. It was an important city of
the famous republic of Vajji at the time.

Keywords: Akara, Nagar, Nigam, Dronamukha, Chaitya


Materials and Methods

Cities took birth in Bihar since the 6th

century B.C. So far as the term Bihar is
concerned it was used for the present province
of Bihar not before the 13th century A.D. The
Jain texts which throw light on the urban
centres of Bihar are mostly of the 7th century

For the purpose of in depth study the

contents have been taken from relevant books
and articles from Journals and websites. The
methods used is analytical and descriptive.
Both primary as well as secondary sources of
information have been taken.
Results and Discussions
According to Jnatadharmakathanga
Sutram7 Rajagiha or Rajagriha was the capital
of Magadha during the 7th century B. C. This
empire was administered by Bimbisara (king
Seniya or Srenika)8 and Ajatasatru (Kunika)9.
During that time Rajagriha was the main centre
of both Jainism and Buddhism. This capital city
was visited by Mahavira Jain and he delivered
lectures there. The Jain text states that the city
was surrounded by five hills. It had many
important Chaityas (Shrines) such as the
Gunasilaka Chaitya10.
Rajagriha was an important centre of
trade. Traders used to visit this place from
different places and purchased commercial
items. The city was connected with Takshasila
and other places by land routes. These routes
were used by Sarthas for trading purpose.

The Jain texts have discussed some

terms such as Akara1 (mining towns), Nagar2
(where people were exempted from paying
certain taxes), Nigam3 (trading centre), Khetta
or Kheda4 (agriculture town), Dronamukkha or
Donamuha5 (port towns where both the
oceanic routes and the land routes were
available) and Jalapattaha6 (ports from where
foreign trade could be carried out on a large
scale) etc. which were towns of various types.
The cities of Rajagriha (capital of
Magadh), Pataliputra (capital of Magadha),
Mithila (capital of Videha), Vaisali (capital of
Videha), and Champa (capital of Anga) have
been discussed in the texts. These urban
centres were situated in the modern region of
Bihar province.

So far as the city of Champa (near

Bhagalpur) is concerned it was situated near
the two rivers - Champa and Ganga. According
to canonical texts Lord Vasupujya, the twelfth
Tirthankar, attained Nirvana (salvation) at
Champa (Champapuri). King Kunika
(Ajatasatru) left Rajagriha on the death of his
father Bimbisara and made Champa his
capital. Uvavaiya states that when Lord
Mahavira visited this place, Ajatasatru went
with his queens to worship Lord Mahavir13. The
city of Champa, according to Uvavaiya
Sutta14, was a beautiful, prosperous and
affluent city of that time.
The commercial activity of Champa may
be proved by the statement that traders went to
places like Mithila, Ahichhatra, Pihunda
through land and river (the Ganga) routes. A
good number of rich merchants resided there15.
Great entrepreneurs in foreign trade like
Arahainnaka16, Makandi, Jinapalita have been
described to be resident of Champa who
carried on trade through oceanic routes via the
port of Rajagriha manufactured plenty of textile
goods of high quality both for domestic as well
as for foreign markets17.
The city has been described in the text18 as
prosperous town having fine buildings,
temples, gardens, roads etc. where a large
number of artists and craftsmen resided. They
engaged themselves in various vocations19.
Sculpture was highly developed as is
evidenced by the abundance of images and
idol found at Rajagriha20. The movement of
Mahavira Jain from Rajagriha and suburb of
Nalanda to different places like Kundagram,
Alabhiya, Shravasti, Vaisali, Mithila, Champa
etc. shows that some sort of land routes did not
exist in certain parts of India21.
The growth of towns as commercial
centres is indicative of the existence of some
developed land routes of those times.
Rajagriha was linked with Takshasila and
puskalavati (Peshawar) which were famous
trade centres during Mauryan times.
Takshashila was an important trade centre in
as much as it was from this place that trade

was carried on with west22. There was another

land route between Rajagriha and Pratisthana
(Paithan, Maharastra) which was known as
Kantarapatha23. Another route went westward
to bind which passed through the desert of
Rajasthana. There is reference to members of
a sartha dying on a desert route for want of
water24. There is a reference to house tax
collected by the ruler of Rajagriha. A merchant
built a house at Rajagriha. After his death his
sons could not pay the house tax due to
poverty. They gave the house to Jaina Yatis
and put themselves in a hut nearby25.
Gifts and presents from persons provided
a good income to the state. There was a
general practice among people to offer
presents to the king. There is a reference to
kings invited on the occasion of the birth of
Megha Kumara who offered costly presents
like houses, elephants, jewels etc. to King
Shrenika of Rajagriha26. People gave presents
to the king to avail of some concessions. The
king was pleased to receive the presents and
generally granted the desired privileges to
such persons. The traders granted the desired
privileges to such persons. The traders were
granted permission to trade without paying
taxes where they pleased the king by offering
costly presents to him27. An affluent Shresthi
named Nanda of Rajagriha went to the King
Shrenika with costly presents to obtain his
permission for constructing a tank (Pushkarini)
in Rajagriha28.
Gambhira (Tamralipti, West Bengal) city
was famous centre for production of textile
goods. Production was done both in the
cottage of the artisans and in the factories.
They possessed the necessary resources to
manufacture different varieties of consumer
goods having a wide market.29 The textile
goods were produced both for native and
foreign countries30. Champa was adorned with
buildings, temples, gardens, roads etc. Large
number of craftsmen resided and engaged
themselves in various vocations. Sculpture
was highly developed as is evidenced by the
abundance of images and idols found at that
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

time31. The painters were highly skilled in

The city had trade relations with Sindha
and Kashmir 3 3 . Jnatadharmakathanga
Sutram34 clearly mentions about different
kinds of roads existed at that time. They were
used by the merchants as trade routes.
Dhanya Sarthavaha who organised a sartha
from Champa to Ahichhatra (Ramanagar, near
Bareilly)35. It indicates land routes in Northern
India. Reference to one Dhanabasu
Satthavaha is found who was of Champa and
went to Ujjain through Kosambi and Banaras36.
Champa was also connected with Pataliputra,
Varanasi. Kausambhi etc. with water routes37.
The Jain text38 mentions a merchant
named Palita (paliya) of Champa who was also
a great scholar of religion and philosophy
carrying on coastal trading by ship. He went to
the town of Pihnuda39 (near Kalingapattama)
for trade and was married there to a Vaisya girl.
Shipping merchants (navavaniyaga)40
resided at Champa and were engaged in
foreign trade. The traders were very rich and
traded in all the four kinds of articles, viz.
articles which could be counted, weighed,
measured or examined41. After trading the load
articles on the carts they commenced journey
by land route from Champa and reached the
port of Tamralipti42. The goods were unloaded
from the carts at the port and properly loaded
on the boats or ships (Poyavahana)43. The ship
was fully equipped for sea-journey. Articles of
necessity for sea voyage e.g. rice, flour, oil,
ghee, sugar (guda), others eatables, cloths,
medicines, fighting weapons, etc. were kept on
the ship. The permission of the king for the
journey (Rayavarasasanesu) was also
obtained44. The friends and relatives of the
traders bade them goodbye and wished them
good luck. Then the crew of the ship took their
position for sailing the ship. There were
captains, helmsmen (Kannadhara), Oarsmen
(Kucchidhara) and other helpers (Gabbhijja)45
on the ship. The ropes (rajju) with which the
ship was tied to the dock were released and the
ship sailed in the sea (Lavana Samudda)46

with the support of the winds. The ship could

face the stormy waves, high tides and other
dangers of the sea. It made safe journey and
returned back to its destination after
completing its desired trading operations.
Many rich merchants lived in the city of
Champa. One of the Gahapatis Kamadeo of
Champa possessed 18 crores of Hiranna47.
The Jain text48 also gives a picture of social
condition of the city of Champa.
There were many wealthy courtesans in
the city49. Wealthy courtesan of Champa
were highly accomplished and well versed in
sixty four arts and science of erotics, different
dialects, music and dance and other
qualifications. They found favour with the court
and enjoyed the privilege and honour of
carrying the royal umbrella, chowries and fans
and also the right of moving in Karmratha (a
kind of chariot used by the highly placed
persons) as the chief of many thousand
courtesans50. It is known from the other Jain
works that the maintenance of the chief
courtesan51 by the big cities of those days for
the social entertainment of the rich and
aristocratic people was a prevailing custom. It
is stated that once two merchants of Champa
enjoyed the water-sports, picnic, natural
beauty and other meriments with Devananda,
the chief courtesan of the city and they offered
her rich presents at the end of their sensual
gratification of desires with her52.
The Bhagavati Sutra throws light on the
political history of its period by making a few
statements of historical colouration, e.g. the
incidental references to king Seniya Bimbisara
and queen Chellana of Magadha53 the two
great wars called Mahasilakautaka
Sarigrama54 and Rathamusala Sarigrama55
fought between king Vajjividehaputta Kuniya
(Ajatasatru) of Champa and Vaisalian
confederacy of nine Mallakis, nine Licchavis,
Kasi, Kosala and their eighteen Ganarajas and
the final victory of the Magadhan king over
them at the time of Lord Mahavira.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Both the Jaina56 and Buddhist57 works

record the accounts of Kunika's ascendancy to
the throne of his father, Seniya-Bimbisara by
putting him into the prison where he breathed
his last with painful tortures at the hands of his
own son. It is said that Kunika transferred his
capital to Champa from Rajagriha only to
forget his unbearable tragic incident and
The city of Champa was attacked by king
Satanika of Kausambi. At that time Dadhivahana
was on the throne of Champa59.
Pataliputra became the capital city of
Magadha empire. It was founded by Ajatasatru
but it was only after his death that his son
Udayibhadda transferred the capital of
Magadha from Champa to Pataliputra. This
was built near the confluence of the Ganges,
Sone and Gandaka60. It was named Pataliputra
after the name of a Patala tree which stood on
the bank of the Ganges. This town was also
known as Kusumpur as the tree was laden with
many Kusums (flowers)61. King Votabhadda
was a great advocate of Jainism. Later on,
Chandragupta, Bindusara, Ashoka and Kunal
adorned the throne of Pataliputra. The first
council (vacana) for the reaction of Jaina
Agamas was held in this town in about 367
The city was a good trade centre of
Uttarapatha. Land routes passed through this
great town and it assumed a great importance
at that time. Trade was carried on through
water transport also as it was an important river
port. Merchandise from this place were carried
to Swarnabhumi (Burma)62. Pataliputra was
connected with Varanasi, Kausambi, Champa
etc. by water routes63.
Mithila or Mithil (Janakapur) was the
capital of Videha. This town was frequently
visited by Mahavir Jain. This eminent place is
identified with modern Janakpur in the Nepal
Tarai64. The town was well connected with
Champa and other commercial centres.
Traders from far and wide came to Mithila for
trade transactions. We find sea-faring traders
coming to Mithila from outside to sell their

goods. They pleased the king and the king in

return omitted their66 taxes on sale of goods
which enabled them to make huge profit there.
The city produced plenty of textile goods of
high quality both for domestic as well as for
foreign markets67.
The Jnatadharmakathanga refers to
sea-fearing merchants of Champa who
presented costly gifts of jewels and necklace to
the king of Mithila and secured tax exemption68.
The town of Vaisali was another capital of
Videha. It was an important city of the famous
republic of Vajji at the time. People of this place
were called Licchivi, Kundapur, a suburb of
Vaisali, was the birth place of Mahavira Jain.
Mahavir visited this place several times and
said to have spent twelve rainy seasons
(Caturamasa) here69. King Chetak was an
influential king of Vaisali. His sister Trishala
was the mother of Lord Mahavira. The famous
courtesan (Ganiya), ambapali, renowned for
her beauty and act of dancing lived there70.
Vaisali was an important trade centre. A
large number of merchants resided there.
Adjacent to it was vaniyagama whose name
denotes that it was locality of traders and
merchants. It was a famous centre of cotton
textile goods. Textile goods were produced on
small scale in the cottage of the artisans and
big scale in the factories71. The textile goods
were produced for both native and foreign
markets72. Vaisali was connected by various
routes with many cities.
The Magadhan community under the
presidency of Sthulabhadra called a council of
monks in Pataliputra in the early third century
B.C.73. The Jain Siddhantas were collected
and compiled under the headship of
Sthulabhadra at Pataliputra74. After the famine
was over the Jain Siddhantas were compiled
to eleven Angas but were not committed to
writing at the Pataliputra council75. It is possible
that those monks who went to the south during
the famine returned and joined the Pataliputra
council, in the compilation-work with the local

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

influence of Maharastri Prakrta76. It appears

from the Bhagawati Sutra that this city was not
the capital of Magadha at the time of Mahavir
Jain. It is here the first council of the Jain
Church was held under the presidency of
Sthulabhadra to collect the orally transmitted
canons about 200 years after the demise of the
Mithila was one of the famous business
Centres during 5th century B.C.78. Here lay the
Mahabhadra Caitya which was hallowed by
the august visits of Lord Mahavira79. It is also
recorded in the Jaina texts80 that Mithila was
the place of birth and salvation of the
nineteenth and twenty-first Tirthankaras.
Rajagrha was famous as trading mart81,
Cereals82, pulses83, Vegetables84, fruits85, milk
products86, like curd, butter, sweets, wine etc.,
clothes and dresses87, Dye-stuffs88, leather
products89, ornaments of various kinds90,
perfumes and toilets91, utensils92, metalimages
of Gods and Goddesses93 articles of furniture
of arious kinds94, transport of various types95
such as palanquin, bullock-cart, charriot, boat
etc. were sold in the market of Rajagrha,
Champa96, Mithila97, Vaisali98, etc.
Rajagrha was connected with Sravasti
and Champa by land route99. Mahavira visited
Rajagrha sixty-four times and delivered
lectures on various subjects in the assembly of
his followers100. Here came king SeniyaBimbisara and queen Chellana followed by
their officials, servants, etc., to attend his holy
A reconciliation of the divergent views on
the chronology of Lord Mahavira is recorded by
Jaina and Buddhist works can be made if it is
supposed that the former accepts the date of
accession of Kunika as the king of Champa as
the starting point and the latter make their
calculation from a date of his actual
ascendancy to the throne of Rajagrha102.
With regard to the monarchies the text
makes mention of the kingdom of Magadha

with its capital at Rajagriha, presided over by

Seniya-Bimbisara103 and his son, king KunikaAjatasatru104 ruling at Champa in succession to
the west and north-west lay the kingdoms of
Kasi105 and Kosala106 with their capitals at
Varanasi and Shravasti respectively.
Rajagriha 1 0 7 (Rayagiha) was the
celebrated capital city of Magadha ruled over
by Srenika-Bimbisara. It is also mentioned in
other Jain texts108 Buddhist109, brahmanical
works110 and Chinese records111. The city was
known as Giribbaja in the Buddhist records for
it was surrounded by five hill, viz. Pandava,
Gijjhakuta, Vebhara, Isigili and Vepulla; and
according to the Mahabharata-Vaibhara (the
ground rock) Varaha, Vrsabha, Rsigiri and
Chaityaka113. According to Bhagawati Sutra114
the location of the hot spring in the Vihara hill,
Rajagriha can safely be identified with the
modern Rajagriha.
The cities of Rajagrha (capital of Magadh),
Pataliputra (capital of Magadha), Mithila
(capital of Videha), Vaisali (capital of Videha),
and Champa (capital of Anga) have been
discussed in the texts. These urban centres
were situated in the modern region of Bihar
province. The Jain text gives a picture of social
condition and many rich merchants of the city
of Champa. Pataliputra became the capital city
of Magadha empire. The city was a good trade
centre of Uttarapatha. Mithila or Mithil
(Janakapur) was the capital of Videha. There
was one of the famous business centres during
5th century B.C. The town of Vaisali was
another capital of Videha. It was an important
city of the famous republic of Vajji at the time.
All the cities of Bihar have developed time to
1. Brhat Kala Sutram (original Nirukti by
Bhadra Bahu composed by Acarya
Malayagiri and Ksemakirti. Edited by
Caturvijaya and Punyavijaya, Bhavanagar,
Atmananda Jain Sabha, 1933-42, 6 vols.,
vol. II, Verse 1090, p 342

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011




Ibid, 1089, p 342

Ibid, 1091, p 342
Ibid, 1089, p 342
Ibid, 1090, p 342
Jnatadharmakatha Sutra composed by
Ghasitalaji Maharaja, Rajkot, 1963-3 vols.
Vol.I, Sloka 4, p 54
Sikdar J.C., op.cit., p 528
Law B.C., Some Jain Canonical Sutras,
Bombay, 1949, p 176
Sutta Uvavaiya, Composed by Umesachandra
Maharaja Anu, sailana, 1963, Sloka 33,
p 223
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, Val. II,
Chap. VIII, Sloka 18, p 322
Ibid, Chap. IX, S.I, p 556
Law B.C., op.cit., p 176
Jain D.C., op.cit, p 45
Sutta Uvavaiya, p 1
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, Vol. I,
p 54
Jain D.C., op. cit., p 69
Ibid, p 70
Curni Avasyaka, VoI. II s. 34, p 556
Brhat Kalpa Sutram, Vol . IV, Verse 4770,
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, Vol, I,
Chap, Is. 20, p 250
Ibid, Vol II, Chap, VIII, 5.24, p 377
Ibid, XIII, s 2, p 740
Jain D.C., op.cit., p 38, 40
Ibid,p 45
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, Vol. II,
chap. VII, s.14, p 298
Ibid., p 306
Jain D.C., op.cit., p 69
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, Vol.I,
chap.I, s.12, p 172





Ibid., Vol. III, chap. XV, s.2, p 104

Nisitha Sutram, Vol. III, v. 4210, p 364
Uttaradhyayana Sutram, Vol. II, Chap.
XXI, Verse 1, p 925
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, vol.. II,
chap. VIII, s. 18, p 322
Ibid., p 324
Ibid., pp 325-326
Ibid., p 331
Ibid., p 333
Ibid., p 335
Upasakadasanga Sutram, Comp by Atma
Ramaji Maharaja, Ludhiana, 1964, Chap.
II, S. 90, p 60
Nayadhammakahao, Comm. Ashayadeva, Bombay, 1919, 16, p 162
Ibid. 3., p 59
Acaranga Curni, p 71
Nayadhammakahao, 3, p 60
Bhagavati Sutra, chap. , sec. I, s, p 4
Ibid., 7, 300
Ibid. 7,9, 301
Nirayavaliya Sutta comm. Chandra suri,
Ahmedabad, 1922, & edited by Gopani
and Ghokshi, Ahmedabad, 1934, ch. I.
Avasyaka Curni, Comm. Jindasagani,
Rutlam, 1928, II, p 7
Digha-Nikaya, Etd. Rhys Davids and J. E.
Carpenter, London, 1889-1911, p 135
Nirayavaliya Sutta, I, Avasyaka Curni, II,
p 171
Sikdar J.C., Studies in the Bhagawati
Sutra, Mazaffarpur, 1964, p 499
Jnanatadharmakathanga Sutram, Chap.
IX, S.I, p 566
Low B. C., op. cit., p 176
Jain Jagadish Chandra , Jain Agam
Sahitya Me Bharatiya Samaja Varanasi,
1947, p 342
Nisitha Sutram, Vol. III, verse 4210, p 364
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, Vol. II,
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011




Chap. VIII, s. 22, p 376

Bhagavati Sutra, 9. 1. 312
Jain D.C., op.cit., p 45
Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram, Vol. II,
chap. VIII, s. 24, p 377
Jain D.C., Economic Life in Ancient India
as Depicted in Jain Canonical Literature,
Research Institute of Prakrit, Vaishali
(Bihar), 1980, p 84
Ibid. 38
Ibid. 45., Jnatadharmakathanga Sutram,
Vol. I, chap, I, s. 12, p l 72
Sikdar J.C., op. cit, p 31
Ibid. 47
Sthaviravali Carita, Comm. By
Abhayadeva, Ahmedabad, 1937. Sarga 9,
v. 56
Ibid. VV- 57-58
Ibid. Sarga 9
Bhagavati Sutra, 9.1.312
Avasyaka-Niryukti of Bhadrabahu, 383
cited in J. C. Sikdar, op. cit., p. 543
Bhagawati Sutra, Chap. I, Sect, I Sarg. 4
Ibid., 6.7.246
Ibid., Chap. IV
Ibid., Chap. V. Sect. 7
Ibid., Chap. V. Sect. 2
Ibid. Chap. IV. Sect.7

91. Ibid., Chap.II Sect. II, Sarga, II, 9.33.385

92. Ibid., IV. Sect.6
93. Ibid., V. 2
94. Ibid. IV.7
95. Ibid., Sikdar J.C., op, cit., p 310
96. Ibid
97. Ibid
98. Ibid
99. Ibid,. p 321
100.Ibid., pp 482-483
101.Ibid., p. 483
102.Ibid., 491
103.Bhagawati Sutra, I.I.4
104.Ibid,. 7.9.300
106.Ibid., 1.1.4
108.Nayadhammakahao II, 10.p.230,
Pannavana (Prajnapanti) Sutta comm..
Malayagiri, Bomboy, 1918-1919,1.37
109.Vimanavatthu of Mulasarvastivada
(comm.) Ed. Oldenberg, London, 18701884, p. 87. Vinaya Pitaka Ed. By
Oldenberg, London, 1870-1884, Vol. IV,
pp. 116-117, Cited in J. C. Sikdar, op. cit.,
p 545
110.Mahabharata, T. R. Krishnacharya and T.
R. Vyasacharya, Niranya Sagara Press,
Bombay, 1906-9, III, 84. 104
111. Watters on Yuan Chwang II, p. 148
112.Mahavagga Secred Book of the East, XIII,
113.Mahabharata, II, 21.2
114.Bhagawati Sutra, 2.5.113


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 41-48

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Education, Employment and Migration of Tribal Women :

A case study of Hazaribag District of Jharkhand
Dr. Kiran Rana
Reader, University Department of Economics
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag
Low level of Education and lack of Employment opportunities in Jharkhand has resulted in migration of Tribal
women to other states. This has created an alarming situation for the tribal communities in the State.
Jharkhand is known as a home for 32 notified tribes, out of which 9 are notified primitive Tribes. According to
2001 Census Report they constitute 26.3% of the total population of the State & the total population of
Hazaribag District is 22,77,475 out of which number of Tribals is 1,91,903. Santhal, Munda & Bedia are the
three largest tribes in the district. Poverty percentage among tribals in Jharkhand is 60% whereas literacy
rate among tribal women is only 22.11%. In spie of constitutional safeguards, tribal people are still socially
and economically backward. Due to lack of education they are unable to get jobs in organized sectors.
Ultimately they are migrating to other neighbour states in search of job opportunities where they easily get
jobs as domestic helpers. Although the salary they are earning is quite exploitative, they remain silent in
absence of alternative source of income. Only with spread of education and generation of employment
opportunities inside the State the problem of migration can be solved. Socio economic empowerment of tribal
women is the need of the hour to protect the identity of this community in the state.

Keywords: Poverty, Education, Employment, Income & Migration

half of this is produced in the state. Per capita
availability of food grains is only 230 grams per
Low level of Education and lack of
day which is much lower than the National level
employment opportunities in Jharkhand over
of 523 grams per day2.
the years has resulted in migration of tribal
Since independence due to implementation
women to other states. This has created an
of various development projects high
alarming situation for the Tribal communities in
percentage of the tribal population are facing
acute problem of displacement as a result of
Literal meaning of Jharkhand is Land of
land acquisition and deforestation. Gradually
Forest. Geographically total area of the state
they lost their traditional right on land and
is 79.71 lakh hectares, out of which 23.22 lakh
forest, which resulted in large scale migration
hectares (29.13%) is covered with forest.
for their livelihood. Most of them moved out of
Demographically it is known as a home for 32
their Homes for earning their daily bread.
notified tribes, out of which 9 are notified
Inspite of constitutional safeguards, tribal
primitive tribes.1 They constitute 26.3% of total
people in India, specially in Jharkhand are, at
population of Jharkhand. Tribal community is
present, socially and economically backward
known for their rich cultural heritage, traditional
aunding to a study conducted by Union State
art and unique cultural identity in the society.
Financial Relation in 2004, approximately
Most of the tribal population resides in remote
23.22 lakh families are living below poverty line
(BPL), out of which 8.79 lakh families belong to
The State of Jharkhand is primarily an
Scheduled Tribe. Poverty percentage of tribal
agricultural state. 77.75% of the total
population in the state is 60.62% which is much
population lives in rural areas and most of them
higher than the national level of 27.5%3.
depend on agriculture. Total agricultural land of
Similarly, Nutritional status in Jharkhand is
this state is 38 lakh hectares out of which only
also poor, which can be expressed in terms of
40% is fertile and assured irrigation is available
distribution of food deficient households by
in 2 lakh hectares. At present the state requires
number of food deficient months. According to
46 lakh metric tonnes of food grains but only
NSSO 55th Round [1999-2000], status of

implementation of food security schemes in

Jharkhand, states that among families facing
food insecurity 53.67% of tribal families face
shortage for 2 to 3 months, 32.54% dont have
sufficient food for 4 to 5 months and almost
10.23% of them are food deficient households.
They are forced to go hungry for more than six
This proposed paper makes an attempt to
ascertain the relationship between level of
education, employment and migration among
tribal women and to find out a solution to the
problem with active participation of Government,
Non Government Organisation and Tribal
In order to study the relationship between
education, employment and problem of
migration among tribal women of Hazaribag
District field survey has been conducted in the
tribal areas of the district.
Socio-economic Profile of Tribal Women in
Hazaribag District :
Social wellbeing of any community
depends upon the level of education and
health facilities, whereas economic status is
related to their employment and income .As
per 2001 Census report literacy rate among
tribal women in Jharkhand is only 22.11%
which is much lower than the national level of
female literacy rate of 53.7%,5 due to which
they are unable to get suitable jobs in any
organized sector.
According to 2001 Census report total
population of the district is 22,77,475 with
female sex ratio of 988 and 832 per 1,000 of
male in rural and urban areas respectively.6
Population of Schedule Tribe in Hazaribag
district is 1,91,903 (12.40%), out of which
Santhal (78,111), Munda (58,650) & Bedia
(47,461) are three largest tribes of Hazaribag.
According to a study conducted by Agricultural
Technology Management Agency in 2004-05,
female literacy in Barkatha block of Hazaribag
was the lowest at 16.5% Female literacy rate
among tribals ranges between 15% to 40%
among different tribes according to their belief
& socio-economic status[10=7]. In absence of
basic health facilities, they are Anaemic and
are facing problems during delivery.(6,8)
Agriculture and animal husbandary are

main sources of income for the tribal

population and most of them take it as
subsistence enterprise. According to 2001
Census Report, nearly 66.85% of total workers
are engaged in agricultural activities & rest
33.15% are engaged in non agricultural
activities. In absence of proper marketing
facilities, they sell their agricultural products,
forest produce, livestock etc. in private and
unorganized markets at lower prices. Due to
poverty they are unable to send their children
specially daughters (age group 5-14) to
school. 80% of the drop out children are from
tribal families.(11, 9)
According to a recent report published in
Hindi News Paper, ` Hindustan on 24th March
2003, approximately two lakh (2,00,000) tribal
young migrated women are working as house
maids in big cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai,
Bangalore and Goa. (4=10) There is no social
security for women migrating in large numbers
in search of employment away from their
homes/villages. Ultimately tribal women, who
are honoured and deserve respect in their
communities become domestic servants in
affluent homes in far away towns and cities.
Even after sixty years of independence, they
are facing problem of severe exploitation,
human degradation and sexual harassment. If
the tribal population of this state are forced to
leave their own socio-cultural set up and
surroundings, they may lose their identity.
In order to protect the age old traditional
and cultural identity of the tribal community,
empowerment of tribal women without
disturbing their identity, in the light of recent
development relating to Education, Employment
and Income generation is the need of the hour.
Since tribal women constitute a major portion
of the workforce, it is essential to improve their
level of education and skill up-gradation of skill
for their betterment.
Materials and Methods
Five villages from four blocks viz, Ichak,
Barhi, Katkam Shandi and Hazaribag Sadar
have been selected for the proposed study. ST
population in Ichak is 3213 with female sex
ratio of 1030 per thousand of male, in Barhi is
3113 with female sex ratio of 1045 per 1000
male, in Katkam Sandi is 5791with female sex
ratio of 967 per thousand of male and in

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Hazaribag Sadar is 4553 with female sex ratio

of 931 per thousand of male.(10=11) 100 tribal
women from selected area were classified in
four categories on the basis of their education
and employment and Income.

Results and Discussions

(i) Category one;- It was observed that (i)
Illiterate tribal women working as agricultural
labourers, mostly belong to Birhor & Oraon
communities of Barhi and Ichak blocks are
getting only Rs. 30 - Rs. 50 whereas male
workers under the same scheme are earning
Rs. 50 - Rs 80/- per day & as such they are
being exploited by the middlemen due to
illiteracy and ignorance.

(I) 35 Illiterate tribal women of village

Tumka and Morangi [Ichak], Baratand [Barhi]
and Kathotia and Lupung (Katkamsandi) are
working as :- (a) agricultural labourers in Ichak,
Katkamsandi and Barhi (b) Domestic Helpers
in Hazaribag Sadar and (c) Labourers with
contractors in construction works.
(II) 36 women working as members of
different SHGs formed under NGOs Banks, &
SGSY, etc & Nine (9) Tribal matriculate &
girls are working in big
shops/malls & Private Nursing Homes
(III) 10 graduate and post graduate tribal
women are employed as assistants in different
banks, schools, colleges and private
organizations in Hazaribag.
(IV) 10 highly educated tribal women are
employed as Class I Officers in different
Government Departments, Teachers in
Colleges and University

( i i ) Wo m e n l a b o u r e r s w o r k i n g i n
unorganized sectors on contract basis are
getting less remuneration (Rs.60-Rs.70/-) in
comparison to their co workers [remuneraton
of male labourers is Rs. 90-Rs 100 /-] per day.
(iii)Illiterate tribal women are also working
as domestic helpers in urban households.
Their level of income depends upon the status
of their employers, but their jobs are purely
temporary or, it can be said that their Job
Security is almost nil, as they can be
terminated at any moment.

Table:-I Block/village-wise employment and income of Illiterate Tribal Women
















Income( Rs.)




Types of job

Seasonal &




Unorganized & Unorganized &


Source : Primary Data

It was observed that Illiterate Tribal

Women do not get employment regularly. On
an average out of 365 days they get
employment for 100-150 days only at lower
remuneration than Government rate at
Rs.100/-. On other remaining days they are
forced to depend upon village money lenders

for their day to day requirements. It was also

observed that almost every family under
observation have sent their daughters
between age group of 10-21 out of Jharkhand
in search of better job opportunity and earning.
Primitive tribes like Birhor does not send
their daughters to school as they believe that

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

modern education will spoil their cultural

identity. They also dont believe in modern way
of medical treatment and follow their traditional
method of treatment during illness. They do not
own any pucca house in that region for

Education wise women of these groups are

qualified upto class V to Class XI I within age
group of 21-50 years.
It was observed that many tribal women
have now established themselves as
entrepreneurs at micro level and started
earning for their livelihood. eg. Somari Devi,
Urmila Devi, Bindu, Suman Devi, Geeta etc.,
are self employed in Tailoring and they are
earning Rs.15,000/- -Rs.20,000/- per annum,
Shanti Devi, Sunita Birhor, Manju Birhor, Leela
Oraon etc, are engaged in Dairy Farming and
earning Rs.15,000/- -20,000/- per annum.
Sushila Oraon, Ratna Devi, Vineeta Manjhi,
Sugia Manjhi are engaged in agriculture and
their earning is18,000-24,000/-.Some tribals
have undertaken their traditional occupation of
preparing bamboo product and their earning is
Rs,12,000/--Rs.15,000/- per year. It was
observed that 30 -35% BPL families have sent
their daughters to another states also.

II) Category two:- At present with an

objective to encourage poor people to cooperate with each other and to work in a group
for their socio-economic empowerment,
various NGOs with financial support from
different banks under bank linkage provisions
of Government are working at grass root level
by forming SHGs in Hazaribag district. In
Katkam Sandi Block few famous SHGs like
Kiran, Jeewan Jyoti, Noorie, Vimla, Vikash,
Rani, Sharda, in Kathotia, Nawada, Sumli, in
Lupung, Kachan Pura villages, are actively
involved in empowerment of tribal women of
this area. Women working as members of Self
Help Groups (SHGs) were found to be literate.

Table IIA Block/Village wise employment & Income of Women [Education upto Class X ]
























Types of job


SelfSelfSelfSelfemployment employment employment employment

Source : Primary Data

Similarly, Tribal women who are

Matriculate and Graduates, working with some
private institutions like Nursing Homes in
Hazaribag Sadar Block & different big
shops/malls in cities are also earning
approx.Rs.36,000/--Rs.48,000/-per year and

leading dignified life. They are trying to

compete with non tribal co-workers, but their
job condition is not good. In absence of job
security other female members of the family
are forced to go to other big Cities/States in
search of better job- opportunities.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Table :IIB:- Status of Contractual Employment& Income

[Educated upto Class X-under-graduation]

Nursing Homes

Hazaribag Sadar

Big Shops/ Malls


Type of appointment

Contractual &

Contractual & temporary

Annual Income (Rs.)




Source : Primary Data

Some women of this category prefer to go

to Primary Health Centres for treatment
whereas some of them dont believe in modern
way of medical treatment. Approximately 40%
people of these communities dont have pucca
houses but they are trying to get it done
through Government Scheme. Some of them
have been allotted houses under Indira Awas
Yojna. Before joining SHGs they belonged to
BPL families (class) and now they have
become economically better due to
employment and income based on their level
of education. Women working in nursing
homes get medical treatment at their job place.

10 tribal graduate females were interviewed

who were
employed as Assistants in
Government & non Government Institutions
and found them at par with their non-tribal coworkers. They are successfully performing
their duties with sincerity. They are also trying
to empower other members of their own family.
Most of them are supporting their relatives too.
They struggle hard in convincing their parents
as well other relatives about the benefits of
education. Most of them prefer to go to
recognized hospitals for their treatment and
better medical care. With their education they
have understood the benefits of modern
methods of medical sciences.

III) Category Three:- Under this Category

Table IV Employment & Income of Educated Tribal Women

Hazaribag Sadar
Monthly Income(Rs)
Types of Job



Colleges Private Organisations

(Schools & Colleges)




5,000 - 15,000

Permanent Permanent Permanent



Source : Primary Data

Educated women are availing all the

facilities provided for them by the Government
Gradually with their education and
employment/salary they are empowering
themselves and no one has migrated in search
of job from economically sound families

were also found at par with their non-tribal coworkers. They have accepted every modern
way of life. Only those female could reach this
category whose families were educated since
last few generation. In no way they are different
from their non-tribal partners at workplace or in
the society, but their percentage is minimal. If
anybody goes out of state from such families,
they move out for obtaining higher education
as per their desire.

IV) Category Four:- Similarly highly

educated tribal females, working as BDOs,
SDOs, Doctors, Lecturers in Colleges &
Universities, Teachers in Government schools

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Table V:- Employment and Income of highly educated Tribal Women



B.D.O. &







Type of job





Income (Rs.)


Govt. scale

Govt scale


Hazaribag Sadar

Source : Primary Data

Well educated (Graduate and Post

graduate) tribal women are solving their
domestic problems by competing with men as
well as with non-tribal females. No one from
their families is migrating to other states in
search of food but they do get equal job
opportunities all over the world.

On the basis of field study, category wise

status of Education, Employment and its
relationship with migration among tribal
women in selected areas has been
established, which is illustrated with the help of
following table

Table VI:- Category wise Status of Tribal women & Migration









5,000 7000


Urban Labourers

6,000 -7500


Domestic Helper

8,000 -12,000


Class V to XII

SHGs (self



[upto under-

BigShops/Malls &



graduate level]

(contractual &


Assistants in State
& Central Govt.
office (permanent)



Non Govt. office

(contractual &

contractual remuneration.



Permanent Central/State
Highly educated CO, BDO, S.D.O.
Magistrates, School Govt. scale Central/State
& College/University Govt. Scale


Source : Primary Data


at local level and District Rural Development

Agents (D.R.D.A.). at District level to empower
tribal women.

Following suggestions should be

undertaken by the Punchayati Raj Institutions

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

1) Economic empowerment is a prerequisite for all round development of the tribal

society & education is the only criteria on the
basis of which one can get employment and
earn higher income for better life. This
message should be spread among them so
that they start sending their children to schools.

outside the state. Male dont get such jobs.

Few young tribal female with education up to
class X or XII, not getting jobs here also go out
of the state in search of good job offers with
better salary. Affluent middle class people
living in big cities also require such people to
work with them at cheaper salary.

2) Educational facilities with a view to

increase literacy rate among ST people
specially for girls should be provided near their
villages for easy access.

Tribal women with class V to Class XII

education are involving themselves in group
activities with formation of Self Help Groups at
local level. Various NGOs e.g. Nav Yuvak Kala
Manch, Indian Rural Association, Welfare
Point, Gramoday Chetna Kendra, Ankur,
Samadhan, Adarsh Path, Chetna Bharti, Nav
Bharat Jagriti Kendra, Jan Jagran Kendra, Sri
Ram Krishna Mission, Holy Cross, are the
promoters at grassroot level in the district of
Hazaribag in Jharkhand. Different banks are
also involved in formation of SHGs. Poor tribal
women are also joining their hands together
and forming SHGs to solve their day to day
problems. SEWA is the best example for that.
In absence of job security and temporary
contractual appointments, problem of
migration is still prevailing in the tribal society.

3) 100% Primary education should be

made available for age group 5-14 years. Drop
out of tribal children should be stopped, which
would ultimately result into 100% education at
Secondary level, so that the reserved seats
may be filled by them.
4) NGOs should encourage and help tribal
women in this regard at grassroot level so that
they can avail the facilities provided to them by
the Government under various special
5) Government should establish educational
institutions in the tribal areas and construction
of school buildings should be undertaken
under Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment
Guarantee Scheme, so that more Tribals can
get remuneration during construction.

Well educated tribal women are getting

employment in Central and State Government
establishment. They have become
economically better off. Socio economic status
of such women is at par with their non tribal coworkers in the society. They are able to avail all
sorts of facilities as per their requirement. No
one is migrating from such families in search of
better job to other states.

6) Industrial Training Institutes for Tribal

Women should be established in Tribal areas
for their skill upgradation so that they can get
employment in technical field also.
7) In order to empower Tribal Women their
rights to land and property should be protected
by Law.

It can be said that level of education is

directly related to employment and Socioeconomic empowerment of tribal women in the
society. With improved level of education tribal
women are also being offered good
employment opportunity with higher salary
everywhere in the country as per their choice &
no one is migrating from such families in
search of job. Here one can conclude that
Level of education is directly related to level of
employment and income, whereas it is
inversely related to migration of Tribal Women.
Therefore, with spread of quality education
one can solve the problem of migration and
poverty in the tribal community. Presently

Illiterate Tribal women getting employment
as non-skilled labourers and Agricultural
labourers in rural areas, Urban labourers with
private contractors, domestic helpers in
Hazaribag District, are being exploited by the
middlemen at local level. Therefore, other
female members of their families are migrating
in high percentage (35-50%) in search of better
job with good salary to big cities in
neighbouring states. Some of them have got
better job opportunities as domestic helpers

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

various successful examples are also coming

up but the percentage of such cases are

Swarojgaj Abhiyan, Ranchi, By Dr.

Ramesh Sharan and Neelkhanth,
December 2002, Page 1, Census Report
2001 Government of India

On the other hand it has also been

observed that due to poverty and lack of
awareness, large number of tribal families are
unable to avail the facilities of Government
sponsored schemes for spread of education
among themselves. Tribal people are unable to
send their children for primary education due to
acute poverty and ignorance among them.
Large number of drop out is a common feature
among them as they require money for their
survival & livelihood. They prefer to send their
children to work in roadside (line) hotels and
nearby small shops to earn money instead of
sending them to school. That is why their
reserved seats are left vacant at college/
university levels. Government of India has
reserved 26% of seats for S.T. students but
only less than 50% of the seats are availed by


NSSO 55th Round (1999-2000) cited in

Status of implementation of food Security
Scheme in Jharkhand by Dr. Ramesh
Sharan and Neelkhanth, Gram Swaraj
Abhiyan Ranchi, December 2002, p 3


Census Report, 2001


Demographic Profile of Hazaribag District

D.R.D.A. Publication 2008


Agricultural Technology Managing

Agency Report 2004-05


National Family Health Survey, Cited in

Prabhat Khabar [ Hindi News Paper],
January 16, 2002


Jharkhand Education Project, Research

Study done by Avinash Kumar Singh
2002, Table 3.


Annual Report, Ministry of Tribal Affairs,

Jharkhand, p 98

10. Hindustan [Hindi News Paper] 24 th

March 2003


Union State Financial Relation Report


11. Demographic Profile of Hazaribag District

D.R.D.A. Publication 2008


Economic Survey 2009-10 Oxford

University Press February 2010.& Gram

12. Economic Survey 1990-91 to 2009-10


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 49-54

Women in Indian Politics

Dr. Madhu Gupta
Department of Political Science
Marwari College (Womens Section), Ranchi
It goes without saying that women's participation in mainstream political activity in must for good governance.
But, limited nature of women participation in India is a major cause of concern. Though the Indian constitution
has prescribed equal rights for men and women but various social reasons have adversely affected the
women participation in political activities efforts should be made to bring women to the centre stage of
polities. Political parties here have to play a vital role in this regard. They should give responsibilities to
women in running political parties from micro to macro level. One other hand they should also ensure that
more and more women representative rich in the Parliament. These would unable women to put their views
emphatically in policy making.

Keywords: liberal democracy, principles of liberty, adult franchiese

effectiveness of womens political presence
and participation. Notions of democracy,
governance and the state are often not gender
neutral constructs but result of both historical
factors and experiences. The state and its
organizational entities reflect the same social
forces as other social organizations. It is thus
necessary to examine the gender balance in
womens participation in the political process,
decision making and policy formulation.
Womens participation in mainstream
political activity has important implications for
the broader arena of governance in any
country. Governance relates to a set of rules,
institutions, and values that are involved in the
management of state and society. Governance
institutions and processes include political
parties, parliaments, government and their
interactions with society. Although governance
is a generic term which could mean good
government or management, the governance
values, types of government, the nature of
political processes, the political parties and
organizations, which/whose interests are
represented and protected, and the extent of
power that the masses have to challenge the
state or in suggesting alternatives in methods
of governance etc. may vary in different
political systems.
The limited nature of female participation
and representation in national decision making
institutions has important consequences for
women and for the legitimacy of the

The issue of women political representation
has been increasingly important in India. In
September 1996, the Indian Government
introduced a Bill in Parliament, proposing the
reservation of one third of the seats for women
in the Lok Sabha (Central Government) and
the State Assemblies. Since then, this
proposal has been widely discussed in several
parliamentary sessions, without an agreement
being reached. Those who are in favour of this
reservation argue that increasing women's
political representation will ensure a better
representation of their needs. Even those who
oppose the reservation acknowledge the fact
that women politicians behave differently than
men politicians. Clearly, reservation would
change the nature of political competition, by
changing the set of candidates available for
each seat, by altering voters' preferences or by
changing the candidates' quality. This paper
explores the effect of an exogenous increase
in women representation that took place
without any institutional change, and allows
me to clearly identify the effect of women
legislators in the variables of interest.
Liberal democracy is founded on reason,
law, and freedom of choice but the position of
different social groups in the social and political
space where power is located is not always
equal in practice. This is particularly so in the
case of women. The nature of society or state
has a decisive impact on the extent and

institutions. Where women constitute half the

population in a political system which supports
equality and where both women and men are
legally eligible for political office, womens
participation should be equal to that of men. If
this is not the case, it signifies deep flaws within
the political system. Representation is not only
a means of ensuring individual participation. It
is also the responsibility of the representatives
to act on behalf of the constituents, including
women, who elected them and reflect their
ideas and aspirations. Womens
disproportionate absence from the political
process would mean that the concerns of half
the population cannot be sufficiently attended
to or acted upon as it denies their viewpoints
sufficient opportunity to be integrated in the
political system.
While the Indian democratic state is
committed to the protection of individual rights
within the context of citizenship, a closer look
at how it operates for the women reveals that
these rights are not accessible in the public
and private spheres in their full potential to all
the women in India. There are historical, social
and cultural factors that have limited womens
capacity and chances to exercise their
freedom to participate in the political
processes. The evolution of Indian democracy
through the 14 general elections so far has
reflected a low representation of women in
Parliament, State legislatures, in political
parties and other decision-making bodies.
Materials and Methods
For the purpose of in depth study the
contents have been taken from relevant books
and articles from Journals and websites. The
methods used is analytical and descriptive.
Both primary as well as secondary sources of
information have been taken.
Results and Discussions
Women in India have lesser opportunities
of public influence or for entering politics.
Women also lack opportunities to move within
the hierarchies without patronage of male
leaders or mentors. The womens wings of
political parties may have given visibility to
women in the form of a platform for
participation rather than integrating them into
central power structures. Women do not have
necessary resources to enter and compete in
contemporary political arena. Thus improved

social indicators in development graphs may

not automatically ease womens access to
political power or improve political participation
and representation. They do not necessarily
translate into collective gains nor sustained
political power. Of course the scope for
womens public activism varies across class,
caste and region in India. The effectiveness of
womens participation also depends on the
local configuration of power and cultural
environment apart from problems of poverty,
illiteracy, lack of economic resources, negative
social and legal environments, family and
household pressures, male dominated
bureaucracy and politicians that the women
The Indian Constitution guarantees to all
women the fundamental right to equality
(Article 14) and equal voting rights and political
participation to both men and women. As
reflected in the Preamble, the Indian
Constitution is firmly grounded in the principles
of liberty, fraternity, equality and justice and
contains a number of provisions for the
empowerment of women. Womens right to
equality and nondiscrimination are defined as
justifiable fundamental rights (Article 15) and
there is enough room for affirmative action
programmes for women. Equality of opportunity
in matters relating to employment or
appointment to any office under the State is a
fundamental right (Article 16). The Directive
Principles of State Policy stress on the right to
an adequate means of livelihood for both men
and women equally (Article 39a), equal pay for
equal work for both men and women (Article
39d), provision for just and humane conditions
of work and for maternity relief (Article 39e).
Directives for promoting harmony and
renouncing practices derogatory to the dignity
of women are also provided for in the Indian
Constitution. The political rights of women are
recognized without any discrimination, or
distinction and they have the right to participate
in decision making at all levels equally with
men. The right to constitutional equality has
been supplemented by legal equality by the
passage of a number of Acts through which the
traditional inequalities in respect of marriage,
divorce and property rights are sought to be
eliminated. However, in spite of these
constitutional and legal provisions, the ground

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

reality is that women have not obtained

adequate and proportionate representation in
the legislative and other decision-making
There is certainly a need for womens
more effective role in decision-making
processes for the democratic and constitutional
assurances of equal citizenship and rights in
the Indian Constitution to become a reality at
the operational level. Citizenship is linked to
political participation and representation. Lack
of ability and opportunity to participate in the
political system implies a lack of full
membership in the system. For true equality to
become a reality for women, the sharing of
power on equal terms with men is essential.
But the reality is that women continue to be
marginally represented even in areas where
the various policies have a direct impact on
them. There is still a great gap between
constitutional guarantees and the actual
representation of women in the political system
in India.
Historically many women have been
active in the informal political sphere in terms
of political mobilization and they have
participated in large numbers in political
demonstrations and mass agitations as well as
in the activities of nationalist and political
bodies and organizations. The political
mobilization and participation of women has
been impressive in the Indian National
Movement, in revolutionary Left movements,
anti-price rise stirs, on legislation on rape,
against the practice of widow immolation, in
the anti-liquor movements and movements
against deforestation etc. During the National
Movement against colonialism women were
mobilized actively particularly under Gandhis
leadership and womens organizations within
the political parties participated actively in the
cause against colonialism for instance in the
Civil Disobedience Movements and Salt
Satyagraha etc. But once freedom was won,
the womens wings were more or less
marginalized and assigned areas that primarily
dealt with women and children or other
welfare activities and womens organizations
ended up playing a secondary and supportive
role to the male leadership in power. The
leaders of such organizations were seldom

women with independent political careers

unless they were from political families with the
backing of male political activists.
It is worth noting that the political
mobilization of women and their participation in
elections has steadily increased since the first
General Elections of 1952. Between
1 9 5 2 1 9 8 0 fo r i n s ta n c e , w o m e n s
participation increased by 12% against the
turnout of men which increased by only 6%. In
the general elections of 2004, the all India
percentage of women voter turnout was 48%.
As regards women voters turnout, from 37.1
per cent in the first general elections in 1952 it
increased gradually over the years to 55.6 by
1999. Notably, the gap between female and
male voters was 15.9 per cent in 1952, but it
decreased slowly over successive elections
and came down to 8.4 per cent in 1996. It
remained at 8.3 per cent in 2004 general
elections. This percentage increase in the
turnout of women in elections has however not
translated into a larger number of women
being represented in the legislative bodies.
Competitive elections and democracy has not
necessarily led to better political representation
of women in Indian politics. The candidates
fielded by the various political parties are still
predominantly male and women account for
only five to ten percent of all candidates across
parties and regions. The percentage of
representation of women in the Lok Sabha
varies from 4.4 in 1952 to 8.1 in 1984, declining
to 5.2 in 1989, rising to 7.9 in 1998 and 9.02 in
1999 and again declining to 8.1 in 2004. In
Rajya Sabha, proportion of female members
started with 7.3 per cent in 1952 and rose to
15.5 per cent in 1991, but again declined to 6
per cent in 1998 and rose to 10.3 per cent in
2005, again slightly declining to 9.9 per cent in
2006.On the whole the representation of
women in Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya
Sabha) and the State Assemblies remains low.
Thus despite the increase in electoral
participation of women, their representation in
the formal political structures has not changed
In spite of the efforts of political parties to
induct more women, the extent of
representation of women has not changed
much. The number of women candidates in the

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

1998 parliamentary elections was not even

half the number of women in the 1996
elections. In 1998 there were only 274 women
candidates as against 599 in the 1996
elections. In the general elections in 1999, the
same proportion of women were put up for
elections by both the parties favoring the 84th
Amendment Bill on the reservation for women
in Parliament and the parties which were
opposed to it. The Congress Party led by a
woman had only 10% of women among the
candidates. The BJP and the CPM had 7% of
women among the candidates. The idea of
33% reservation for women in parliament was
actively endorsed by most of the major political
parties and this had raised expectation that
many more women would be nominated to
contest the elections. The election
manifestoes and the public pronouncements
of parties as well as the print and electronic
media highlighted the idea of womens
representation by reservation or by nomination
of more women for elections signifying a more
conscious political stand on womens
representation. However, these stances did
not translate actually into more nomination of
women candidates during elections. Many
parties ended up allotting some seats to
women candidates only as a token and to
symbolize their pro women egalitarian policy.
In the inner party structures in the decisionmaking levels and the posts within the party,
women are even less represented in most
political parties. Women have a very low
representation if at all in the actual decisionmaking bodies and rarely influence the more
significant party policies. Most often they are
relegated to the womens wing of the party
where they are required to deal with what are
considered to be womens issues such as
dowry and rape cases and sometimes on more
general concerns like price rise which are
considered to affect housewives. Issues like
child and family welfare are largely seen as
women issues, and falling in a realm which is
not political. By and large a masculine view of
political priorities is in operation. Most of the
womens wings of political parties have very
little power and have hardly any say in the
decision making and important policy matters.

Political parties assert that it is difficult to

get sufficiently qualified women candidates.
Other arguments have also been advanced. It
has been held that women are not independent
voters; a majority of them are illiterate; a
majority of them make their choice on the basis
of suggestions from male members of their
families-husbands or sons; women lack
information and political awareness or that
women are not politically conscious. On the
other hand, in reality women have been active
and vocal both in times of peace and crisis.
They have been active in movements of
peace, women and child welfare, trade
unionism, food adulteration, price rise and
deforestation and many other issues.
The real reason for the low political
representation of women in the formal political
structures and decision making levels, seems
to lie in the compulsions of competitive
elections and the quest for power by the
political parties in a multiparty democracy.
Increasingly the compulsions of the political
parties due to narrow majorities, precarious
coalitions and hung parliaments have made
the question of power rather than that of
representation the determining factor.
Womens issues and womens participation
and representation are encouraged only within
the parameters of power and are constrained
by the basic objectives and interest of the
parties either to capture power or survival, if in
power. While women are mobilized to vote by
all the parties, at the stage of distributing
tickets for standing for elections, the number of
women drops dramatically. At this stage,
political parties are driven more by power
considerations with an eye on the win ability of
the candidates from the angle of the prospect
of government formation. Women lose out at
this stage as the imperative of win ability
seems to compel political parties to deny
tickets to women unless they are sure to win.
Women are considered to have less chances
of winning, which is not necessarily true.
In spite of the low political representation
of women in Indian politics, it must be noted
that some women leaders have an important
place in Indian politics today. Jayalalithaa as
leader of AIADMK, Mamata Bannerji as leader
of Trinamul Congress and Mayawati as leader

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

of Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) are instances in

point. Some of them head important and strong
regional political parties which have been in
alliance with major national political parties
both outside and in national government. Even
though the rise of some of these women
leaders might be linked to their proximity to
male leaders, they now hold a position of
leadership within the party in their own right
who can influence the decisions of their own
party as well as the course of national politics.
In addition, the example of Indira Gandhi who
rose to be Prime Minister of India, and later of
Sonia Gandhi, leader of the Congress Party,
both of whom had the dynastic advantage
underpinning their leadership and position of
power and decision-making in the Congress
Party and the government can hardly be
ignored. But the positions of authority of these
women leaders did not include any specific
mandate to address only women issues. In this
sense as leaders of political parties, they were
as power driven as their male peers. Political
leadership by women is not dramatically
different from that of men. Women leaders are
no better or worse than men. Nor have women
leaders been typically anxious to give greater
representation to other women within their own
organizations or in the political process
generally. Representation of women has not
necessarily increased greatly under the
leadership of women. In fact interestingly the
73rd Constitutional amendment and the policy
and implementation of 33% reservation for
women in Panchayats received strong support
and impetus due to Rajiv Gandhis interest and
advocacy in the matter.
Thus the Indian political system cannot be
said to be non-receptive to the emergence and
dominance of women leaders even though the
political representation of women has not
particularly registered a significant increase
over the last 14 general elections. While on the
one hand most women politicians have found it
difficult to rise within male dominated party
hierarchies, on the other hand some women
have managed to become leaders when they
have set up parties of their own. Once they
have established themselves as leaders, there
has been an unquestioning acceptance of their

leadership and decisions by the party rank and

file, even if it is largely male.
Questions have been raised as to whether
an increase in numerical strength of women in
the political process and decision making
bodies automatically leads to a qualitative shift
in power and whether women on balance pay
greater attention to the concerns of women
more than male politicians. Problems of
tokenism, visibility, marginality etc. are often
discussed in referring to women as a minority
operating in a male domain.
Womens rights and responsibilities to
participate equally in political life should not
however be treated as a minority issue. The
political space must belong to all citizens
women and men. There is no doubt that fewer
the women in public life the lesser the
likelihood of distinctively female values,
priorities and characteristics finding expression.
Hence womens involvement in political
process and decision-making in greater
numbers can make a significant difference.
Does that mean that only people similar to
a group can represent its interests? This may
not necessarily be true. In this context it is
important to examine what interests women in
the public/political sphere are furthering. It
could be argued that issues important to
women could be reasonably represented as
well by male Members of Parliament. But many
strongly feel that without a sufficient female
presence in the national and other decision
making bodies, it seems unlikely that issues
which women as a group are more prone to be
faced with concerning reproduction or
challenging other inequalities within the social
and economic sphere - would be adequately
While it is considered important to bring
women to positions of power, it is equally
necessary to sensitize those in power whether
men or women about gender. Along with this
the importance of womens economic
independence, education and awareness and
their improvement in the socio economic sphere
can hardly be stressed. The restructuring of
gender relations within both the family and
society is an equally important step towards
freedom, equality and justice.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011





Varma Sudhir, Womens Struggle for
Political Space, Rawat Publications,
Jaipur, 1997
Frederick Ebert Stiftung, Har Women in
Politics, Anand Publications, New Delhi,
Sharma Kumud., Power vs Representation:
Feminist Dilemmas, Ambivalent State and
the Debate on Reservation for Women in
India,Occassional Paper No.28, Centre
for Women Development Studies
(CWDS), 1998
Ghosh Jayati, Women in Indian Politics,
Frontline, October 8, 1999
Kaushik Susheela, Womens Participation
in Politics, Vikas Publication, New Delhi,


Kumari Ranjana, Women Parliamentarians,

Haranand Publications, New Delhi, 1994
7. Mohanty Manoranjan (Ed), Class Caste
Gender, Sage Publications, 2004
8. KumariA. and Kidwai S., Crossing the
Sacred Line: Womens Search for Political
Power, Orient Longman, Delhi, 1998
9. Kaushik Susheela (Ed.), Womens
Oppression: Patterns and Perspectives,
Shakti Books, Delhi,1985
10. Basu Aparna, From Independence
Towards Freedom, Indian Women since,
Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1947
11. Manchanda Rita, A Dwindling Presence,
Frontline, March 20,1998
12. Kumari Abhilasha and Kidwai Sabina,
Crossing the Sacred Line, Frederick Ebert
Stiftung, New Delhi, 1996


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 55-58

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Role of Social Media in Changing World Scenario

Swarn Suman
Information Technology has revolutionized the dimensions of media. It has given birth to a new kind of media
called social media. It is more democratic and individualistic in nature; still it is more effective and global
medium of communication. Contrary to the conventional media, social media has more freedom and can
reach out to a large number of people scattered all over the globe. Social media gives opportunity of real time
interaction with its readers in many ways. It has created ripple effect in world politics and has made impact
through its social responsibility. This paper is an attempt to deal with the role of the social media in the
changing world scenario.

Keywords: Information Technology, Social media, Internet, Facebook, Twitter

social interaction with the sequencing of
words, text, graphics, symbols, pictures, audio
As English philosopher, Sir Francis Bacon
and video. It strikes a harmonic blend of
said Knowledge is power. Media is one of the
advertising, marketing, public relations and
sources of power. It is considered the fourth
networking to convey concepts and opinions.
pillar of democracy. Since the invention of the
This volley of interaction plays out in real time
internet, definition of media has changed.
on the so-called Social Networking platforms
Content sharing through the Internet has
(e.g., LinkedIn, Face book, Twitter, MySpace)
become a common practice for the vast
and on copious blogs3.
majority of web users. Due to the rapidly
Thus, Social media is the democratization
growing new communication technologies, a
and the understanding of the role
large number of people all over planet can now
people play in the process of not only reading
share, tag, like or suggest the a tremendous
and disseminating information, but also how
volume of multimedia content, which we
share and create content for others to
generally refer to as social media . Now every
It is the shift from a broadcast
person has power to produce, write and edit
mechanism to a many-to-many model, rooted
the news, events etc. i.e. they have the power
in a conversational format between authors
to generate the news, convince the people,
and do almost anything they want. Thus social
Main stream media doesnt provide their
media has become an integral part of modern
audience to these facilities. It was lacking
society. But, whats it really all about? How
something which social media can provide.
social media is affecting the society and our
individual consciousness?
Social media is distinct from industrial or
traditional media, such as newspapers,
According to an online Encyclopedia,
television, and film. They are relatively
social media has been defined as follows:
inexpensive and accessible to enable anyone
Social media describes the online
(even private individuals) to publish or access
technologies and practices that people use to
information, compared to industrial media,
share opinions, insights, experiences, and
which generally require significant resources
perspectives. Social media can take many
to publish information. Some differences
different forms, including text, images, audio,
between social media and industrial media
and video. These sites typically use
technologies such as blogs, message boards,
podcasts, wikis, and vlogs to allow users to
1. Reach - Both industrial and social media
interact.2 For example Wikipedia, Facebook,
technologies provide scale and are
Twitter, YouTube, Flicker etc.
capable of reaching a global audience.
In other words, social media describes the
Industrial media, however, typically use a
fusion of technology, telecommunications and
centralized framework for organization,

production, and dissemination, whereas

social media are by their very nature more
decentralized, less hierarchical, and
distinguished by multiple points of
production and utility.
2. Accessibility - The means of production
for industrial media are typically
government and/or privately owned;
social media tools are generally available
to the public at little or no cost.
3. Usability - Industrial media production
typically requires specialized skills and
training. Conversely, most social media
production does not require specialized
skills and training, or requires only modest
reinterpretation of existing skills; in theory,
anyone with access can operate the
means of social media production.
4. Immediacy - The time lag between
communications produced by industrial
media can be long (days, weeks, or even
months) compared to social media (which
can be capable of virtually instantaneous
responses; only the participants determine
any delay in response). However, as
industrial media begin adopting aspects of
production normally associated with
social media tools, this feature may not
prove distinctive over time.
5. Permanence - Industrial media, once
created, cannot be altered (once a
magazine article is printed and distributed
changes cannot be made to that same
article) whereas social media can be
altered almost instantaneously by
comments or editing.
The growth of social media and the shifts
in usage trends have played a great role in
mobilizing, empowering, shaping opinions and
influencing change in the recent world.
Therefore social media has been widely
credited as being one of the most effective
modes of communication. Its a medium where
word of mouth goes at the speed of light.
Materials and Methods
Present paper Role of Social Media in
Changing World Scenario is both descriptive
and analytical. It is mostly based on secondary
sources. However, primary sources have also
been used to make it more authentic. For the
secondary sources books, journals, magazines,
websites have been consulted. For primary
sources that particular website which is directly

related to the social media has been consulted

for example -YouTube, Face book, Twitter,
Blogs, etc.
Results and Discussions
In recent world, social media has
demonstrated its capacity to compel social
movements and create large-scale changes
quickly. Social media thus presents
opportunities to bring people together like
never before. It is not confined only to action
and reaction to any event in the world. Now it
has spread its wing and reached to that height
where a professional media can think to be. It is
clear from their works which has been
discussed ahead.
Middle East and North Africa
Social media have played a major role in
the anti-government protests sweeping the
Middle East and North Africa. With the
upheaval that is occurring in the Middle East
and North Africa, the role of social media has
come into the spotlight due to its role in the
current situation and the regions history of
strong government influence over the control
of media. In the age of 21st century technology,
social media is being credited for igniting the
recent protests in Egypt, Tunisia and other
parts of the Arab world. For several years,
online blogs and social media have been
increasingly important tools used by activists in
Egypt, a country with five million Facebook
Social media has provided an opportunity
for many activists, most of them young people,
to express their views and promote their
activism to a larger audience, over 17 million in
the MENA region, than was never possible
before. Protestors are using sites such as
Twitter and Facebook to help organize and get
the word out about their cause. As one
Egyptian activist succinctly tweeted during the
protests there, "We use Facebook to schedule
the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and
YouTube to tell the world7." Seeing the effect of
social media, CNN has declared that current
revolutions in Tunisia, Egypt and currently
Libya are Twitter revolution. Who could have
imagined the ripple effect of social media
create a social movement. Few years back, it
was impossible to think that social media will
force a dictator to leave his throne.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Natural Disaster
With every disaster the importance of
social media and its potential power seems to
grow. Typically, traditional modes of
communication fail during natural disasters and
family and friends can be left wondering
whether or not their loved ones are even alive,
let alone ok. Tools like Google Alerts Realtime,
Google People Finder, Google Crisis Center,
realtime twitter searches and facebook status
updates make these reassurances fast and
easier for all concerned. Recently, Tsunami
and Japans earthquake shows the strength of
social networking. The news spread like a wild
fire through the online social media sites with
people sending their prayers or reporting their
live accounts of the devastation they were
observing. This tweet from the US State
Department says it all: Telephone lines
disrupted; try contacting loved ones by email,
text (sms) message or through twitter &
During times of crisis, social media
networking sites also involve to help raise
donations for disaster relief. In 2009, Twitter
paired up with a mobile service provider and
raised about 21 million dollars in about one
month via $10 donations. Unlike the news and
television stations who ask for donations,
social media connects these charitable
donations with hundreds of millions of people
simultaneously and is as easy as texting a
code or number.9 Thus social media, turned out
to be a really helpful tool in disaster to create a
vital communication channel that not only
spread facts but also helped people come
together and learn about the situation of loved
Indias fight against corruption
Social media plays a major role in Indias
fight against corruption. In fact from the early
days of this movement, Medias were not so
eager to cover the incident. But the social
media compelled the traditional media to come
forward to having the desired coverage. In this
burning issue the role of Facebook, Twitter,
YouTube and blog become a powerful tools to
the people. Social media has huge supported
for anti-corruption movement led by Anna
Hazare in India. This is the biggest social
media movement in India ever. India fight
against corruption is gathering huge support of
cyber users. More than 509,007 people on
Facebook community India Against

Corruption joined hands to support the

movement till now.10 The official Facebook
page of India Against Corruption (Facebook.
com/IndiaCOR), with 2.8 lakh fans on August
15, 2011 witnessed a huge addition of 2.13
lakh fans in just 13 days, and reached 5.01 lakh
on August 28. Of that, more than 53,000 fans
joined on August 16,
Twitter, too, reflected widespread
participation of people in Anna's anticorruption movement. Messages related to the
movement dominated Twitter conversations
throughout the fasting period. People
consistently talked about Anna Hazare, Jan
Lokpal, Ramlila Maidan. Not just the masses,
even Anna's team seemed to be active on
Twitter via IAC's official account (Twitter.
com/Janlokpal; @Janlokpal) throughout the
movement. They posted more than 2,100
messages (approximately 1,500 in the 13 days
on @Janlokpal) in August, compared to 1,150
in April. Kiran Bedi and Arvind Kejriwal on the
micro-blogging site. More than 1.7 lakh tweets
mentioned 'Anna Hazare', 1.5 lakh tweets
mentioned 'Jan Lokpal' and 32,000 tweets
referred 'Ramlila Maidan' during August 162712. Famous celebrities and influential figures
have also actively tweeted their support for this
YouTube became the cyber eye of this
movement. This movement was broadcasted
live from Ramlila Maidan, Delhi via YouTube.
Before Anna's arrest on 16th august morning,
Anna has recorded a message in the CD which
was uploaded on YouTube. On 18th of august
Anna Hazare sent a video message which was
recorded by Kiran Bedi in Tihar Jail has also
uploaded in YouTube. Now YouTube shows up
thousands of video results of Anna Hazare
anti-corruption movement, a lot of which are
amateur videos shot by participants. Similarly
an online worldwide campaign site Avaaz
( also entered the scene. In
just 36 hours, an unprecedented 500,000
Indians joined Avaaz's campaign to support
Hazare's call for sweeping reform13.
Apart from this missed call campaign of
India Against Corruption is receiving numerous
calls from even the remotest corners of the
country. The 'missed call number' has received
1.3 crores Missed Calls as of August 15, 2011
so far14. It shows the mass participation on the
issue of corruption until now. Off the streets of

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

India, another protest is gathering support as

the social networking websites.
The above discussion also proves what
Marshall McLuhan has written about media
and technical tools. In his words - We shape
our tools and our tools shape us15. He saw
media as an extension of self, that is, as
technology that extends natural human
abilities. Technologies are not simple additions
to human existence. These technologies
change how humans think, feel and act, even
the individual's perception and information
processing. New technologies have had
psychological, physical and social effects16.
This shows that how a democracy is
getting its new shape in the age of cyber world.
In this world every citizen has a tool to express
themselves globally with a local flavor. Social
media have become a vital platform for
mobilizing people globally as well locally.
Examples of citizen movements in Middle
East, North Africa and India, where peopled
were mobilized through Facebook, Twitter and
YouTube proves it. Certainly it has become an
important weapon of the people where media
is chained and also where traditional media
has its own limitations. Thus we live in the 'age
of communication' and effective and timely
communication can do wonders.
No doubt social media has brought a
revolutionary change in the nature of media
itself. It is an important step towards
democratization of media. So this is the age of
social media; where Internet is a free space for
citizens to express their opinion and fulfill their
democratic aspirations in bringing about
freedom of speech and political freedom. From
revolutions to natural disasters, social media is
playing a massive role. From creating initial
awareness of such events, to the raising funds
for a noble cause social media is fulfilling its
responsibility. They are also reconnecting
loved ones not only during happy times but
also during hardship when they need each
other more. Beyond the shadow of a doubt,
Twitter and Facebook are a lifeline to many
around the world. So the social media will
continue to play an important role and shape
the world of information.
1. Steven C. H., Hoi et al. Social Media
Modeling and Computing, Springer, New
York, 2011, p.72











14., Defining Social

06/defining-social-media/, (accessed
April 20, 2011)
Gershbein J.D., The Wiglaf Journal, The
Social Media Tsunami
unication/2009/05/the-social-mediatsunami/ (accessed April 26, 2011)
WebProNews, The Definition of Social
(accessed June 14,2011)
Wikipedia, Social Media, http:// (acce
ssed April 26, 2011)
PBS, Social Media's Role in Egyptian,
Arab World Protests,
_egyptian.html (accessed April 27, 2011)
Facebook, 2011 Egyptian revolution,
(accessed on June 4,2011)
status/46198059020988416 (accessed
on April15,2011)
Progressive Media Concepts,Tsunami
Devastates Japan: How Social Media
Reacted http://progressivemedia (accessed on April 17,2011)
Kurup Deepa, The Hindu, How Web 2.0
responded to Hazare, http:// (accessed
on June 5,2011)
Facebook, India Against Corruption, (accessed on
June 8,2011)
Robert K. Logan, Understanding New
Media: Extending Marshall Mcluhan,
Peter Lang, New York, 2010, p.87

15., Four Laws of

(accessed on May 24,2011)

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. III / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 59-62

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Status of Primitive Tribal Groups in Jharkhand

Dr. A.K. Singh
Head, University Department of Anthropology
Ranchi University, Ranchi
Dipti Nawal
Department of Anthropology
Ranchi University, Ranchi
This article takes into account the status of the Primitive Tribal Group in Jharkhand. It tries to define the
Primitive Tribal Groups. It also takes up their existing problems. It figures out not only their demographic
status but also unearths their unsatisfactory socio-economic development. Through facts and data, this
article very aptly substantiates that unevenness prevails among these marginalized Primitive Tribal Groups.
Amidst apathy, they are awaiting a speedy response from our policy makers including the Government and
Non-Government agencies.

Keywords: Anusuchit Janjati, Primitive Tribal Group, Mandar, SingBonga

people is comparatively lower. They are not
health conscious. The lack of nutritious
The tribal people of India mostly live in the
affects their health. They are more
forests hills, plateaus and naturally isolated
because of local customs and
regions. For the tribal's, the most popular term
traditions. They also try to cure diseases by
is Adiviasi while the constitutional name for
indigenous method, which is not always
them is Anusuchit Janjati (Scheduled Tribe).
successful. All these factors affect the growth
There are altogether 427 tribal
their population.
communities all over India out of which 75
Materials and Methods
belong to Primitive Tribal Groups. These tribal
communities live in ecologically marginal
The present study is based on primary as
areas of India and are of different races,
well as secondary sources. Primary data has
languages, education, economy and levels of
been collected through personal interviews
socio-cultural integration.
with the help of question schedule. Secondary
data has been collected through available
The tribal popultion of Jharkhand is
literature in form of books, Journals, report and
7,087,068 (2001 census report). The tribals
living in Jharkhand are the Santhal, the Oraon,
Results and Discussions
the Munda, the Ho, the Kharwar, the Lohara,
the Bhumij, the Kharia, the Mahli, the Mai
The scheduled tribes in Jharkhand are
primarily rural as 91.7 percent of them reside in
Paharia, the Bedia, the chero, the Karmali, the
villages. District wise distribution of ST
Gond, the Chik Barik, the Kisan, the Sauria
shows that Gumla district has the
Pahariya (Maler), the Asur, the Birhor, the
of STs (68.4 percent). The
Savar, the Birjia, the Gorait, the Baiga, the
STs constitute more than half of the total
Bathudi, the Banjara, the Khond, the Kol and
populations in Lohardaga and West
the Kanwar, Jharkhand has 26.3% tribal
Singhbhum district whereas Ranchi and Pakur
population; they have comparatively lower
have 41.8 and 44.6 percent tribal
growth than the non-tribal population. In the
respectively Koderma district (0.8
decade 1991-2001, the population of the state
by Chatra (3.8 percent) has
increased by 23.3% but that of the tribes rose
of the STs population.
by only 17.3%. The longevity of the tribal

Table 1
Tribal population in Jharkhand

Table- 1 has been arranged serially

according to the population of tribe and it
reflects that the Santhal has the highest and
the Khond has the lowest population in the
state. Serial no.-lO, Mai Paharia, 17, Sanria
Paharia (Maler), 18, Korwa, 20, Parahiyar, 22,
Asur, 23, Birhor, 24, Savar and 25, Birjia
belongs to primitive tribal group.


Mai Paharia
Chik Baraik
Sauria Paharia
Tentative 14040
Tentative 22000
Source : 2001 Census Report
The schedule castes and scheduled tribe
orders (amendment) Act, 2002, published in
the Gazette of India Part-II section-I on 8th
January 2003, New Delhi by the Ministry of
Law and Justice (Legislative department/the
si. no. 31 and 32 Kol and Kanwar has been
included in the list of scheduled tribe in serial
no.- 31 and 32 as a new entry.

Primitive Tribal Groups

Primitive tribal groups are identified on the
basis of three characters (i) pre-agriculture
level of technology, (ii) low level of literacy and
(iii) stagnant or diminishing population
L.P.Vidyarthi(1964) made three fold
classification of the primitive groups like (1)
forest hunting type (in food gathering stage) (2)
settled agriculturists (proto-cultivators and the
hill cultivators), and (3) artisan communities of
rural craftsmen.
Sachchidananda (1981) characterized
PTGs, by and large by (a) absence of written
language, (b) relatively simple technology (c)
social institution being caste in a simpler mould
(d) small numbers (e) relative isolation and (f)
slower rate of change. Evans Pritchard (1951)
characterized primitive societies as those that
are small in scale with regard to numbers,
territory and the range of social contacts and
which by comparison with more advanced
society have simple technology, economy and
little specialization of social functions. Working
upon the same theme, Redfiled (1961) gave
the concept of "Little Community" which was
characterized by distinctiveness, smallness,
homogeneity and self sufficiency. These four
factors are by and large found in all the
primitive societies although there may be
The different renowned anthropologists
have charactriesed the "primitive tribal groups"
on the basis of their field work and experience.
Thus the common character of the PTGs are:



Simple technology




Low level of literacy


Slower rate of change


Small in population.
Anusandhanika / Vol. III / No. II / July 2011

Table 2
Distribution of PTGs in Jharkhand



Maximum Location


Mai Pahariya




Sauria Pahariya


Sahebganj (16298)




Garhwa (19234)




Garhwa (4904)












East Singhbhum (5319)






Source : Census of India 2001

highest i.e. 31.22% whereas among the

Parahiya it is lowest i.e. 12.59%. The highest
literacy rate among Birjia or Asur may be due to
culture contact and presence of other people
and agencies in the area. Lower level of
literacy rate among Parahiya, Korwa, Birhor
and Savar may be due to their relative
isolations and tough geographical area.

It is evident from the table-2, that there are

08 different Primitive Tribal Groups in
Jharkhand. The Mai Pahria of Godda are
maximum in population whereas Birjia of
Palamu are minimum in population. The PTGs
constitute only 3.15% of the total tribal
population of Jharkhand. Geographically, the
major population of Mai Pahariya (86552) are
living in Godda district, Sauria Pahariya
(16298) in Sahebganj, Korwa (19234) and
Parahiya (4904) in Garhwa, Asur (8139) in
Gumla, Birhor (1922) in Hazaribag, Savar
(5319) in East Singbhum and Birjia (3619) in
Palamu district.
Table 3
Literacy level among PTGs of Jharkhand
Sl. No.

Sauria Pahariya
Mai Paharia

Present Status of Primitive Tribes

Primitive tribes are distributed in all the 24
districts of Jharkhand. Birhors are located in
majority of the districts. But, their major
population is in Hazaribagh districts . Korwas
are found in Garhwa, Gumla, Latehar,
Palamau and Simdega. Mai Pahariya have
their habitation in Deoghar, Dumka, Jamtara,
Pakur and Sahebganj. Savar occupies East
Singhbhum and Saraikela districts whereas
majority of Sauria Pahariya or Maler are
residing in Godda, Pakur and Sahebganj

Literacy rate

Sources : Census report of India 2001

If we consider the average literacy rate

among the PTGs. it is only 20.67% as
compared to 40.7% of the total tribals of
Jharkhand. The rate of literacy among Birjia is

Thus, some PTGs are distributed in more

than two district whereas some primitive tribes
are located in about 17 districts i.e. Birhor. The
ecological settings are different for the same
tribe. Some Birjias are living on plateau, some
in valley and some at foothills. Their economy
depends on their ecology and relative
isolation. The overall socio-economic
condition of PTG is better who are living among
mixed population or in the villages which are
Anusandhanika / Vol. III / No. II / July 2011

exposed to the modern amenities than their

counterparts who are living in isolation or in
deep forests. The Birhor and Birjia of Beti
village under Bishunpur bock of Gumla district
are growing fruits like- Banana, Mango,
Papaya etc., making and using vermin
compost in their agricultural fields, their
children are immunized and going to school.
They have their own cell phones, dish T.V. and
solar lamps in their houses. The same is the
case with Korwas of Soharpat village of
Latehar district. Due to mining industries near
Asur country (Netarhat plateau), the life style
has been changed tremendously as they get
regular employment in the mining work.
Traditional dresses have been replaced by
modern one. Mandar (Musical Instrument) has
been replaced by piano and Sing Bonga (Local
God) has been replaced by Jesus Christ.

concentration of different tribes in different

parts of the state, distribution of basic
amenities or the overall development. We
cannot let one community progress on behalf
of others exploitation or negligence. The
Primitive Tribal Groups are one of them. It is
high time that the government, the voluntary
organization and the anthropologists pay their
attention and interest in improving the socioeconomic condition of these deprived and
under-developed people.

At the other hand the PTGs who are living

in isolation or in deep forest areas are far away
from getting the benefits of modern amenities
as their woman and children are malnourished,
semi naked and leading the life of preagricultural technology.


Evans-Pritchard E.E., Social Anthropology,

Cohen and West London, 1951


Redfield R., Little Community and

Peasant Society: Phonix Books, Univ.of
Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961


Sachchidananda, Study of Primitive

Groups: Certain, 1981


Conceptual issues in the Profiles of the

Marginal and Pre-farming Tribes of
Central India: Bulletin of the Cultural
Research Institute ,Scheduled Castes
and Tribes Welfare Department, Calclutta.


Singh Sunil Kumar, Inside Jharkhand:

Crown Publication, Ranchi, 2010


Vidyarthi L.P., Cultural Contours of Tribal

Bihar, Punti, Pustak, Calcutta, 1964

All these data, tables and statistics reveal
that there is an imbalance among the tribal
population in Jharkhand. This imbalance
prevails at all levels-be it in terms of the
percentage of tribal population distribution,


Anusandhanika / Vol. III / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 63-68

The Maritime Economic Activities in Ancient India

Dr. Amrendra Kumar
Assistant, Jharkhand Legislative Assembly
Dhurwa, Ranchi

It goes without saying that maritime economic activities flourished in ancient India to large extent. It was due
to extensive sea area, which had a network of navigable rivers free from freezing effect of cold climate.
Maritime activities, movement by sea under the elite ancient Indian civilizations saw the flowering of long
distance trade across the Indian Ocean and exchange of ideas and culture. There are sufficient evidence of
flourishing trade and maritime activities to various other contemporary civilizations. Numbers of items
included in the trade and commerce. Some of them were cloths, spices, gold, mica, silver, cosmetics etc.
Starting from Vedic times, references could be found regarding trade and commerce in post Vedic literature
too including Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Arthashastra etc. One can find several references in
Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit literature regarding offering prayers for successful trade through sea route.

Keywords: civilzations, exchange of ideas, prakrit literature, materialistic philosophy

Materials and Methods
For the purpose of in depth study the
contents have been taken from relevant books
and articles from Journals and websites. The
method used is analytical and descriptive.
Both primary as well as secondary sources of
information have been taken.

The existence of commercial activities

through sea was well organized in India from
ancient times. India has an extensive sea area,
bounded on three sides of her border by sea
and has a network of navigable rivers free from
the freezing effect of the cold climate. India has
also a wealth of forest in strong timber which
might be readily utilized for ship or boat
building. One can find references in Vedic
Literature about various aspects of trade. The
merchants used to offer prayer and oblation to
seek divine grace for success in trade. Though
navigation in those early days was most
difficult and dangerous and ship-wrecks were
probably a very common occurrence, the
daring merchants nonetheless ventured
regularly on a sea voyage in ship with hundred
oars for the purpose of trading in distant lands.
They knew the theory Vyapare vaste lakshmi.
According to this theory they had developed
the concept "money makes money". It is
prayed that when a merchant goes out for
business Vaisyanara should look after the
children and other relatives of the foreign going
merchants with full attention. Vaisvanara, not
as a divinity or man, but as an institution or
corporation took the security of the traders who
paid regularly a certain amount of premium in
the form of oblation.

Results and Discussions

The Vedic merchants invested their
capital freely for gain as they were secured by
the so-called insurance corporation. "The
wealth I carry on my trade seeking Ye Gods!
Wealth with the wealth I offer. May this grow
more for me not less: O Agni, through sacrifice
chase those who hinder profit". Sakadhuma
predicted weather for traders who were about
to start on journey. Sakadhuma was supposed
to have possessed the power of foretelling the
weather and was naturally regarded as its
Kausika Sutra contains a ritual for
Sakadhuma, performed by the merchants
when about to start on trade. These merchants
were mostly the Asuras or Dasyus. These
commercial people did believe in materialistic
philosophy of life. They were wealthy people.
Mostly they were traders and for trade they
moved to all directions or to different foreign
countries. The international trade was
specially regulated and controlled by a certain

section of Dasyu society. They were no other

than Panis, Vrtra, Sambar etc. Who were
referred to as Dasyus. They held a prominent
place in the field of trade and commerce. They
belonged to a wealthy section of the society.
They were mighty and intelligent people, and
accumulated fabulous wealth through
extensive international trade commerce. They
made India a great exporting centre of the
world. Archaeology corroborates the fact by
exploring many world-famous cities which
were well surrounded by vast produced
villages with flourishing agriculture which
produced sufficient surplus. In order to hoard
the surplus they constructed granaries and
established different industries at different
places. India was then much more advanced in
industrial outputs than other contemporary
civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Crete,
etc. These Panis were rich and enterprising
merchant class solely devoted to the cause of
gain either through trade or through Usury.
They have been designated Bekanatas or

and costly merchandise. Production of India

was in the hands of Aryans other than Panis,
Asura, Dasyu etc. The cultivation of the cotton
plants by the Aryans in Vedic times
revolutionized the industrial conception of the
time. The weaving of the fine cotton stuffs must
have been an Aryans home industry. The
Asuras, the enterprising traders, collected the
surplus left over from home consumption and
the goods found their way to some commercial
centres on the western coast where the large
vessels lay in anchor to facilitate regular export
and import trade. Varchin and sambar family
monopolized the cotton industry during the
Vedic period. They mastered the commercial
production of ornaments.
Thus economically, production was in the
hands of the Aryans and exchange was
controlled by the Panis, Asuras, Dasyus etc.
Material dissatisfaction brought about conflict
between the two. We know that the political
power was in the hands of the commercial
community. This also made the conflict more
intense which resulted in a short civil war
between the two. Materially Indra believes was
recognized free and independent to have his
business inside the country, the international
trade was controlled and organized by the
society. He introduced the surplus economic
product not for profit in the hands of any
individual rather in hands of the society or
country. Thus, he was the father of national
wealth. Yajna had been introduced, which
means surrender or submission to the society.
It made combined effort for equal distribution
among the members of the society whether
they were in production or in exchange or
trade. This society has been termed as Gana.
Members of the Gana and Gana leaders both
participated in Yajna. The offer and oblations
were made by the individuals in the name of
their respective pioneer or leaders so that the
vigour and strength of the Gana may be well

They were, according to Roth and

Zimmer, a niggardly merchant class who
neither worshipped the God nor honored the
priest. Ludwing observes that they were the
aboriginal trading class. Hillbrandi refers to
them as being Parnians of Strabo. These
Panis were the ship-builders. They were
perhaps the first openers of the sea route for
international commerce. They became the
ancestors of the Vanika of later times who
formed the Vaisya varna in Aryan conception.
Even in later Sanskrit lexicons the Vanika
comes to be identified with the Panika or
traders who were no other than the Panis of the
Rigaveda. These Panis in their search of sea
coasts, trade centres, rich in materials for the
construction of the ships, navigated the whole
of Indian sea coasts and rivers and moved to
and fro. They first settled down on the coast of
modern Gujarat, which was simply a
commercial place, and did not supply them
with suitable timer for ship-building.

Wealth was thus in India, a social asset

rather than personal possession. The people
collected money simply to distribute it. Indra
grants the accumulated wealth of his Gana to
the Gana members. Yajna is offered to Indra
and Visnu under conditions of mutual contract
that they would return it with wealth. Yanja and
material propriety go together.

As they were both the traders and shipbuilders they moved along the western coast
and reached the Malabar Coast which was rich
in timber. On the order hand, India has been
celebrated throughout the ages for its valuable
natural products, its beautiful manufactures

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

With the assimilation of the Panis there

arose a composite vaisya class. Commerce
shifted in the hands of Vaisya, one of the four
Varnas. The paniyasiddhi sacrifice was
introduced for the success in trade.

pattern of Buddhist Sangha. As a result, the

Grihapatis amongst whom trade had
developed to an exceptional degree, controlled
both the administrative power and the religious
Sangha. The most important and aristocratic
representative of the grihapatis class was the
Setthi, which embraced in its fold all traders
and businessmen. The brisk trade both by land
and sea gave birth to a class of multimillionaires in Takshashila, Sravasti, Benares,
Rajagriha, Vaisali, Kosambi, Campa,
Bhadrauti, Mithila, Apana, Vidarbha, Andhra,
Tamil Kingdom and other trade centres of

Merchants with loaded carts with

merchandise used to travel far and wide for
commercial activities or in search of new
opportunities. As a result of judicious and just
administration of Bhisma the cities and towns
were thickly populated by merchants, artisans,
traders and artistes of every branch, the cities
were provided with good and fair management
for the foreign traders. Damyanti saw trade
caravan in the forest while she was in search of
King Na1a. The traders of Shundras kingdom
imported slave girls from the western countries
specially from the region of Caspian sea. Trade
was also established with Mesopotamia and
Egypt as is evident from the fact that the
Yavanas presented horses of the best breed.

The interesting list of multi-millionaires

may focus the trade activities of the time, which
is indicative of private enterprise. Sona-a son
of a Sresthi of Campa had twenty Karoda (two
hundred million) and was the owner of eighty
loaded carts of Hiranya. Dhananjaya of Saket,
according to Anguttar Nikaya, gave an
ornament to Mahalata of nine karoda (Ninety
million) and wealth of 5400 carts for the cost of
cosmetic powder to his daughter Visajhi. Mrgar
Sresthi, father-in-law of Visakha gave an
ornament of One Lakh. Visakha went to her
husbands residence with gold, silver and
copper loaded in 500 carts each, silk and other
costly loaded in the same number of carts.
Atthakatha Petavattha speaks of a trader of
Rajagriha who was very rich and used to spent
1000 coins a day.

It was in India that the Aryan civilization

had developed in the form of a Gana society,
which in course of centuries of evolution,
reached the monarchical stage. The ritual and
sacrifices of this society only profited the
priests and the royal class and outraged the
conscience of an increasing section of the
people. Cities created by trade sprang up
along the river and the Grihapati (middle class)
in them had already acquired such prosperity
that they equalled in importance the royal
section. Organized in trade guilds, they
(Grihapatis) showed a great spirit of initiative.
Caravans of traders set out regularly for Persia
and Mesopotamia and also for the western sea
coast where they reached the great non-Aryan
port of Barygaza (Broach) which looked
westward on the Gulf of Bengal. Another port,
Tamralipti, formed a link between the Gangetic
plain and south India, Ceylon, India-China and
the Malay Archipelago.

Many merchants were landlords and it

gradually gave rise to small kingdoms. These
traders disposed of the output of their factories,
workshops and the produce of their lands,
forests and mines for which they maintained
kosthagara (storehouse) throughout the
country. The Kings trade agent called Raja
Vaidehaka. The market was controlled by a
board of officials and Nagaraseth another
board inspected the manufactured goods.

The Ganges basin was not only an

important commercial yard, but it also became
the centre of a moral and religious movement,
which later played a major role in the whole
history of Asia. This movement not only carved
the religious life of the people but also brought
revolution in the Gana theory of economics
and again gave way to private enterprise,
though it was not completely individualistic in
nature. The grihapatis formed a union on the

The Chullakasresthi Jataka refers to

hundred or eighty merchants offering up a
newly arrived ship-cargo. The Valahassa
Jataka reminds us of the fate of five hundred
ship-wrecked traders who fell into the hands of
Sea Goblin Tambapanni or Ceylon. Agni
Sankha Jataka mentions the ship-wrecked
leers on a voyage from Benares to
Suvannabhumi or perhaps lower Burma in

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

search of wealth. Hundreds of these traders

were lucky enough to obtain the vices of
Suparaga as their pilot. The MilindPanho
refers to ship owners visiting Sindh, Surat,
Coromandel Coast and Bengal. We have
sufficient evidences to show that a regular
commercial intercourse, both by land and sea
was carried and Indian traders visited Babylon,
China, Savamabhumi. The Silanisamsa
Jataka refers to a sea faring nymph who
brought shipwrecked people from off the sea to
Benaras by river. The Mahajanka Jataka
reports that the merchants of Campa sailed
through the Ganges River and reached
suvarnabhumi through the Bay of Bengal. The
Milindapanho says that India had trade
relations with China and other foreign
countries. The traders of Bharukachcha and
Supparaka traded not only with the western
countries but also with the eastern countries
via Ceylon. Bahiya Darnchiriya of Bahiya
(somewhere in the Punjab or Sindh) went
seven times on seaborne trade and eight time
while he was going to Suvarnabhunij his ship
was wrecked. He was however rescued and
brought to Suppara.

moved higher and thither joyful with their

hobbies. The people gave themselves to
various pastimes, amusements and festivities
and were fond of glittering ornaments and
costly and rare articles of toilet. All these prove
that the people of that time had a great jest for
These traders were mostly men of
morality. They divided their money in four
parts; one part for livelihood, two parts for
adding capital to trade and the forth part for
rainy days.
The foundation of Mauryan Empire
brought a substantial change in commerce.
Though the extension of the Mauryan empire
beyond the Hindukush to Bactria led to the
expansion of Indias foreign trade, it brought
the economic structure of India under the State
control. Trade regulations were carefully
planned, suited to a well organized system,
and trade was brought under State control with
the Panyadhayaksa, the Superintendent of
Trade. The Government wanted to maintain a
balance between the interest of the State and
traders, and the customers.
Kautilya encouraged foreign trade by
providing state privileges. He encouraged
import of goods produced in foreign lands by
allowing concessions. Those who bring goods
in ships or caravan should be exempted from
other taxes. No law-suit in money matters
should be entertained against foreign traders.

The traders in those days were regarded

as the backbone of the State. They were
honoured as Rajapujito Nagara Janapada
pujito. King Prasenjita felt the absence of big
traders in his kingdom. He requested King
Bimbisara of Magadh to send big merchants to
his State. At his request Bimbisara sent
Dhananjaya. Dhananjaya populated a new
town Saketa, seven Yojanas far from Sravasti.
According to Majjhima Nikaya seven chariot
posts were established along with a transport
station in between Sravasti and Saketa. The
Kings realizing the powerful position of the
traders tried to maintain friendship with them.
Prasenjita attended the marriage ceremony of
the son of Mrgara Sresthi of Sravasti, which
went to the house of Dhananjaya of Saketa.
The Vinayapitaka scribes King Bimbisara of
Magadh as having been invited by traders of
Rajagriha to take his men with Lord Buddha
and his followers. They never tried to exploit
the common masses, rather, they helped the
commoners to lead a happy life. Asnath,
Pibatha, Khadath (eat, drink and be marry)
was the order of the day. Kuta-lanta Sutta
mentions that men were happy and they

Kautilya suggested that the traders in

foreign countries should ascertain rice and the
value of the commodity (taken out) and the
commodity (to be brought) in exchange and
should calculate the profit after clearing
expenses for duty, road cess, escort charge,
picket and ferry dues, food and fodder. He
warned the traders that they should see if there
was any advantage in taking out goods or in
bringing in good in exchange for goods. He
says that traders should establish contacts
with forest chieftains, frontier officers and
chiefs in the city and the country side to secure
their favour. Again he warned the traders that in
case of calamity they should rescue their lives
and precious goods. Traders should carry on
trade after paying all dues till they have
reached their motherland. On sea routes the
traders should ascertain hire for boat or ship

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

provision on the journey; price and amount of

their goods and of the goods in exchange;
seasons suited for voyage; precautions
against dangers and regulations at the ports.
Kautilya also makes provision for a secret
agent in disguise of a trader to know the secret
details of the foreign traders. This secret
agency passed on all vital information to the
kings office earlier, but not to the Superintendent
of Customs. This was done only to check
corruption on the part of officers concerned.
Accordingly the King should tell the Collector of
Customs about the secrets of the foreign
traders in order to make his omniscience
known. He says that the king should destroy
the goods that are harmful for the country and
make goods duty free which are highly
beneficial to the country.

Oman and reached the Indus Valley and other

parts of the Indian coasts. The natural
condition of the Indus Valley, a long navigable
river irrigating a belt of fertile land, was most
favourable to the growth of intensive trade, as
well as of political administration. Almost
seventy settlements have hitherto been
discovered ranging from Sutkagen-Dor in
Makran Ruper where the Sutlej leaves the
foothill of the Himalaya to Lothal in Gujarat.
Many seem to have been rather small
commercial and individual centres. The
country, as an economic entity, was reckoned
as one of paramount importance. Its flora,
fauna and mineral products were of the
greatest use and benefit to the people of this
country. The climate was another factor which
greatly influenced the commercial life of the
inhabitants. Its rivers, mountains and lakes,
not to mention its desert regions, its wide
spaces, damp areas and the lesser hills had
their respective effects on those who lived
either on their banks or in the neighbourhood of
the mountains or hills tracts or deserts or the
fertile parts or the wet patches, as they were of
considerable importance in the maintenance,
stabilization and prosperity of trade and the
general well-being of the people. These factors
largely contributed to the nations material
welfare and assisted largely in augmenting its
revenue resources as was shrewdly
envisaged by the wise Kautilya. This is evident
from his statement that the country is the
source of all those works conducive to the
acquisition and maintenance of the army and
the treasury. Kautilya tells us that a good
country should have the following characteristicsIt should possess capital cities, both in the
centre and in the extremities of the kingdom,
productive of substances, not only to its own
people but also to outsiders, during occasions
of calamities. They should be repulsive to
enemies, power to suppress neighbouring
kings, free from miry, rocky, uneven and desert
tracts. They should be free from conspirators,
tigers, wild beasts and large tracts of
wilderness. The country should be beautiful to

Trade was sufficiently well organized to

secure regular supplies not only of food stuffs
from other fertile parts inside the country but
also of gold, silver, copper, tin and lead. They
were imported from neighbouring countries to
the north and west, namely from Persia or from
Afghanistan rich in gold, silver, copper and
lead or from Arabia, gold, silver and copper or
from western Tibet, gold and copper ore was
available in abundance. Tin was imported from
India imported lapis lazuli from Badkshan,
turquoise from Khorasan and sistan and
jadeite from the Pamirs, Eastern Turkestan,
Tibet and China and shells from Persial Gulf.
On the other hand, manufactured goods
including beads, knobbed pottery vases and
cloth were exported to Mesopotamia, Egypt
and other countries. The ornaments included
fly-amulets such as were common in early
Dynastic Mesopotamia, a pin with double scroll
head parallel to the double-spiral headed pins
which were distributed from the Indus Valley
through Anan and Hissar II and Ill Troy, the
Cyclades and the Balkans. Silalita was also
exported to the Middle East.
From recent excavation at Lothal, it
appears that this city was a harbour, where sea
borne trade might have originated. On the
other hand, the Sumerian trader undertook sea
voyages over the Persian Gulf to Bahrein and

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

look at, containing fertile lands, mines, timber

and elephant forests and pasture grounds. It
should be artistic, contain hidden passages, be
hill of cattle, mines, timber, not dependent on
rain for water and should possess land and
waterways, rich in all kinds of commercial
commodities, capable of bearing the burden of
a vast army and heavy taxation. It should
comprise of good and active agriculturists,
intelligent masters and servants with a
population noted for its loyalty and character.


The existence of sea and land routes of

commerce (Vanikpatha) has been wellrecognized in India from early times, in the
discussion between Kautilya and his unnamed
preceptor in regard to the "merits and demerits
of both these types of routes, his preceptor
held that, of the two trade routes, one by water
and another by land, the former was better,
mainly as it was less expensive and yielded
large profit. Kautilya, as on several points,
disagreed with his teachers view, stating that a
water-route was liable to obstruction, not
permanent, a source of imminent danger and
incapable of defence. It is surprising that
Kautilya, symbolic of royal power, should have
held such a view and could only have come to
such conclusions in the absence of a strong
sea-power and probably from an ignorance of
the real position of sea-ways. Some of the
main dangers at sea were the pirates. Pirates
had proved themselves obstructive, destructive
and dangerous.


Adhya G.L., Early Indian Economics, Asia

Publishing House, New Delhi, 1953


Ali S. Muzafer, The Geography of the

Puranas, People's Publishing House,
New Delhi, 1938


Altekar A.S., State and Government in

Ancient India, Manohar Publication,
Banaras, 1949


Caves Richard E, Trade and Economic

Structure Models and Methods, Motilal
Banarsidas, Delhi, 1956


Das Gupta A.K., Trade Theory &

Commercial Policy, Asia Publishing
House, New Delhi, 1953


Mukerji P.K., Social and Economic Data in

Asokan Inscriptions, Indian Culture, XI,


Puri Baijnath, Some aspects of village

economy in ancient Indian, Eastern


Stopford Martin, Maritime Economics,

Routledge Publisher, London, 2009


Salvatore Dominick, International

Economics Trade & Finance, John Wiley
& Sons, New Jersey, 2010

10. James Gordon McConville, Shipping

Business and Maritime Economy, Mansell
Publishing, London, 1998
11. Colin E. Brent, Maritime Economy of
Eastern Sussex, 1550-1700, East Sussex
County Council,London,1980


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 69-72

Status of Women in India

Dr. Saraswati Modak
Head, University Department of History
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag

Throughout history, women have generally been restricted to the role of a home-maker; that of a mother and
wife. Despite major changes that have occurred in the status of women in some parts of the world in recent
decades, norms that restrict women to the home are still powerful in India, defining activities that are deemed
appropriate for women. They are, by and large, excluded from political life, which by its very nature takes
place in a public forum. Independence of India heralded the introduction of laws relating to women. The
constitution provided equality to men and women and also gave special protection to women to realize their
interests effectively. Special laws were enacted to prevent indecent presentation of woman in the media and
sexual harassment in workplaces. The law also gives women equal rights in the matters of adoption,
maternity benefits, equal pay and good working conditions.

Keywords: Seclusion, Sati, Child marriage, Reform movements, discrimination


Although the principle of equality of men and

women was recognized as early as in 1945 in
the UN Charter and the UN Declaration of
Human Rights of 1948, researchers have
pointed out that development planners worked
on the assumption that what would benefit one
section of society(especially men) would
trickle down to the other(women). The new
theory argues that a persons role was
specified under a patriarchal framework where
the scope of gender -masculine or femininewas limited within the biological understanding
of sex (male/female).

The status of women in India has been

subject to great many changes over the past
few millennia. From a largely unknown status
in ancient times through the low points of the
medieval period, to the promotion of equal
rights by many reformers, the history of women
in India has been eventful. But even today
Indian women have a status that is mostly
subordinate to men, from birth to work to even
In spite of Indias reputation for respecting
women, including treating her as a Goddess,
history tells us that women were also illtreated. There was no equality between men
and women. This is true of ancient, medieval
and early modern times barring some
revolutionary movements such as that of
Basaweshwara, the 12th century philosopher
in Karnataka, who advocated equality,
casteless society, status for women, and
betterment of the downtrodden. Reform
movements in the 19th and 20th centuries led
by great social reformers provided boost to
womens legal status in India.

The above situation is especially visible in

the world of development, and finds its clearest
expression in proliferating references to
gender in local, national and international
forums, and activists. One repeatedly hears of
gender bias, gender sensitization, gender
planning and gender training, to mention just
some of the more common examples of its
contemporary use. To begin with, discussions
were limited to only women, rather than about
systemic relations of inequality, involving the
relations between both men and women.
Materials and Methods

The theoretical foundations of development

discourse have experienced many changes
over the decades. The role of men and women
in the development process has received
much attention in the last few decades.

For the purpose of in depth study the

contents have been taken from relevant books
and articles from Journals and websites. The
methods used is analytical and descriptive.

Both primary as well as secondary sources of

information have been taken.

many parents went to the extent of killing the

female infants. The practice of Sati became
quite wide spread because of the ill treatment
meted out to widows.

Results and Discussions

It is very important to know the historical
background, if we are to make a study of status
of women in India. It is not easy to find answers
for questions like when did women start losing
their status or who was responsible for this
situation. The position that women occupied in
the medieval and later the colonial period is of
utmost importance. Women were never put on
high pedestal in the Shastras.

The system of Purdah which was

prevalent among royal families, nobles and
merchant prince classes prior to the advent of
Muslims spread to other classes also. During
the medieval period, practices such as
polygamy, sati, child marriage, ill treatment of
widows already prevalent during the
Dharmashastra age gained further
momentum. The priestly class misinterpreted
the sacred texts and created an impression
that all these evil practices had religious

It cannot be clearly stated whether equal

rights between men and women prevailed or
not during the Vedic period. But available
sources show that liberal attitudes and
practices pertaining to women did exist.
Women were actively involved in religious and
social matters. They had some freedom to
choose their partner in marriage and a widow
was permitted to remarry. As India started
taking steps towards civilization, social
discrimination increased.

With the advent of the British, the status of

women saw many changes
The East India Company (EIC) was mainly
a trading company involved in trade in India. To
expand their trade network, they started
acquiring territories. As they were a trading
company, the question of law and order in the
acquired territories posed a great challenge
before EIC. Therefore, the company acquired
the rights to make laws related to the criminal
area. For dealing with civil matters, most
importantly, dealing with matters which
involved the personal laws, the EIC consulted
Moulavis and Pundits. At that time, the
customs were devised and sustained by male
members. Women were not even consulted.
Womens wrongs formed the theoretical basis
for mens rights or more properly male duties
towards moderating womens lust. Women
were not given equal matrimonial rights to
property, rights to widows to remarriage,
adoption and divorce rights. This situation was
severely criticized by the colonial authorities.
In return, Indian cultural nationalism argued in
favour of Indian tradition. Therefore, the
19thcentury is often termed as the century of
social reform. The criticism angered the people
of India and caused a serious threat to the
longevity of colonial rule in India. Hence, the
Queens Proclamation of 1859 declared that
British authorities will not interfere in religious
matters of the people.

Jainism and Buddhism emerged as potent

religious reform movements. According to
Buddha, womens spiritual capacities were
equal to mens. Buddhism began as a religion
that treated women as equal to men in their
capacity for personal spiritual development.
The universal prejudices against women, who
are said to be weak-minded, fickle,
treacherous and impure are shared by the
Jains and expressed in several passages of
the canon and in the form of maxims.
The high status that women enjoyed
during early Vedic period gradually started
deteriorating in the late Vedic period. Lineage
began to be traced in the male line and sons
were the sole heirs to family property. As the
economic and social status of sons began to
rise, the position of women saw a steep
The position of women reached an all-time
low during the age of the Dharmashastras. It is
during this age that codes of conduct
prescribing behavior norms for women were
evolved. This period saw the exclusion of
women from both economic and religious
sphere. During the period of Dharmashastra,
child marriage was encouraged and widow
marriage was looked down upon. The birth of
girl child was considered as an ill omen and

To bring reforms smoothly in India,

legislations transforming the family structure
were introduced in Princely States without
much opposition. Baroda was the first to
introduce divorce provision. The Princely state

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

of Mysore enacted the Infant Marriage

Prevention Act of 1894. Keeping pace with
these princely states, Malabar part of Madras
Presidency and Travancore introduced
reforms. But the major drawback was that the
Princely States could not stop violation of
these laws across their borders.

applicable to the Hindus. Also, people showed

little enthusiasm to implement the provisions of
the Act. In Maharashtra, social reformers like
Pandit Vishnu Shastri, Sir R.G. Bhandarkar,
Agarkar and D.K. Karve have made significant
contributions in this regard.
There was a lot of ambiguity on the
question of the rights of a widow to property
which made it difficult for a widow to remarry.
Before the Hindu Womens Right to Property
Act XVIII of 1937 and the Hindu Succession
Act XXX of 1956 came into effect, the
Dayabhaga and Mitakshara Lawslaid down
that a widow could become a successor to her
husbands estate in the absence of a son,
sons son, sons sons son of the deceased and
the estate which she took by succession to her
husband was an estate which she held only
during her lifetime. At her death, the estate
reverted to the nearest living heir of her dead

The first serious challenge for the

reformers was the problem of widow
immolation or Sati, where Hindu widows
climbed the funeral pyres of their husbands; an
ancient tradition, prevalent in Bengal,
Rajasthan and the South Indian kingdom of
Vijayanagar. Sati was never a religious
obligation, but it was believed that by burning
herself on the funeral pyre, a widow sanctified
her ancestors and removed the sins of her
husband. She was believed to ascend to the
heaven on committing Sati.Strong social
pressures on the widow and the status of
widows among the Hindus were also factors
which helped the growth of this custom. Sati
was first abolished in Calcutta in 1798; a
territory that fell under the British jurisdiction.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy fought bravely for
abolition of sati and with assistance from Lord
William Bentinck, and a ban on sati was
imposed in 1829 in the British territories in

Another serious problem that women

faced was that of child marriage. Small kids
and in some cases even infants in the cradle
were married off. Early marriage affected the
growth and development of the children. Fixing
the minimum age of marriage of men and
women by law was voiced as early as the mid19th century by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
and Keshab Chandra Sen. Vidyasagar argued
that early marriage was detrimental to the
health of women, their efforts, coupled with
that of Mahatma Gandhi, resulted in the
passing of the Child Marriage Restraint Act,

The status of widows in India was

deplorable in that they were not allowed
participate in any religious and social
functions. Their lives were worse than death;
one of the reasons as to why many widows
opted for Sati. The upper caste widows were
most affected by the then prevailing customs.
Prohibition against remarriage of widows was
strictly observed only amongst upper caste
Hindus. Attempts to make laws to facilitate
remarriage of widows by the British were
vehemently opposed by the conservative
Hindus, who held that remarriage of widows
involved guilt and disgrace on earth and
exclusion from heaven.

A girl is considered a burden by parents.

Since a girl child would be going to her
husbands place upon marriage, the parents
did not want to waste their resources on her
upbringing. Again the demand for large dowry
and the huge wedding expenses caused a lot
of hardship to the parents. So, the parents
preferred a male child as they would be able to
bring in large dowry. These considerations led
to the practice of killing the girl child once she
was born.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, who wrote

Marriage of Hindu Widows relying heavily on
the Shastras, fought for widow remarriage.
Reformers like Mahadev Govind.

The practice of female infanticide was

common among certain castes and tribes in
India, especially in the north and north-western
states. The custom of infanticide was
particularly prominent among communities
which found it difficult to find suitable husbands
for their daughters and an unmarried daughter

Ranade and Dayananda Saraswati also

actively participated in the reform movement,
resulting in the enactment of the Hindu Widows
Remarriage Act XV of 1856. The major
drawback of the Act was that it was only

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

was considered a disgrace to the family. The

difficulty was exacerbated by the extravagant
expenditure which conventions demanded on
the occasion of a daughters marriage. The
earliest efforts to stop female infanticide were
made in Kathiawar and Kutch. In 1795,
infanticide was declared to be murder by
Bengal Regulation XXI. The evil of female
infanticide was ended by propaganda and the
forceful action on the part of the British
Government. Through the efforts of Keshab
Chandra Sen, the Native Marriage Act of 1872
was passed, which abolished early marriages,
made polygamy an offence, sanctioned widow
remarriages and inter-caste marriages. In
1901, the Government of Baroda passed the
Infant Marriage Prevention Act. This Act fixed
the minimum age for marriage for girls at 12
and for boys at 16. In 1930 the Sarda Act was
passed, to prevent the solemnization of
marriages between boys under the age of 18
years and girls under the age 14 years.
However, even today, the Act remains merely
on paper on account of several factors.

The early 20th century witnessed a

n a s c e n t w o m e n s m o v e m e n t w h i c h
campaigned for furthering female education,
raising the age of marriage for woman and the
abolition of the Purdah. In 1929 the All India
Womens Conference passed a resolution
against Purdah. The All India Womens
Conference passed a resolution favouring
girls education at its Lucknow session in 1932.
Resolutions were also passed against communal
electorates for women, untouchability, abolition
of the unilateral right to divorce and communal
unity. Thus the period in question witnessed
profound changes in the history of women in




At the time of the advent of the British rule

in India, the status and position of Indian
woman was very low. Customs such as of
polygamy, the purdah, the denial of womans
right over property, child marriages, and sati
etc., during this period resulted in the
development of a very weak personality of
Indian woman. The British influence had a very
deep impression in the minds of Indian
leaders. The reformist movements of the 19th
century brought social reformers Raja Ram
Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar,
Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Swami
Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal
Nehru, and many others, who were in the
forefront of the struggle for women
emancipation. Gandhis efforts led to the
elevation of the womens status, involving
them in the struggle for social progress and
political independence. Prominent among
them were Sarojini Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi,
Kamala Nehru, and Aruna Asaf Ali, who
participated in the political arena. After initial
hesitation, even Muslims took to modern
western education in large number thanks to
the efforts of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and
others. The Muslim student population in
modern high schools was generally
proportionate to their numerical strength.









Dasgupta Kalpana, Women on the Indian

Scene, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi,
Nair Janaki, Women and Law in Colonial
India: A Social History, Delhi,1996
Sharma Arvind, Women in Indian
Religions, Oxford University Press, 2002
Mahajan V.D., Modern Indian History, S.
Chand, Delhi, 2010
Karat Brinda, Survival and Emancipation:
Notes from Indian Womens Struggles,
Gurgaon Three Essays Collective, 2005
Pandey J.N., Constitution of India, pdf
Sayyed A.R., Religion and Ethnicity
among Muslims, Rawat Publications, New
Delhi, 1995
Mernissi Fatima, Women and Islam,
Cambridge University Press, New Delhi,
Kazi Seema, Muslim Women in India,
1999, Minority Rights Group, UK
Mazumdar Maya, Social Status of Women
in India, Dominant Publishers and
Distributors,New Delhi, 2008
Holmes John. Women and Ending hunger
the Global perspective, Institute of Social
Sciences, New Delhi, 2000
Mohanty Bidyut, Women and Political
Empowerment, Institute of Social
Sciences. New Delhi, 2000
Chandra Bipin. Essays on contemporary
India, Har-Anand Publications Pvt., Ltd. ,
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 73-77

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Satyagraha: Gandhian Way of Life

Dr. Kiran Dwivedi
Reader, Department of History
K.B. Women's College, Hazaribag
Of all the revolutionaries of the world, Mahtma Gandhi, the father of the Indian Nation, offered hope for reform
both within and without, physical and spiritual, without destruction. He developed a system by using his 'self'
as a laboratory where he experimented with truth as a pure scientist and found viable solutions for the major
problems confronting humanity. There are three distinct revolutionary currents in which Gandhi's practical
ability to apply to new situations has been instrumental in shaping the history of our times and in pushing
humanity towards a more rational existence. The first of these is the anti-colonical revolution the second, the
revolution for human dignity and the third, the revolution for peace.

Keywords: peace, dignity, revolution, reckless courage, non-violence

resolved that if he did not trust in the power of
soul he could do nothing. It was only when
Mahatma Gandhis aim was to release the
convinced that he had undergone all
individual from the dichotomies and inner
he wanted to see in others, he
contradictions that modern technological
took the final plunge and gave his people the
civilization has created in the inner spaces of
call to awake, arise and act non-violently.
mankind, so also to free humanity from the
yearning created through sheer manipulation.
The response was astonishing and
He sought to liberate men and women from the
justified Gandhis faith in God and man. His
external tyranny of modern living, and bring
people rose as one man and followed him
back wholeness and integrity to the individual.
valiantly in the non-violent struggle, the
Our age has witnessed the revolt of the
meaning of which came to them instinctively
and with growing conviction. What happened
disinherited in many countries and in varied
in this epic struggle, which lasted for seven
years from September 11, 1906-1913, is now a
Mahatma Gandhi rejected the weapons of
part of our glorious history.
hate and set about to discover the instrument
of love for the battle of the weak against the
Materials and Methods
strong. Discoveries came to him one after the
For the purpose of in depth study the
other. He then put together all these
contents have been taken from relevant books
ingredients of his discovery and welded them
and articles from Journals and websites. The
into the concept and practice of Satyagraha.
methods used is analytical and descriptive.
Thus, step-by-step, the heroic and solitary
Both primary as well as secondary sources of
experimenter in the dreaded laboratory of
information have been taken.
South Africa arrived at his radiant discovery of
Results and Discussions
the power of collective non-violence, which
Luckily, Mahatma Gandhi has not left the
evolved in time into the revolutionary weapon
power of Satyagraha in doubt. After the nonof Satyagraha.
violent struggle in South Africa, Gandhi led
It is difficult to make a discovery but even
millions of the Indian people in three massive
more difficult to apply it in a most difficult
non-violent revolutions against British rule
situation. How did Gandhi get the reckless
through which the freedom of India was won.
courage to use Satyagraha in South Africa? He
While his philosophy of Satyagraha can be
was himself undergoing a basic transformation
understood in theory by any intelligent
within himself. Realizing that fear and nonindividual, and its principles practiced by the
violent action would be completely
ardent and resolute aspirant, his socio-political
contradictory, he deliberately shed all fear and
programme for the regeneration of society,

which he has described as Constructive

Programme, will remain a riddle until he is
perceived as a figure evolving naturally out of
the hoary past of India. Satyagraha without
Sarvodaya is meaningless. They are the two
sides of the same coin; in a real sense
embodying the forces, which are still moulding
its present history for a vibrant future.
Through the freedom movement, Gandhiji
set an agenda for a revolution in India, and
subsequently for the entire mankind. Through
the Constructive Programme, he presented a
comprehensive vision of the kind of society he
had in his mind. It was the blue print for inner
change in the individual, which would
subsequently bring about the social change, it
was a process in which individual change and
social change will run parallel to each other.
Through the Constructive Programme,
Gandhi was preparing the masses for the post
independent India. The seed of this vision was
sown in Gandhi early in his life when he came
in contact with the views of John Ruskin,
through the book Unto this Last. To bring
about this ideal into being the entire social
order has got to be reconstructed. A society
based on non-violence cannot nurture any
other ideal. Social change must be an ordered
development and not a violent and disruptive
change. For social institutions are, he felt, the
visible expression of moral values that mould
the minds of individuals. Mahatma Gandhi
knew that his ideas and ideals are difficult to
follow because of their inherent simplicity. It
has been my misfortune or good fortune to take
the world by surprise. New experiments or old
experiments in new style must sometimes
engender misunderstanding.
On his seventy-eighth birthday, October 2,
1947. Gandhi said: With every breath I pray
God to give me strength to quench the flames
or remove me from this earth. I, who staked my
life to gain Indias independence, do not wish to
be a living witness to its destruction.
While outwardly many things may be
happening in India which are contrary to the
spirit and the challenge of Mahatma Gandhi,
there is under the surface of events, a current
slowly gathering strength, which will in the very
near future not only change the face of India
but also the entire human societies across the

globe. The spirit of Gandhi is strong in India. It

is an abiding and revolutionary spirit. It will find
its own instruments more and more as the
years pass. No one, who knows Gandhi or
India, will doubt it.
When the strife of these days is forgotten,
Gandhi will stand out as the great prophet of a
moral and spiritual revolution without which
this distracted world will not find peace. It is
said that non-violence is the dream of the wish
while violence is the history of man.
Mahatma Gandhi had deep faith that
mankind will rise up to the occasion and give
new directions to an age drifting rapidly to its
He firmly believed that the world is one in
its deepest roots and highest aspirations. He
knew that the purpose of historical humanity
was to develop a world-civilization, a worldculture, a world-community. We can get out of
the misery of this world only by exposing the
dryness, which is strongly entrenched in our
hearts and replacing it by understanding and
tolerance. Gandhis tender and tormented
heart heralds the world, which the United
Nation now wish to create.
This is possible only if mankind adopts
simplicity and abandonment of possession.
The key to future of mankind lies in reflecting
on what Gandhi held so dear, the need for
keener social consciousness and a deeper
sense of personal responsibility: The essence
of what I have said is that man should rest
content with what are his real needs and
become self-sufficient. If he does not have this
control he cannot save himself. After all the
world is made up of individuals, just as it is the
drops that constitute the ocean. This is a well
known truth.
Mahatma Gandhi had the humility to
acknowledge the truth that his advice will not
be accepted at once by all, He said, I may be
taunted with the retort that is all utopian and,
therefore, not worth a single thought
There is an opponent resistance to the
appreciation of Gandhian values which seem
hopelessly idealistic but are so essential for
building a human society.
One of the factors that inhibit true
assessment of Gandhis relevance for our

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

times is that he is considered a saintly

personality, an Ascetic who was far removed
from the harsh realities of life in an urbanindustrial society, and that he was a paradox
a man born in modern times but rejecting
modernity can be nothing else than a paradox.
In answer to this, one has to simply recall
that the literal meaning of Ascetic in Greek
denoted to an athlete who in the course of his
training to win the race in Olympics voluntarily
gave up indulgences in unessential luxuries of
life. By this definition there is, indeed, no
greater Ascetic than Gandhi who in the true
spirit of sportsmanship voluntarily gave up
what he regarded as indulgence in order to
lead the human civilisation out of the present
morass and thereby showed the path of
recovery to the world exhausted by over
But Gandhi himself never appreciated
being called an ascetic. It is wrong to call me
an ascetic. The ideals that regulate my life are
presented for acceptance by mankind in
general. I have arrived at them by gradual
evolution. Every step was thought out, well
considered, and taken with greatest
Contrary to the claims of George Orwell,
aib century later, one finds a new awakening,
which is evident in the quest for a new
paradigm rooted in Gandhian values. There is
a growing belief that Gandhian forms of
intervention alone hold out hope of lasting
peace. Extensive research on Mahatma
Gandhi is on in several universities, specially in
the West. Why is there a sudden interest in
Mahatma Gandhi? The answer is not hard to
find. There is a growing belief that Gandhis
philosophy of nonviolence humbles the
arrogance of modern civilisation. The question
what is the way to peace is sought to be
answered in Gandhian dictum: there is no
way to peace, peace is the way. We must not
forget, Wars call for Peace, peace never calls
for war.
Gandhis ideas, which the world is slowly
discovering were not utopian or obsolete, they
were in a sense far ahead of their times.
Romain Rolland, the great French philosopher,
biographer of Mahatma Gandhi regarded
Gandhis ideologies as the perfect

manifestation of the principle of life which will

lead a new humanity on to a new path. Many
of his contemporaries believed that Gandhis
philosophy had meaning and significance
beyond the shores of India and are eternal. His
advice to go back to a simple sedentary rural
life aimed at the reconstruction of small
community is the first requisite. This alone will
help in heralding the new dawn of a society
based on non-violence in which voluntary
cooperation is the per-condition for a dignified
and peaceful existence.
Mahatma Gandhis influence even upon
the generation which had been attracted by the
power of violence was immense. Louis
Fischer, his most celebrated biographer, was
the first in this list of such persons, As selfprofessed dogmatically pro-communist
writer until I delved into Gandhis creed of
nonviolent resistance. No less surprising was
when the book Mahatma Gandhi, his life and
times came Gen. Doughlas MacArthur, a
professional soldier surprised everyone with
his statement that In the evolution of
civilisation, if it is to survive, all men cannot fail
eventually to adopt Gandhis belief that the
process of mass application of force to resolve
contentious issues is fundamentally not only
wrong but contains within itself the germs of
self destruction.
Evidently, these accounts must reinforce
our belief that this was a new type of
revolutionary leader, strongly and yet
immediately recognizable as belonging to a
more inclusive world history. Louis Fischer
makes a poignant point when he quotes
General Omar Bradley while summing up his
subjects life thus: We have too many men of
science, too few men of God. We have
grasped the mystery of the atom and rejected
the Sermon on the Mount. Gandhi was a
unclear infant and an ethical giant. He knew
nothing about killing and much about living in
the twentieth century.
Human ideas have a high rate of mortality
especially now in this hi-tech culture with fast
changing global scenario where ideas are
picked up and put aside with an almost
frivolous quickness. To imagine that Mahatma
Gandhis philosophy whether social, political
or economic, which had their origin and

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

inspirations in the nineteenth century could

have anything but a remote chance of
acceptance in the twenty-first century will be
naive on our part. All that Gandhi did was to put
forward from an astonishingly fertile mind a
number of tentative hypotheses to be tested in
the crucible of time and to be accepted or
rejected, amended or added to.
But it would be doing a disservice to
Gandhi by forcing the application of his ideas
unchanged in situations, which have altered
radically. And it would be equally a disservice
to find piecemeal solutions for the predicament
of humankind and put them together and
imagine that we have found an integrated
Gandhian solution.
Mahatma Gandhi would often say, I am
not built for academic writing. Action is my
domain. Yet he was guided by values and
ideas that remained enduring throughout his
In this sense, he was a scientist and not a
philosopher. A scientist is a dreamer and so is a
revolutionary. And Mahatma Gandhi was both
a scientist and a revolutionary. If we may say
so, he was an evolutionary scientist.
The spirit of science that he had imbibed
made his life a saga of experimentation and
discovery. It needs to be remembered that no
other teacher in world history but Gandhi had
the opportunity to work in countries situated in
three continents Asia, Africa and Europe.
It is wrong to argue that Gandhis world is
illogical in the sense of inconsistency between
the different principles. M. K. Gandhi was
much too serious a thinker to get into kind of
simple trap. A Gandhian way of life is definitely
possible with a World of Gandhians-in the
Phoenix Experiment, in the Sabarmati Ashram
or at Wardha. The real question is a somewhat
different one. Is Gandhis thinking relevant in
the Contemporary World? But did we ever try
to put Gandhis ideas into practice to find its
Gandhi held forth that Armed with the
weapon of Satyagraha the weak can refuse to
obey. The weak must not surrender; the weak
must invite suffering instead of inflicting
suffering. The weapons of love must make the
weapons of hate as useless as possible, and

above all, the slaves must stand together as

one united human community. Gandhi made it
clear that it must be remembered that
challenge was to use the weapons of love
collectively and that the battle must inevitably
be nonviolent.
We are learning, slowly and painfully what
Mahatma Gandhi always taught that violence
is always futile, that no wars are really won,
that the human race must unify or perish.
The declaration of October 2, Gandhi
Jayanti as the International Day of
Nonviolence by the UNO mooted by India and
supported by 142 member states is a
manifestation of the change of hearts, a
sincere cry of the war weary world Please! No
more wars! No more violence!.
Mahatma Gandhi believed that even if one
person takes the lead in the right direction, it
will have a big impact on society. Samrat
Ashoka is an historic example of this.
This new imperative laid upon us now is to
place the weapon of Satyagraha in the hands
of the suppressed and downtrodden
throughout the world. No greater duty rests
upon the people of India than this in view of the
Centenary of Satyagraha. And in appreciation
of which the global community has now
declared October 2 as the International Day of
It is not surprising, for long Mahatma
Gandhi has been hailed as a practical mystic,
whose philosophy of life based on Truth and
Nonviolence were at once an inspiration to
thousands and a puzzle to millions. Mahatma
Gandhis life and work is also seen as an
evolving and an unfinished chapter of Indian
history played on a Global scale. It is a journey
in spirituality. Great kingdoms with arts and
literature of monumental proportions grew
naturally from the roots of spiritual culture,
embodied and taught by those individuals.
A deeper understanding of the meaning of
Satyagraha is based on Truth and Nonviolence
offers a way out of the impasse. October 2,
2007 should be seen as a glorious dawn when
Satyagraha is accepted and projected as more
than a method of social action. Several
countries, specially India and south Africa are
in the midst of celebrating the Centenary of the

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Birth of Satyagraha; not merely as a tactic but a

strategy; not merely as a philosophical choice
but a pragmatic option, a concept of profound
importance of the future progress and survival
of humankind.
Expect nothing from the 21st century It is
the 21st century which expects, said Gabriel
Garcia Marquez. Mahatma Gandhi with his
lifes message shows how to come up to his
expectation. His lifes message and his
experiments with Truth forcefully demonstrate
that he was not prepared to be defeated. An
irrepressible optimist, he had faith in the
righteousness of his cause. He is to be judged
not only by what he achieved but also by the
what he failed to achieve. His failure lives as a
challenge to the present generation and the
generations to come. His practical
programmes of economic and education
reconstruction, of social regeneration and
assertion of human dignity, demand a second
The Global community has affirmed their
faith in the Gandhian way. Now the onus is on
the shoulders of ever vigilant and a zealous
protector of the eternal legacy of the Mahatma.
Mahatma Gandhis lifes work is unique in
political history. He has devised quite a new
and humane method for fostering the struggle
for liberation of his suppressed people and has
implemented it with greatest energy and
devotion. The enormous influence which it has

exerted on the consciously thinking people of

the entire civilized world might be far more
lasting than may appear in our time of
overestimation of brutal method of force. For
only the work of such statement is lasting who
by example education and by action awaken
and establish the moral forces of their people.



Gandhi M.K., Satyagrah in South Africa,

Navjivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad,


Desai Mahadev, The Story of my

Experiments with truth, Navjivan Trust,
Ahmedabad, 1927


Kriplani J.B., The Gandhian way, Vora &

Company, Bombay, 1938


Prasad Rajendra, Satyagrah in

Champaran, S. Ganeshan, Madras, 1928


Gupta P.K., Gandhian Satyagrah and non

violent struggle, Swastic Publisher and
Distributors, New Delhi, 2008


Bakshi S.R., Verma B.R. (Edi), Gandian

Satyagrah and his technique, Commaon
Wealth Publisher, New Delhi, 2005


Rai Ajay Shankar, Gandhian Satyagrah :

An analytical and critical approach,
concept publishing company, New Delhi,


Krishan Anita, Gandhian Satyagraha in

South Africa, Alfa Publication, New Delhi,

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 78-82

Tribal Agriculture
Akramul Hasan
Research Scholar, P.G. Dept. of Geography
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag

Inspite of the Utter dependence of few tribes on forest and to some extent of all tribes, agriculture continues to
be the principal source of their livelihood. The methods of agriculture adopted by the tribals are somewhat
old, traditional and primitive and different. Some tribes practice 'shifting cultivation which is known by different
names among different tribes, such as 'Jhum Kurwa' etc. Terrace cultivation, contour ploughing, single
cropping are some other characteristics of tribal agriculture.

Keywords: Contour Ploughing, Dhangar, Pasari, Monocropping

Agriculture is the main source of livelihood
of the tribals, though some tribes subsist on
food-gathering and hunting and fishing. Some
tribes are mainly artisans of weaving or
blacksmithy. Rope-making or basketry or other
works are the principal source of their
livelihood, while a good number of tribal people
earn their, bread as labourers in the fields or
factories or mines and as domestic servants or

Food is the primary need of human
beings. Tribals procure food from different
sources. Agriculture is no doubt, the main
source of food but the agricultural produce is
not sufficient to support the year around.
Tribals are seldom land less but due to poor
soil and lack of agricultural facilities and farm
management the agricultural production is poor
and insuffencient. They supplement their food
by forest produce such as root, leaves, flowers
and fruits easily available in the forest in the
immediate neighbourhood and also by hunting
and fishing. Hunting and food collecting are the
main stay of life or survival of some nomadic
tribes like Birhor and others. Some artisan
tribes live by domestic crafts such as weaving,
rope-making, basketry, blacksmithy etc. Some
others earn their livelihood by working as
labourers and daily wage earners. Only the
major tribes like the santals, Oraon, Munda, Ho
and Others are settled agriculturists and
practise plough cultivation. The tribals need
incentive and farm training to reap better yield
from agriculture.

About 90 p.c of the total tribal population

of India is found in nine states of the country. In
terms of absolute number of tribal population,
Jharkhand ranks third after Madhya Pradesh
and Orissa. In respect of percentage of tribal
population to the total population of the states
concerned, Nagaland stands first and
Jharkhand occupies the tenth place. The
north- eastern part of India contains almost half
of the total tribal population.
As many as 32 tribes are found in
Jharkhand. Among them eight tribes are
classed as primitive tribes. Some of them are
nomadic tribes subsisting mainly on food gathering and hunting as for example,
BIRHOR. some practice 'Jhum' or 'Kurwa'
cultivation (sifting cultivation), as for example
Mal and Souria Paharia, while some others are
artisans, for instance, Mahli, Karmali, ChikBaraik etc. The major tribes like the Santhais,
Oraons, Munda, Ho and others are settled
agriculturists and practice plough cultivation.

Materials and Methods

In this paper an attempt has been made to
understand the pattern and situation of Tribal
agriculture. The method used is analytical and
descriptive. The study is based on available
literatures supplemented with field observation.
Results and Discussions
Food is one of the basic needs of human
beings. Agriculture is the main source of food.
Agriculture also provides raw materials for
various industries, which ultimately serve as
means to satisfy necessities, comforts and
luxuries of mankind.

The tribal habitat is in a plateau region,

consisting of a series of plateaus at different
elevation with scarps, hills and 'tongris'and
valleys The region is undulating intersected

with streams and rivers and studded with low

rocky hills and isolated peaks. The area is also
abundantly forested. The region alternates
with upland and low land, locally known as
'Tanr' and 'Don' respectively. This is universal
relief of the area. The area has good network of
drainage but most of the streams get dry in
summer season and carry huge volume of
water only in the rainy season. This affects the
irrigation facility in the area.

Owing to high percentage of barren and

uncultivable land, the per capita availability of
land for cultivation is less. The physical,
cultural and social factors also exercise great
influence to limit the operation and
development of tribal agriculture.
Here agriculture is mostly rainfed. The
land is undulating, terrace-like and infertile.
Lack of irrigational facilities is another factor in
this tribal area. Method of agriculture is old and
traditional. Monocropping is the typical feature
of tribal agriculture. Low productivity and low
yield per unit of land is common. The physiogeographical conditions combined with
illiteracy, short-sightedness, habit of excess
drinking and the nature of laziness of the tribals
are responsible to a great exlent for
backwardness of agriculture and their poverty.
Tribals are seldom landless but poor soil,
insufficient agriculture facilities and neglectful
implements used by the tribals farmers are
very primitive crude and antiquated. Yet some
poor tribals do not possess even outdated
traditional implements and they borrow them
from others and many marginal farmers do not
have good bullocks or plough cattle. They are
least active to the fast technological change
taking place outside their tribal world.

The climate of the region is of tropical

monsoon type. The agriculture is mainly
dependent on monsoon rain which is
uncertain, irregular and uneven. The
irrigational facilities are less and limited. Wells
and ponds are common means of irrigation.
The soil of the area is not very fertile. It can
be put into three categories:
Fertile- ph value 6 to 7.8
Modrate-5.6 to 6
Poor- 5 and > 8.6 to 9 and 5.1 to 5.5.
The Tanr land is occupied by Sandy soil
(Baluahi), Red soil (Lalmitia) and Stony soil
(rugari), while the Don land by Sandy, Khirsi
loam and clay (Nagara) Soils. The Tanr and
Don are subdivided into three classes
according to situation and fertility or
productivity. Red Sandy soil predominates
Tanr - I, Red soil is prevalent in tanr - II and
'rugri' in tanr - III. Similarly sandy loam
dominates Don -III, Loam in Don - II and clay in
Don -1. The distribution of Tanr and Don land in
Jharkhand is as follows :
Tanr i



Tanr II



Tanr III



Don I



Don II







Paddy is the dominant crop of the tribal

area covering about two thirds of total cropped
area and includes 'gora' and 'gondli'. Wheat
cultivation is a new phenomenon in tribal
agriculture. Tribals started eating wheat after
1967 and began its cultivation. Actually the
famine of 1967-68 gave a new orientation to
tribal agriculture. Wheat cultivation now holds
an important position. Other important crops
are maize, millet, pulses and oilseeds.
Cultivation of vegetables as cash- crop has
gained ground.


The tribal agriculture has certain

characteristic features. 'Madaitee' system is
prevalent in the area under which laboures on
daily wages are not hired, rather co-workers
are engaged who are not given wage but meal
and 'hanria' (rice-beer). Once a year during



Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

cultivation period, 'pacha' for nominal amount

and rice-beer, is organised.

There is a tradition of keeping animals among

the tribals. Live-stock play a critical role in
agriculture intensification process by providing
draft power and manure for fertilizer and fuel.
Moreover, they are considered as a living bank
for farmers, providing flexible financial
reserves for period of economic stress and a
buffer against crop failure. Live stock fulfills a
great variety of functions and should be
evaluated not only from economic point of view
but also from socio - cultural and ecological
point of view.

Crops grown in tribal area may be

grouped into four categories :
(1) Cereals (rice, wheat, maize, barely,
gondli, marua etc)
(2) Pulses (arhar, mung, urad, khesari, pea,
(3) Oil seeds (mustard, rapeseed, linseed,
Surguja, etc)

It is a fact that tribal farmers have been

raising Paddy and Bhadai crops like maize,
marua, gora, gondli and both Bhadai and
Aghani vegetable since long but after the
famine year of 1967-68, a change is witnessed
in the tribal agriculture. The trend of cultivation
changed as a result of which, potato and
raising of green vegetables gathered
momentum without right transformation in the
whole of agriculture landscape of the region.
Transformation and development of
agriculture pattern is obvious and
conspicuous. This is expressed through
cropping pattern, crop - combination, crop concentration. Crop -diversification, crop rotation, mixed cropping, relay cropping,
double cropping and inter cropping and also
through use of fertilizer and adoption of
improved methods and techniques of
agriculture. Nevertheless, the change is slow
and negligible. Here farming is still traditional
antiquated and absolute. Magical and religious
practices are still associated with tribal
agriculture operation. The tribals are hardly
sharp and quick in grasping the changes taking
place at or near their hands. Yet expansion and
development of communication network,
political awakening of the farmers,
governmental policy and programme,
increasing population pressure and desires,
need and efforts of the tribals to enhance their
income have had their impact on the changing
pattern of tribal agriculture. The people are
actively engaged in growing vegetables and
today the region is spotted as the leading

(4) Other (vegetable, spices etc)

Paddy is the main and most important
crop of all the cereals. Three processes are
found in tribal agriculture :
Dhuria (broad cast in dry land)
Halbuna (broad cast in moist land)
Lewabuna (plantation in muddy field
Tribal agriculture has a characteristic
feature of religious or ritualistic; ceremonies
observed before ploughing, sowing, during
standing plant and after harvest. Sacrifices are
offered on these occasions for good harvest.
The custom of employing or appointing
some one (a 'Dhangar,) to cooperate in
agriculture operation is common and
interesting. The custom of 'Pasari' (borrowing
cattle to plough in exchange of labour) is
popular. The custom of 'Saukhia' and 'Sajha'
(Batai) is also prevalent.
Important agricultural innovations have
remained mostly ineffective among the tribal
farmers. Closely related to agriculture are
bullocks and buffaloes who carry the whole
agriculture operation from ploughing the fields
for sowing to bringing the harvest from field to
house or hut. The agriculture holdings are
generally small with undulating nature of land
and this restricts the use of tractor.
The tribal farming is substantially
augmented by animal husbandry and poultry.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

producer of potato, tomato and green

vegetables. Growing cities and towns and
increasing urbanisation and industrialization in
and around and even beyond its vicinity have
exerted sound and strong impact on
agriculture transformation and development.
Hunger makes a man willing to work and new
ideas give incentive to work.

vegetable cultivation has become important.

Cultivation of sugar cane has become poplar.
Shifting from food crops to cash. Crops is a
new craze in tribal agriculture.
Basic problems facing tribal agriculture
are undulating configuration, poor soils,
scarcity of manures, lack of irrigational
facilities, inferior live stock, lack of storage
facility and regular markets, etc. Thus apart
from physical, climatic and edophic
disadvantages, tribal agriculture suffers
greatly by poor marketing, transport and
storage facilities In absence of proper storage
facility, damage or loss of food grains and other
eatable averages 20 % in tribal agriculture
against 2 to 10p.c in general.

A comparative analysis of land use in tribal

areas shows a vital change in agriculture
pattern in the time span of last 30 years. It
shows a rise of 10.13% in area sown. The area
under double or multiple cropping has
increased by 6.16%. Cultivation has been
extended to forest and marginal lands. Further
reclamation of more land to bring under plough
in the area is very bleak. It has already
tresspassed deep into hilly forested difficult
terrains. This has led to extensive
deforestation which is very alarming and
detrimental to further resource conservation.
This cannot be appreciated. The area put to
non- agricultural use has increased by 8.52%.
Non - traditional cereal like wheat is a new
introduction in tribal agriculture. Cultivation of
vegetable on commercial basis is an
interesting phenomenon. Green vegetable
and cash crops like potato, tomato, etc. are
recent introduction. Now this region is marked
as the leading producer of potato, tomato and
green vegetable. On the whole, agricultural
land has increased but the area under cereals
has slightly declined. Paddy has maintained
the growth tendency but pulses shows a
decline. The area under oil seed and 'other
crops ' records an increase. Cultivation of
'gora' rice, maize, marua and gondli shows
slight increase. There is an obvious regional
variation in the increase or decrease in the
area under different crops.

There are very many weekly or bi- weekly

markets in the tribal areas but they should
function every day at least during specific
hours. Hats (Market) held once or twice a week
are located at great distance. They should be
within a radius of 5 KM. In and around Ranchi
there are 9 cold storage with capacity of about
three lakh quintals but storage facilities should
exist at all sub market centres and whole sale
markets. Kohl defines marketing as
"performance of business activities that direct
the flow of goods and services from the product
to the consumer in such a way that those may
reach in time, at the place and in the form he
wishes and at a price he is willing to pay".
Timely supply of seeds, fertilizers, pesticide or
plant protection chemicals etc, should be
made available to the farmers on reasonable
rates. In tribal area, rice is processed by hand
pounding and in some area by huller mills and
shelter mills and pluses are dehusked and split
in traditional method. Improved methods of
processing should gradually be adopted.
Soil erosion is an acute problem in Tribal
agriculture and the government should help
the Tribals to control this menace. However the
tribals have their own method of cultivation and
cropping. Their efforts to minimise soil erosion
by adopting methods of Contour ploughing and
terracing have proved effective. Unlawful

The unorganised agro - pastoral activities

have caused negative transformation on
permanent pasture and other grazing land and
area 'not available for cultivation.
The net sown area (NSA) has gone up.
'Rice culture' is still supreme but wheat and

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

alienation of tribal lands by mafias and

frequent acquisition of their land by the
government for developmental works tell upon
their agriculture. Here in Tribal area, there is a
great potentiality for flower cultivation, Lac
rearing, sericulture, pisciculture and animal
husbandry and these are associated with
agriculture and should be encouraged for
improvement and better prospect of tribal




To better the tribal agriculture priority

should be given to control soil erosion and to
provide agricultural facilities like irrigation,
manuring, seeds, better method of farming and
so on. Unlawful alienation of tribal agricultural
land by mafias and frequent acquisitions by the
government should be stopped. Multiple
cropping and cash cropping must be
encouraged including flower cultivation.




Bhatt L.S., Regional Planning in India,

Asia Publishing House, Calcutta, 1972
Mandal S.C., Soil of Chotanagpur, Journal
of Agriculture College, Ranchi, 1957
Minhas, B.S, Planning and the poor,
S.Chand Publisher, New Delhi, 1974
Sharma B.C., Chotanagpur Ka Bhugol,
Rajesh Publication, New Delhi, 1997
Sharma B.C., Tribal Geography, Bikram
Prakeshan, Ranchi, 1978
Singh S.Kumar, Inside Jharkhand, Crown
Publication, Ranchi, 2008
Fink Arnold, The fertility of Tropical soil
under influence of Agricultural Land use,
Applied science and development, 1975,
FR of Germany
Rai Choudhary, Soils of India, ICAR, New
Delhi, 1963
Dutta Rudra, Indian Economy, S.Chand &
Company, Delhi, 2005

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 83-88

Civil Disobedience Movement as a Milestone for

Women Emancipation in India
Dr. Sudhir Kumar Singh
Assistant Professor
P.G.Dept. of History
Jai Prakash University, Chapra

Civil Disobedience Movement (C.D.M) had a very deep impact on the position of women in India . Under the
leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, nationalism became intense and it penetrated deep into the minds and
hearts of Indians. The cause of Swaraj swept all taboos and old customs before it. During this period, women
achieved their own freedom to an extent hardly credible. The response of women to the call of Gandhi to
participate in C.D.M was path breaking event. The women awoke from their slumber, recognised their
strength and felt a kind of new consciousness. Purdah no longer remained the hallmark of status and
respectability. Coming out of Purdah, they faced publicity of the most trying kind in picketing drink shops and
foreign cloth shops, in walking in public processions, in proceedings in law-courts. Thousands of them
courted and went to prison. Incredible power of patience and perseverance shown by Smt. Sarojini Naidu,
Kamla Devi Chattopadhyay, Mrs. Hansa Mehta, Smt. Sawarupa Rani Nehru, Kamla Nehru, Krishna, Vijaya
Lakshami etc. had its electrifying effect not only on psyche of contemporary generations but on coming future
generations too. In fact, of all the factors that have contributed to the awakening of women in India, the most
potent has been the field of non-violent action which Gandhiji offered to women in his battle for Indias political
freedom. Of course, the year 1930 proved a blessing in disguise and the C.D.M saw the best in the Indian

Keywords: Civil Disobedience, Movement, Women, Gandhi


Materials and Methods

Civil Disobedience Movement, the most

organized movement launched by Mahatma
Gandhi was a momentous happening in the
history of Indian National Movement. This
Movement came as a golden opportunity for
the women of India and thus proved a blessing
in disguise especially for them. During this
period i.e., from 1930 to 1932, the movements
coincided for the progress and freedom of the
women and the country. Of course, the ground
for social revolution was already prepared by
earlier religious and social reformation
movement like Brahmo-Samaj and Araya
Samaj. But then, the progress was very slow.
During Gandhi Period (1920-1947),
nationalism became intense and it penetrated
deep into the minds and hearts of Indians. The
cause of Swaraj swept all taboos and old
customs before it. Now movements for political
emancipation and social regeneration went

For the purpose of in depth study the

contents have been taken from relevant books
and articles from Journals and websites. The
methods used is analytical and descriptive.
Both primary as well as secondary sources of
information have been taken.
Results and Discussions
Gandhiji Saw in women the great qualities
of head and heart-patience, endurance,
capacity for sacrifice and suffering. He was
confident that women have great potentialities
lying dormant in them, and given an opportunity,
they can rise equal to the occasion and do
useful service. In the non-violent struggle for
freedom, the woman was the most suitable
instrument for fight. He said if non-violence is
the law of our being, the future is with women"1.
A very close associate of Gandhiji has said, "of
all the factors that have contributed to the
awakening of women in India, the most potent
has been the field of non-violent action which
Gandhiji offered to women in his battle for

India's political freedom. No one knew, no one

appreciated woman better than Gandhiji.2

Presidential Address was a stirring call to

action:- "We have now an open conspiracy to
free this country from foreign rule and you,
comrades, and all our countrymen and country
-women are invited to join it "5 He also spelt out
the methods of struggle:

The incessant political activity of Gandhi

(including his constructive programmes) led to
an awakening in Indian women; brought out
their latent capacity and enabled them to
shoulder responsibility in any walk of life.
Gandhi did not handle the woman's problem
like a Philosopher or an academician but he did
so like a practical and experienced man. He did
not start any organization or movement for the
woman as he did for the Harijans. Still he
touched and solved woman's problems in his
own way. "Whether it was in the shelter of his
Ashram or the mid-day burning sands of the
sea, he would call girls and women, fill them
with enthusiasm, inspire them with a great
cause and launch them forth to find their feet
and with it a new and equal status with men."3
For effective social reform, Gandhiji relied
more on public opinion than on legislation. So
he tried to educate the public against social
evils by his constant speeches and continuous
writings. He regularly wrote articles on the
various problems of women and they were
published in this most popular papers 'Young
India' and 'Harijan'. "No other social
Philosopher has so candidly and firmly written
and so extensively too, about the problems of
men and women as the basic units of human
society, their relationship and their functions.4

"Any great movement for liberation today

must necessarily be a mass movement, and
mass movements must essentially be
peaceful, except in times of organised revolt.
And if the principles movement is a peaceful
one, contemporaneous attempts at sporadic
violence can only distract attention and
weaken it" 6. The plan was brilliantly conceived
though few realised its significance when it
was first announced. Gandhiji, along with a
bond of seventy-eight members of the
Sabarmati Ashram, was to march from his
headquarter in Ahmedabad through the
villages of Gujrat for 240 miles. On reaching
the coast at Dandi, he would break the salt law
by collecting salt form the beach. Thus on April
6, 1930, by picking up a handful of salt,
Gandhiji inaugurated the Civil Disobedience
Movement, a movement that was to remain
unsurpassed in the history of the Indian
National Movement for the country-wide mass
participation it unleashed. This deceptively
innocuous move was to prove devastatingly
effective. Gandhis salt strategy made the
British Government 'Puzzled and perplexed'. A
Madras civilian expressed the dilemma in early
1930 in the following words:- "If we do too
much, Congress will cry "repression" if we
do too little, Congress will cry "victory."7

In fact, the political temperature of India

was rising up fast towards the end of the third
decade of the 20th century. The all white
Simon Commission had annoyed the whole of
India irrespective of creed of politics. It
provided the first taste of political action to a
new generation of youth and of course,
Jawahar Lal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose
emerged as the leaders of this new wave of
youth and students. It was against this
background of mounting tension, growing
expectations and simmering discontent all
over India, as in Bihar, that the 44th session of
Indian National Congress met at Lahore on
Dec. 29-30, 1929, under the presidentship of
the radical Jawahar Lal Nehru, the idol of youth
and the representative of the leftist forces in
the Congress. Jawahar Lal Nehru's

At first, Gandhi did not allow women of the

Sabarmati Ashram to participate in the march
to Dandi and women were left to take care of
the Ashram. Khurshed Behn, the granddaughter of Dadabhai Naoroji, and Mridula
Sarabhai, then a student of Gujrat Vidyapith
did not like Gandhi's policy of discrimination
between man and woman.8 Women's Indian
Association also exposed portent against this
attitude of Gandhiji. So the women were at first
disappointed and felt resentment but to
Gandhiji their impatience to join the fight was a
healthy sign.9 He believed that a woman could

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

conquer hearts more speedily than a man10

and she could make greater impression upon
people than the latter11. He also thought that in
the non-violent struggle, the women of India, if
they so desired, could make a bigger
contribution than men.12 The picketing of
foreign cloth and liquor shops was particularly
suited to women.13 So Gandhiji cooled and
consoled them by saying that there would be
time enough for them to offer Satyagraha. The
fact was:- on his way from Sabarmati to Dandi
several women greeted him and heard his
advice. Gandhi technically broke the salt on 6
April, 1930 and he was arrested and thereafter
strike was organised in the country. Many
women had walked to Dandi and the
awakening in the villages was astonishing14. In
a statement to the press on 7 April 1930
Gandhiji said that he was becoming
increasingly certain that in the struggle for
Swaraj the women of this country could
contribute a greater share than the men.15

organized classes to train women for the

national cause. They defied section 144, held
meetings and demonstrations. They started
and led procession sand when interrupted,
they faced the police and their weapons and
courted and filled the jails. They were
unmindful of even caning and shootings. They
were prepared to undergo any hardship and
risk at the hint of their leaders and for the sake
of freedom.
'Dharsana Satyagrha' was epoch-making
event led by Sarojani Naidu. Volunteers were
kicked and beaten. Narrating one event of
Dharsana salt field, an eminent scholar wrote:"They (around 2000 volunteers) sat down
quietly on the sandy path. It was a hot summer
day (middle of May) and the Sun shone fiercely
on them. Some of the volunteers were very
young and were soon consumed with
intolerable thirst. With almost diabolical glee,
the police drove water carts through this thirsty
crowd, aggravating the savage thirsty which
was consuming them but never offering even a
sip.17 The raid on Dharsana was to be carried
on 21st May 1930. Mrs. S. Naidu was arrested
on that very day.

Thousands of women mostly simple and

illiterate went to the sea coast. Depicting this
unique scene, Mrs. Kamala Dev Chattopadhyay,
herself a veteran freedom fighter observed:
"Women with pale eyes and blushing
cheeks, they who had been gently nurtured
behind silken curtains, women who had never
looked upon a crowded street, never beheld a
strange face, stripped aside those silken curtains,
threw off their gossamer veils and flung
themselves into the blinding glare of day,
unshaded and unprotected; w o m e n w h o s e
face were as velvet and as rose petals, walked
unshod and hard stony paths. Almost
overnight their narrow domestic walls had
given way to open up a new wide would in
which they had a high place". 16

"In Borsad one thousand five hundred

were going quietly along a street in a peaceful
procession. The police met them with Lathi
charge. The women leader was wounded but
with blood stained sari she proceeded on again
until disabled by further beating. At Viramgaon
two hundred of them took water to the railway
station to quench the thirst of volunteers, a
simple act of human kindness. The police set
upon them and beat them mercilessly."18
Women showed incredible power of
patience and preseverance in the art and
business of picketing. On September 9, 1930
every arrangement was made for the election
of Legislative Assembly in Bombay. Gandhiji
wanted to boycott the election. Heavy rains
were pouring down. Women went out in
hundreds to picket at the booths, caring little for
the long continued torrential rains The
picketing was so effective that it resulted in the
postponement of election on that day. The
picketing continued on the following day also

Such a scene was created more or less in

the whole country. Indeed, women created
epic. They took part in almost every sphere of
activity. They made and sold salt to all sections
of the people. They emboldened the weak and
the hesitants. They composed and sang
songs, took out prabhat pheries, held banners,
unfurled flags and raised slogans. They also

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

About 400 women wear arrested and after

sometime they were released.19 Even the
attempt by the Government to auction liquor
license in Bombay in the year C.D.M. did not
succeed due to the activity of the women. Soon
after the arrest of Gandhiji, Dr (Mrs.) S.
Muthulakshmi Reddi resigned her membership
of the Madras Provincial Legislative Council.20

Sangha and Ladies Picketing Board had been

established to intensify the various activities
connected with the movement. Important
names were Smt. Urmila Devi, Sister of
Deshbandhu, working as the president of the
Satyagraha Committee; mother of Subhash
Chandra Bose was the president of the
Rashtriya Sangh. Miss Jyotirmayi Ganguli held
a meeting at Narghat in defiance of a
prohibitory order. A 10 year old boy, beaten and
senseless, was lying in her lap .24 She was in
government service from which she had
resigned and took an active part in the Civil
Disobedience Movement.25 Mrs. Nistarini Devi
also addressed a meeting at Calcutta26. Smt.
Indumati Goenka headed the Satyagrahis in
Bengal who were sent to Jail27. Matangini Hijra,
a widow took part in the Salt Satyagraha also in
the agitation against the Chowkidari tax in
1930. She was arrested and sentenced to 6
months rigorous imprisonment.28

At Allahabad, Smt. Swarup Rani Nehru,

wife of Pt. Motilal Nehru, received severe lathi
blow from the hands of the police. Besides her,
Kamla Nehru, wife of Pt. Jawaharlal, Krishna
his sister and Vijaya Lakshmi, another sister of
Pt. Nehru had joined the rank of volunteers.
Both sisters Krishna and Vijay Lakshmi were
sentenced to imprisonment for a year 21.Indira
Gandhi, at the age of 12 had organized 6000
children in Allahabad. Apart from these female
members of the Nehru family, there were other
important female names-such as Mrs. Mukund
Malviya, Mrs. Uma Nehru, Rameshwari Nehru
and Mrs. Chandravati Lakhan Pal. They all
took part in the movement and were

In Punjab, Mrs. Lado Rani Zutshi, wife of

leading lawyer of Lahore, Pandit Ladli Prasad
Zutshi, threw herself heart and soul in the salt
Satyagraha of 1930 who labelled British
Government as "wild beasts and devoid of
humanity"29. In one of her speeches, she
advised the people "to bear the tyranny of
machine guns and lathi blows."30 For her, the
arrest of women by British machinery indicated
the weakness of the Government.31 Janak
Kumari, Swadesh Kumari & Manmohini
Kumari- daughter of Mrs. Zutshi were other
important names of this movement. Parvati
Devi, daughter of Lala Lajpat Rai was another
famous name who refused to execute any
bond and welcomed fine and jail.32

Delhi was also in the forefront of the

movement. The women of Delhi achieved
great success in getting many shops of liquor
and foreign cloth closed. Satyavati made a
great name by her varied activities namely
taking part in processions, picketings &
distributing revolutionary literature.
She was tried and imprisoned for sedition.
In course of her trial she is said to have spoken.
"We have abandoned our homes and children
to redeem our motherland from foreign
bondage and neither the threat of the
Dungeons nor of bullets and the merciless
beatings can deter us from the duty which we
owe to ourselves and the coming generation. I
and thousands of my sisters and ready to
suffer but we must win India's freedom".22 In
Delhi jail, Mr. Mrs. J.M. Sengupta had to go on
hunger strike in sympathy with other prisoners
whose food was uneatable and they went on
hunger strike on that account. 23

Bihar was also leading wholeheartedly in

this movement. Important names of women
who were participated and arrested at Gaya
were- Smt. Vidyavati and Smt. Sewai Devi of
Lakhisarai, Smt. Vindvasini Devi of Patna and
Smt. Vidyavati Devi of Gaya33. Smt. Mira Devi,
daughter of Shri S.B. Bhattacharya, a
professor of St. Columbus College at
Hazaribagh was arrested. Mrs. Hasan Imam
had been fined Rs. 200 and her daughter Mrs.
Sami, Smt. Vindhaya Vasini Devi and some

In Bengal, many women carried on the

activities associated with the Salt Satyagraha.
Nari Satyagraha Committee, Mahila Rashtriya

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

others were also fined. The leading women

were also advocating non-payment of
Chowkidari tax34. During the short period from
1 January to 20th February 1932, 63 women of
Bihar were imprisoned and they were placed in
class 2 or 3. 35

on Civil Disobedience Movement but it also

became the source of inspiration for future
generation. In fact, of all the factors that have
contributed to the awakening of women in
India, the most potent has been the field of
non-violent action which Gandhiji offered to
women in his battle for India's political
freedom. Of course , the year 1930 proved a
blessing in disguise and the CDM saw the best
in the Indian women.

In Madhya Pradesh, an attempt was made

to break even the forest laws. Both men and
women went to jungles with an axe or knife and
cut parts of trees and wood. Smt. Mudde
Bai,36 wife of Sri Sookal Gond and Remo
Bai,37 wife of Sri Faquira Holya of Madhya
Pradesh took part in the forest Satyagraha and
both died as a result of police firing.


In South India also, women took part in the

movement. In Kerala, ladies were taking great
interest in it38. In Madras, Smt. Rukmini
Lakshmipati, the president of Provincial
Congress Committee- was arrested in the salt
campaign. Durga Bai Deshmukh was another
important name figured during this movement.
Here, the passive resisters were not satisfied
with merely picketing the foreign cloth and
liquor shops. They also began to destroy date
palm trees from which toddy was prepared.
"The cutting down of there trees became
almost a crusade. Thousands were destroyed
by women."39
Thus during Civil Disobedience Movement,
India was pulsating with a new life and a great
awakening had come upon women. The
response of women to the call of Gandhi to
participate in C.D.M was pathbreaking who
awoke from their slumber, recognized their
strength and felt a kind of new consciousness.
Purdah no longer remained the hallmark of
status and respectability. Coming out of
Purdah, they faced publicity of the most trying
kind in picketing drink shops and foreign cloth
shops, in walking in public processions, in
proceedings in law-courts. Thousands of them
courted arrest and went to prison. Incredible
power of patience and preseverance shown by
Smt. Sarojani Naidu, Kamla Devi Chattopadhyay,
Mrs. Hansa Mehta, Smt. Swarup Rani Nehru,
Kamla Nehru had its electrifying effect not only


Young India, 10 April, 1930


Kaur Raj Kumari Amrit, Gandhiji and

Women, Vishwa Bharati
(Gandhi Memorial Peace Number), 1949,
p. 167


Diwakar R.R., Gandhi and Uplift of

women, Gandhi Marg, p 126


Diwakar R.R., Gandhi Marg, op. cit, p 123


Selected works of Jawahar Lal Nehru,

general edition, S. Gopal. 15 Volumes,
New Delhi, 1972-82, Vol. 4, p 198


Ibid; p. 192


C.F.V. Williams, cited in David Arnold, The

politics of Coalescence, The Congress in
Tamil Nadu 1930-37 in D.A. Low, editor
Congress and the Raj


Basu Aparna, Women in India's freedom

struggle, The Cadet, Rami Chhabra, ed.,
New Delhi, Ministry of Defence, 1976. p 11


Young India, 10 April, 1930

10. The Collected Works, XL III, op.cit, 1971,

11. Ibid, p 248
12. Ibid., p 189
13. Young India, 26 March, 1931
14. The Collected Works, op,cit, p 272
15. Ibid., p 206
16. Quoted, Venkatashwaran, LJ., Gandhi,
Emancipator of Indian Women, p 6
17. Chattopadhyaya Kamladevi, Women in
India, Gedge E.C. and Choksi M . e d s ,
pp 20-21

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

18. All India Women's Conference Report,

Lahore, 1931, pp 165-172

28. Chopra P.N., Vol. I, Op. cit; p 127

29. Amrit Bazar Patrika, 2 sept. 1930

19. Housewirth, F-Purdah (The status of

Indian women) Vanguard Press,
Newyork, 1932, p 233

30. Ibid

20. Reddi Muthulakshmi, Autobiography, Madras,

1964, p 87

32. Ibid; 15 October. 1930

31. Ibid; 16 July, 1930

33. Indian Annual Register, Vol. II, 1930, p 103
34. Datta K.K., History of the freedom
movement in Bihar 1928-41, vol. II, Patna

21. Nehru Jawaharlal, An Autobiography,

Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Bombay, 1962,
p 32

35. Confidential, Political Department,

Special Section, Government of Bihar,
File No. 132-33

22. Brockway A.F., Indian Crisis, London,

1930, p 163

36. Chopra P.N, Ed; Who's who of Indian

Martyrs, Vol. 2. New Delhi. Ministry of
Education and Social Welfare, Government
of India, 1972. p 204

23. Indian Rsiseter, Annual 1930, Vol. - II, p.

24. Modern Review, May 1930, p 654
25. Chopra P.N, Ed. Who's Who of Indian
Martyrs, Vol. I, op. cit; p. 127

37. Ibid; p 274

26. Modern Review, May 1930., p 658

38. India Annual Resister, vol. II 1930. p 105

27. Ibid; July, 1930, p 120

39. Chattopadhyay Kamla Devi, Women of

India. op. cit; p 26


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 89-92

Naxalism in Jharkhand
Tanuja Kumari
Lecturer, Department of History
S.S.L.N.T. Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Dhanbad
Aradhna Kumari
Research scholar, Sociology
L.N.M. University, Darbhanga
Naxalism is a pure and simple form of terrorism which disguises itself with class struggle, social justice and
developmental process. Since its formation on November 15, 2000, the state of Jharkhand shares the pain of
Naxalism and its anti- developmental activities with its sister state Bihar. Exploitation, displacement of
people, migration, poverty, mining industries, natural resources and many other factors become unearthed
when one starts to dig out the causes. This article tries to begin with introspection and ends up with
retrospection. Solutions to this problem come in reflections.

Keywords: Naxalism, Maoists, Leninist, Jharkhand, tribals, aborigins, sadan


However, it is surprisingly good that all the

major political parties are united in their
common cause of eradicating naxalism from
Jharkhand. The Centre has also been
committed to its vow of making a naxal free
India. Thousands of crores are being spent
over various drives with fancy names like
Operation Green Hunt, COBRA (Combat
Battalion for Resolute Action).With its helm at
New Delhi, COBRA has its regional
headquarters at Khunti and Hazaribagh. As the
experience that we have, the fanfare, which
our police and other armed forces create,
through fake encounters and merciless killing,
is just to do a lip service to their cause.
Innocent Adivasis often become scapegoat in
such a scenario.

Jharkhand, the land of forest, has got its

nomenclature, primarily on the basis of wide
spread dense forest. The state has 33,32,549
hectares of land under forest which is about
41.86% area of the state. And, this is the area
which also becomes the shelter of Naxalites in
the state. Since its formation on November 15,
2000, Jharkhand is hit with the problem of
Naxalism. It has become a sort of parallel
government. Till 2009, in 250 different naxal
activities, 130 causalities have been reported
which include 60 security personnel.
Materials and Methods
For the purpose of in depth study the
contents have been taken from relevant books
and articles from Journals and websites. The
methods used are analytical and descriptive.
Both primary as well as secondary sources of
information have been taken.

Historical Briefing
The term Naxalism or the Naxalite
Movement is an euphemism for the MarxistLeninist-Maoist revolutionary struggle in India.
The movement draws doctrinal support from
Marxism-Leninism and strategic inspiration
from Mao Zedong. It derives its name from
Naxalbari, a village in Darjeeling District in
West Bengal. Naxalbari witnessed a peasant
revolt in 1967 that developed into a protracted

Results and Discussions

In the last ten years, Jharkhand has witnessed
ten different governments. Politically instability
has become its fate. In such a political instable
state, rarely do we see unanimity in the
constant imbroglio of Jharkhand politics.

and violent agitation by the poor, particularly

agriculture labourers, peasants and tribals,
against the wealthier classes.
At present , Naxal activities, in Jharkhand,
are patronized by its political wing CPI ( ML)
or MCC. In 1974, during the emergency, the
CPI (ML) called for armed gurilla struggle and
formation of anti- Congress democratic front.
In CPI ( ML), a further spilt was also recorded.
K. Seeta Ramaiah, N. Prasad jointly founded
Peoples War Gorup (PWG). The merger of
PWG and MCC of Bihar and Jharkhand
occurred in October 2005 only to lead the
formation of CPI (M). After getting the positive
voicing by eminent social activist and writers
like Arundhati Roy, the morale of naxalities is at
its zenith and the things have begun to be
taken in a new light.
Modus Operandi
Naxalism believes in Maos dictum that
political power only comes through the barrel
of a gun. Therefore, the Naxalite movement
remains arms-based and violent. It kills many
of its enemies in extremely violent ways such
as through repeatedly stabbing then slitting the
victims throats in front of other hostages. The
hostages are denied food and water. The
Naxalites use explosives indiscriminately
including landmines to target both the security
forces and civilians. They run a parallel justice
system via their Jana Adalats in their
strongholds which they call the Liberated
Zones. They deliver kangaroo court justice;
their enemies or so-called criminals are
beaten to death in full public view after the Jana
Adalat pronounces the death sentence.































BBC maintains that more than 6,000 people have died

in naxal rising.

Nevertheless, Naxalism is not a regional

issue, it is a national holistic issue which has to
be dealt in holistic manner by the central
government. All the naxal outfits in India are
interrelated either on a good or on a bad note.
If the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh
has been saying it repeatedly that Naxalism is
the biggest challenge to our internal security,
he clearly wants to underline the dangers it has
been posing to India, as also the need to deal
with the challenge in a most effective way.
Why Naxals are successful in Jharkhand
to some extent :
The question that arises is why have the
Naxals been able to extend their area of
influence over the years to become a serious
threat to the states internal security?

For more than a decade Bihar including
Jharkhand has witnessed hundreds of killings
every year by the Naxalites. According to the
Annual Reports published by the governments
Ministry of Home Affairs, the Naxalites killed
311 people in 2001, 274 in 2002, 244 in 2003,
340 in 2004, 169 in 2006 and 44 plus until
March 2007.

Since the fruits of development have not

percolated to these areas, the Naxal outfits are
able to exploit the sentiments of the local
people. But the outfits themselves have been
preventing and in fact, destroying developmental
initiatives taken by the government. They
destroy roads, railway infrastructure and
administrative institutions that are needed for
speeding up developmental activities. Not only

However, BBC maintains that more than

6,000 people have lost their lives in naxal rising

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

this, they indulge in train hold-ups, jail breaks

and attacks on politicians. That is proof enough
to indicate that they do not have real interest in
the development of these areas and their
loyalties lay elsewhere. Perhaps, they want to
usurp political power which, they think, flows
through the barrel of the gun. But after the
death of the underdogs leader Late Mahendra
Singh, one faction among them has started to
visualize the things in the new light.
Possible measures
At the same time, a lot many measures
need to be taken to make the fight against
Naxalism effective. On the top of it is improving
governance in the affected areas by moving
corrupt officials who exploit the local people. It
must also be ensured that large scale projects
in these areas do not lead to displacement of
people, who in any case, live a life of penury.
The Koyal Karo Project is one of the examples
which could be an eye-opener in such
cases.Also, it has to be taken care of that the
industrialization is not the final answer.In
Chotanagpur, it has not benefitted the tribals
rather a large number of them have been
displaced from their native place. Several
acres of land of tribals and sadan ( aboriginal
non-tribes) were acquired in the process of
industrialization like Tenughat Thermal Power
Project, D.V.C. Project, Koel-Karo Project,
Aditya Small Industries, Subarnarekha
Project, etc.Rather, the governance should go
on the foot-steps of the District Commissioner
of Latehar , who had gone for the Recruitment
Rally in the army in the year 2006. Many other
job- oriented vocational trainings are being
provided which can definitely bear more
positive results than NAREGA projects.
Co-ordination of Centre- State relationship
Since law and order is a state subject, the
role of State Governments in dealing with the
problem can hardly be overemphasized. They
too have their share of responsibility to fulfil. A
good deal of coordination between the Centre
and the States is, therefore, called for. This is
particularly true in view of the fact that the
outfits have established inter-state networks.
The state police need to be modernized to be
able to tackle the Naxal attacks. The
Greyhounds experiment in Andhra Pradesh is

a case in sight. Actionable intelligence

collection and sharing mechanisms need to be
strengthened. Funds provided to the States
under the Police Modernization Scheme need
to be better utilized.
Special Task Force
The states also need to go fast with raising
India Reserve Battalions, particularly in Naxal
affected areas, which besides addressing
security concerns, provide jobs to the
unemployed youth. A specially trained police
force also needs to be put in place to fight the
Maoists who basically are adopting guerrilla
warfare techniques. There is also a difference
in their targets. While other terrorist groups
attack the strong foundations of the country
such as democracy, secularism and the
financial institutions, Maoists make Indias
weak points like poverty and economic
disparity as their targets. All this needs to be
factored in the strategy to deal with the Maoist
Land Reforms
Keeping in view the fact that the Naxal
groups have been raising mainly land and
livelihood issues, it is important that land
reforms are taken up on a priority basis. States
have also to focus on physical infrastructure
like roads, buildings, bridges, railway lines,
communications and power etc. There is no
room to brook any delay on this account.
Establishing the bilateral talks
Unfortunately, the several rounds of talks
held with the Naxals hitherto and the
announcements of amnesties and attractive
rehabilitation schemes have not worked so far.
Some states like Andhra Pradesh have a good
rehabilitation policy and it has achieved some
success, but a lot more remains to be done.
The Government indeed is committed to
address the Naxal problem in right earnest. It is
focusing on improving intelligence set up at the
state level, providing help to the states to
modernize and train their police forces and
accelerate development in the affected areas.
What is needed is better coordination both on
security and developmental fronts to meet the
challenge posed by the Naxals.
Over the last 60 years, more than 20 lakh
acres of land have been acquired directly by
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

the State in the name of various development

projects displacing more than 15 lakh Adivasis
from their homelands. This drive for acquisition
of their land has become particularly acute
during the last decade when 102 MOUs have
been signed with a number of large private
corporations, some of which are for thousands
of acres of land involving the displacement of
thousands of tribals in each case. Most of
these MOUs are for mining or for setting up
other polluting industries. These have however
met with enormous resistance from the
adivasis who have organized themselves and
have so far successfully resisted the
acquisitions of their land as a result of which
virtually none of these MOUs have so far been
operationalised. All this land acquisition of
Adivasi land has however been done without
the consent or even consultation with the
Adivasis. The MOUs were in fact signed in
great haste and secrecy with no information at
all to the people who were to be affected. All
this is in complete violation of the PESA Act
which provides that all development in the
Scheduled areas would be in consultation
(which should mean consent) of the Gram
Sabhas. This has led to a widespread feeling
among the Adivasis that not only is their right of
self-rule being flagrantly violated, but their very
identity or existence is being threatened. Many
of them consequently take up the gun and join
the Maoists.
The governments response to this has
been Operation Greenhunt which uses large
sections of Paramilitary forces what they
perceive as the single security threat to the
State. Interestingly, Operation Greenhunt is
largely concentrated in the areas where the
MOUs have been signed. The testimonies
before us revealed that this Operation has led
to and is causing enormous violations of
Human Rights of the Adivasis in terms of all
kinds of excesses by the security forces. A
large number of testimonies before the
Tribunal provided a sampling of the kinds of
Human Rights abuses taking place: arbitrary
picking up of Adivasis and their torture;
arbitrary arrests of Adivasis as well as of those
who try to highlight the abuses by the security


forces on false and trumped up charges;

people even being killed in fake encounters or
in custody. These abuses are rather
compelling more Adivasis to pick up Guns and
join the Maoists.
It has to realize that the so called Naxalites
are ultimately the citizens of India and they too
deserve the set of fundamental rights
promised by our Constitution. We cannot treat
them like cross border terrorists. They belong
to our fraternity and need to be addressed in a
constructive manner. Our police and armed
forces day- to- day working style gets well
exposed by the media. Shoot with the camera
instead of a gun. A bullet for bullets is not at all a
long term solution. Our armed forces can
wipe out the Naxalites but sooner or later we
will have to resort to peaceful and constructive
ways to eradicate naxalism. Jharkhand should
implement an effective surrender and
rehabilitation policy for the Naxalites. In the
meantime, all affected districts administration
must adopt a collective approach and pursue a
co-ordinated response to counter the naxal related problems.

Sinha V. N. P. and Singh L.K.P., Jharkhand:

Land and People, Rajesh Publication,
New Delhi, 2003


Agarwal P K, Naxalism : Causes And

Cure, Manas Publications, New Delhi,


Mishra R.K., Operation Naxalism, Yking

Books Publisher, Delhi


Diptendra Raychaudhuri, A Naxal Story,

Vitasta Publishing, Delhi


Bhuyan D., Naxalism,Dph Publisher, 2010


Ramana P. V. , The Naxal Challenge :

Causes, Linkages, And Policy Options,
Pearson Publication , Delhi


Das S. , The Naxalites And Naxalism,

Sumit Enterprises Publishers &
Distributors, Delhi

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 93-96

The Uncared Population Expolosion in our country:

A cause for serious concern
Dr Pradeep Kumar
Lecturer, Department of Economics
and Programme Officer, N.S.S.
Pt. Y.K. J. College, Dholi, Muzaffarpur

The root cause for most of the ills of our country has perhaps been our alarmingly rising population. Be it
unemployment, poverty, price rise, crime, corruption, congestion, scarcity, underdevelopment, or anything
else- all these evils are badly related to abnormal size of our population. No doubt we have become one of the
largest economies of the world, our gross domestic products are increasingly becoming one of the highest in
the world, but when the per capita availability of goods and services is concerned, our position goes very low.
We get very low rank in the matter of global indices like economic development index, human development
index, etc. But unluckily we reach the top position in the indices of hunger, corruption, etc. All these maladies
are somehow or other deeply rooted in our unmanageable population. But the irony is that population
planning programme has got down the agenda of both union and state governments in order to appease their
vote bank. The government hopes that the citizens of the country will voluntarily limit the size of their families
which in reality cannot happen so soon. And by the time it will happen, much harm would have been done to
the nation.

Keywords: Demographic dividend, total fertility rate, crude birth rate, demographic transition

Results and Discussions

Indias population is estimated to have

risen to 111.2 crore in the year 2006. It ranks
second in the world, next only to China as far
as the size of absolute population is
concerned. Indias landscape is just 2.4 per
cent of total world area whereas its population
is nearly 17 per cent of world population.
Moreover, it owns 2.13 per cent in world
income, has 0.5 per cent in world trade and
possesses just 4 percent of worlds water
resources. India accounted for 20 percent of
the estimated population of developing
countries in 2001.

Indias population, according to the

census of 2001, was 102.9 crore. According to
the census of 1901, the population of our
country was 23.83 crore. Since then in a period
of 100 years, the population of our country
increased by 78.87.crore. This is really an
alarming situation.1 However, the population
has not increased in this country at a uniform
rate. This is obvious from the following Table:
Table - 1
India's Population (1991 to 2006)

Materials and Methods

For the purpose of in depth study the
contents have been taken from relevant books
and articles from Journals and websites. The
methods used is analytical and descriptive.
Both primary as well as secondary sources of
information have been taken.

Population Average Annual Density of Population

(in Crore) Growth Rate (%)
(per Sq.Km)


* Projection
Source : Registrar General, Census



The policy to control population growth

was adopted by the government in 1952.
Initially it was taken up in a humble way. It
gained momentum after 1961 census which
showed a higher than the anticipated growth in
population. The family planning became the
kingpin since then.

explains why population did not rise in this

period. Thereafter in spite of widespread
poverty, some medical facilities improved and
epidemics were checked. This brought down
the death rates considerably. For the last 50
years there has been a steady fall in the infant
mortality. In the second decade of the 20th
century infant mortality rate was 218 per 1000
live births whereas in 2006, it was 57 per 1000
live births.

Family planning under five year plans: In

the earlier phase i.e. during first decade of
economic planning, family planning programme
was taken up on a modest scale with clinical
approach. Although in this way, a beginning
was made in the field of family planning but
considering the size of the economy, the family
planning programme on this scale was of little
consequences. Restricting population growth
was one of the most important objectives of the
eighth plan. The plan aimed at bringing down
the birth rate from 29.9 per thousand in 1990 to
26 per thousand by 1997. Under the ninth plan,
the Central Governments role was limited to
general policy planning and providing
technological inputs. Thus, the approach of the
government was to make family planning
programme as one of peoples programme
with government co-operation.2

National Population Policy, 1976: The

National Population Policy was announced in
April, 1976. It was completely at variance with
the earlier population policy of the
government.3 In the past the importance of
development and education had been
recognized for restricting the rate of population
growth, though the governments own
programme was confined singularly to family
National Population Policy, 2000: The
National Population Policy, 2000 has outlived
immediate, medium term, and long term
objectives. The immediate objective is to meet
needs of contraception, health infrastructure,
health personnel and to provide integrated
service for basic reproductive and child health
care. The medium objective was to lower down
the total fertility rates to the replacement level
by 2010. The long term objective is to achieve
a stable population by 2045.4 In this broad
framework, the National Population Policy,
2000 aims at the following:

Crude Birth and Death Rates, 1951 to 2006

Birth Rate
per 1,000 persons

Death Rate
Per 1000 persons





* Projection
Source: op. cit.

A mere perusal of the above table makes it

clear that from 1951 to 2006 there was only
some decline in the birth rate. In the same
period the death rate has, however, declined
significantly. In 2006 the death rate was just 7.5
per thousand, as against 27.4 during the
1050s. The birth and death rates were almost
equal between 1901 and 1921 and this




Reduce maternal mortality rate to below

100 per lakh live births.
Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30
per one thousand live births.
Achieve universal immunization of
children against all vaccine preventable
Achieve universal access to information /
counseling and services for fertility
regularization and contraception with a
wide basket of choices.
Promote delayed marriage for girls, not
earlier than age 18, and preferably after 20
years of age.
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011


Prevent and control communicable



Promote the small family norms to achieve

replacement levels of total fertility rates.


Bring about convergence in implementation

of related social sector programmes to
make family welfare a family centred

was modest. But over the successive plans the

progress received greater and larger outlays5.
It is now a multidimensional policy which
includes birth control, child care, mother care,
Secondly, it has brought into existence, a
very valuable, though inadequate infrastructure
for family planning. It consists of family
planning centres in cities and villages with
necessary equipments and facilities, personnel
for guidance, counseling and advice in the use
of various devices for family planning,
institutions for training and research, etc.

The census of 2001 has shown that the

rate of population growth remained as high as
1.93 per cent per annum during the 1990s.
Hence this country even now remains in the
second stage of demographic transition and is
encountering a population explosion. It is both
a cause and consequence of underdevelopment
of the country. Indias population projections
given in the following table show that the rate of
population growth may decline and the country
might enter the third stage of demographic
transition in future.
Indias population Projections (in crore)

Thirdly, to an extent government has

succeeded in creating awareness for the need
for family planning in some states and many
urban areas.
Fourthly, there is again some success in
popularization of family planning methods. As
a result in 2009 as many as 44% of the eligible
couples are protected by one or other methods
of family planning6. The birth rate too has fallen






Shortcomings: Major defects in the

population policy of the government are as








Overemphasis on contraceptives: According

to B.R. Sen, the population problem has
not been correctly understood in India.
The programmes which were formulated
in the country to restrict the population
growth from time to time were invariably
based on the assumption that by
increasing the supply of contraceptives
and popularizing their use, the problem
could be solved.


Inappropriateness of coercive methods: In

India most of the demographers and
economists who favour pursuit of a
vigorous family planning programme do
not approve of the coercive methods
which the government had adopted in


Adhocism and shifting family planning

approach: Analysis of the family planning
programme during the past four decades



In pursuance of the National Population

Policy, 2000, a National Commission on
Population has been set up. The Commission
will review the implementation of the NPP from
time to time. Analogous to the NC, State Level
Commissions on Population have been set up
with the objective of ensuring implementation
of the population policy.
Appraisal of the Policy: Evaluation of the
policy is being done under two headings:
achievements and shortcomings. Let us firstly
discuss the performance. The achievements
of the government are indeed creditable in
certain respects discussed ut infra:
First, there is something that can be said
about the policy itself. No doubt, the beginning

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

reveals very clearly that the objective of

bringing down the birth rate to a
substantial level remains as elusive as it
was two decades before.





amount is more than before in some

cases. Despite these incentives, the
performance so far has been far from

Non-achievements of targets: One such

weakness is reflected in the nonfulfillment of targets. For example, the
objective of reducing birth rate to 25 set as
far back as 1962 has not been fulfilled as

It may be observed that for lowering down
the total fertility rates in the country in order to
check population, drastic policy shifts are
essential otherwise our population will
continue to increase and nothing can be done
about it. We may not be reaping any
demographic dividend also until and unless we
check the exponential growth of our population
without any further loss of time.

Whatever the success, it has not been an

even one among different states. For
example, in eleven states and union
territories, accounting for 33% of
population of the country, the growth rate
of population is slowly dropping. As
against this in twelve states and union
territories with 55% of population, this
population growth is growing up.8


One shortcoming for example, relates to

the fact that, the population control
programme continues to be essentially a
government affair instead of peoples
It seems that some of the main targets laid
down, when seen in context of past
performances are over ambitious. Take
for example, the aim of achieving TFR of
2.1 by 2010. To reach this target, the TFR
in over 40 per cent of population (in M.P.,
Rajasthan and U.P. would have to be
reduced by more than half because the
TFR in these states ranged from 4.0 to
The policy, as before, has provided for
incentives, mostly in cash, although the



Enke S; Economic Consequences of

Rapid Population Growth, Economic
Journal, Dec. 2006, p. 96


U.N.O. Report on Family Planning in

India, 2007


World Population Report, 2004


Bose, Ashish, Presidential Address to the

9th Annual Conference of Indian
Association for Study of Population


Dyson Tim; Indias Demographic

Transition and its Consequences for
Development, Third Lecture in the Golden
Jubilee Lecture Series of Institute of
Economic Growth, Delhi, March 24, 2008


Krishnan T.N., Population, Poverty, and

Employment in India, p. 84


Todaro M. P. and Smith S. C., Economic

Development, p. 285


Visaria L., The Cotinuing Fertility

Transition, p. 58


Census Report, 2001

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 97-101

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Indian Independece and the C.P.I. with

special reference to Bihar
Dr. Ashok Kumar Mandal
Senior Lecturer
University Department of History
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag
The period after independence was a hectic one for Communist Party of India, particularly in Bihar. It was
orgarining agitations, public meetings and procession to organise the class struggle among workers and
peasants, which were mainly concentrated in north Bihar belt. The article provides a firsthand glimpse of the
activities of CPI in Bihar during this period.

Keywords: Zamindari abolition, Kisan sabha Bakasht land, Communal violence

According to official data, more than 800 party
workers and supporters were present in it. The
After independence when the Congress
meeting was addressed by one of the great
and Muslim League were becoming satisfied
communist leaders Rahul Sankrityayan. Rahul
with the state of affairs and partition, the
Jee had just returned from USSR. He
Communist Party of India realised that they
described the, political, economic social and
were neglecting the causes of peasants,
contemporary situtations of USSR.
workers and the common men. The party was
A huge general meeting of Kisan Sabha
also highly sensitive about communal unrest
was organised at Somgarh village in
through which India was passing at that time.
Champaran. The meeting was presided over
Against this backdrop, the Bihar unit of the CPI
by Baijanath Singh. The meeting was mainly
immediately responded to the central
addressed by Communist leaders Indradeep
leadership, Kisan Sabha and other forums
Sinha and Umashankar Shukla. Both the
were activated particularly in Champaran,
speakers advocated for the Zamindari
Betia, Begusarai, Darbhanga and other
They told that Zamindari System was
northern districts of Bihar for abolition of
of British Rule and its main aim is
Zamindari system and upholding the cause of
endless exploitation of peasants. Therefore, it
agricultural workers and cultivators.
demanded that Zamindari should be
Materials and Methods
abolished without any compensation. The
The Research paper is based on the
above mentioned leaders organised another
materials collected from the Bihar State
general assembly of the farmers of Betiah on
Archives and original files of Special Branch of
17.09.47. The assembly was presided over by
Police Dept. Personal interviews of bonafide
Kedarnath Sukhla, the then secretary of
leaders of the CPI were also conducted. Some
Champaran District Council of Indian Communist
secondary sources were consulted, which
Party. This general assembly was attended by
were actually published by the CPI.
a large number of farmers. the assemble was
Results and Discussions
addressed by communist leaders Indradeep
Sinha, Pt. Janardarn Pandey, Umashankar
Just after Independence, the Bihar unit of
Shukla, Braj Kishor Jha, Abdulah and Gully
Communist Party accelerated the struggle
Sah Gupta. Permission was not being granted
among labours, farmers, students and youth.
for this assembly. Administration apprehended
On 19.09.47 the Communist Party of India
to be dangerous. But when the leader
organised a general assembly at Patna.

assured that the general assembly will be

focused on the Zamindari System alone, then
the permission was granted. But the speakers
not only spoke about Zamindari abolition but
they gave speeches upon police atrocities and
raised the question of the government, which
was heading towards capitalist path. The
government and police were deeply criticised .
Abdulah went to the extent of talking about
police as "Police are the children of Britishers".
It is known from the official documents that the
above mentioned communists held a
convention between 12th to 14th, September
at Somgarh village. The leader of this
convention was Indradeep Sinha. Some major
points were decided in this convention. Sri
Indradeep Sinha suggested the communist
workers to act on these points.

That the peasants should generally be

organised and 'Red Squads' should be
formed to fight for Bakasht land.


Struggle should be started for all those

lands which beloned to Betiah Raj and in
the name of zamindari.


Satyagarah to be organised on the land on

which Zamindar had not cultivated for a
very long period.


The workers of all the mills situated in the

district should be organised and if
possible all the O.T Railway workers shall
also be organised.


At the same time he suggested to his party

workers that they should establish good
relationship with policemen. Party booklets,
books and party news papers should be
distributed among them. Sunil Mukherjee was
also in fovour of establishing communal
harmony. Nomination of members of district
council was done in which Ramawtar Sharma,
Prabhu Narayan Rai, Nagesh Singh,
Nageshwar Sharma, Bachchi Singh, Badri
Mishra, Sita Ram Azad, Santoshi Sharma,
Chandradeo Thakur, Anil Chandra Sinha were
nominated. Ramawatar Sharma was elected
as secretary of the district. Bachchi Singh,
Loknath Kunwar Singh and Chandradeo
Thakhur were to lead at trade Union front.
Prabhu Narayan, Ray Nageshwar Singh
Nageshwar Sharma, Badri Mishra, Sita Ram
Azad and Santoshi Sharma were asked to lead
Kissan Morcha and Anil Chandra Sinha was
given the responsibility of leading the students
Peasant's movements were being
organized in Munger district. Communist
leader Karyanand Sharma organised
meetings and exhorted for Zamindari abolition,
farmer's problems, communal harmony and
one of the official reports says that Sri Sharma
gave speeches of two hours in his meetings to
convince his points.
His speeches had magical effects on the
audience. Addressing the farmers he said
"Communal riots were deliberately instigated
by Zamindars and big businessmen. They are
threatened by the peasants, workers
movements and so they instigate communal
riot to deviate people from the right issues.
Therefore, the economic problem remains
unsolved. Sri Karyanand Sharma alongwith
his party members met the collector. He
discussed the issues which related to the
problems of the farmer, mill workers, lower
wages given by Zamindars to their agricultural
workers due to insufficient procurement of food
grains, problems of irrigation facilities and put
many other demands. The collector assured to
solve these problems. The collector himself
wrote in his report, "CPI is more popular than

The government should be pressurised by

sending telegrams to introduce Zamindari
abolition in the very assembly session.

Thus, it is clear that the party prepared

detailed programme to speed up the peasants
movement in the Champaran district on 20 Sep
1947. A conference of Indian Communist party
was held in Bhagalpur district. Sunil
Mukherjee, the secretary of Bihar State
Committee participated in this conference in
capacity of the observer. Sunil Mukherjee told,
while addressing the representatives that
aggressive struggles should be organised
under the banner of Kisan Morcha. He
exhorted that they should actively participate in
the strugglle for abolition of Zamindari System.

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Congress in terms of access to the people in

Sheikhpura PS as well as other Police
Stations. Congress workers are more involved
in internal frictions." Collector further wrote in
his report "Congress workers and leaders
come to us for their personal works while
communist workers and leaders come, with
the problems of common men and regarding
the problems of farmers and workers". Thus it
is clear that the Communist party was in direct
contact with the people. It continued to struggle
for the cause of such general problems. As a
result, Communist Party was stronger than
congress in this region. The Department sent
this letter to the Chief Secretary of Bihar. The
letter clearly showed the concern of party
leader ship regarding the organisation of
Kissan Sabha. The activities of Communist
party and Kissan Sabha speeded up in
Northern Munger. Zamindari abolition week
was organised for Zamindari abolition with the
help of farmers. Series of demonstrations were
organised for the purpose. Party had also
accelerated its efforts for forceful acquisition
on the Bakasht land by the farmers. A general
meeting of Communist Party was held at
Bakhri on 13.09.47. The meeting was presided
over by Satyadeo Prasad. Luxmi Narayan Arya
said in his speach that "the independence,
which we have gained is not real
independence. People should come at one
platform shedding off casteism in the war
against Zamindar and Capitalist. "Yogendra
Sharma the sceretary of State Kisan Sabha
said," the real supporter of Britishers were
Zamindars. Zamindars are also instrumental in
instigating communal riots. So abolition of
Zamindar System is essential. The anti
Zamindari bill should be placed in Vidhan
Sabha. Zamindar should be given no
compensation for it" Many suggestions were
placed in general meeting, which are as

Immediate abolition of Zamindari system.


No compensation to the Zamindar.


Distribution of Batai land among peasant.


Malguzari collection should be done on

the basis of income. Yogendra Sharma

was arrested immediately after the
meeting. A huge procession came out on
14.09.47 at Khagardia against this arrest.

Procession was led by V.K. Azad Awadh

Narayan Singh and Kapildeo Singh. The
procession met Yogendra Sharma at
Khagardia Railway Station. Yogendra
Sharma was being taken to SDO
Begusarai after he was arrested by S.I.

A large procession was taken out

alongwith Band party by the farmers at
Begusarai demanding immediate abolution of
Zamindari System. There was a clear
message that Zamindars could not be given
more time for their exploitation, otherwise the
situation may turn volatile. The party also
organised huge Public meetings at Lakhisarai
and Sikhpura. These meetings were
addressed by Karyanand sharma, Lakhan Lal
Single and Bhola Mahto The speakers talked
about many things including the fact that the
Zamindars, Capitalist and other opportunist
forces were responsible for Communal
Violence. The Hindu Maha Shaba and RSS
were stated to be the organisations for
Zamindars. The following proposals were put
forward in this Public meetings.

Zamindar should not be given



There should be no delay of abolition of

Zamindari System.


The Vidhan Sabha should prohibit the act

of Zamindar from eviction of land.


Land revenue should be reduced to half.


Zamindari abolition should be implemented

in the whole state at one time.


Bakast Land should be distributed among



Smaller Zamindar may be given some

compensation and they may be allowed to
keep some portion of thier Bakast land.

Thus the Communist Party of India played

a prominant role in the struggle for Zamindari
abolition. The Comminist leaders visited

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

frequently in the villages and infused new

consciousness among the villagers.

that it became the largest selling newspaper in


In Dharbhanga also Zamindari abolition

week was organised and a huge procession
was taken out defying Article 144. The
procession was led by leaders of Communist
party of Dharbhanga as well as State party
leaders. The procession shouted against
Zamindari system and black marketing. This
attracted the movement of police. The State
and district leaders were arrested. Police had
anticipated that the movement would slow
down but on the contrary the movement turned
into Satyagarh. Groups after groups were

The record of incidents discussed above
amply proves that CPI was quite popular in
Bihar. The CPI of Bihar insisted on immediate
abolition of Zamindari system as they believed
that Zamindar class wasinstigating communal
unrest through RSS and other communal
parties. They also protested against public
atrocities and capitalist intention of the
government. It seems that public sympathy
were more tilted towards CPI in Bihar in
comparision to the Congress party. However,
this remains a fact that CPI failed to form
government on its own in the state of Bihar and
now Communist Naxalism is disturbing the
peace of state.
1. Rao M.B., Documents of the History of the
Communist Party of India Vol II, 19481950, Peoples Publishing House, New
Delhi, p 11
2. Antonova Lenin, Kotobsky, Bharat Ka
Itihas, p 697
3. Gupta Nand Kishore, Bhakapa Ke Saath
Varsh, p 27
4. Memo No. 19682, S. B. Bihar Special
Branch, Patna, 1 October, 1947 Secret
5. Champaran, S.P.S. secret report dated
21.09.47 written in diary, Memo No. 1982
S.B., Politics Special, Bihar Special
Branch, patna, 1 October, 1947 Secret
6. Ibid, Memo No. 19682 S.B., S.P. File No.
113 (V)/47, Political special deptt., Bihr
State Archives, Patna.
7. C.I.D., Dy. SP, Bhagalpur's report dated
26.09.47. File No. 113(V)/47 Politics
special, Bihar State Archives, Patna
8. Dy. SP, Bhagalpur's report. File No. 113
(V)/47, Politics special, Bihar State
Archives, Patna
9. Report of Munger S.P., Memo No. 463 C,
Politics, Special, Bihar State Archives,

Peasant movement also gained momentum

in the champaran district. In Betiah, the public
meeting of the farmers was presided over by
Kedar Mani Sukhla. The meeting was
addressed by Gully Prasad Gupta and
Karyanand Sharma. Shree Sharma while
addressing the meeting said the providing
bread and house was the most important
responsibility of the Union Government and
the State Government. According to
Communist leaders the Britishers have left
their three supporters, namely

Black Marketears.


Industrialist and Zamindar.


Kings and Nawabs

Similar public meetings were organised at

Madhubani and Chota Ramna presided over
by Kedar Mani Sukhla Karyanand Sharma,
Kishori Prasad Singh, Kedar Mani Sukhla,
Satyadeo Tiwari were the main leaders who
addressed these meetings.
The party wanted to reach the common
people. But in absence of party owned
newspaper this task looked to be difficult.
Thereafter, the party commenced its news
papers from Patna. According to Ganhadhar
Das "As per the decision of the party on
17.06.1947, the party has started its own
newspaper Janshakti (Daily) from Patna.
According to Bhogendra Jha, There were so
many materials available in Janshakti
regarding the issues of workers and peasant

10. Letter of Collector Munger to Commissioner

Bhagalpur regarding activities of CPI.


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Memo No. 483 C, dt. 02.10.47, File No.

113 (V)/47,, Politics special, Bihar State
Archives, Patna.
11. Ibid.
12. Report of D.I.B. Muzaffarpur sent to Chief
Secretary, Bihar Govt. File No. File No.
113 (V)/47, Politics special, Bihar State
Archives, Patna.
13. Diary of S.P., Munger dt. 23.09.47, File
No. 113 (V)/47, Politics special, Bihar
State Archives, Patna.

14. C.I.D., Bihar, Memo No. 19703, S.B.,

Chief Secretary, Bihar Govt. dt. 03.10.47.
Bihar State Archives, Patna.
15. File No. File No. 113 (V)/47, Politics
special, Bihar State Archives, Patna.
16. Personal Interview with Sri Gangadhar
Das in June 1985 at Ajay Bhawan, Patan
17. Personal Interview with Sri Bogendra Jha
at Ajay Bhawan, Patna, in May 1985
18. Bhartiay Communist Party : Gaurav Purna
Soath Varsh, p 9-10, CPI Publication


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 102-107

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Managing people at work

Rupannita Choudhury
Research Scholar
Department of Political Science
Ranchi University, Ranchi

Successful organizations have one major common attribute that sets them apart from unsuccessful
organizations: Dynamic and Effective Leadership. Peter F.Drucker points out that managers are the most
basic and scarcest resources of any business enterprise. Most of the organizational failures can be attributed
to ineffective leadership. The shortage of effective leadership is not confined to business but is evident in the
lack of able administrators in government, education, foundations and every other form of organizations. The
significance of leadership arises from the openness of the organization as a system and form the fact that it
operates in a changing environment. There are numerous instances in the history of organizations showing
collapse of enterprise that failed to react to the environmental requirements for change. The significance of
leadership also stems from the human membership in organizational settings. People who form an
organization are members of several institutions in the sociological sense at the same time. These extra
organizational activities influence human behavior at work. In the modern time no organization is static. It has
to change with the environment. Actually an organization that refuses to change dies in the long run. This
challenge can only be met through effective leadership.

Keywords: Rational Persuasion, Inspirational appeal, Consultation, Hierarchy of Authority

Organizations are grand strategies
created to bring order to a concerted effort for
the achievement of certain objectives and
goals. Since these objectives cannot be
achieved by an individual or a small group of
individuals, there are in the notion of the
organization the concepts of Division of
Labour, Hierarchy of Authority etc. In order that
their efforts are meaningful, they need to be
tied in a meaningful relationship. This is
achieved by creating a structure. The people in
a structure work with the help of technology. In
order that this relationship bears fruit, every
organization contains a blueprint of human
behaviour at work.
India has witnessed tremendous change
in last few years as far as industrial scene is
concerned. The Indian Govt., until the last
decade of the last century protected the Indian
Industry from foreign competition. The Govt.
which drove out Coca Cola in Seventies, in
1992 threw open the economy to the
Multinationals. The Multinationals, which
came on the Indian scene enjoyed superior
resources in terms of Money, Technology, as
well as Market Network. With a view to facing

challenges posed by the Multinationals, a sea

change in the attitudes of all those in a
particular organization were a must. The
responsibility to do this fell squarely on the
shoulders of every manager. It called for
knowledge of the human behaviour at work. In
the absence of the knowledge or the study of
the Organizational Behaviour the dealings of
the manager with employees will be a game of
trial and error. In the modern times a manager
cannot afford to have trial and error and hit and
miss. It is expected that the manager would hit
the Bull's eye in the very first attempt.
Historical development of organi-zational
The field of organizational behaviour has
developed from the studies conducted by the
behavioral scientists. Such as Industrial
Psychologists, Psychologists and Sociologists.
The focus of these studies lies in the
understanding of human behaviour in the
organizations. Some studies have also
examined the interaction of organizations with
its environment. The discipline of organizational behaviour is based on empirical
studies of human behaviour at work settings.
On the other hand human relations, is the


study of behavioral knowledge in working to

develop human motivation towards the
attainment of organizational goals. According
to Keith Davis the difference between the two
is that of a pathologist and the physician. While
the pathologist attempts to understand human
illness, the physician tends to employ that
knowledge to gain results. The Organizational
behaviour and human relations are contemporary to each other.
The predecessors of Organizational
Behaviour are:
a) Industrial Psychology Walter Dill Scott
b) Scientific Management Movement F.W.Taylor
c) H u m a n R e l a t i o n s M o v e m e n t According to Fred Luthans three events
cumulatively ushered in the era of human
relations movement. They are:
1) The Great Depression (1929)
2) The rise of Trade Unionism (Trade
Union Act of 1926)
3) Hawthorne Experiments (Elton Mayo)
Organizational Behaviour studies the
external environment, which influences the
human behaviour with the organization.
The study of Organizational Behaviour has
certain basic assumptions. They are:
1) An Industrial enterprise is an organization
of people.
2) These people must be motivated to work
3) The goals of an employer and an
employee may not necessarily coincide.
4) The policies and procedures adopted in
an enterprise may influence people in
direction not always foreseen by the policy
According to Keith Davis Organizational
Behaviour is the study and application of
knowledge about peoples act within
Organizations. It is a human tool for human
benefit. It applies broadly to the behaviour of
people in all types of organizations such as
business, govt. schools etc. It helps people,
structure, technology, and the external
environment blend together into an effective
operating system.
Fred Luthans defines organizational

Behaviour as Understanding, Predicting, and

controlling human behaviour at work...
Stephen Robbins defines Organizational
Behaviour as field of study that investigates
the impact that individuals, groups, and
structure have on behaviour in organizations
for the purpose of applying such knowledge
towards improving an organizations
The concepts dealing with individual
nature are four. They are:
1) Individual Differences.
2) Whole Person.
3) Motivation.
4) Human Dignity
Materials and Methods
The focus of the study is to examine the
effective leadership qualities for managing
people at work which in turn would result into
the achievement of the goals of both the
employees and the organization. While
preparing this research article resources have
been taken from both primary and secondary
sources. Questionnaire was prepared and was
answered by the people working in different
organizations. The contents have also been
taken from relevant books, articles and
websites. Attempt has been made to be
objective and meticulous.
Results and Discussions
It is not very helpful to managers to be told
simply that people are different. They know
that already. What managers find useful are
reference points against which they can map
data about the individuals they have to
manage. People drop clues all the time about
their experiences, goals and expectations.
One function of a manager is to collect those
clues and use them to discover the abilities,
goals, and events etc. that are important to the
individual. One of our objectives, as managers,
is to attempt to predict future performances.
Five major influences on how an individual
behaves at work are:
Goals and Values
Expected Rewards


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Abilities are inherited, capacities or

aptitudes are learned. From a very early age
we discover that same children are better at
drawing, speaking, or running than we are;
some abilities are found more strongly in man
than in women and vice versa. Ability clearly
does influence performance. However, we
cannot predict peoples actual performance
from their level of experience.
An experienced employee will outperform
the novice. Temporary staff suffers inordinately
from lack of experience within the
organization-experience of its system,
structure, strategies etc. Performance will
increase with experience wherever
knowledge, skill and practice are relevant to
the job. However, one cannot predict peoples
actual performance from their level of
experience. It may contribute to performance
but it is like ability, merely a guide to potential.
The practical advantage of experience is the
effect it has on confidence.
The most predictive attributes of
individuals are their goals-what is important to
them. For this reason most theories of
motivation have concentrated on identifying an
individuals goals, needs or wants. An
extensive analysis of research data has
suggested that there are a minimum of eight
goal categories-comfort, structure, relationships,
recognition and status, power, autonomy,
creativity and individual growth.
These goals or work orientations are
largely determined by a persons background,
especially the important influences of paternal
socio-economic status, family, beliefs, and
values, school church and the society in which
the individual lives.
To motivate an individual means creating
an environment in which his or her goals can
be satisfied while at the same time the goals of
the organizations are met.
Choosing people for jobs ideally involves
relating two questions: What does the
organization need? What sort of goals in
individuals is closest to those corporate goals?
Not surprisingly, the highly motivated
individual is found in job where two goal sets
are closest. The demotivated person is found
in situation where the goal congruency is
In selecting people for jobs the manager

needs a framework for reducing the multitude

of individual differences to manageable levels.
It has been proposed here that eight goal sets
can provide that framework.
Whether the person will expend energy in
pursuing a goal depends on many factorsindeed, too many for a selection procedure to
capture. Yet the manager does have a record
of the individual expends energy in sport,
leisure activity or lifestyle?
Finally, the rewards the organization
offers act as inducements to expend energy in
pursuing goals is important both to the
individual and the organization. Rewards are
intrinsic and extrinsic. The mix of the two is
complex issue, requiring very careful analysis.
We can summarize the performance issue
in the equation:
P=(abilities, experience ,goals, energy,
If we then extract the individual
differences for the workforce becomes:
P= F (energy *rewards)
Individual and Organization
Work goals are affected by numerous
situational variables. However, the most
significant causes of dissatisfaction in work
organizations are conflicting demands
amo30ng goals, differing age expectations of
the person, the culture in which the person
works and the nature of the reward systems.
The most common goal conflicts are those
of relationship goals versus autonomy goals.
The second is the conflict that arises between
structure and power goals. Goal conflict is also
related to mobility.
Age probably has the greatest impact on
the way people rank their goal priorities. While
there is simple evidence of different goals
being important at different stages of a
persons life, organizations make little
allowance for these shifts.
Childhood Patterning-0 to 14 years
The Teenager-17 to 19 years
Career Launch-Mid 20s to Mid 30s
Child Producing-Mid 20s to Early 30s
Career take Off-30 to 38 years
Mid career-38 to 43 years
Career Peak-Mid 40s to Mid 50s


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Approaching Retirement-Mid 50s to

Mid 60s
Decline-Mid 60s to Mid 70s
The work a person does in the
organization may also influence importance of
different goals. An interesting question this
poses is: Does the difference occurs between
individuals or is the difference the result of the
situation they are in? The answer is both. I
have found that the people with certain
combinations of goals are attracted to certain
jobs and professions. However, the fact that
like profiles come together has the tendency to
reinforce the likeness and reduce differences.
Finally, the culture of the society in which
the individual lives has a major impact on their
goals profiles, simply because it affects
background values and beliefs. The behaviour
of different societies need separate analysis
before cross-cultural differences can be
Perception, Interaction and Socialization
Individuals see themselves as separate
from others. This has led psychologists to
develop the concept of SELF which is central
to an individual. In simple terms the self is how I
see me. It affects how I see the world and how I
Perception is the process by which the
individual organizes the mass of information
which impinges on the self into meaningful
patterns. First we sense the information and
then we digest it through past experience,
values, and beliefs. Information that is relevant
is filtered out. So we respond to what we
perceive to be the case rather than what is the
case. Distortions are inevitable. When I
perceive others my attitudes, values and
beliefs filter what I see or what I wish to see.
Generally, we assume that others have more
control over their behaviour than they do.
Communication links sensing and perceiving
into action in a never ending exchange of
signals. When people interact, they emit range
of verbal, visual, olfactory and tactile signals,
using their eyes, nose and skin as receptors.
All these data are channeled through the

process of perception. If we take these

characteristics of perception into an
organizational setting, then the verbal and
non-verbal signals still provide data for
Groups in Organization
A group is a number of people who wants
to interact with one another, are physically
aware of each other, and who perceive and are
perceived as being members of a team.
Individuals belong to a variety of groups so
any classification is subject to the perceptions
of the members involved.
Formal groups are created as
mechanisms within the formal structure of the
firm. That is they are official and are supported
by positional power or authority. Their
functions are specified.
Informal groups looser, more erratic in
their behaviour and often much more fun. In
analyzing group behaviour we need to
distinguish between the tasks or what the
group is doing (its content) and the interaction
between members (the process). When a
group of individuals meets for the first time the
process of group formation has begun. The
least structured form group is called Coalition
which is made up of small groups who has a
common goal to achieve and once the group is
achieved the group disbands.
A minimal analysis of leadership roles
produces two vital roles: a task oriented leader
role and a socio-emotional or maintenance
leader role. Group balance occurs when both
roles have emerged. We can take this analysis
further and use Belbins nine roles to suggest
what combinations of actors would produce
the more effective groups in different contexts
with different tasks. Control over the members
of the group develops to deal with any
deviation. Tolerance of deviation can become
strained and predictable steps will be taken by
other members to correct that deviation. The
final sanction is the rejection of the deviant.
Cohesion within the group depends on the
centrality of the goals to the members, and the
motives/goals of the individual members, and
the frequency of the meeting. Cohesion has
been found to correlate positively with group
productivity and member satisfaction.


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Given the number of groups in any

organization it is inevitable that conflicts will
develop. Some of this conflict is productive.
Other forms of inter group conflicts are
destructive. Managerial responses to
destructive conflicts vary greatly. Integration
and collaboration are more effective ways to
resolve this form of conflict. Despite the
problems with group they remain a major fact
of life in all organizations.
How to manage culture in organization
Organizational culture is still a relatively
new, controversial and little understood
management concept. However, a lot of
research in the area proves that the
impeccable relationships exist between
organizational culture and people behaviour in
the organization.
Schwartz & Davis says - Organizational
culture is a pattern of beliefs and expectations
shared by the members of the organization.
These beliefs and expectations produce
norms and powerfully shape the behaviour of
individuals and groups in the organizations.
The culture of an organization is the
collection of shared values, ideologies and
beliefs of members including the transmitting
media of language, stories, symbols, myths,
and legends, and the manifestations of those
values in rituals, rites, and ceremonies. Culture
is the corporate glue that links diverse and
often strangely different individuals together
into a productive collection.
Culture is not a biddable tool in the hands
of managers. Managers wishing to affect the
culture should be warned that this is a long
term tricky business. Values and beliefs only
become embedded in the culture of
organization if members want to accept those
values and beliefs. Managers can ensure that
the rituals they impose on people are good
rituals; that the rites that persist are those that
reinforce the important values and the beliefs
of the culture.
What managers should not try is to push a
set of documented values and beliefs on the

So what does the manager do?

A typical day for a manager might begin
with arrival in the office at 8.30a.m.Then there
is a hour spent reading the mails and
answering letters before people start to come
to see the manager. Subordinates without
appointments walk in, or the managers go out
to see them. From these interactions
information is collected and decisions are
made. Formal appointments occupy a
considerable chunk of the morning.
Managing has been described as getting
things done, with and through people. It is
essentially a series of interpersonal
relationships which often extend over many
years. Communicating occupies most of the
time. How managers cope with this disordered
activities remain locked in their heads. The
most popular approach among researchers is
to look at three skill sets:

Human The Interpersonal Skills.

Technical The decision Knowledge


Conceptual The planning, Visionary

No manager will be equally competent in
all skills. Hence, one manager spends large
amount of time drawing up strategic plans
while another spends most of the time talking
to people.
Managerial Process:
1. Take advantage of reactive actions.
2. Cultivate large networks of contacts.
3. Identify connections between problems.
4. Learn from surprises and failures.
5. Are willing to experiment.
6. Select problems carefully.
7. Are politically astute.
8. Allocate time to reflective planning.
Keith Davis defines leadership as the
ability to persuade others to seek defined by
objectives enthusiastically. It is the human
factor that binds people together and
motivates them towards goals. Leadership is
organizationally useful behaviour by one
member of an organization family toward
another member or members of that same
organizational family. Change is inevitable in


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

a progressive culture. Pressures of change are

created both outside and inside the
organization. In fact, an organization that
refuses to change cannot live longer.
Characteristics of Organizational Change:

Change basically results from stimuli

both inside and outside.

Change takes place in all

organizations but at varying rates of
speed and degrees of significance.

Change takes place in all parts of

organization but at varying rates of
speed and degrees of significance.

Finally, the enterprise changes in

several ways. Its technology may
change, its structure may change,
and its structure, people, procedures
and other elements may change.
Employee resists change because of the
economic reason or the personal or social
reasons. People do not like to be retrained.
Because they take a pride in their existing
skills, People also feel that retraining means
there skills are obsolete. An organization
resists change because of the structural
inertia, resource constraints, sunk costs or the
general apathy.
An organization can overcome the
resistance to change by force field analysis,
communication or by negotiation, involving
employees in the process of setting up the
change. In the last resort if the management is
convinced of the genuineness and the
necessity for change, the management may
force the employees to accept change.
A manager must be cautious in
introducing the change. A change should be
only when the manager is convinced of the
need and the necessity to change. Change
should never be introduced in a jerky manner.
It should be slowly in a phased manner.

Managing people at work is the most
important activity of a manager in the
organization. Different measures are taken by
the manager to keep the employees
motivated. Recognition and communication
are among the key responsibilities of a
manager. The employees must be motivated
enough to participate in the decision making
process of the organization so that they can
think themselves as a part of the organization.
Team work and proper channelization of
information would help the organization run
smoothly and will keep its employees satisfied.
More the employees will be satisfied more
there will be the probability of success of the
organization and will also reduce labor

Joshi Vishwanath, Organizational

Behaviour, SCDL Publisher, Pune


Hunt John W., Managing People At Work,

Book Company, Europe


Dunnett M.D and Fleishman E.A., Human

Capability Assessment, by Lawrence
Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New York


Hall D.T., Associates, Career development

in organization, Jossey Bass, San
Francisco, 1986


Mc Kenna E.F., Psychology in Buisness:

Theory and Application, Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, London, 1987


Ardrey R., The Territorial imperative,

Collins/Atheneum Press, New York, 1967


Rudrabasavaraj M.N., Dynamic Personnel

Administration Management of human
resources-millennium edition (tenth
Revised), Himalaya publishing House,
New Delhi, 2000, pp 31 - 32


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 108-114

ISSN 0974 - 200X

An Empirical Study on Ragging

Tapas Kumar Mohanty
Student Welfare Officer
Bhadrak Institute of Engineering and Technology
Bhadrak, Orissa
The demon of ragging has now become a cause of major concern in the colleges, Universities & other
educational institutions. The degree of ragging varies from one institute to another but this problem is yet to
be resolved. Sometimes ragging is moderate & sometimes it is brutal. It has been seen that several victims of
ragging have either committed suicide or physically crippled for life. Year after year several victims of ragging
have left the institution in sheer disgust and humiliation. Ragging is open violation of human rights.

Keywords: Euphoria, Dispelled, Endemic, Vicariously, Infringement

which would also include deriving perverted
pleasure, vicarious or sadistic thrill from
Ragging is a new epidemic spread all
activity or passively participating in the
over our educational institutions particularly
discomfiture to fresher or any other student. Or
Engineering, Medical and other Professional
any act that affects the mental health and self
institutions, it is commonly defined as any
confidence of a fresher or any other student
conduct by any student whether by words
with or without an intent to derive a sadistic
spoken or written or by an act which has the
pleasure or showing off power, authority or
effect of teasing, treating or handling with
superiority by a student over any fresher or any
rudeness a fresher or any other student. Or
other student.
indulging in rowdy or undisciplined activities by
Ragging of fresher has become a
any student or students which causes or is
universal phenomenon in almost all our
likely to cause annoyance, hardship, physical
educational institutions, varying in degrees,
or psychological harm or to raise fear or
from moderate to brutal and vulgar forms.
apprehension thereof in any fresher or any
other student. Or asking any student to do any
Materials and Methods
act which such student will not in the ordinary
The present study is based on primary as
course do and which has the effect of causing
well as on secondary sources. Primary data
or generating a sense of shame, or torment or
has been collected through personal
embarrassment so as to adversely affect the
interviews with the help of questionnaire
physique or psyche of such fresher or any
schedule for secondary data information has
other student. Or any act by a senior student
been gathered from various books, & journals.
that disrupts or disturbs the regular academic
Some materials have also been referred from
activity of any other student or a fresher. Or
websites. The method used is analytical and
exploiting the services of a fresher or any other
descriptive. The study has been conducted at
student for completing the academic tasks
Bhadrak, Cuttack, Bhubaneswar and Balasore
assigned to an individual or a group of
of Orissa.
students. Or any act of financial extortion of
Results and Discussions
forceful expenditure burden put on a fresher or
Here the summary result of the survey is
any other student by students. Or any act of
laid down that has been conducted among the
physical abuse including all variants of it:
students of engineering and other technical
sexual abuse homosexual assaults, stripping,
institutes. The response to the sample
forcing obscene and lewd acts, gesture,
question, what is the significance of being a
causing bodily harm or any other danger to
fresher? was surprisingly very positive
health or person. Or any act or abuse by
especially among many of the technical
spoken words emails, posts, public insults

institutes students. For many, it is an

opportunity to explore the unknown, making
new friends, an experience far different from
the school days or an exciting change and
similar other flowery experiences come up on
the surface. One in every five respondent has
indicated a mixed feeling, neither too effusive
in terms of its significance attached to ones
college life nor any negative emotions.
However, as many as twenty eight percent of
the responses have been outrightly negative.
Experiences ranging from loneliness, dullness
and a fear of the unknown to being overawed
and living in anxiety and full of inhibitions
regarding being ragged and teased by seniors
have been recorded. It is interesting to note
that while more than half of the responses were
positive when dealing with the question of early
life in college in general, whereas; the question
on the early days in the hostel brought out only
sixteen percent positive responses. The
negative responses from hostellers have been
recorded in each sample. What can be drawn
out that the life in hostels is not that much
happier when compared to life in college in
general. Rather, at times it is a contrast. To
some extent, the reason may be either
homesickness or other but certainly the life is
tedious. It has come out as a fact. The question
on their expectations from their new institute
has brought forth an expected response. As
many as sixty three percent students expect for
good academic environment, good infrastructure
and good placement opportunities. The second
highest number of respondents (fifteen
percent) worries about discipline and care in
the new environment and eleven percent wish
to be granted freedom and do not like any
control or fine etc. imposed upon them. As
many as forty percent of the respondents
expect their seniors to guide and help them in
academic activities, the second largest group
of respondents ( thirty seven percent) seeks
friendship and affection from their seniors,
while as many as ten percent want to escape
ragging and another three percent do not want
anything from their seniors. Hence, almost fifty
percent of the students fall in that category who
either wish for friendship and affection from
their seniors or to escape from seniors or
ragging. It can also be inferred from the same
that almost half of the respondents points to

either an uncomfortable relationship with their

seniors or they wish to be yes- man of their
seniors. The power equation in the campuses
is unmistakable. Moreover, the responses to
objective type questions figuring in the
questionnaires were more direct, hence; that
could be inferred more accurately. When
asked how they make new friends, the strategy
ranges from helping the strangers (thirty three
percent) to giving an affable smiling approach
(forty seven percent). As has been expected,
there are only a few extreme instances of
making friends, that is, through aggressive
behavior four percent do so by teasing and
one percent through scaring off the strangers.
These extreme cases, we suspect are the
potential raggers. When asked whether they
take the lead in making friends, an
overwhelming seventy one percent respond in
yes. Only twenty three percent wait for the
other person to take the initiative. In the
reaction to being bullied or subjected, the
largest number (forty six percent) of
respondents feel angry and twenty eight
percent feel insulted when bullied. Strangely,
as many as seventeen percent of students feel
important even though subjected to ragging it
is easy to understand why we come across a
number of responses where ragging has been
refereed to be an enjoyable experience , as
would be clear from the response to the
statement, I enjoy being teased or bullied.
Whereas; nearly half of the respondents (forty
eight percent) say they enjoy the experience of
being bullied while twenty two percent prefer to
stay away from the institution if bullied. Six
percent show their willingness even to leave
studies if the case may be so. About half of the
respondents ( fifty percent) are not interested
in seeking any attention to themselves, but a
significant one third of them would like to be in
the limelight by adopting any means. This is a
dangerous portent among the youth. It would
be better to put up the fact that no gender
classification of responses has been made and
that would remain a limitation of the survey.
The questionnaire asked whether the
respondents would be happy to be friends with
someone who hurt or hurts them. Even though
as many as fifty percent give an emphatic no
to this suggestion, what is significant that two in
every five respondents ( forty one percent)


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

would not mind mending their relationships

even if they were hurt by someone. This,
perhaps, is the reason why the incidents of
ragging go unreported and are self
perpetuating. Finally, respondents reply
overwhelmingly in yes (seventy two percent)
on the issue that there should be clear cut
guidelines as to how junior and senior students
should relate to each other during the initial
days of college. Based on the interaction and
the elaborate methodology followed, the
Committee is convinced that the society at
large considers ragging as a social menace.
We are equally convinced that the softer
options have not worked out till date and
therefore, it is a high time for tough and
concrete measures. The six premises that
require immediate actions are schools, higher
educational institutions, district administration,
universities, State authorities and Central
authorities. At each premise, the involvement
of media and the civil society is expected. The
main purpose of ragging is to introduce the
fresher to the seniors and to remove their
shyness and fast adaptability to the new
environment. But, in practice, it has
degenerated in rough and obscene behavior.
In the process, several victims have either died
or committed suicide or maimed permanently
for life. A wave of criminal activity in the name of
ragging has been sweeping over the college
and varsity campuses. What are the reasons
behind it? Why students become violent?
Psychiatrists label sexual frustrations as one of
the reasons. According to Latha Satish, a
Psychologist and Councilor, youngsters are at
their most aggressive form when they enter the
college. It is during the age between 14 and
20, she says, that the most dramatic sexual
development takes place in human beings.
That is the time when youngsters are just
beginning to become aware of them. Since,
they do not have any legitimate way of
expressing themselves sexually, they love its
expression through ragging in which instincts
are satisfied vicariously by a sense of
enjoyment. There are other factors
responsible for sexual perversions of the
youngsters. Family influence has been
declining because of the absence of parents
from home for long hours which they spend at
their workplace. Youngsters grow up under the

care of undesirable servants or wayward

friends. Influences of sex oriented movies, TV
soaps and pornographic literature have
profound impact on the conduct and character
of the young. Pro- ragging based movies in
Hindi and English have also a deep impact
upon the tender mind of the youngsters. Very
few films show the truth and the dark side of
ragging which at times used by the
government as Anti- ragging Awareness
programs. Devoid of parental control and
growing up absurd in the company of wayward
friends they get addicted to alcohol or drugs
etc, etc. Their social life is extended to the
college and university where they fall a prey to
antisocial elements who rule the campus
today. Actually, ragging was rather imported to
India along with English education. The
ragging activities were aimed at creating a new
fraternity by mixing up freshermen drawn from
heterogeneous groups. But subsequently,
they developed into vulgar and barbaric
practices which would shame the ones in
practice in foreign countries. Till the early 70s,
it remained in its mild form. From 1980
onwards, media played a vital role in
influencing ragging in India and it gradually
became brutal in its form. Rapid mush rooming
of private Engineering and Medical Colleges
during the 90s, made ragging more rampant
and severe. Not all of them are in the grip of
brutal and vulgar ragging activity; only few of
them are involved where the campus
administrators are weak and supporting or
conniving at it, or it has the support of student
leaders/organizations. Many of the colleges do
not have rules and regulations against ragging
and where they exist, they are not enforced
Every campus administration must ensure
the safety and security of boys and girls left in
their custody. It is the responsibility of the
campus administration to provide protective
rings around the fresher. Students found guilty
must be given exemplary punishment. In
serious cases there should be no hesitation to
prosecute the offenders criminally. Discipline
on college campus has declined sharply due to
mushrooming of sub-standard institutions;
indiscriminate admission and sub-standard
instruction and examinations; a growing


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Location of Ragging Activities

number of unteachable professional students

who having failed in examinations take upon
themselves the role of student leadership: and
politics on the campus in which teachers and
students are all involved. The teaching
profession is full of people for whom it is just a
trade, a vantage point from where to operate in
different non-educational directions rather
than a vocation.








Chart I
51% Male



Both on/off

The following Table reveals different forms

or manners of ragging prevallent in Indian
educational institutions :-


49% Female
Table - I
Gender of respondents in Engineering
colleges: Results in chart 1 shows that there
were 51% male respondents and 49% female
The initial findings of the study are
presented in the following for these findings,
the emphases was a descriptive analysis of the
survey data and the interview data. Out of 350
students surveyed, 22% report that, they are
not involved in any ragging activity in their
campus, 58% students accepted their
involvements directly or indirectly in ragging
and 20% students accepted their partial
Findings I
More than 48% of college students eith
involved in groups, associations or
organisation have experienced ragging
actively or passively.
Findings 2 :Ragging may take place either on
campus, off campus or both on and off
Chart 2 - According to it, out of total
ragging activities, 50% raggings go inside the
campus, 30% of the campus and 20% of it take
place both on/off campus.

Male Female
Act as a personal Servant 20%



Participate in drinking




Deprive yourself of sleep




Be a wakened at night by 15%

other students



Compelling for tuition by

the teachers whom it is
a trade.



05 %

Watch sex oriented

pictures / movies / TV /
Pornographic literature.




Perform sex acts with the 08%

opposite gender



Disturbs on mobile and

other facilities.




Compelling to go in queue 48%

looking third button of the
shirt and wishing every
one passing through your
side etc.



Others i.e. collection of

money used oil, uniform
etc, etc, knowledge of
campus administrators to
dominant or suppress.



Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Findings 3 :-

Findings 4

Alcohol consumption, humiliation,

isolation, sleep deprivation, and Sex acts are
ragging practices common some among the
During the interviews, numerous students
justified ragging practices based on their
perception that it promotes bond or batch unity.
However, the survey results indicate that the
majority (2/3rd) of respondents do not cite this
as an outcome of their ragging experiences.
Similarly, ragging is often rationalized by
saying it promotes a sense of accomplishment.
However, the data reveal that more than 3/4th
of the respondents do not identify sense of
accomplishment as an out-come of their
ragging experiences.

Students Are Not Likely To Report Ragging

To Campus Officials
Of those who labeled their experiences as
ragging, 75% said they did not report the
events to campus officials. When provided with
a list of reasons for not reporting ragging, 43%
said they did not want to get themselves into
trouble. For details see the Table No. IV

Reasons for not Reporting the Ragging

Table. II
Perceived Positive Results of Ragging








Perceived Negative Results of Ragging Results


































I did not want to get me into trouble


I was afraid of negative consequences to me as

a individual from others


I was afraid others would find out I reported it

and I would be an outsider


Did not know where to report it


I might be hurt by others if they learned I

had reported it.


Teachers supporters the seniors. I may be is

trouble others.




When asked why they did not report their

ragging experience, near about 50% of
students provided a reason other than what
was listed. When these students explanations
were examined, the following patterns
Findings 5
Students Recognize Ragging As Part Of
The Campus Culture
Though astonishing, it is a stark reality that
majority of students consider ragging as a part
of their campus culture. These perceived
norms may influence the extent to which
student choose to participate in and / or
tolerate ragging.
Findings 6
Students report limited exposure to
prevention efforts that extend beyond a
Ragging is not tolerated limit. The data show

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

that anti-Ragging policies were introduced to

students. Other prevention strategies to which
students were frequently exposed include
positive batch / group activities, and being
made aware of advisor expectation that
ragging would not occur. The least reported
prevention activities to which student report
being involved are workshops on ragging
presented by either adults or peers. The under
mentioned table provides additional information
on the frequencies of commonly using
prevention and intervention strategies.

Table V: Prevention And Intervention

Strategies Experienced By Students.
Students were told about anti-raging policies
during new student orientation.


Student were told where to report ragging.


Students were told rovers duty of faculty and

members during right period with written copy


Students were given a written copy on

anti-ragging policy when joining.


Students attended a ragging prevention

workshop prevented by experts


Student attended a ragging prevention

workshop presented by peers.


Findings 7
Students come to college having experienced
For few students i.e. outside state
category and from CBSE / ICSE who step into
a College Campus and choose to join, ragging
is not a new experience for them. During
interview 16% students reported to have some
idea of at least at the level of class X to XII itself.
However 84% of them have no idea about
ragging. But they have some news about
ragging through newspaper and media.
Ragging has becomes a universal phenomenon, in almost all our educational
institutions varying in degrees, from moderate
to brutal and vulgar forms. In the process,
several victims have either committed suicide

or physically crippled for life. Year after year,

several victims of ragging have left the
institution in sheer disgust and humiliation. The
incidents narrated in this article indicate the
dangerous depths to which degeneracy can
sink. The main purpose of ragging is to remove
shyness of fresher in a new environment.
Ragging activity is not confined to male
students only; it has spread among female
students also. The problem of ragging is too
demeaning and dangerous for even sinners to
ignore. It shatters the lives of the victims and
their families. It destroys the reputation of
otherwise admirable educational institution
and campus administrators. It just must not be
permitted. Article 14,15,16,17,18 under Right
to Equality of the Indian Constitution has
allowed every citizen of the country to possess
the basic human rights and independence to
which everyone is entitled , this includes the
right to life , liberty, freedom, of expression,
equality, there will be no discrimination before
regarding sex ,caste, and creed. Moreover,
ragging is undoubtedly the violation of human
rights as well as the infringement of Indian
Constitution When some one is being
unnecessarily tortured anywhere, then it is
nothing but violation of human rights. Ragging
is fine till the basic human rights are not being
violated. Supreme Court of India on Febuary,
2009 observed, Ragging in essence is a
human rights abuse..In present times
shocking incidents of ragging have come to the
notice...the student is physically tortured
or psychologically terrorized ... The main
cause of indulging in ragging by the senior
students is the eagerness to show off their
power, authority, superiority by way of helping
and guiding fresher for various things in the
college. The most fundamental of all human
rights that man can aspire for, is the right to
life. Denial of these basic rights means denial
of all other rights, because none of the other
rights would have any utility and existence
without it. So this right has been stressed by
International, regional and national
documents. For example, Article 3 of the


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Universal Declaration of Human Rights says,

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and
security of person. Similarly, Article 2(1) of the
European Convention for the protection of
Human Rights 1950 declares, Everyones
right to life shall be protected by law.
Considering the above rights, it is a high time to
take some convert steps to wipe out this mal
practice which at time process to be a deadlock
of a student's career. Many of the genius
students have already become victims of this
system. Enough is enough we have to give
ragging a death blow.


Sreenivasulu N.S, Human Rights,( Many

Sides to a Coin), Regal Publications, New
Delhi, 2008


Gay J. Antinozzi, J.D. & Alan Axelrod,

Campus Safety, USA


UGC Regulation on curbing the menace

of ragging in Higher Education Institutions2009.(Report of the Committee
Costitutedby the UGC Under the
Chairmanship of Prof. K.P.S.Unny.Former
Registrar, & JNU, Dean, School of
Language, Literature & culture studies,
JNU, New Delhi- 110067, to frame
guidelines to curb the menace of Ragging
in Universities/ Educational Institutions.


Ghosh S.K., Ragging: Unquiet Campus,

S.B.Nangia, for Ashish Publishing house,
New Delhi, 1993.


Lipkins Susan, Preventing Hazing,

Jossey- Bass, for Wiley Imprint,
Sanfrancisco, USA, 2006


Nuwer Hank, Wrongs of Passage, Indiana

University Press, Bloomington, USA,1999


Richard B. Gartner, Beyond Betrayal,

John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New
Jersey, 2005


Sheras Peter, Your Child : Bully or Victim?,

Sky Light Press, Simon & Schuster, Fire
Side, New York, 2002


SAHRDC, Human Rights and Humanitarian

Law, Oxford University Press, New Delhi,

10. Hazing in view: college students at

Risk(Initial findings from the National
study of student Hazing) March 11,2008,
By Elizabeth J Allan, Associate Professor,
and Mary Madden, Associate Professor,
University of Maine, College of Education
and Human Development
11. Preventing Hazing at Harvard, a guide for
students, Harvard College, Student life
and Activities office faculty of Arts and
sciences, Harvard University
12. C U R E R E P O RT: C R 2 0 0 7 / 0 3 - 0 3 ,
Eradication of Ragging: Realities and
Recommendations , A Legal Perspective,
Panel led by: Anant Kumar Astana, Panel
Members: Ash tosh Yadav, Binod Kumar,
Bhupesh Ch. Samad,(Law students at
Aligarh Muslim University) Known as
CURE Aligarh Chapter


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 115-117

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Maritime Trade Routes in Ancient India

Binod Kumar

India Lies on the route between the West and the extreme East solar as the history of international maritime
trade is concerned. The famous sea routes have moulded Indian outlook throughout the centuries. As India
had a commercial character, it showed tolerance and commopolitanism for the universal humanity in its
economic approach. The natural advantages enabled Indians to acquire the nautical skill and enterprise for
which they were famous in the ancient world.Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf; Red Sea,
Mediterranean and Bay of Bengal were the important seas through which international trade route ran in the
remote past. The Western as well the Eastern coasts had a number of good commercial harbours and
emporium which were the export and import centres of Indian maritime trade.
Key Words: Nautical skill, Commopolitanism, Sutradhyaksha, Kulapatha, Smyanapath, Cargoes

India was famous for its natural products,
its beautiful manufacture and costly merchandise.
It has been accepted that the earliest
civilization of the world developed in river
basins which helped the international
commerce. The fundamental root of international
commerce was accelerated by the Indians as
India was rich in economic surplus.
Mesopotamia, on the other hand played the
role of intermediary mart where varieties of
commodities were collected from different
nations and transported to the countries in
demand. Egypt was the consuming market
because of the luxurious life of the people
there. Meditarranean culture had also a share
in the commercial activities. It was their
commercial activities which brought Cyprus,
Egypt, Saradinia, Mycenae and Mellespoit in
contact with one another. The extension of the
Mauryan Empire beyond the Hindukush to
Bacteria led to the expansion of Indian foreign
trade. The commercial relation with the foreign
countries continued in flourishing condition in
ancient India in which maritime trade routes
played an important role.
Materials and Methods
The research article is mainly based on
primary and secondary sources. Materials
collected from variety of sources i.e. books
journals, periodicals etc. have been judiciously

used and utilized. The methodology is textual

as books constitute the mine of information.
Results and Discussions
Maritime trade routes in ancient India was
well developed. The economic system gave
prominance and preference to production for
life against production for Exchange. But when
a surplus over all reasonable home needs was
left over or when any commodity was in excess
of all home requirements, it may well be utilized
for export just as well as any commodity, which
was not available in home production in
sufficient required quantity would be imported.
This was the origin of trade in India. It was a
natural and scientific origin.1 The difference in
the stage of industrial evolution and equipment
in different countries makes all the difference
to the productive capacity of a country and its
ability to secure the best terms for itself in any
act of exchange.2 Trade as a source of new
wealth and a means of filling the gaps if any,
was an honoured and a legitimate means of
livelihood. The super-structure of a nation's
maritime trade is broad-based on the frame
work of the healthy growth of industries.
Obviously during this period maritime trade
flourished due to healthy growth of industries
and luxurious growth of maritime routes.3
Ancient Indian Craftsmen earned a wide
spread popularity for their technical know-how
and scientific skill. Without a great development


of technical skill maritime trade could not have

flourished, industry would not have grown so
much and national wealth could not have been
increased in such a high degree. In those days
Indian textile goods and iron manufactures
attained remarkable reputation in the markets
of foreign countries. There was a brisk demand
for the Indian cotton cloth, wool and woolen
products, silk and silkan products.4 That textile
industry very much flourished is well testified
by kautilya, who mentions that the Director of
yarns Supradhyaksha was entrusted with the
duty of looking after the interest of textile
industries.5 A significant invention of the time
enhanced to considerable degree the course
of maritime trade of ancient India.6 The
scientific discovery undoubtedly gave a great
injoetus to Indo-Roman commerce and
increased considerably its value and variety,
because, with the help of favourable wirds, the
merchants could now safely sail to India
through more direct routes and could visit
Indian ports with greater frequency and
comparatively in lesser time.7
In ancient India, the most important ports
were Champa and Tamralipi on the eastern
coast and Supara and Broads on the West.
Besides these there was Adequittas in
All industrial growth and development
presupposes a network of trade channel, of
trade troutes and of transport facilities for the
manuacturer goods to spread over the various
distributing centres. It is through this network of
trade routes that ultimately there comes about
the growth and development of important
markets, trade centres and ports for the export
and import of the commodities. Naturally,
therefore, the various sea routes are intimately
connected with its growth and economic
The sea has traditionally been regarded
as the supreme source of commercial wealth,
because it has served as the very backbone of
international channels of trade.10 There are two
main branches of communication by the sea (i)
Kulapatha or the coasrel route and (ii)
Samyanapath or, over seas routes of these two
Kulapatha was usually favoured because a
passed close to large number of good ports

and therefore, could handle number of national

and international trade. The Kulapatha11
usually remained the busiest sea route,
because boarding here remained free from the
risk involved in journey over high seas.
Samyanapatha12 stood for a route traversing
the high sea and connecting India with the
numerous foreign countries.
India had trade relations with China,
Ceylon, Indus countries and beyond Babylona
and several other countries. The maritime
intercourse of Egypt with India was carried on
mainly by the Arabians. From the strabo we
gather that although considerable amount of
Indian merchandise has followed when
ptolemis ruled insunge, very few green ships
had gone further than South Arabia.
The economic life of man in India evolved
through several phases.13 Some of these
phases preceded the commercial stage.14 In
the first phase man's total economic activity
was confined to food gathering. In India, this
stage occurred when man was in the last
phase of the second glaciation or in the
beginning of the second inter-glacial period. In
this period the basis of subsistance was
hunting and food gathering in one form or the
other. 15 This phase can, therefore, be
described as the age of direct appropriation.
Since the very dawn of civilization trade
routes have always been the most general and
played and maritime trade routes in particular a
leading rules in harmonizing the under only
economic resources over the whole earth
important factor for the growth of commercial
activities. The West of Arbian sea, separating
India from Arabia and Egypt is bounded on the
north by the coast line of Persia. It has been the
busiest sea route throughout. As a result of the
seasonal monsoon it constitute at least for four
thousand years a great sea route for
commercial intercourse. All the sea faring
nations of the West have considered this to be
the chief sea route for their commercial
The Indian ocean is a vast oceanic basin
which is separated from the Pacific on the east
by the Asiatic Archipalago and Australia. It is
founded on the South by a line drawn from the
Cape of Good Hope to Bass and is divided


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

from Atlantic by Africa in the West and

enclosed by the countries of Asia on the north.
It communicates with China Sea by the strait of
floras including inlets such as the Bay of
Bengal, Sea of Oman, the Persian Gulf and the
Red Sea and chief straits line the channel of
Mozambique and palk strait. There were a
number of important islands.17

In the early stage, the route terminated at

Tonkin (Kio-che) which was the principal port of
China. Hence all ships coming from India used
to unload their cargoes at Tonkin. It may, thus
be very well concluded that during the period of
investigation, India occupied position of
significance on the map of the world by the
virtue of its various maritime trade routes.

The earliest contact of Indians with

Europeans may be traced to the trade centres
of the Middle East where in both flocked in
connection with trade. A direct contact
between Greece and India took place as about
510 B.C. when Darius, the Great sent a Greek
mercenary scylax to sail down the river Indus
to its mouth and to make his way home by the
Red sea.


India, from time immemorial enjoyed

many advantages for developing its nautical
skill and maritime enterprises both on account
of its geographical contour and abundance of
natural resources. As observed above both the
Western and Eastern Coasts had a good
number of commercially useful harbours and
ports through which brisk export and import
trade with foreign countries could be easily
carried on.
It appears that ancient Indian merchants
first followed the sea route along the coast of
Bay of Bengal and then discovered a useful
port on Malay Peninsula from where they could
proceed over the land route to Siam and
Cambodia. The mid-ocean route was more
appropriately used by these Western
merchants who, avoiding the coast and land
routes, wanted to establish a direct trade with
extreme East. India could very well maintain
flourishing commercial contacts through
distant countries of Asia and West due to large
number of useful maritime trade routes.18
The obvious economic consequence of all
geographical facilities was that very early in
history, Indian traders learnt to use the various
sea-routes for carrying on maritime trade with
distant countries. Both the western and
Eastern coasts had a good number of
commercially useful harbours and ports
through which brisk trade with foreign
countries could easily be carried on.


Shah K.T., Ancient Foundation of

Economics in India, Vorga and Company,
Bombay 1954, p. 104




Agrawal R.S., Trade Centres and Routes

in Northern India, B.R. Publication, Delhi,
1982, p. 14


Kangle R.P., Arthasastra, Bombay

University Press, Bombay, 1965, pp. 7576






Agrawal R.S., Trade Centres and Routes

in Northern India, op. cit, p. 21


Jataka, With commentary and ed. by V,

Faus boll, Trubnor Press, vol. vii, London,
1877-79, p. 90


Das S.K., The Economic History of

Ancient India, Vohra Publication, Reprint
Allahabad, 1980, p. 156

10. Agrawal R.S., op. cit. p. 76

11. Ibid, p. 77
12. Ibid
13. Ganguli B.N., Reading in Indian Economic
History, Asia Publishing House, New
Delhi, 1964, p.12
14. Das S.K., op. cit., p. 55
15. Ibid
16. Adhya G.L., Early Indian Economics ,
Asian Publishing House, Calcutta, 1924,
p. 168
17. MacCrindle J.W., Ancient India as
Described by Megasthenese and Arriam,
London, 1964, p. 149
18. Chakraborty Haripada, Trade and
Commerce of Ancient India, A c a d e m i c a
Publisher, Calcutta, 1966, p. 261


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 118-122

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Tutoring the ESL Learners through Task

Based Approach at UG Level
S. Sivaraja
Assistant Professor
Department of English, MASS College of Arts and Science
Kumbakonam 612 501, Tamilnadu
Dr. G. Natanam
Former Principal
120/1, Bazaar Street
Chidambaram 608001, Tamilnadu

A language classroom may consist of learners at various levels. There have been many approaches
followed in the teaching of English to make the learners get the competency. Many of the approaches are
considered outdated. Anything that suits and also gives desirable results can be adopted. One such
alternative is task based approach. This study advocates the usefulness of task based approach to the
students at under graduate level. It was aimed to develop interest in learning English in the student
community by showing them their own potential in learning by taking active part.

Keywords: ESL-English as Second Language, TBLT-Task-Based Language Teaching

debriefing and deconditioning is necessary for
both teachers and students. Students will be
English has got a considerable attention in
more enthusiastic to the challenges by their
recent years in all the developing countries
participation. As there is a notable awareness
especially in India. It is treated as second
to master the language it becomes necessary
language. English medium schools become
to find a way to train the learner to reach the
popular because the majority of people have to
use English for social purposes, for education
Statement of the Problem
and labour. There must be some change in the
methodology of teaching depending on the
The major and commonest problem of the
need and situation. Anything that suits and
educated students of India is immediately that
also gives desirable results can be adopted.
they forget whatever they were taught in
One such alternative is task based approach.
English. The reason why they cannot
remember the language they have been taught
Task based approach is nothing but
for several years may often be the lack of deep
learning by doing. Ellis defines a task as an
understanding of the contents they memorized.
activity or series of activities designed to
On the other hand, they seem to remember
engage the learner in the process of actual
most of the things when their teachers get
communication in the classroom by
them involved in doing some special tasks. So,
emphasizing the use of language as a means
this study intends to investigate whether these
of some behavioural end (1982:75). Well
tasks can help the learners to learn and
planned and appropriate tasks are helpful to
register the structure of language in their mind
permanently so that the prospective educated
the learners to have a naturalistic communication
students could become skillful users of English
in the classroom.
after their graduation. More specifically, this
This methodology can make challenging
research attempts to find out the suitability of
demands on teachers resources, imagination
adopting task-based teaching to achieve
and creativity. It paves way to the idea that
learner autonomy.

Research Question and Hypothesis

This research focuses on whether or not
task-based language teaching has any effect
on the ESL learners at under graduate level.
Thus, an attempt is made to find out a
satisfactory answer to the following question:
What is the effect of task-based language
teaching on the teaching and learning
Based on the experiments conducted with
a variety of students from various colleges it is
hypothesized that learners certainly get
motivated and the process of learning gets
Definition of Technical Terms and Key
Defining Tasks
A task can be considered as a piece of
classroom work which involves comprehending,
manipulating, producing or interacting in the
target language while their attention is
principally focused on meaning rather than
form. The task should have a sense of
completeness. According to Breen a task is:
any structured language learning
endeavour which has a particular objective,
appropriate content, a specified working
procedure, and a range of outcomes for those
who undertake the task. Task is therefore
assumed to refer to a range of work plans
which have the overall purpose of facilitating
language learning from the simple and brief
exercise type, to more complex and lengthy
activities such as group problemsolving or
simulations and decision making. (1987:23).
The definition implies that task involves
communicative language use in which users
attention is focused on meaning rather than
linguistic structure.
Task Stages
Tasks involve language in the classroom
and the use of language develops all the macro
skills. In a task based lesson the teacher does
not predetermine what language will be
studied; the lesson is based around the
completion of a central task and the language
studied determined by what happens as the
students complete it.

According to Richard Frost a task based

approach lesson face the following stages:
The teacher introduces the topic and gives
the students clear instructions on what they will
have to do at the task stage and might help the
students to recall some language that may be
useful for the task. The pre-task stage can also
often include playing a recording of people
doing the task. This gives the students a clear
model of what will be expected of them. The
students can take notes and spend time
preparing for the task.
The students complete a task in pairs or
groups using the language resources that they
have as the teacher monitors and offers
Students prepare a short oral or written
report to tell the class what happened during
their task. They then practice what they are
going to say in their groups. Meanwhile the
teacher is available for the students to ask for
advice to clear up any language questions they
may have.
Students then report back to the class
orally or read the written report. The teacher
chooses the order of when students will
present their reports and may give the students
some quick feedback on the content. At this
stage the teacher may also play a recording of
others doing the same task for the students to
The teacher then highlights relevant parts
from the text of the recording for the students to
analyse. They may ask students to notice
interesting features within this text. The
teacher can also highlight the language that
the students used during the report phase for
Finally, the teacher selects language
areas to practise based upon the needs of the


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

students and what emerged from the task and

report phases. The students then do practice
activities to increase their confidence and
make a note of useful language.(2008:28)

following task types to test the practicality of

the methodology to tutor English to the
students at Under Graduate level:

One Word Story: This activity is

extremely simple. Each student adds a
word to create a group story. Despite the
simplicity it can be really challenging.


Conversational English: This activity

exploits a dialogue and shows how the
script and audio files can be used to
develop students speaking abilities.


Agreeing and Disagreeing: In the

activity some concrete statements are
used as a basis for discussion.


Situations: A situation, usually involving

two or occasionally three speakers, is
described verbally to the students. They
must then try to build the whole
conversation that would arise out of the
circumstances. They have to find out the
time of the last train from London to
Brighton, but the person they ask is also a
stranger, to a description of a disagreement,
argument or formal meeting.


The New Student Role Play: This is a

role-play activity in which your students
practice asking for and giving personal
details and directions.

The participants in this research were
from I and II year classes of a variety of
departments from various Arts and Science
colleges. They were given a questionnaire as a
pre-test and explained about the programme.
Different types of instruments were used
to gather the relevant data for this study: (1) A
pre-test questionnaire consisting of 51
questions, and (2) A variety of tasks aiming to
develop all the language skills.
A Partial Testing and the Result
The Plan
A few points from earlier pages have got to
be recapitulated here:
It was noted in introduction that:

There have been many approaches

followed in India to make the learners get
the competency. Many of the approaches
are considered outdated. They are
traditional approaches, which have a very
limited scope to reach the desired level of
competency and accuracy. So, there must
be some change in the methodology of
teaching depending on the need and
situation. Anything that suits and also
gives desirable results can be adopted.

It was hypothesized there that :


This (task based approach) methodology

can make challenging demands on
teacher's resources, imagination and
creativity. It paves way to the idea that
debriefing and deconditioning is necessary
for both teachers and students. Students
will be more enthusiastic to the challenges
by their participation.

As it was stated in introduction anything

that suits and also gives desirable results can
be adopted. This study has chosen the

The Experiment
In the mid of September 2010,
experiment was conducted involving 50
students drawn from all the first and second
year classes except the department of English
of AVC College (Autonomous), Mayiladuthurai.
They had no readiness whatsoever to use
English either in speech or in writing. They
were given a pre-session, then around 10
contact hours of instruction, spread over 2
weeks, and finally were asked to face the tasks
mentioned above. The same methodology
was observed with the students of Government
College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam,
Idhaya College of Arts and Science for
Women, Kumbakonam and MASS College of
Arts and Science, Kumbakonam.
colleges are affiliated to the Bharathidasan
University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu.


The purpose of the experiment was to

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

demonstrate whether the hypothesis as stated

in (b) is valid or not in other words, to show
whether or not an activity based methodology
would help the learners facilitate the learning.
It is to be specially noted that a deliberate
effort was made in the experiment to see that
the learners were not allowed to speak in their
mother tongue and they were trying to find a
correct word to communicate every time. They
find it difficult at the beginning but later they
enjoyed talking and doing the tasks only in

friends held. Finally, they all came out with

suitable answers and reported that it was

Participants found it tough to guess the

spelling of some words and with the help
of the group leaders they solved it.
Sometimes they came up with some
synonyms also.


The thirds task which is opinion based was

remarkably appreciated by all the
participants. They differed in their opinion
and a group discussion was also made on
the task. Their level of understanding and
communicating in English was well
observed. They did well as a result of their
interest aroused by these tasks.


A situation based task interested the

groups the most as they found it very
useful for the day to day life. They came
out with different possible expressions
and enjoyed a lot.

Observations Arrived
The following observations are reached
after the execution of the experiment.


In the very beginning of doing the tasks all

the students found it difficult though they
were given a clear idea of the things
While doing the One Word Story task
some of them found it little challenging to
find a correct word to continue the story.
Some of the group found it very interesting
to go ahead and completed the story


They talked only in English till the end of

the completion of the tasks. They were
allowed to continue to converse in English
whatever faulty it was.


A mixture of very bright, above average

and average level students were put in
each group as participants and their level
of understanding and doing the tasks in
group were well noticed. The very bright
students influence the other two types a
lot. As a result the above average and
average level learners did wonderfully
well when they were doing their tasks

10. The most interesting point observed is all

the participants were brought from
different departments. Some of them
wanted to study the particular subject out
of their interest and some of them chose
their subject area to avoid all subjects in
English. After their participation they
wanted to be a student of English
language department and their performance
is the evidence.
Conclusions and Recommendations for
further Research


After the completion of the first task,

participants felt confident a little and
wanted to partake in other activities.

The experiment discussed proved beyond

doubt that it is possible to teach the target
language by task based activities. This study
concludes that such a teaching methodology
provokes the learners' interest and let them do
the activities of their own. The result is learner


It was really a mind game to the

participants to guess the correct answer to
complete gaps in task two. The
Conversational English task where an
informal conversation between two

The study further recommends that some

more activities should be experimented in the
same way and it should target the very young
learners. Activities should be remodelled and
simplified according to the young participants.


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Concluding Remarks
The recommendation stresses on the
simplification of tasks and going to the young
learners because "the starting point for all
language learning is some basic, simple,
possibly universal code and that the
acquisition of a standard language develops
out of this by a process of increasing
elaboration" (1987:112), as Corder puts it in
Error Analysis and Inter language.
It goes without saying that the starting
point for language acquisition would be
something simple, because elaboration can
occur only from the simple to the complex. The
second language learner cannot do something
complex with the language and may lose his
interest in learning the language. It would

certainly be wiser to lead him consciously and

deliberately from the simple to the complex
and these activities help to reach the goal.

Breen M., Learner Contribution to Task

Design. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1987


Corder S.P., Error Analysis and

Interlanguage. Oxford: Oxford U P, 1987


Ellis R., "Informal and Formal Approaches

to Communicative Language Teaching.",


ELT Journal. Vol.36. No.2:73-81


Frost R., A Task Based Approach

Turkey: Hamilton, 2008


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 123-126

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Speech Repertoires in Multilingual Setting

Dr. Poonam Sahay
Sr. Lecturer
University Department of English
Ranchi University, Ranchi

Archana Kumari
Assistant Professor in English
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology
Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh

In an increasingly interdependent world, the knowledge of other languages becomes indispensable.
Multilingualism is a sociolinguistic phenomenon that arises as a result of language contact. It is a situation in
which two or more languages operate within the same context. The discussion of speech repertoire and that
of multilingualism go hand in hand. An individuals speech repertoire is his control over a number of varieties
of a language(s).Every individual has a distinct speech repertoire. So it is fruitful to discuss the importance of
speech repertoire in multilingual setting.

Keywords: multilingualism, speech repertoire, diglossia, code, code-switching

Multilingualism is obviously a complex
phenomenon. The multitudes of its complexity
and its many facets have challenged the
interest not only of scientists who are primarily
interested in the general development of
theories, but also of scientists and nonscientists with utilitarian objectives in mind. It
interests linguists because it raises problems
such as multilingual individuals linguistic
competence and performance, the universality
of the surface structure and the nonuniversality of the surface structure of
language usage and language development.
Multilingualism interests sociologists because
of its influence on the functioning of social units
and institutions of various types.
Main Thrust
The notion of speech repertoire is central
to the discussion of multilingualism. If we say
that an individual has a speech repertoire, that
is to say that he or she controls a number of
varieties of a language or of two or more
languages. It is important to keep in mind that
each language in the repertoire brings with it its
own set of grammatical, lexical, pragmatic and

sociolinguistic rules and convention (norms).

The concept of speech repertoire may be most
useful when applied to individual rather than to
group. We can use it to describe the
communicative competence of individual
speakers. Each person will then have a distinct
speech repertoire.
Various Codes of a Community
Given the pivotal importance of multilingualism
to various disciplines, for example,
sociolinguistics, contact linguistics, ecology of
language, and the sociology of language, it is
not surprising to find a plethora of attempted
definitions. Nelde (1988, 609) states that a
convincing definition has so far alluded the
researcher. In this article, multilingualism
simply refers to the knowledge and use of two
or more languages.
Pandit (1979) has given an example of
how a multilingual speaker might use the
different codes in his repertoire. He describes
an Indian businessman living in a suburb of
A Gujarati spice merchant in Bombay uses
Kathiawadi (his dialect of Gujarat) with his
family, Marathi (the local language) in the


vegetable market, Kacchi and Konkani in

trading circles, Hindi or Hindustani with the
milkman and at the train station, and even
English on formal occasions. Such a person
may not be highly educated or well versed in
linguistic rules, but knows enough to be able to
use the language(s) for his purposes. (p. 79).
An important characteristics of
multilingualism pointed out by Pandits
example is the fact that multilinguals do not
necessarily have a perfect command of all the
languages (or codes, as these languages or
language varieties have come to be called) in
their repertoires. In our experience also we
notice that a trader of spices has to talk with the
people living in different parts of the country.
He does not know all the languages. He may
know only Hindi. How does he communicate
with the traders outside his state? It is
supposed that a trader in Erode in Tamil Nadu
has the facility to know Hindi, may be indirectly.
He comes in contact with a trader in Kerala.
AKeralite speak Malayalam and he hate to
speak Hindi. But to sell his products, he needs
to have speech repertoires, so that he can
easily communicate with the trader in Ranchi.
Similarly, there are certain commodities,
like textiles which are the monopoly of
Maharashtra. How does a trader go from
Ranchi to Mumbai to have a transaction with
the big wholesalers of clothes who knows only
Marathi? Even MNS (Maharashtra Nava
Nirman Sena) has prohibited the use of any
language other than Marathi. How the trader of
Ranchi will communicate with the trader in
Mumbai? Again we need speech repertoire.
In a multilingual speech community a
whole range of languages, or repertoire, is
available to speakers, who choose to use
some of them in their linguistic interaction to
perform particular social roles. Repertoire
applies at two different levels to both the
community and the individual. A speaker does
not usually control the whole range of the
codes of a community's repertoire continuum
but only a number of these (Hamers & Blanc
1989: 172-173).
Diglossia and code-switching
Theoretical analyses of multilingualism
and bilingualism at an individual or societal
level raise many complex issues (Baetens
Beardsmore 1986, de Houwer 1990, Romaine

1995, Grosjean 1997). Diglossia was originally

expressed (Ferguson 1959) as the distinction
between the two forms of a language such as
Arabic, German, French and Greek,
separatingthe formal outer High form (e.g.
Classical Arabic, Hochdeutsch, French) and
the Low informal inner form (e.g. Egyptian
Arabic, Schwyzertutsch, Haitian Creole).
Gumperz (1982) and Myers-Scotton (1993,
2006), amongst others, have since redefined
the role of diglossic language use to reflect
identity, power and transaction (Romaine
1995, p.166) where function, content or
rhetoric roles explain the predominant uses of
each language (Pennington 1998). A diglossic
situation exists in a society when it has two
distinct codes which show clear functional
separation; that is, one code is employed in
one set of circumstances and the other in an
entirely different set. Ferguson (1959, p. 336)
has defined diglossia as follows:
Diglossia is a relatively stable language
situation in which, in addition to the primary
dialects of the language (which may include a
standard or regional standard), there is a very
divergent, highly codified (often grammatically
more complex) superposed variety, the vehicle
of a large and respected body of written
literature, either of an earlier period or in
another speech community, which is learned
largely by formal education and is used for
most written and formal spoken purposes but
is not used by any sector of the community for
ordinary conversation.
Ferguson first introduced the term
diglossia in 1959 to refer to a relationship
between varieties of the same language, but
nowadays the term covers also relationships
between different languages used in a society
(Hamers and Blanc 1989:, 33-35). The variant
reserved for informal uses within a speech
community, the low variety, enjoys less social
prestige: it is the language of informal
interactions (such as ones family life). The high
variety, in its turn, is used in formal and outgroups situations (Sebastian 1982: 8). The low
variety is typically acquired at home as a
mother tongue, the high variety, on the other
hand, is learned later, normally at school,
never at home. It is a language of institutions
outside the home (Hamers& Blanc 1982: 34).
Fishman distinguished in 1971 between a
high and low language, where the high


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

language corresponds to status, high culture,

strong aspirations toward upward social
mobility, whereas the low language is more
associated with solidarity, comradeship and
intimacy by its speakers (Carranza 1982: 64).
The particular dialect or language that a
person chooses to use on any occasion is a
code, a system used for communication
between two or parties. It is unusual for a
speaker to have command of, or use, only one
such code or system. Obviously too,
functioning in a diglossic situation requires a
person to use two codes. Command of only a
single variety of language, whether it is a
dialect style, or register, would appear to be an
extremely rare phenomenon. Most speakers
command several varieties of any language
they speak, and bilingualism, even
multilingualism, is the norm for many people
throughout the world rather than unilingualism.
People, then are required to select a particular
code whenever they choose to speak, and they
may also decide to switch from one code to
another or to mix codes within sometimes very
short utterances and thereby create a new
code in a process is known as code switching.
Code-switching (also known as code-mixing)
can occur in communication between
speakers turns or within a single speakers
Domain of Multilingualism
Joshua Fishman has introduced domain
analysis which describes the use of languages
in various institutional contexts in a multilingual
society. Fishman suggests that one language
is more likely to be appropriate in some specific
contexts than another (Fasold 1984: 183).
Proper usage indicates that only one of
the theoretically co-available languages or
varieties will be chosen by particular classes or
interlocutors on particular kinds of occasions to
discuss particular kinds of topics (Fishman,
1972: 15).
Domains are defined in terms of
institutional contexts or socio-ecological cooccurrences. They attempt to designate the
major clusters of interaction situations that
occur in particular multilingual settings.
Domains enable us to understand that
language choice and topic are related to

widespread socio-cultural norms and

expectations (Fishman 1972: 19).
According to Fishman, there is no
invariant set of domains applicable to all
multilingual settings, as language behaviour
reflects the socio-cultural patterning. Domains
can thus be defined intuitively, theoretically or
empirically. They, too, can differ in terms of
socio-psychological and societal-institutional
level. Socio-psychological analysis distinguishes
intimate, informal, formal and intergroup
In a multilingual country like India where
apart from Hindi and English, there are so
many regional languages which are known as
richer than Hindi or English. But the
communication gap arises when a member of
particular language speaker goes to a place
where his language is not understood. My
effort and purpose in writing this article was to
highlight the need for speech repertoire, so
that people travelling from Kashmir to
Kanyakumari do not face any problem.
Being monolingual restricts the individual
to a limited societal context (Skutnabb-Kangas
2000). In a democracy, which requires
participation, this is not a favourable situation.
Multilingualism broadens the repertoire for
interaction and promotes mutual respect,
tolerance and equality, which are key
democratic values. A democratic country can
provide citizens with different identities while
still fostering an allegiance to a common
nation-state. In many parts of the world it is just
a normal requirement of daily living that people
speak several languages: perhaps one or
more at home, another in the village, still
another for purposes of trade, and yet another
for contact with the outside world of wider
social or political organisation. These various
languages are usually acquired naturally and
unselfconsciously, and the shifts from one to
another are made without hesitation.
People who are bilingual or multilingual do
not necessarily have exactly the same abilities
in the languages (or varieties); in fact, that kind
of parity may be exceptional. As Sridhar (1996,
p. 50) says, multilingualism involving
balanced native like command of all the
languages in the repertoire is rather
uncommon. Typically, multilingualism has


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

varying degrees of command of the different

repertoires. The differences in competence in
the various languages might range from
command of a few lexical items, formulaic
expressions such as greetings, and rudimentary
conversational skills all the way to excellent
command of the grammar and vocabulary and
specialised register and styles. Sridhar adds:
Multilinguals develop competence in each of
the codes to the extent that they need it and for
the contexts in which each of the languages is



Blackledge Adrian and Creese Angela,

Multilingualism: A Critical Perspective
(Advances in sociolinguistics), Continuum
International Publishing Group, New York,

Studies in Sociolinguistics), OUP, US,


Hamers J. F. and Blanc M. H. A.,

Bilinguality and Bilingualism, Cambridg
University Press, 1989


Huebner Thom and Ferguson Charles A.,

Cross Currents in Second Language
Acquisition and Linguistic Theory
(Language Acquisition and Language
Disorders), John Benjamins Publishing
Company, 1991


Sharma J.C., Multilingualism in India,

Language in India,Volume 1: 8 December


Srivastava R. N., Linguistic Minorities and

National Language, In F. Coulmas (ed.),
Linguistic Minorities and Literacy, The
Hague: Mouton, 1984

Clare Wright, Diglossia and

Multilingualism Issues in Language
Contact and Language Shift in the case of
Hong Kong, Pre and Post-1997, ARECLS,
2008, Vol.5, 263-279


Wardhaugh Ronald, An Introduction to

Sociolinguistics, Willey Blackwell, 2009


Ferguson Charles A. and Huebner Thom,

Sociolinguistics Perspectives: Papers on
Language in society, 1959-1994, (Oxford



Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 127-129

ISSN 0974 - 200X

India Rediscovered in Some Indo - English Novels

Vinay Bharat
Assistant Professor
Department of English
Marwari College, Ranchi
This article tries to filter out the chief characteristics of India as a nation and of Indians as a whole, its major
traits that set it culturally apart with the people of the other corners of the globe. Also, it tries to demarcate the
cultural allotropy which is quite natural for a country like India that has been subjugated and colonized for a
long period. This article filters out some one-liners.

Keywords: cultural allotropy, cola generation

In the fast shrinking modern world, the
state of a static cultural identity is simply
unthinkable. The frequent interaction among
people of different and contradictory sets of
values, thought processes and the attitude
towards life result into a process of conscious
and sub-conscious give-and-take and the
change is visibly clear from attire to
mannerism. Nothing serious is involved here.
But on the other hand, there are people who
have had the misfortune of being colonized,
such people have to face a kind of alien cultural
flood threatening, in some cases, to submerge
the native tradition and culture. The presence
of two contradictory sets of values - one not
fully accepted and the other not totally rejected
- gives rise to a difficult situation in the face of
the conflicting claims of the two. This gives rise
to a mixing of cultures- a blend which in other
words may be called "cultural allotropy", that is,
existence of a culture of a particular region in
two or more forms, having different and mixed
properties at emotional or intellectual level at a
given point of time.
Main Thrust
Discussing the East - West encounter
theme of the Indian English novel in English,
Balchandra Rajan observes:
India today is facing radical challenges
not merely in its sociological landscape
but perhaps even in that immemorial
landscape of the heart... The question
to be answered is whether the Indian
tradition with its capacity for

assimilation and its unique power of

synthesis can come to terms with the
new without deep erosions in its
fundamental character.1
The above question is invaluable. But
what exactly is the 'fundamental character' of
India, this question once again becomes as
mythic as India herself is. To seek out the basic
Indian character is, perhaps, simple; but
finding the real answer is too complex. But it
has been dared to do so. It has been attempted
to dig out the major works of five illuminated
Indian English novelists - Kamala
Markandaya, Arun Joshi, Ruth Prawer
Jhabvala, R. K. Narayan and Upamanyu
Chatterjee. The reason behind it was as clear
as water. The first three, namely, Kamala
Markandaya, Arun Joshi and Ruth Prawer
Jhabvala have had the advantage of "mixed
sensibility" and "unique synthesis" of culture.
All these three have first hand knowledge of
countries of their adoption, especially both the
women writers. Whereas, R. K. Narayan
knows the west through his frequent visits and
Upamanyu Chatterjee is a direct product of an
anglicized generation. Hence, landscapes of
these novelists produce a typical example of
cultural assimilation and allotropy2.
One-liners about India or Indian
After intensive study, It has been found
that if one tries to sum - up the fundamental
character of an Indian or India in one line, he
could be labeled as the biggest fool. But,
instead some one- liners are put forth about
India or Indian, which have been filtered out


from the representative works of the abovementioned novelists. When one would go
through these one- liners, one would feel that
these facts are very near to their own
experience (if he is an Indian). Also, it would
introduce outsiders with our fundamental traits
which are, of course, changeable yet
unchanged; erodible yet virgin.
First of all, let us have a glance over those
Indian characteristics which have stood
against time for so long yet nothing could
change its 'un -changeability'. Unlike the
Western hemisphere, ' in this part of the World,
Indian prefer to marry only once in a life time3'
Or, if any 'westernized Indian' like Vasu in The
Man- eater of Malgudi believes that' only fools
marry"4, we call them a ' cultural allotrope"5.
Still India is supposed to be a ' nation of
saints"6 and there is no doubt that the majority
of Westerners come to India either ' for a
spiritual purpose'7, or' in a hope of finding a
simpler or more natural way of life'8 but all they
'find here is dysentry'9.
Though in India knowing English
language 'gives one confidence'10 and people
love to be ' English' but do not forget to abuse
English; sometimes as ' the language of bloodsucking imperialists11."
Further, though the crookedness of taxiand auto- rickshaw -drivers of all Indian cities (
especially in the north ) is ' matchless, almost
mythic'12 , one 'always argues with any taxiscooter - or rickshaw-wala on principle.
Otherwise the journey is incomplete'.
Sindi, the central character of The
Foreigner rightly observes that "Indians
discuss things more than any other people"14
and that is why " on a train everyone want to
know everyone else"15.
We are "emotional"16 and "sentimental" 17,
and we do not miss any single opportunity to
take ourselves " so seriously"18.
This is not only that the recent Radiaepisode or Commonwealth games -episode
has stamped it as a fact, rather, Sindi of 1980s
also believes that ' to move up in India , one
needs good contacts"19 and " in India
everything ends in seeking money"20.
Majority of Indians stand contrast to
insomniac Westerners as we have been

envied by them that 'when Indians sleep they

really do sleep., no regular bed time - don't stir
till the next day begins"21.
Not only this, Indians also stand in
contrast to the Utilitarian Westerners who have
created a 'use and throw'- society. Whereas
Indians have got the habit of collecting and
preserving things regardless of its utility and
that is why, in India, even 'scrap is useful'22.
Since in India, grains are compared with Gods
'Anna devta", still a self- dependent India does
not prefer to 'waste food'23.
Most of the Indians misinterpret the
meaning of a 'free country' and 'fundamental
rights", Vasu of The Man- eater of Malgudi is
not a solitary example of it24.
Now, let us witness some minor 'erosions'
in our culture. In modern shining India , the '
cola generation', that is, the young generation '
doesn't oil its hair'25 and this generation likes ' Tshirts and Calvin klein jeans., fast food joints,.,
motorcycles, girlfriends,..whom ( they) could
lay anytime... marijuana..., even a little
cocaine, the singers who won the Grammy
awards., calling rupees bucks., ambition to go
abroad ('to the US of A')26 and they love to '
wear a tie, use., credit cards, kiss the wives of
colleagues on the cheek and smoke a joint,
listen to Scott Joplin and Keith Jarret, and on
weekends...see a Horror film, or a Carlos
Saura"27 and Gandhi for them is an invisible
character of 'Munnabhai MBBS'. If our ' cola
generation' is running fast for the new
changes, our hexa- and septuagenerians are
also not far behind who are transfixed in the
twilight zone of new changes. As a result, their
condition has become ' allotropic'. They " eat
beef too... corned beef sandwiches and wear
dhoti and read the Upanishads in Sanskrit'28.
But despite all these changes, still ' the men sit
apart from the women and children., may be
because no one wants to see a man and
woman enjoying anything together'29.
And with the pronouncement that 'India is
working towards a new age,30 and " nowhere
else could languages be spoken with such
ease.. American and Urdu"31, Indians are ready
to hug anything western from Basmati to
Texamati, from Macdowells to KFC, beginning
from the names itself. No surprise that we love


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

to be called " August"32 instead of "Agastya" , "

Sandy" for " Zahira"33, " Sindi" for " Surrender
Oberoi34 and Chidananda loves to rechristen
himself as " Chid"35.
Intellectual traditions are culture bound.
They come into existence because of the
specific needs of the society and period that
give them birth. When these traditions are
transplanted, they tend to lose their
authenticity and even their utility. The process
of intellectual importation in India created an
imbalance in cultural trade as well as a rift
between knowledge and reality. These above
discussed one-liners very aptly reflect some
minor erosions or changes in our fundamental
Indian characteristics which can easily be
identified yet its religiosity, ethics and sociopolitical culture is still the same.
1. Balchandra Rajan, Identity and nationality
Commonwealth Literature, Unity and
Diversity in a Common Culture, John
Press ( London, Heinemann Educational
Books, 1965) in Considerations,
Mukherjee Meenakshi (ed), N. Delhi,
Allied, 1977, p. 3
2 Mishra G.D., Physical Chemistry, Motilal
Banarasides,Delhi, Rpt. 1987
3. Joshi Arun, The Foreigner. New Delhi,
Orient Paperbacks, 1993, p.100
4. Narayan R.K., The Man Eater of Malgudi,
Indian Thought Publications , Madras,
Reprint, 2003, p. 34
5. Kawa Lily and Bharat Vinay, Cultural
Allotropy In Indo- English Novels
6. Joshi Arun, The Foreigner,op.cit,1993,
p. 70
7. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (rpt.2003), Heat
and Dust. G.B., John Murray ,p. 22
8. lbid., p. 95
9. lbid., p. 95
10. Upamanyu Chatterjee, (1989) English,



August: An Indian Story. London, Penguin

in association with faber and faber ,pp.
lbid., p. 59
lbid., p. 146
lbid.,p. 81
Arun Joshi (1993) The Foreigner, op.cit.,
p. 115
Upamanyu Chatterjee, (1989) English,
August: An Indian Story ,op.cit., p. 207
Kamala Markandaya, (1969) The Coffer
Dams, G.B. Hamish Hamilton ,p. 70
R.K.Narayan, (Reprint, 2003) The Man
Eater of Malgudi ,op.cit., 134
Arun Joshi (1993) The Foreigner, op.cit ,p.
lbid,p. 42
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (rpt.2003), Heat
and Dust ,p. 52
lbid., p. 125
Upamanyu Chatterjee, (1989) English,
August: An Indian Story , op.cit., p. 52
R.K.Narayan, (Reprint, 2003) The Man
Eater of Malgudi ,op.cit., p. 47
Upamanyu Chatterjee, (1989) English,
August: An Indian Story ,op.cit.; p. 110
lbid., p. 75
Ibid., p. 153
lbid., p. 281
Ibid., p. 117
Arun Joshi (1993) The Foreigner, op.cit ,p.
Upamanyu Chatterjee, (1989) English,
August: An Indian Story op.cit., p. 1
lbid.,the very title of the novel
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (rpt.2003), Heat
and Dust ,op.cit., p.32
Arun Joshi (1993) The Foreigner, p 191
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (rpt.2003), Heat
and Dust ,op.cit., p. 24

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 130-132

ISSN 0974 - 200X

A Fresh Approach to Quantifier Raising

Dr. C.K. Mishra
Assistant Professor
Department of English
Gore Lal Mehta College, Banmankhi, Purnea, Bihar
In this paper, I show that May (1991) and Chomsky (1991, 1993) fail to account for several data relating to
binding phenomena. May (1991), to begin with, assumed that the operations Wh-Movement and Quantifier
Raising derived LF from S-structure. Although QR generalised binding principles, it also risked their
applicability for some other sentences that were ungrammatical in terms of binding prior to the movement of
the quantifier to the left-most position of the sentence at LF but fulfilled the binding requirements after QR. To
prevent such overgenerations, Chomsky (1981) proposed that Principle C was satisfied at S-structure; a
solution that is not available in Minimalist Syntax with S-structure dispensed with. Chomsky (1993), however,
argues that only the specifier every in the DP every director is raised at LF. What I try to show in this paper is
that even this proposal fails to explain certain empirical data on binding phenomena. I propose an mcommand condition on binding to account for such data.

Keywords: Wh-movement, Quantifier Raising, and LF

b. [everyone that the women [VP
introduced each other to ei]] i
May (1985, 1991) considered Logical
Form to be the representation of the form of the
[the men introduced each other to ei]
logical terms, or the expressions with invariant
Although QR generalises binding
meanings, of a language. It is then at LF that
principles to sentences like (1a), it can also risk
semantic rules for the interpretation of logical
their applicability for some other sentences
terms are applied. May (1991) assumed that
that are ungrammatical in terms of binding
the operations Wh-Movement and Quantifier
prior to the movement of the quantifier to the
Raising derived LF from S-structure. Such a
left-most position of the sentence at LF but
designated level of syntactic representation
fulfill the binding requirements after QR:
was motivated by some theory-internal
considerations such as the principles of the
Binding Theory of the time. Indeed, if the
??a. Shei met every director that Maryi
Binding Theory could be shown to require the
particular articulation of structure found just at
b. [every director that Mary [VP knew
LF for its full application, this would constitute a
ei]] i [she met ei]
sort of existence proof for LF, and the devices
employed in deriving it (May, 1991: 339). The
empirical support for invisible LF operations
were sentences with quantifiers like (22) in
May (1991), reproduced here as (1a), with a
structure satisfying Principle A ONLY AFTER
the application of QR at LF (1b) so that both
the women and the men locally c-command an
occurrence of each other:
a. The men introduced each other to
everyone that the women did.

In (2b), Mary is outside the c-command

domain of she. Then Mary can antecede she
with no violation of binding requirements. The
prediction proves to be empirically false.
Based on similar cases, Chomsky (1981)
concluded that Principle C was satisfied at Sstructure; a solution that is not available in
Minimalist Syntax with S-structure dispensed
Chomsky (1993), however, argues that
only the specifier every in the DP every director


is raised at LF. It follows that (3b) will be the LF

representation of (3a) after QR.


The nurse kissed [every child]i on hisi



Al Capone gave [every gangster]i

hisi share.


The hospital helps [every woman]i

when shei needs medical care.

??a. Hisi friends like every studenti.

everyj [hisi friends like [tj student] i ]

(3) shows weak crossover (WCO) effects.

The quantifier every has raised to an LF
position high enough to c-command and, as a
result, fulfill the requirements of scope theory.
Despite that, the DP every student does not
take scope over the pronoun his. This can
explain why the pronoun cannot be bound to
the DP even after QR. It can also explain the
ungrammaticality of (2a).




It follows that (4) below is ambiguous in

scope NOT because everyone c-commands
someone (4b), or vice versa (4c) (see Mays
(1977) Scope Principle) but due to LF
representations with either of quantificational
specifiers every or some taking scope over the
other (4d-e).





Everyone loves someone.


everyonei [someonej [ ti loves tj]]


someonej [everyonei [ti loves tj]]


everyi [somej [[ ti one] loves [tj one]]]


somej [everyi [[ ti one] loves [tj one]]]

The nurse -ed kiss

Then the empirical challenge to the

viability of this version of QR must come from
grammatical cases, if any, in which one (the
nominal element of the DP) cannot ccommand a co-indexed pronoun unless the
whole DP, say someone, is raised at LF.
But do such cases exist?
In each of the sentences in (5) below, the
quantificational DP binds the pronoun without
c-commanding it. (6) indicates how the
problem in (5a) can be solved if the whole DP is
raised to the left-most position of the sentence
at LF. For other sentences, similar structures
are conceivable.


on his birthday

But do we really need to raise child

together with its quantifier after all? Perhaps
not, if one uses another command relation
instead of c-command, namely m-command,
as the scope condition on binding:
(7) A binds B if the lowest maximal projection
properly dominating A also properly
dominates B.
In case of (5a) above, every can still raise
to the left-most position of the sentence to take
scope (or have only its formal features move as
specified in Chomsky, 1995: chapter 4) while
child remains in situ to bind the pronoun his.
This is more general-isable than the raising


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

solution as it equally applies to sentences with

no quantifica-tional phrases of any sort:

The nurse kissed [the child]i on hisi



Al Capone gave [the gangster] i hisi

share .


The hospital helps Janei whenever

shei needs medical care.

Does (7) predict sentences in (9) to be

grammatical, too?

Al Capone gave himi Johnis share.


Al Capone gave himi

gangsteris share.




Chomsky Noam, Lectures on

Government and Binding. Dordrecht:
Foris, 1981


Chomsky Noam, A minimalist program for

linguistic theory. In The View from Building
20: Essays in Linguistics in honor of
Sylvain Bromberger, ed., 1993


Kenneth Hale and Samuel Jay Keyser, 152. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.


Chomsky Noam, The Minimalist Program.

Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press, 1995


May Robert, The grammar of

quantification. Doctoral dissertation, MIT,
Cambridge, Mass, 1977


May Robert, Logical Form: Its Structure

and Derivation. Cambridge, MA, MIT
Press, 1985


May Robert, Syntax, Semantics, and

Logical Form. In The Chomskyan Turn,
ed., Asa Kasher, 334-359. Oxford:
Blackwell, 1991



In this squib I briefly examined the status

of quantifiers in the theory of syntax, and
argued that adopting m-command as the
scope condition (on binding in general and
quantificational binding of pronouns in
particular) would save some unnecessary
theoretical labour at LF. The empirical question
to address next is how much of LF truly
remains indispensable to the theory of syntax.
Meanwhile, the linguist keeps on dancing with
the quantifiers!


Not at all. The lowest maximal projection

dominating John/gangster is DP (rather than
VP), which does not dominate him:






Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 133-137

ISSN 0974 - 200X

The Shadow Lines : A Political Novel

Research Scholar, Department of English
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag
Dr. Rajesh Kumar
Reader, Department of English
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag
This paper focuses on Amitav Ghoshs treatment of the changing middle class ethos in India during the Pre
and Post- Independent era through his novel The Shadow Lines .In the novel, the failures of nationalism and
nationalist governments find their echo in the characters, memories and views on the Partition. The novel
primarily deals with the theme of the Partition of India and the consequent trauma of the East Bengali psyche.
In The Shadow Lines, Amitav Ghosh holds that if the purpose of Partition was to gain freedom, then that
freedom is a mirage. He brings further the inefficiency of the drawn lines which he calls shadow lines that
separate the two nations.

Keywords: Freedom, Politics, History, Violence, Nationalism

Amitav Ghosh, with his subtle humour and
awareness of contemporary politics ensures
Amitav Ghoshs second novel, The
that private turmoil and crises are mirrored, in
Shadow Lines, is well considered as a political
public turmoil and crises. He uses this
novel as it boldly tackles the political theme,
technique to unveil the political theme in the
both national and international. According to
novel. The narrators grandmother is a
Irving Howe, A political novel is one in which
displaced person and had to leave her
political ideas play a dominant setting. The
ancestral home Dhaka and settle in Calcutta
overall focus in The Shadow Lines is on the
after partition. She returns to Dhaka and her
universal urge for political freedom. The
homeland in 1964. Dhaka is a different city yet
response to violence and student nationalism
in her mind, the place of childhood remains as
are some other important aspects of
real as ever. Her memories are passed on as
contemporary life in the sub-continent which
vivid stories to the narrator. The idyllic vision of
have been stressed in this novel. The vision of
the ancestral home at Dhaka is shattered by
life presented is a dynamic desire to find a
political events like communal riots both in
harmonious and complete relationship with the
India and Pakistan in 1964. The political theme
rich diversity of the modern world.
of the novel gets highlighted as the narrator
Main Thrust
shows the contrasting responses to violence
and the concept of nationalism that are
It is a novel which skillfully weaves
by his grandmother and Tridib
together personal lives in India, Bangladesh
and London. In the story, memories unfurl like
coils within coils. A conventional chronological
Most of the grandmothers vision is
narrative is not used. Instead, the time
nostalgic. There is no rancour about partition
sequence is all jumbled up in the story. The
and Muslim refugees occupying her ancestral
narrator is a young boy, who, at the start of the
home. Yet, this is a novel which acknowledges
novel listens to the variety of stories by his
the restlessness and political turmoil of the
perceptive and scholarly cousin, Tridib. These
time. The communal riots in 1964, in both India
stories create new vistas of experience for the
and Pakistan lead to the untimely death of
narrator, a young school boy in Calcutta.
Tridib, killed by an impassioned mob in old
However, it never becomes too esoteric.
Dhaka. The death of her nephew changes her

perception. She talks now of fighting for

freedom. I gave it ( the chain) to the fund for
the war . For your sake, for your freedom.
We have to kill them before they kill us; we
have to wipe them out. ( 237)
Her home in Dhaka which was like a
pastoral retreat, a golden vision, is now a
reminder of death and communal violence.
The idyllic vision is shattered. The desire now
is changed. To use the phraseology of social
psychology, the grandmother also now thinks
in terms of us & them. She can not understand
that national liberty in no way guarantees the
inviduals liberty.
The death of Tridib is the climax of the
political theme in the novel. Communal strife
and the irresistible urge of nationalism are also
highlighted by the author. Like in his previous
novel, The Circle of Reason, it also displays
immense zest in story telling. The vision of life
presented is a dynamic urge to find a complete
relationship with the rich diversity of the
modern world. Political insights never obtrude
or impede the flow of the story because of the
memory technique. This is what makes the
novel distinctive. For instance, the
grandmother lying in bed during her final
illness tells a story about a communal
experience Ila has undergone in London. The
grandmothers response to Ila is not
sympathetic. She tells the narrator:
Ila has no right to live there . She
doesnt belong there. It took those people a
long time to build that country years & years
of war and bloodshed. Everyone who lives
there has earned his right to be there with
blood war is their religion. Thats what it
takes to make a country. (77-78)
The grandmother is not in a state of
hallucination. Her insights are sharp and full of
clarity. In her conversation, she reveals an
alarming prospect that feelings of nationalism
can only develop through processes of war
and sustained bloodshed. The novel moves
backward and forward in time, which makes
political issues more realistic. When the
narrator has told Ila about the grandmothers
reaction, the latter, a university graduate in
history, has promptly categorized the response
as that of warmongering fascists. The

narrator aptly rejects such easy generalizations

and recalls the more worldly wise Tridibs
All she wanted was a middle class life in
which, like the middle classes the world over
she would thrive believing in the unity of
nationhood and territory, of selfrespect and
national power: that was all she wanted, a
modern middle class life, a small thing that
history had denied her in its fullness and for
which she could never forgive it. (78)
So, as Tridib has observed, the
grandmother is not a fascist, but a modern
middle class person not living in a world of
fantasy and selfdeceptions. The
grandmother is nurtured in an environment of
police raids in the colleges and universities of
Dhaka. It is the time of the British rule and the
terrorist movement in Bengal in the first few
decades of the century is going on. Her
motivation is a desire to be free and so feelings
of nationalism get linked to self-respect and
national power. The grandmother can never
fathom Ilas desire to live in London, rootless
but free of middle class constrtaints and taboos
or Mays urge to collect money for worldly
causes like famine relief in Africa. There are
also ilas radical friends in London, who picket
on political issues. Another fact of nationalism
is revealed in Nick Price, who later marries Ila.
Nick gives up a lucrative chartered
accountants job in Kuwait because of
outdated management practices and
interfering Arab business partners. He still
clings to Britains colonial past, as it provides
greater opportunities for exercising power and
travel. The grandmothers desire to even kill for
freedom, Mays internationalism, Nicks
colonial hangover, Ilas Trotskyite friends
picketing for political causes and Ila striving for
personal freedom are either aspects of
nationalism or political commitment which the
novel brings forth. By exploring connections,
distinctions and possibilities, Amitav Ghosh
shows that in a changing world nationalism
and ideology are often a source of violence. So
the shadow line between people and nation is
often a mere illusion. The force and appeal of
nationalism cannot be wished away, just as
murder by a communal mob in the byelanes of
old Dhaka. Robi an I.A.S. officer, in charge of a


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

district, philosophises to Ila and the narrator

near a derelict church in Clapham, London.

I lied, I havent met Montu for months.


You know, if you look at the picture on the

front pages of newspaper at home now, all
those pictures of dead people in Assam, The
NorthEast Punjab, Srilanka, Tripura people
shot by terrorists and separatists and the army
and police youll find somewhere behind it all,
that single word; everyones doing it to be free.

Before reaching school we unscrewed

the caps of our bottles and poured the water
out. ( 200 )

This is the hallmark of the novel, it

recognizes and acknowledges the violence in
our lives. There is state terror, there is majority
communalism and minority communalism
violence. The novel makes no distinctions,
takes no sides. Amitav Ghosh shows that even
characters like the grandmother and Ila, who
do not indulge in violence are on the fringe of it.
The grandmother even though afraid, is willing
to run errands for the Bengal terrorists and kill
the English magistrate at Khulna during her
student days. There is a certain cruelty in the
way Ila breaks from her family to adapt to the
more cosmopolitan life style of London. The
quest for political freedom in The Shadow
Lines makes the novel very contemporary.
The complexities of minority and majority
communalism are also very sensitively
handled by Amitav Ghosh. Using the memory
techniques, he links two events, riots in
clacutta and mob violence in Dhaka which lead
to Tridibs death. The violence in Calcutta
starts on 10 January 1964, the day the first
cricket test match of the 1964 series against
England at Madras commences. The narrator,
by recalling wicketkeeper batsman, Budhi
Kunderans maiden test century, is able to
focus on other eventful happening on that day.
The school bus nearby is empty because of a
rumour circulated that the whole of Calcuttas
water supply is poisoned. The dozen old
school boys in the bus do not doubt or question
the authenticity of the information. As the
narrator remembers, even the young minds
are conditioned to assume and believe that it is
the Muslims who had poisoned the water. The
most poignant expression of the communal
divide is shown in those two actions. The
narrator disowns his best friend, a young
Muslim boy named Montu.

Amitav Ghosh, with his sensitive use of

language and unique narrative techniques,
highlights the fact that such irrational
behaviour is not confined to this particular
incident. He shows that in the highly
surcharged atmosphere of suspicion and
distrust, rumour has become institutionalized.
The narrator recalls these events as a
research student in the 1980s. The author
subtly conveys that the events in the novel are
also contemporaneous and can be linked to
similar incidents in the 1980s.
Amitav Ghosh stresses the fact that due to
social conditioning the role of rumour or mass
movement is deep rooted. The young school
boys willingly believe that a certain community
has poisoned the water in Calcutta. Later, as a
research student, reading newspaper reports
in the Teen Murti House Library in Delhi about
the 1964 events, the narrator recalls the
motivations for riots in Calcutta.
In Calcutta the rumours were in the air,
especially that familiar old rumour, the
harbinger of every serious riot that the trains
from Pakistan were arriving packed with
corpses With refugees still pouring in,
rumours began to flow like floodwaters through
the city and angry crowds began to gather at
the stations. (229)
The authors views on the impact of
rumours are authenticated by the distinguished
historian, Dr. Sumit Sarkar, Professor of
History at Delhi University. In his scholarly
book , Modern India: 1885 1947, Dr. Sarkar
projects the role of rumour in the growing
popularity of the Gandhian movement. He
shows the effectiveness of rumour in any mass
movement especially during periods of acute
strain and tension:
From out of their misery & hope, varied
sections of the Indian people seem to have
fashioned their own images of Gandhi,
particularly into most people a distant, vaguely
glimpsed or heard of a holy man with miracle
working powers Peasants were giving


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

vague rumours about Gandhi, a radical,

antizamindar twist.
Awareness of the growing internationalism
of the world is highlighted by the author. He
shows the coming together of different
societies and cultures, which has also
emphasized their distinction. The Shadow
Lines aptly reveals that the cultural divide,
communal struggle and misunderstanding are
in a state of crisis in India. The political allegory,
the contemporaneousness of the motivation
for riots is very sensitively handled. The
rumour of water being poisoned by a particular
community and of trains full of dead bodies is
not confined to particular incidents of certain
decades but has become a recurring features.
In this novel, Ghosh reveals that on 27
December 1963, two hundred and sixty three
years after the Mu-i-Mubarak, believed to be
hair of the Prophet Mohammed, was brought to
Kashmir, it was stolen. The newspaper reports
read by the narrator indicate:
There was not a single recorded incident
of animosity between Kashmiri Muslims, Hindu
and Sikhs. (225)
The targets of the rioters were properly
identified with the government and the police.
The purveyor of sanity was the wise leader
Maulana Masood:

the poisoning of water and trains full of dead

bodies spreads, further vitiating the communal
frenzy and add to the violence. However, what
makes the novel very contemporary and
relevant is the subtle implication by Amitav
Ghosh that the lessons of history have not
been learnt.
The deplorable violence unleashed upon
the Sikhs in Delhi from 31st October to 4th
November 1984 shows history repeating itself.
The report of the Citizens Commission (1985)
indicates that the motivation for the Delhi riots,
after the assassination of late Prime Minister,
Indira Gandhi, followed a familiar pattern of an
insidious spread of rumours. The report
prepared by five senior and responsible
citizens of Delhi says:
The basic provocation [for the riots] was
provided by the spread of rumuours, some of
them of a most incredible nature on the night
of 1st November numerous citizens received
telephone calls or were told otherwise that the
city water supply had been poisoned, by Sikh
extremists. Allegations circulated like wildfire
that truckloads and a train full of dead Hindus
had arrived from Punjab and the Sikh students
danced the Bhangra on hearing of Smt.
Gandhis death.

Amitav Ghosh rightly regrets that in the

hysteria that prevails in the sub-continent now,
the sane and secular Maulana Masood has
been forgotten.

The difference between fiction and reality

is thus shown as marginal. The Shadow Lines
shows how rumour mongers thrived and
intensified the feeling of anger which triggered
violence in Calcutta in 1964. Amitav Ghoshs
greatest triumph is that the depiction of
communal strife in Calcutta and erstwhile East
Pakistan, and its continuation in contemporary
India, is very controlled and taut. There are no
moralizing or irrelevant digressions.

Using the narrative technique of unfurling

events by the reading of newspaper reports, it
is shown that in both wings of Pakistan, there
were protests and
demonstrations. The
protests in Pakistan subsided only in Khulna, a
small town in the distant east wing of Pakistan,
a demonstration turned violent. Some shops
were burnt down and a few people killed.
(226) Headlines in the newspaper of 7 January
1964 are Fourteen Die in Frenzy off Khulna
(228). Riots spread from Khulna to the
outskirts of Dhaka. It is now that the rumour of

Violence has been depicted in several

ways. The cause of the riots of 1964 and
violence at Khulna are presented as
newspaper reports. The narrator reads these
reports at the Teen Murti House Library,
sixteen years later after a discussion with his
friend Malik. A mature, research student, the
narrator is still shocked by the violence, the
motivations which triggered off the violent
incidents and the sudden realization that this
was how his cousin Tridib died. The news item

Who persuaded the first demonstrators to

march with black flags instead of green and
thereby drew the various communities of
Kashmir together in a collective display of
mourning. (226)


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

with its emphasis on facts, eliminates any

digression or gory details. The 1964 calcutta
riots could be the 1984 Delhi riots or the 1987
Meerut riots. They all follow a similar pattern of
suspicion and distrust. The violence in
Calcutta is not narrated but is presented as
memories and images by the narrator.
Precise details of the death of Tridib are
conveyed by May to the narrator, years later at
a dinner in London. May narrates the story to
exorcise her feeling of guilt that she has been
responsible for Tridibs death while it has been
an accident. On learning the truth, both May
and the narrator realize they cannot rationalise
the motives for Tridibs sacrifice. As May says,
any real sacrifice is a mystery. (252)
But here lies Ghoshs pronouncement
grandma can never get the type of freedom
she had dreamt of from Indias Independence.
She becomes a foreigner in her own home in
Dhaka, more foreigner than the English May
who does not need a visa to visit East Pakistan.
Her nonagenarian uncles views on this issue
of nationhood and migration expressed just
before he is coaxed into leaving his house,
strikes at the essential unsoundness of
nationalist principles.
I dont believe in this IndiaShindia. Its all
very well, youre going away now, but suppose
when you get there, they decide to draw
another line somewhere. What will you do
then? Where will you move to? None will have
you anywhere. As for me, I was born here and
Ill die here.(215)

The absence of pessimism, despair and
ambiguity makes The Shadow Lines a very
convincing and effective work of art. The
author handles the political theme, both
national and international. The meaning of
political freedom in the modern world is shown
as complex and without any easy solutions.
For human survival, a new perception of the
relationship must emerge. On the national
level, Amitav Ghosh shows how different
cultures and communities are becoming
antagonistic to a point of no return. This is
revealed as a major issue in contemporary
India. The author realizes that with the
dominant tradition slowly regarding itself as the
only legitimate source of Indias complex
culture, communal antagonism will grow. Here,
in the novel, Ghosh uses political allegory,
imagination and the flash back technique to
make The Shadow Lines a compact novel.

Howe Irving, The Idea of the Political

Novel, Faucett, New York,1967, p 19


Sarkar Sumit, Modern India 1885 1947

Macmilan India, Madras, 1983, p 181


Delhi 31st October to 4th November 1984,

Report of the Citizens Commission,
January 1985, compiled by Justice S.M
Sikri, Former Chief Justice of India, Badrud-din-Tyabji. Former Commonwealth
Secretary, Rajeshwar Dayal, Govind
Narain and T.C.A Srinivasvadaran,
Citizens Commission, Delhi ,1985, p 36


Ghosh Amitav, The Shadow Lines, Ravi

Dayal Publishers, Delhi, 1988, p 237


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 138-140

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Deletion of the English Velar Plosives:

A Phonological Study
Research Scholar, Department of English
Ranchi University, Ranchi
Unlike Modern English, all the letters in the Old English were pronounced, and no letter was silent or
phonetically empty. But in the Modern English many letters present in the orthography remain silent in the
pronunciation of some words when a particular phonological environment is met; e.g. the letter b in the word
doubt is silent. This situation in the Modern English calls for discovering the phonetic environments and/or
other factors that may lead to the deletion of such sounds/letters. This paper aims at analyzing the English
data (i) to discover the phonetic environments when a plosive sound is dropped; and (ii) to present a
generalization to account for these facts. What is the most important contribution of this paper from the point
of view of linguistics is that syllable structure, which has been ignored in the phonological theory till now, plays
a crucial role in such cases. However, this paper will limit itself to the cases concerning the velar plosives to
minimize the scope of this paper. However, the findings of the paper will be able to predict the facts of deletion
of other English plosives.

Keywords: plosive, phonetic environment, underlying representation (UR)

English language has a set of three pairs
of plosive sounds: bilabial plosives: /p, b/,
alveolar plosives: /t, d/ and velar plosives: /k,
g/. The first member in each pair is voiceless
and the second is voiced.

(c) gn:- gnat /n&t/, gnom /n@Um/,


Distribution and Deletion of [g]

(d) gr:- grey /greI/, grow /gr@U/, great /greIt/

Like some other English letters, the letter

[g] also remains silent in some cases while it is
pronounced in some other. The letter [g] may
be realized as different phonemes in different
environments: /g/ as in game or /dZ/ as in
gene, which is a matter of further
investigation. We shall take up the cases of [g]
when it occurs in various positions of different

In all the examples above, the phonetic

transcription shows that [g] is always
pronounced except in (c) where it is deleted.
Thus it can be said that the letter [g] is deleted if
it occurs in the initial position of a word and is
followed immediately by the letter [n]. This fact
can be stated as the following:

A symbol within [] indicates a letter in the

language whereas a symbol within // indicates
a phoneme. It has been assumed here that
each letter of a word has its corresponding
phoneme in the UR. Whether a phoneme is
pronounced or not at the PR depends on the
phonological rules operating in the language.
[g] in the Initial Position of Words: The
letter [g] can be followed immediately by the
following consonant letters:

(a) gh:- ghost /g@Ust/, ghastly /"ga:stlI/

(b) gl:- glow /gl@U/, glue /glu:/, glitter /"glit@/

(2) /g/ ? / # -/n/

[g] in the Final Position of Words: The
consonant letter which may come immediately
before [g] when it occurs in the word final
position is only the letter [n]; but any vowel
letter can precede it in such a position. In this
environment the cluster [-ng#] is neither
pronounced as /n/ nor as /g/ but it is realized as
a) V
bag bg



bn- singsINringrINkingkIN


finally, It is always pronounced as
in (3a).
of [n]

following :

{/n/-- #

(5) /g/ ? / # ---/n/

[g] in the Middle Position of Words: [g] can

occur in more number of environments in word
medial positions than in word initial and final
(a) --[gn] # : sign, design,
(b) --[gn] --: signature, designation,
(c) --[ng] --: single, ignore, dignity
(d) -- [gm] --: paradigm, diaphragm
(e) -- [gm] --: paradigmatic, diaphragmatic
(f) ---[gn] --: foreign, foreigner, assign,
(g) ---[ng] --: dogma, dogmatic,
(h) ---[ng] --: England /'INl@nd/ or
/'iNgl@nd/, English /'INliS/ or
When we analyze the above set of data
we arrive at the following conclusions:
(a) It is very clear that [g] co-occurs with the
nasals [m, n] in the word medial positions - the nasal may follow or precede it.
(b) in some words [g] is silent as in (6a) and
(6d) but it is pronounced in their
derivatives as in (6b) and (6e)
(c) There are some words where [g] is silent
both in the root word and its derivatives,
e.g. (6f).
(d) There are cases where [g] is optionally
deleted, e.g. (7h).
Therefore, (5) can be revised to include
both [m] and [n] in the generalization; it will be
as (8):

(8) /g/ / # ---[nasal]

[nasal] --- #
Our observations above in (7) lead us to a
chaotic situation; our formulation made in (8)
fails to account for these facts. When we talk in
terms of root word, and derived words we
see it from the point of view of morphology
which is related either to meaning or to
grammatical function of each morpheme. It is a
well known fact that pronunciation of words
belongs to phonology and not to morphology,
and therefore we should try to resolve the issue
in terms of phonology or phonetics rather than
in morphology. In phonology we have sound
segments, syllables, words, word boundary
(#), syllable boundary () and in
morphophonemics we use the symbol (+) for
morpheme boundary. Most of the standard
dictionaries list the syllable boundaries in the
head word itself. Word boundary and
morpheme boundaries are also projected in
linguistics to achieve generalization.
If we analyze the given set of data from the
point of view of syllable structure we may
achieve the desired results. What we notice
here is [g] is deleted when it is immediately
followed by a nasal in the same onset or in the
coda. This accounts for the whole set of data
when [g] occurs either in the beginning or at
end of a word and is either followed or
preceded by a nasal. On the other hand if these
two elements are separated by a syllable
boundary both the sounds are pronounced. Let
us take some of the words discussed above:
9. gnat, gnomic, gnostic, sign, signature,
design, designation, paradigm,
10. England, England, English, English,
In the word design [g] and [n] are part of
the same coda, and therefore [g] gets deleted.
On the other hand, when the suffix ation is
added to it, syllable restructuring takes place
and [g] and [n] are separated by a syllable
boundary, therefore the rule of deletion does
not apply here as a result [g] is not deleted. In
(10), [g] is optionally deleted but it is governed
by the same rule. In the words England and
English [g] can be optionally placed either in
the coda of the first syllable or in the onset of


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

the second syllable. Thus when [g] occurs in

the coda of the first syllable the environment of
its deletion is available, therefore it is deleted;
but does not happens so because the cluster
[gn] is broken by the syllable boundary.
Therefore (8) can be reformulated as (11):
(11) /g/ ? / ---[+nasal, +consonantal]
[+nasal, +consonantal] --

Pronunciation of the cluster [gn--] and [-ng]

We noticed earlier that in [gn--] [g] is
always deleted. In case of [--ng] [g] is deleted
but the nasal [n] is changed to /N/. Let us try to
account for this fact. Here /n/ is velarized due to
the velar sound /g/, as a result it becomes /N/
and because of cluster simplification /g/ is
dropped and we get only /N/ in place of [--ng].
Derivation of the Words
The Standard Theory of phonology posits
two levels of representations. The UR projects
all the phonemes at the deeper level. The
phonological rules apply on UR and the out put
we get is PR which we perceive through our
ears. Let us derive some words to illustrate the
phenomena that take place here:
# sAIgn + IfAI#


# sIg nI fAI#

Syllable restructuring



# sIng#


# sINg#


# sIN#

Cluster simplification



Pronunciation of [k]
Just like [g] [k] is also deleted when it is
followed by a nasal in the word initial position

as in the words knit, knave, knowledge and

knot. But when it occurs word finally after a
nasal unlike [g] it is not deleted. The simple
reason behind it is that there is no assimilation
between [n] and [k] because their features are
not close to each other: /k/ is voiceless, velar,
plosive; whereas /n/ is voiced, alveolar, nasal.
On basis of the English data discussed
above it can be concluded that syllable
structure plays an important role in deciding
the pronunciation of a word. It is one of the
factors which decides whether a sound/ letter
will be deleted or pronounced in a particular
language. Therefore the notion of syllable
structure plays a crucial role in the study of
phonology of a language.
1. Blevins J., The syllable in the phonological
theory, In J. Goldsmith (ed.) The
Handbook of Phonological Theory.
Blackwell. Oxford, 1996, pp 206-244
2. Chomsky N. and M. Halle, The Sound
Pattern of English. Harper and Row. New
York. 1968. Part IV, pp 293-329
3. Gussenhoven C. and H. Jakobs,
Understanding Phonology. Arnold.
London, 1998
4. Jensen J.J., English Phonology. John
B e n j a m i n s P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y.
Amsterdam, 1993
5. Kenstowicz M., Phonology in Generative
Grammar. Blackwell. Oxford, 1993
6. Kenstowicz M. and C. Kisserberth,
Generative Phonology, Description and
Theory. Academic Press, New York, 1979
7. Kenstowicz M. and C. Kisserberth,
Phonology in Generative Grammar.
Blackwell. Cambridge, MA, 1994
8. OGrady W., O.M. Dobrovolsky, and M.
Aronoff, Contemporary Linguistics: An
Introduction. St. Martins Press, New York.
1991. Chapter 3, pp 65-69


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 141-147

ISSN 0974 - 200X

A Glimpse of Feminism in the Novels of

Jane Austen and Henry James
Deepshika Kumari
Research Scholar
Department of English
Ranchi University, Ranchi
Dr. Ashutosh Roy
Department of English
St. Xavier's College, Ranchi
This article discusses the traces of Feminism in the works of two major English novelists - Jane Austen and
Henry James. As creative artists they have occupied a distinct place in the field of literature. Both of them
were great novelists of their time and are still read. One is known for her elegant style and systematically
developed plot while the other is known for his impressionist style and psychological approach. The article
highlights the works of these two above mentioned novelists from the feminist perspective and their social
concern towards the marginalization of women in contemporary life. It seeks to answer whether it would be
appropriate to call them feminists in real sense? These are few issues to be dealt with in this article. The
feminist theme in any work is of universal significance since the gender issues in every society are not new
but for ages and unfortunately it continues to be even today. The paper provides some historical background
of this movement. It illustrates the concept of feminism and its implication in literature particularly focusing on
the novels of these two authors. The article further suggests that though they may have written about the
problems of women but they cannot be considered as ardent modern feminists. However their contribution
towards Womens Movement cannot be ignored and they can be considered as precursors of Feminist
Movement in literature.

Keywords: Feminism, Womens Movement, Gender problem, Feminist theme, Gynocriticism

the position of women in many ways. The book
even after six decades of its publication stands
Feminism is a serious attempt to raise
as the first landmark and groundbreaking text
issues and to find solutions to gender problems
in the modern feminist upsurge that has
prevalent in the patriarchal society. Feminist
transformed the perceptions of the social
theory is an extension of Feminism into
relationship of man and woman in our time. In
theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses
this book Beauvoir writes: Legislators, priests,
works related to a variety of disciplines
philosophers, writers and scientists have
including sociology, economics, art, history,
striven to show that the subordinate position of
psychoanalysis and literary criticism. Feminist
women is willed in heaven and advantageous
theory aims at understanding gender
on earth.1 She suggests Women had been
inequality and focuses on gender politics,
made to feel that they were inferior by nature
power relation and sexuality. Themes explored
and, though men paid lip-service to equality,
in feminist discourse include discrimination,
would resist its implementation. Beauvoir
stereotyping, objectification especially sexual
is of the view that women are not minority like
objectification, oppression, and patriarchy.
Blacks neither are they the product of history
Feminism in literature is said to have started
the proletariats. Earlier also woman writers
with the publication of Simon De Beauvoirs
Mary Wollstonecraft raised the issue of the
THE SECOND SEX in 1949. It is a long essay
of women in society in her book A
which has become a classic of its kind and is
of the Rights of Women (1792).
often called The Feminist Bible that defends

Virginia Woolf in her essay A Room of Ones

Own (1929) clearly states the disparity that
even she had to face in the 20th century
English society. She comes out with a solution
by advocating the idea of the androgynous
mind-a mind which is more receptive and free
from gender bias and prejudices. Reflecting on
mens attitude towards women she writes:
The history of mens opposition to womens
emancipation is perhaps more interesting than
the story of that emancipation itself.2
The modern Womens Movement gets
into focus with the writings of women writers
whose works can be classified as follow:

Research and book in general about the

problems of women in cultural, social and
economical field.

Feminist literary works.

Feminist criticism.

Kate Millets Sexual Politics (1969) is said

to be "the first book of academic feminist
literary criticism". In this book she has
distinguished between sex and gender3. She
considers sex is determined biologically where
as gender is determined culturally, socially and
psychologically through sex-role stereotyped
and historically conditioned. She analyses the
repressive role of male and submissive role of
female. Other noteworthy works in this
direction are Shulamith Firestones Dialects of
Sex (1972), Mary Ellmanns Marxist and
Feminist Analysis (1980), and Toril Mois
Sexual/Textual Politics (1985). The Madwoman
in the Attic: the Woman Writer and the
Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination,
published in 1979, examines Victorian
literature from a feminist perspective. Authors
Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar draw their
title from Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre in which
Rochester's mad wife Bertha stays locked in
the attic. The text specifically examines Jane
Austen, Mary Shelley, Charlotte Emily Bronte
and George Eliot and so on. In the work, Gilbert
and Gubar examine the notion that women
writers of the 19th Century were confined in
their writing to make their female characters
either embody the "angel" or the "monster."4

Elaine Showalter, an American literary

critic is a renowned name in the field of feminist
movement. She describes the phased
development of feminist theory in west. The
First phase is a Feminine phase (1840-1880);
here the female writers imitated the male
writers. Second is the Feminist phase (18801920), here female writers maintained their
separate position. Third is the Female phase
(1920 onwards) in which they have adopted a
distinct identity and style. Showalter also
focuses on the shift of attention after 1970s
from androtext to gynotext. She has coined
the term gynocriticism in her essay Toward a
Feminist Poetics which implies the study of
gynotext. The subject of gynotext, she says
is: history, style, genre, theme and structure of
writing by women, the psychodynamics of
female creativity5.
One can ask what is the significance of
feminist theory in literature and to what extent?
Before answering this question it is important
to understand what is feminist criticism?
Feminist Criticism is a type of literary criticism
informed by feminist theory. It plays an
important role in exposing the mechanism of
patriarchy, the socio-cultural mindset. It
exposes ways to promote a mind-shift. In
terms of theory it draws upon several other
approaches like structuralism, poststructuralism, Marxism etc. It uses the idea of
Foucaults notion of power, Kristivas idea of
symbolic order, Lacans psychoanalysis,
Derridas deconstruction and critical version of
Freuds psychoanalysis E.g. Mary Ellmann
has critically looked in Jane Bowels Two
Serious Ladies (1947), to show how male
values and debauchery are subverted by
women characters. Ellmann concludes that
only a woman writer can take such a wicked
revenge on male ego. There is an obvious
relevance of Feminist theory in literary analysis
since men and women are portrayed in every
text. Secondly, since all the representations
are made through language, the language of
the text reveals the attitude of society towards
gender issues.
Main Thrust
Since the rise of Feminist literary criticism
in the 1970s, the question of to what extent
Jane Austen (1775-1817) was a feminist writer


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

has been at the forefront of Austen criticism.

Scholars have identified two major strains of
18th-century feminism: "Tory feminism" and
"Enlightenment feminism". Austen has been
associated with both. Tory feminism, which
includes such writers as Mary Astell and
Dorothy Wordsworth, is a tradition of thought
which recognized that "women were treated as
an inferior class in a man's world". Writers in
this tradition urged women to counter this
discrimination through moral and spiritual selfcultivation and charitable service to the family
and community. Enlightenment feminism,
which includes such writers as Catherine
Macaulay and Mary Wollstonecraft, is a
tradition of thought that claims that "women
share the same moral nature as men, ought to
share the same moral status, and exercise the
same responsibility for their conduct.
Margaret Kirkham has argued that Austen is
part of this tradition because, for one, her
"heroines do not adore or worship their
husbands, though they respect and love them.
They are not, especially in the later novels,
allowed to get married at all until the heroes
have provided convincing evidence of
appreciating their qualities of mind, and of
accepting their power of rational judgment, as
well as their good hearts." Anne Elliot the
heroine of Persuasion (1818) is an example of
such a protagonist.
Austens novels belong to the genre called
the comedy of manners depicting the
fashionable society and satirizing the social
norms of the contemporary society. At first her
works appear to be purely meant for
entertainment. However the moral cannot be
separated from Austens works. If we pay
attention we will notice her writing is quite a
scathing commentary on the etiquette and
customs of the time. Jane Austen has been
often criticized by many because of the lack of
open rebellion against patriarchal norms and
allows social conservatives to embrace her as
one of their own. She is considered as a
daughter of clergy man who remained
unmarried, penned six novels about young
girls on a trajectory towards marriage and her
only occupation seems to find handsome and
rich men for her young women characters. This

is not probably the only truth about Austens

writing. Yes, we may agree that she wrote
mainly about marriage, love and young girls in
search of their perfect partners but there is
always a parallel ironical overtone going on
which cannot be overlooked. Austen being a
woman writer herself was well acquainted with
the patriarchal society where women were
considered of lesser value.
In fact the role of women in a patriarchal
society is an underlying theme in almost every
work of Austen. Her novels explore the
precarious economic position of women of the
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
There was no legal, political or social right for
women as such. They were considered inferior
to men in every sphere of life. Jane Austen
presents a very realistic picture of the domestic
life of the early 19th c England. In recent
decades the vision of Austen as subversive
author has appeared more forcefully in the
varied scholarship of feminist literary critics. It
must also be noted that Austen was also
conscious of her woman identity. Like many
other women of the 19th c she had also studied
at her fathers library as she was deprived of
university education. Jane Austen was well
aware of the fact that women in her society
were generally deprived of proper education.
She belonged to an era where womens most
usual chance of financial security was
marriage. She herself being a creative writer
could not learn the craft of creative writing as
other male writers of her time did. It must be
noted that Austens male contemporaries like
Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey all went
to Oxford, Austen on the other hand could
never get a chance to get a degree from such
an institution. In spite of this one cannot
challenge her merit as a writer. Through her
heroines voice Austen makes pointed remarks
about the condition of women as rational
creatures at the mercy of males. She writes:
"Men have had every advantage of us in telling
their own story. ...the pen has been in their
hands. I will not allow books to prove
The agency with which Austen invests her
female protagonists is itself in the line of


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

feminism. In Pride and Prejudice (1813),

Elizabeth Bennett refuses to pander to Mr.
Darcy, even though he was an eligible
bachelor of rank and wealth, well suited to
provide her all sorts of luxury and comfort.
Ultimately when Lizzy finally wins over Mr.
Darcy, it is not because he has been captivated
by her fine eyes, but because he respects her
intelligence, her spirit and her perseverance.
Even more impressive, Elizabeth Bennett
declines quite decisively the marriage
proposal of Mr. Collins saying can I speak
plainer? Do not consider me now as an elegant
female intending to plague you, but as a
rational creature speaking the truth from her
heart.''7. She criticized Charlotte who marries
him for monetary security and not for love. The
novel ends with the ringing of marriage bells
between Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth. Thus the
two tie a nuptial knot not for social concerns but
solely for their sincere love and respect for
each other.
Similarly in Mansfield Park (1814), Fanny
refuses to marry Henry Crawford, a wealthy
suitor in spite of family outrage. There is also a
debate on how could Emma Woodhouse being
an independent, intelligent and smart woman
who does not want to get married and get
restricted, ultimately marry Mr. Knightly? Is
there any feminist theme in the novel? The
answer is yes. Jane Austen makes it quite clear
that getting married for monetary security
should not be the only option for woman.
Emma Woodhouse is a woman who is ahead
of her age. She tells her friend Harriet that she
does not want to get married at all and that
women with their own money are always
respectable in fact she has been often
compared with Austen herself. Austen
suggests that for marital bliss it is important for
women to get married only after getting a right
partner of their choice and not just for financial
security .Mr. Knightly convinces Emma that no
man wants a silly wife. By publishing her first
novel in 1811 under the pseudonym A Lady
Austen gave a new turn to what we today know
as Womens Movement.
In Sense and sensibility (1811) Elinors
intellectualism and her appropriate traditionally

masculine virtues cannot be ignored. She tells

Edward how much she envies men being able
to have careers. It is possible hence to argue in
detail that Jane Austen believed that women
should have careers after all she had one
herself. Mariannes rebellion against the
female decorum also caters Austens intention
towards how a woman should behave in mens
However, It must be noted that in Austen
the protest against male dominance is very
subtle and only found by discerning eyes. She
does not come openly to speak about womans
problem in a patriarchal society. The areas in
which Austen deviates from the conventions of
her time however reveal the heart of a feminist
forerunner. Though she may not be technically
called a feminist writer yet her message was
read by millions of women all over England and
is still read by millions even today. Without
pioneers like Austen, women may have been
left as victims of a never ending patriarchal
Henry James (1843-1916), an American
born novelist of 19th c, mainly known for his
literary realism and impressionism, has also
written about the issues of women in society.
Earlier also there had been few male writers
who contributed towards Woman Movement
e.g. John Stuart Mill who wrote Subjugation of
Women (1866) in which he presented a
womens petition to the British parliament and
supported an amendment to the 1867 Reform
Bill. Frederick Engels came out with The Origin
of Family (1884) depicting the gender
inequality. The Debate continues whether to
consider James as an author serving for the
cause of Womens Movement. The underlying
feminist theme can be traced in the novels of
Henry James. When we read Jamess THE
PORTRAIT OF A LADY (1881), we realize that
it is not simply a portrait of a single woman, it
reveals to us a whole range of different women,
and all of them are emblematic of their time, the
late 19th c. we have an example of the modern
career girl as well as a traditional, proper-to-afault, an obedient Victorian daughter
(Osmonds daughter Pansy) and everything
that falls between these two extremes. The


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

novels protagonist Isabel Archer, a strong

willed American girl who travels from America
to Europe to find herself. James, towards the
beginning of the novel has described Isabels
personality in the trajectory of a perfect
feminist heroine. She is bold, outspoken and at
the same time sophisticated and intelligent.
She is a woman with extraordinary personality.
She is admired by all for her imagination and
insistence on freedom and liberty. James
writes about her:Isabel Archer was a young
person of many theories; her imagination was
remarkably active. It had been her fortune to
possess a finer mind than most of the persons
among whom her lot was cast; to have a larger
perception of surrounding facts and to care for
knowledge that was tinged with the unfamiliar.
It is true that among her contemporaries she
passed for a young woman of extraordinary
profundity... It was one of her theories that
Isabel Archer was very fortunate in being
independent, and that she ought to make some
very enlightened use of that state8. Madame
Merle takes quite a cynical view of a womans
role in the world, but admits that Isabel is
superior to all the other women out there: "A
woman perhaps can get on; a woman, it seems
to me, has no natural place anywhere;
wherever she finds herself she has to remain
on the surface and, more or less, to crawl. You
protest, my dear? Youre horrified? You declare
you'll never crawl? It's very true that I don't see
you crawling; you stand more upright than a
good many poor creatures. Very good; on the
whole, I don't think you'll crawl"9.
It must be noted Isabel, a feminist hero
still clung to traditional notions that marriage
was essential for a woman. And her decision
indicated that all her talks of freedom seemed
geared mainly towards being free to choose
her own husband, never did it cross young
Isabels mind that marriage was not essential
for a woman, as it did with her friend Henrietta,
and this may be considered as the limitations
of James depiction of Isabel as a feminist
hero. Henrietta on the other hand is depicted
as Isabels fiercely independent friend, a
feminist journalist who does not believe that
women need men in order to be happy. She is a

symbol of American democratic values

throughout the novel. Isabel admires Henrietta
for her courage, energy and good-humour
She is projected as a woman who is without
parents and property still looking after her
three adopted children. She had a van of
progress which Isabel herself admired a lot.
There may be a limitation to Jamess feminism
that his heroine though suffered a lot in her
marriage given a chance to return with Casper
Goodwood still chooses to go back to her
husband because this she considers as her
wifely duty. Never- the- less, it was Isabels
own free will that makes her a tragic heroine
and not an imposed one. It can be said while
The Portrait of a Lady may not be the ultimately
feminist novel that it at first seems to be, it is an
important landmark in the literary development
of feminism. And Isabel Archer, despite her
fateful final decision, I can't escape my fate,
remains one of the more complex and nuanced
females to appear in nineteenth century
literature. When James was writing his novels
(in Victorian era), the predominant ideal of
woman in Europe was the concept of true
womanhood, which idealized women as
religious, domestic and submissive. This
concept of womanhood suggests that woman
should be a symbol of their fathers or
husbands success, as we see in the case of
Isabel Archer who is expected to be a virtuous
wife to an indifferent husband like Osmond.
Another work, a novella, consisting traces
of Jamsesian feminism is Daisy Miller (1878).
The character of Daisy itself constitutes the
central theme of the novel and touches on
feminist issues. She has been projected as a
Feminist Hero radically voicing for women
liberation. James has been criticized by many
for telling the story from male-point of view.
Winterbourne disapproves of Daisy considering
her flirtatious. He has also led to a kind of
objectification of woman and acts as a typical
patriarchal man considering her an inferior
being and contributing to womans marginalization.
Winterbourne says of her It was impossible to
regard her as a perfectly well-conducted young
lady; she was in a certain indispensable
delicacy. It would therefore simplify matters


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

greatly to treat her as the object of one of those

sentiments which are called by romantics
lawless passions. 1 0 However Daisys
rejection of accepting Winterbourne as a
partner, I have never allowed a gentleman to
dictate to me, or to interfere with anything I
do.11 Her elusive character and her violation of
the standard of feminine conduct could be
interpreted as being revolutionary and
rejecting a male chauvinist pig who would
view her as a thing rather than as a human
being. She may be considered as a female
The idealistic concept of true womanhood
is also reflected in Daisy miller. Winterbourne
tries to analyze Daisys character on Victorian
conviction of womanhood. He is obsessed
over a question whether Daisy is a nice girl or
not. Daisy is a novelty to him. Mrs. Costello
discusses Daisys character with Winterbourne:
I havent the least idea what such young ladies
expect a man to do. But I really think that you
had better not meddle with little American girls
that are uncultivated, as you call them. You
have lived too long out of the country. You will
be sure to make some great mistake.12 Daisy,
on the other hand being an American girl with
an independent and free spirit, could not
survive in a place that questions about her free
spirit and considers her to be vulgar. Towards
the end of the novel we observe that Daisy falls
gravely ill and dies. Thus the novel ends with a
tragic note. Winterbourne definitely makes a
mistake in judging her character. He mistook
her open and frank behavior as a sign of
Jamess novel The Bostonians (1886), a
tragic- comedy, deals explicitly with the
political theme of feminism and the general
role of women in society. This novel tried to
encompass a critical look at the popular
interest in feminism: James had consciously
set out to write a very American Tale, and the
result is a mature balanced study of an
eccentric reform movement, and of the
psychology of the middle class values and
certain fundamental sexual antagonism.13 The

novel depicts Oliver Chancellor's somewhat

masculine social reformer and a strong minded
feminist. As a leading character in the novel,
Olive has a desire to see equal rights and
better treatment for women in society. The
conversation between Olive and Ransom
clearly reflects mens desire to suppress
women and womens aspiration to raise a
voice against this suppression. Oliver tells to
Basil: Thats what men say to women, to make
them patience in the position they have made
for them.14 Basil replies to this saying womens
position is to make fools of men. Olivers
concern to the cause of feminism was mostly
motivated by her anger towards the injustice,
suffering, and unhappiness of women in the
male dominated world that made her being so
hungry for revenge that after so many ages of
wrong, men must take their turn, men must
pay. The novel contains many such episodes
which give us the idea of rising feminist
movement in America as well as in Europe
towards the beginning of the 20th c. James
seems to be ambivalent about the feminist
movement in the early chapters and he has
been criticized for this. However it must be
pointed out that James was only portraying the
society as he saw he is not recommending it.
The real voice of James can be heard when Dr.
Prance says: Men and women are all the
same to me. I dont see any difference. There is
room for improvement in both sexes.15
After reading Jamess novels one can say
that his novels examine the condition of
women in the contemporary society. James
considers that women are tied in their
polarities. He is sympathetic towards the
subordinate position of women in society. He
suggests that women are usually far more
intelligent and complex than the men in their
pursuits as exemplified in The Bostonian. Olive
Chancellor is a more intelligent and honorable
character than Basil Ransom but she loses to
him in the end showing Jamess belief that
society is harder on women. Similarly Isabel
Archer, a true, intelligent and independent
woman, loses her independence and becomes
confined to her worthless husband.


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Thus it can be averred that Henry James
and Jane Austen are among those early writers
who showed their concerns for the deplorable
condition of women in society. These are those
few early writers who raised the issues of
womens inequality by depicting a very realistic
picture of the patriarchal society in their works.
It must be pointed out that though Jane Austen
and Henry James have dealt with the problem
of female identity in their works, they cannot be
considered as ardent feminists in todays
context. Their writings are considered to be
earliest attempts towards raising this vital
social issue. These works cannot be
overlooked in the study of feminism as they
both have made important contributions to the
literature of feminism. Their works did help to
pave the way for what we today know as
Womens Movement. However till 1960, there
were no systematic efforts made towards the
Womens Movement in the field of literature.

and the Nineteenth-Century Literary

Imagination, Yale University Press, 2000,
pp 17-19

Showalter Elaine, Toward a Feminist

Poetics, Womens Writing and Writing
about Women. London: Croom Helm,


Austen Jane, Persuasion, Forgotten, 2008, chapter 11, pp 77-78


Austen Jane, Pride and Prejudice, U.S.A,

Bethany Publishing group, 2007, p 149


James Henry, The Portrait of a Lady,

Forgotten vol1, ch-6


James Henry, The Portrait of a lady,

Forgotten Books. org. eBooks, vol. 1 ch19, p 280

10. James Henry, Daisy Miller, U.S.A, Barnes

& Nobels, 2004, pp 41-42
11. James Henry, Daisy Miller, U.S.A, Barnes
& Nobels 2004, p 39


Beauvoir Simon de, The Second Sex,

Manchester University Press, 1998

12. James Henry, Daisy Miller, U.S.A, Barnes

& Nobels 2004, ch 2,


Woolf Virginia, The Room of ones own,

New Delhi, UBSPD, 2004, p 53

13. Encyclopedia Americana. Vol.6, 1984, p 680


Millet Kate, Sexual Politics, Urbana:

University of Illinois Press, 2000


Gilbert Sandra and Gubar Susan,

Madwoman in the Attic: the Woman Writer

14. James Henry, The Bostonians, Sitwell,,2007, ch 2
15. James Henry, The Bostonians, Sitwell, publishing, 2007, p 22


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 148-150

ISSN 0974 - 200X

A Suitable Boy for Lata Mehra

Mamta Verma
Research Scholar, Department of English
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag
Dr. Mani Sinha
Head, University Department of English
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag
A Suitable Boy for Lata is about Vikram Seths popular novel. A Suitable Boy which deals with the story of the
central character Lata Mehra, the younger daughter of Rupa Mehra. Savita, the elder daughter has just
been married and Rupa Mehra declares to Lata that she would also marry the boy of her mothers choice.
Lata reacts to this. It appears ridiculous to her that a girl can marry a boy who is a stranger to her. The search
for a suitable boy for Lata is the sole mission of Rupa Mehra. In this process three boys come in Latas life,
Kabir, a fellow student, Amit, a poet, and Haresh, a well settled business man. Lata is passionately in love with
Kabir, a Muslim boy but, as the story progresses, Lata uses her own logic to decide, and ultimately Haresh is
chosen as Mr. Right.

Keywords: Suitable, Marriage, Vine, Pliable, Generous, Optimistic, Poet

an arranged marriage like that of her sister
where the couple know nothing at all about
Vikram Seth has emerged in this century
each other. She reflects, that of her four
as one of the leading literary giants in the Indobrothers and sisters, the only one who had not
Anglian literary arena with the publication of
complained of the match, had been the sweet
the Golden Gate, Equal Music, and A Suitable
tempered fair complexioned, beautiful Savita
Boy. He almost took the entire reading public
by a storm. A Suitable Boy has been planned in
Infact, the very name Lata is significant,
the backdrop of India. This is his first novel to
suggestive. An Indian girl from a
be written in the Indian soil and the largest one
family is truly like Lata, a vine
too, a long rich saga within 1349 pages.
to cling, first to her family, then
Although Vikram Seth has presented the
This is her destiny, and this is
general life of newly independent and
marks in an assertive
partitioned India on a vast canvas, the central
tone Lata, you are a vine, you must cling to
theme is the marriage of Lata Mehra for whom,
your husband2.
according to her mother, a suitable boy must
Lata reacts to the word cling and bursts
be found.
into tears. She is a modern girl, and would not
Begining of the Novel
easily succumb to her mother's dominating
The novel starts with mother's statement
She is not as pliable as her mother
to the daughter after the marriage of her elder
to be. She is rather puzzled as to
daughter Savita, You too will marry a boy I
marry a man whom she met
choose . These key words open the most
only for an hour and her mother was also there
interesting door to the life of Lata, her search
with them, and how she could sleep with a
for a suitable boy, and finally her marriage. She
stranger after marriage.
is the youngest daughter of Rupa Mehra and
Main Thrust
Late Raghubir Mehra. She is a student of
English Literature at the university of
Unlike Savita, Lata is not fair complexioned
and attractive. That is the main problem for her
Brahmpur. Her favorite poet is Tennyson. She
marriage. In India when people consider
is well read, possesses a quick intelligent
matrimonial alliance, most of the prospective
mind, though a little nave about life and
husbands and in-laws demand fair or milky
relationships. She cannot accept docilely, her
white complexioned girl. The second problem
mother's command about marrying a boy of
is her low economic and social background.
her mother's choice. She questions the idea of

But in Lata's life three boys enter, all having

claims to suitable matrimonial purposes.
Kabir is the first boy to enter into her life
with fragrance of love and romance. She falls
in love with Kabir Durrani, a muslim boy and
fellow student. She thinks him to be a suitable
match, for her. But Kabir's plan for marriage did
not suit Lata. He asked Lata to wait for at least
two years. Instantly she stopped courtship as
Kabir made it clear to her that first he had to
complete his studies, and obtain a good
foreign service job.:
Two years, I think . First I have to finish my
degree. After that I am going to apply to get
into Cambridge or may be take the exam for
Indian Foreign service.3
Lata's reply is quite understandable.
I'll be married off in two years. You are not
a girl. You don't understand. My mother might
not even let me come back to Brahmour.4
Besides this, there are other problems too.
Lata knows well that her mother would never
give her consent for a matrimonial alliance
between Lata and Kabir. Kabir is Muslim and
unemployed. Interreligious marriage is
unthinkable. Reviewing the reason for Lata's
rejection of Kabir, Caryl Compbell says :
Lata a Hindu knows that she cannot marry
a Muslim, and she also realizes , or she
persuades herself, perhaps with more
prescience that is entirely convincing than
romantic love is not necessarily the best
prelude to marriage5.
Another reason for rejecting Kabir is
Lata's concern for her mother. She cannot see
her mother in distress. Mala Pandurang's
analysis is right.
When Lata learns that Kabir is a Muslim,
her immediate reaction is that this would
distress her mother. A mistake has occurred on
account of the name 'Kabir' which is also the
name of the great secular Bhakti saints.6
Here, Lata appears as an affectionate
daughter who sacrifices her love for the sake of
her mother's happiness. She is not a wilful girl.
Seth states:
"The novel presents passion gone away
the search should be not for love but for life
He does not believe that passion always
goes wrong. He says, its just that in the
circumstances of my particular characters,
things did not work out; but that's no reason

why they shouldn't be given a different set of

people of circumstances8. He also agrees that
there are things besides true love and they do
impinge upon people. I can't take the view that
you can live on love and fresh air9.
Thus, Kabir's chapter ends with Lata's
realization that Kabir is neither mature nor
Amit Chatterji is the second prospective
suitable boy whom Lata meets in Calcutta.
Amit is the eldest son of the Chatterji family. He
is Lata's sister-in-law Minakshi's brother. He is
a poet and Lata likes him too. But this
relationship is stopped by her mother Rupa
Mehra because he is a Bengali. She has her
own reasons for rejecting Amit who according
to her is Poet, wastrel who has never earned
an honest money. I will not have all my grand
children speaking Begali10.
Amit is a poet, and poets are dreamers. A
husband must have a secure, financial position
to take care of his family. Lata also realizes the
realities of life. Life is not always a successful
romantic affair. Lata thinks of a future with Amit:
And what would it be like to be married to
such a man? He was just Amit to convert him
into a husband was absurd the thought of it
made Lata smile and shake her head11.
Lata's love for Kabir and Amit is natural
process of love but she rejects both because
she realizes the reality of life. She rejects Amit
because he is not wise and hardworking.
Moreover, she has to think about her own
feelings and emotions as well as of the
demands of the society.
Rupa Mehra's tireless search for the
suitable boy brings another candidate. Malti
one of Lata's best friends, suggests the name
of Haresh Khanna. He is a B.A. Honours in
English from St. Stephen's College, Delhi. He
is also a Diploma in Leather Technology from
England. Lata is not impressed by Haresh. But
she has learnt to suppress her passion
because passion is the root cause of suffering
and confusion, and in the end it brings despair
and destruction. Obviously she has grown to
be a mature woman. She commits to selfcontrol and planned marital life as she thinks of
divorce rates, extra marital relations and
frequency of crime of passion. Lata's choice of
partner is criticized by James Buchan;
Why Lata a sweet creation is sometimes
forced by the literary burden she is carrying


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

into speechlessness chooses the suitor.

Moreover, she chooses is not at all clear.12
Ultimately, Haresh appeals to Lata as a
suitable boy. He has almost all the qualities
that Rupa Mehra would like to see in her sonin-law. Lata appears to be the only round
character of the novel. T.K. Nandkumaran
writes :
"Lata has dual role of being a person and
type at the same time. In marrying Haresh, she
is fulfilling her function as the 'type' who
occupies her Indian-ness."13
Over the course of time, Lata becomes
quite fond of Haresh because of his
thoughtfulness and the wonderful letters he
writes :
"Baoji has been asking me about my
marriage plans but on that score I have not
been able to reassure him yet. As soon as you
are sure in your mind that I would make you the
right husband, please do help me."14
As the novel draws to a close, Lata is in
quandary over having to make a decision. Her
friend Malti is sure she will opt to marry Kabir
because of the romantic love she feels for him.
But to Malti's astonishment, Lata settles on
Haresh for every practical reason, and
specially for the fact that he is, the only
suitable boy in the eyes of her mother. She
wites to Haresh accepting with gratitude and
indeed with warmth his often repeated offer of
Haresh has the ingredients of making a
suitable husband. He is generous, robust,
optimistic, patient, and responsible. There he
stood in Prahapore as solid as a pair of
Goodyear welted shoes, twinkling his eyes
affectionately at her from the pages of his letter
and telling her as well that he was lonely
without her 16.
The novel thus, starting with Rupa
Mehra's declaration that her younger daughter
Lata should marry a boy chosen by her, ends
with Lata's marriage to everyone's satisfaction.
Search for a suitable boy for Lata had been the
only mission of Rupa Mehra, but Lata was not
in reality a pliable vine to place her destiny in
the hands of her mother blindly. She analysed
all the three suitors. First love is naturally
tempting, but other factors also must be
considered. Lata too rejected Kabir, her first
love for two strong reasons his being a Muslim
which will be unacceptable to her mother, and

his being still unstable in life. Love and

passions were thus rejected for practical
reasons. Amit, was a poet and a dreamer in the
eyes of Rupa Mehra and not an ideal suitor
without a proper livelihood. The reader
watches with curiosity and interest whom Lata
will choose as a suitable boy?
So far as Lata is concerned, it appears that
she sincerely wants to defy tradition and
conservatism. To Kabir, she could have given
her life, but the condition to wait for two years
prompted her to reject him. She liked Amit too,
but he was not as charming as Kabir. Finally,
the suitable boy Haresh Khanna presents to
her all the qualities of a good husband. He has
a good job, his letters are very persuasive and
charming. He appears to be dependable and
he has a practical approach to life. The search
then ends with Lata's marriage with Haresh. If
the readers mind has been occupied with the
romantic ideas of Love and Passion, he is sure
to be disappointed just like Lata's friend Malti.
1. Seth Vikram, A Suitable Boy, Viking
Publication, p 1.1
2. Ibid, p 22
3. Ibid
4. Ibid, p 186
5. Campbell Caryl, A Suitable Boy, (Review)
In between Essays and studies in Literacy
criticism IV (March 1995), pp 77-78
6. Seth Vikram, Multiple Locations, Multiple
Affiliations: Rawat Publications, 2001, p 118
7. Rediff Interview, The Vikram Seth chat,
8. Ibid
9. Ibid
10. Seth Vikram, A Suitable Boy, Viking
Publication, p 486
11. Ibid, p 1289
12. James Buchan: A Foreign country in the
Past. A Suitable Boy by Seth Vikram, The
Spectator, Mar, 27, 1993, p 31
13. Nandkumaran T.K., Social Political
Determinants in Identity Formation : A
Study Of A Suitable Boy in R.K.Dhawan &
Pramod Kr. Nayar. Vikram Seth : The
literary Genius : A critical Response
Prestige Publication 2005, p 113
14. Opcit, p 1146
15. Ibid, p 1295
16. Ibid, p 1295


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 151-154

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Rukmani in Nectar-in-a-Sieve
Rima Gupta
Research Scholar, Department of English
Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag
The paper is an attempt to see how a poor peasant woman struggles throughout her life. Her hard work never
gives her the fruit or the nectar she desires. All her efforts go in vain or get filtered through the sieve. Her life
goes on with a hope to hold the nectar one day in her hand and wont let it pass through the sieve. It is the hope
which gives enormous strength to the major female character, Rukmani, and her family to go on working
harder even though the results are not immediate. Kamala Markandaya has portrayed Rukmani as a
poignant character which can be interpreted as strong woman and thereby tempting the modern readers of
the 21st century to rise against difficult travesties in their life. It seems Rukmani is a die hard follower of our
Vedic teaching this too shall pass. Kamala Markandayas Nectar in a Sieve is set in an unnamed farming
village of south India, most likely just after India gained Independence. The novelist has attempted to show
the effect of industrialization on the life of poor villagers and how Rukmani fears and deals with the unraveling
new social forces. The author has very strong Indian sensibility which helps her depict and vividly portray
women issues, conditions, problems and dilemmas in a realistic manner.

Keywords: Modernity, Conformist, Traditionalist, Patriarchal, Industrialisation

womens life untouched. The familiarization
with women sensibilities gives an advantage to
Kamala Markandaya is among the few
women writers to portray a strong woman.
eminent feminist writers in Indian writing in
She is not a radical feminist and her works
English, who have presented women stronger
are not to condemn repressive male
than men in society. She tries to glorify her
dominated society. She does not call for radical
character to prove that even in patriarchal
of male-female roles. However,
society a woman supports family morally and
she has freely explored the
financially and is the hope of her family.
feelings and psyche of the stronger sex
The paper attempts to portray society as a
(though for men, women are the weaker
spiders web from which poor people are not
section) and has also advocated for them.
able to escape and have little choice other
Rukmani has been hardworking since
than succumbing to evil forces of society.
childhood (as she gets married at the age of
Society has not changed much; similar
12). Both the ladies of the family, Rukmani and
conditions can be viewed even after
her daughter Irawady sacrifice their happiness
Independence. Our villages are yet not free
time and again for the family. This is in contrast
from natural calamity like famine or draught
to Kunthi, who uses her beauty to seduce and
and the whims of corrupt, greedy moneylenders,
lure Nathan, Rukmanis husband. She
politicians and state machinery. But farsighted
shamelessly does the same with other tannery
people do survive either by migrating to
workers. Here the nascent industrialization
suitable places or suitably adapting to the new
may be seen as bringing different opportunity
and situations to different people within the
In Nectar-in-a-Sieve we have the voice of
the female protagonist Rukmani. We do have
glimpses of such Rukmani in our society and
that too very close to us. This forces us to
rethink of Kamala Markandayas fictional
history and compare with the women of our
times. The author has hardly left any facet in

Rukmani is like a woman, with the fidelity

that only an Eastern woman can know. She
lives by the pledge of loyalty to her husband,
home and family; always planning ahead,
answering their comforts, sacrificing her joy for
their needs1.


Main Thrust
Rukmani is the central character in the
novel, Nectar in a sieve. She narrates the story
in first person, in flash back technique.
Rukmani, the old woman starts reminiscing in
the evening of her life. The first person
narration enables the readers to identify and
recognize her strengths and appreciate her
values. The readers dig deep into Rukmanis
character in order to dignify the eastern
traditional lifestyle in comparison to western
Rukmani, the youngest daughter of a
village headman gets pampered by her
fathers social status in childhood. She being
the youngest daughter expects a grand
wedding like her elder sisters, but
circumstances slowly go out of her fathers
hand as Britishers overpower the village.
Rukmanis father looses the power and status
of the village headman.Child Rukmani hopes
and dreams to have a royal wedding.She,
unknown of her fathers new status innocently
questions her brother, I shall have a grand
wedding; I would say. Such that everybody will
remember when all else is a dream forgotten.
For is not my father head of the village?"2.
Rukmanis dreams get shattered when
she gets married to a poor tenant farmer
Nathan with very less possession to possess
her throughout her life. The misery in her life
begins with this marriage. When she reaches
at Nathans hut, she remembers her fathers
concrete house. But she confines her feelings
and never complains about it. This was the
beginning of her new life with hope and fear.
Hope of having a decent future and fear to
loose even the present becomes her daily
affair. For she has no happiness, but to fight
with all odds. The people around her comment
it as a poor match, She even feels the same,
but starts learning to confine her emotions.
She is social and learns the domestic
chores of a village wife in short time. She has
good relations with her neighbors except
Kunthi. And the reason of Kunthis dislike was
revealed later on in the novel. Nathan is rich in
his love for his wife Rukmani. Kali, a village

woman, during a conversation, reveals her

how the mud house was prepared before the
arrival of Rukmani as his bride. The fuss
your husband made: why for weeks he was
brittle hut with his own hands. Yes, he would
not even have my husband to help"3.
Over the years her marriage gets filled
with love and mutual respect. She is proud of
the love and care of her husband. She is
literate and aware, a talent that places
Rukmani above her illiterate husband and
neighbors. She has been taught to read and
write by her father, though her mother never
wished her to study. After marriage Nathan
never asserted to forbid her reading or writing.
Rather he used to come and sit in silence
beside her with his brows drawn together and
meeting. When she practices writing, lovingly
he expresses, It is well, he said stroking my
hair, you are clever, Ruku, as I have said
After a difficult beginning, Rukmani
quickly adapted the life style of village women.
She worked side by side with her husband in
the field, she grows superlative pumpkins and
the couple admire the vegetable as if they
hadnt seen it before. She is very helpful too.
Despite Kunthis dislike for Rukmani, she helps
her in childbirth. At this time Rukmani herself
was bearing a child. Nathan shows the
concern for the baby.
You look like a corpse, whatever
possessed you to stay so long5.
Nathan gets displeased when a baby girl
is born to them. Birth of a girl in a tenant
farmers house was not welcome. For many
years she couldnt bear second child. Rukmani
has a progressive and liberal approach to the
problems of life. Rukmanis mother introduces
her to Dr Kenny, an English doctor. The doctor
cures her inability to give birth after her first
issue and lifts away her great fear and anxiety
which she was carrying for six years. Getting
treatment from a foreigner to beget a child
made her afraid as she couldnt discuss it with
her husband. fear came crowding upon
me again. I had never been to this kind of


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

After giving birth to her eldest son, Arjun,

she has eight mouths to feed. She somehow
manages to fulfill the basic needs by selling
household utensils and vegetables. Rukmanis
endurance is continuously tested. Poverty is
the root cause of many kinds of crime. Poverty
stricken Rukmani saw her daughter Ira
become a prostitute to save her young brother.
Kunthi arouses Rukmanis rage when she
blackmails Nathan and Rukmani for handful of
rice. Paul Vergese writes, Food is the primary
requisite of human dignity, hunger debases
and dehumanizes men7.
Rukmani was never dehumanized by
poverty and starvation. She is an epitome of
humility. She forgives Kunthi and Nathan for
having illicit affair. She even forgives her
daughter-in-law for failing in her duty to help
Famine and draught badly affects the
village. The opening of the tannery in the
village completely disintegrates the socialeconomic fiber of the village. It steals away the
peace and harmony. Before the opening of
tannery, the life of Rukmani and her family was
simple and peaceful. So was for other
villagers. The tannery and the associated evils
of Industrialization bring about devastation in
the life of Rukmani and other villagers.
Rukmani fears and recognizes this as a
danger. She feels pain when she watches filth
and dirt due to this modernization. Tannery
displaces the farmers from their land, owned
and tilled by them for generations. The poorly
paid jobs come with heavy costs that outweigh
the benefits. Rukmani faces loss after loss
over the years.
Kamala Markandayas women characters
in general are conformists and traditionalists.
Being a woman bound to cultural
traditions Rukmani fears the tannery, knowing
that although it will offer jobs, it will also rob
many of the villagers of their land and
livelihood. Her fears are not unfounded. She
and Nathan loose several sons to the tannery,
but they cling to their reliance on the earth to
provide8. Despite being a conformist and
traditionalist, she retains her individuality.

Rukamani is prepared to accept and adjust to

new ways of living, accommodate others point
of view and forgive the lapses of her people9.
She was against the wish of her sons to
work in tannery. Her teenage son, Raja, is
caught stealing calfskin and is beaten to death
in the tannery. The officers of the tannery get
worried for compensation. For Rukmani
nothing in the world could substitute for the life
of a son.
Compensation, I thought, what
compensation is there for death10.
Kamala Markandaya uses both pictorial
and dramatic methods when Raja is killed.
Rukmani gives up the traditions of shame
when her daughter Ira turns to prostitution to
save her younger brother, Kuti. Rukmani
hopefully and happily accepts a nameless
descendent of her daughter Ira. She tries to
convince Nathan to accept the cruel truth.
Cruel, but not unbearable; the girl is happy
and the child is doing well11.
When Rukmani convinces Nathan, it
reminds the reader that once Nathan has
advised Rukmani to bend like the grass so that
she would not break. This suggests
acceptance and resilience as solution to their
problems12. It seems this is the reason why
she accepts everything, like Nathans adultery,
all misfortunes and even Iras prostitution.
Rukmani was destined to suffer in silence
more so because of her elder sonsher cup of
misery was full when they decided to leave for
Ceylon in search of jobs13.
The thought of Rukmanis son, Selvam,
leaving field work and joining the hospital
disappointed her but later she accepts his wish
to work with Dr Kenny, for she could see the
strong urge of changing the occupation to
avoid starvation in the family. Not displeased,
perhaps disappointed, since all our sons have
forsaken the land. But it is the best way for
you14. Both mother and son know that they will
be vilified when villagers will know about his
work. But the strength of the mother enables
the child to move further. I am not unaware, he
said quietly, but it is not sufficient that you


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

have the strength and I have trust15.

It is the money which rules the world and a
person without money will fall in all kinds of
misery. The heaviest blow to her is given by the
landlord who sells the land to the people of
tannery. She never expects any return from her
sons and whenever she tries they shatter her
faith. After the death of her husband Nathan,
she weeps for happiness. She was left bare
handed with very little of her own to survive and
move ahead.
Rukmani remained faithful in all her
relations, which gives her strength and
contentment. It gives her courage to face
recurrent hardships. She says, what if we
gave into our troubles at every step? We would
be pitiable creatures indeed to be so weak, for
is not a mans spirit given to him to rise above
his misfortunes?16
At the end of the novel, Rukmani is lying
on the bed and begins to hope for a better
future. Through the character of Rukmani,
Kamala Markandaya has given importance to
human values. Despite her final emergence
as a universal mother, she accepts passively
the outer world and its alienated life of endless
sufferings over which humans have no
definitive control17.
By way of summing up, we may say that
the personal story of Rukmani is a sort of
commentary on the impact of modernity on the
traditional Indian society. She could foresee
the trouble but has realized that human have
no control over endless sufferings. Her life is
full of hopes and frustrations, pleasures and
pain, rise and fall. Rukmani has emerged
stronger than the male counterpart in the novel
by exhibiting positive and optimistic outlook
towards life. She is the sole sailor of her family.
She has chosen positive aspect of life towards
the indefinite and unending suffering of hers.

At the end of the novel the narration of old

Rukmani ends but life continues to go on.
1., Nectar in- a sieve (Signet

classics) Paperback


Markandaya, Kamala; Nectar-in- a-sieve,

Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, p 2


Ibid, p 6


Ibid, p 12


Ibid, p 10


ibid, p 20


Joshi K.N., Quoted in Studies in Indo

Anglican Literature (Bareilly: PBD),
pp 120-21


http://www. Novel explorer. Com/

category/ nectar-in-a sieve.


Dhawan R.K., Indian women Novelists,

Set I: Vol I, Prestige Books ,New Delhi
1991, p 38

10. Markandaya Kamala, Nectar-in-a-sieve,

Jaico Publishing house, Mumbai, p 91
11. Ibid, p 118
12. Dhawan R.K, Indian Women Novelists,
Set I: vol I, Prestige Books, New Delhi
1991, p 183
13. Dodiya J.K and Surendran K.V., Indian
women writers: Critical Perspectives,
Sarup and sons, New Delhi, 2007,
pp 13-14
14. Markandaya Kamala, Nectar-in-a sieve,
Jaico publishing house, Mumbai, p 112
15. Ibid, p 112
16. http:// /category/
17. Datta Ketaki, Indo Anglican Literature:
Past to Present, Booksway College street,


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 155-160

ISSN 0974 - 200X

The concept of Dharma in Indian tradition

Dr. Dhananjay Vasudeo Dwivedi
Assistant Professor
Department of Sanskrit
Ranchi College, Ranchi
The thought of Dharma is part and parcel of Indian Culture. Being one of the four Purusharthas, it is capable of
upholding and integrating the whole society. Among the great concepts and doctrines, the basic principles and
directives of Hinduism, Dharma stands out to be pre-eminent, with a vast, deep and pervasive significance of
its own. The concept of Dharma is vast and vide. It is a Sanskrit expression of widest import. There is no
corresponding word in any other language. Dharma is the life-force of the society, like Prana in an individual.
Any state or institution or even society or an individual cannot exist without Dharma. Those who believe in
discrimination, in effect, dont practice Dharma. They never attain real happiness.

Keywords: Dharma, Hinduism, Veda, life force, uphold

According to the Indian Tradition, four are
the Purusharthas i.e. the goals or ideals of the
human life. These goals are Dharma, Artha,
Kama and Moksha. Of these we can say that
Dharma is the root; Artha, the branch; Kama,
the flower; and Moksha, the fruit of the tree of
the life. In this way it can be said that Dharma is
the fundamental means to attain the other
three goals. In effect, if the root is watered, the
branches and the flowers will be healthy and
yield delicious fruit. Therefore, if Dharma is
practiced, it will help man in attaining worldly
prosperity as well as final beatitude.
Material and Methods
The traditional books including Vedas,
Epics, Puranas and Smriti have been consulted
while driving the results. Oral discussions with
well-versed personalities on Sanskrit Literature
were executed to get sufficient information in
this regard.
Results and Discussions
Among the great concepts and doctrines,
the basic principles and directives of Hinduism,
Dharma stands out to be pre-eminent, with a
vast, deep and pervasive significance of its
own. Having its rudimentary beginning in the
Vedas, it has, over the centuries, grown like a
mighty tree, with numerous branches and
secondary roots. In fact, Dharma has been
accepted as an ideal of human life and has
accordingly fascinated and inspired the people.

The concept of Dharma is vast and vide. It

is a Sanskrit expression of widest import. There
is no corresponding word in any other
language. Those who try to equate it with the
word religion have to understand that, the
religion is a personal affair owing its allegiance
to personal belief and conviction of a person,
but Dharma is a universal affair. Religion
makes people narrow minded, while Dharma
makes people broad minded and as such binds
and holds them together.
The word Dharma is derived from the
root, dhi meaning to maintain, preserve,
hold, bear and carry etc.1 Mahabharata says
that the word Dharma is derived from
Dhrn. As per it, that which has capacity to
sustain is indeed Dharmadhrdharmamityhu dharmo dhryate praj
yat syddhrasayukta sa dharma iti nicaya 2

In this way we understand that the basic

meaning of Dharma is the moral law, which
sustains world, human society and the
individual. It is a key facet of Hindu culture. It is
associated with many aspects of human life. It
goes without saying that it is only Dharma,
which can hold, unify and maintain the entire
go of the world. The force by which everything
is held is called Dharma. It is regarded as mode
of life or a code of conduct, which regulates the
works and activities of the man as a member of
society and as an individual. It acts as a
sociological phenomenon as well as personal


While Dharma touches wide varieties of

topics, the essence of Dharma is also declared
by various works. Mahabharata saysakroda satyavacnam savibhga kam that
prajna sveu aucamadroh eva ca
rjava bhrityabhara navaite srvavarik3

i.e. truthfulness, to be free from anger,

sharing ones wealth with others, forgiveness,
purity, absence of enmity, straightforwardness,
maintaining persons dependent on oneself are
the Dharma of persons belonging to all varna.
The principles established in the scriptures
by the seers stand on the firm footing of
Dharma, which has ten elements according to
Manudhriti kam damosteya aucmindriyanigrah
dhrvidy satyamakrodho daka dharmalakaa4

i.e. steadfastness, forbearance, self

restraint, non-thieving, purity, control over the
sense-organs, intellect, self knowledge,
truthfulness and absence of anger are elements
of Dharma.
The characteristics of Dharma given by
Manu Smriti are such that no nation and no sect
of religion can raise any question and objection
to them. The manhood of man can develop only
through the proper observance of this Dharma.
The fall of man begins the very moment he
gives up the practice of this Dharma against his
own inherent nature. When there was
predominance of this Dharma in the human
society, the world was full of happiness and
peace. Suffering and unrest began to spread
over the world when man gradually began to
turn his face from the practice of this Dharma.
The view of Manu regarding Dharma, in this
way, include the right to develop mental
ability, right to justice and right to non-corrupt
According to Shrimad Bhagvata Mahapuran,
the highest virtue, ie Dharma of all men
consists of following features-truthfulness,
compassion, austerity, purity, endurance,
discrimination (the power of distinguishing
right from wrong), control of mind and the
senses, non-violence, continence, charity, muttering
prayers, straightforwardness, contentment,
service of those who look upon all with the
same eye, gradually withdrawing from all
mundane activities, egotism, refraining from

futile talk, inquiry into the self, equitable

distribution among created beings as ones self,
chanting of and dwelling on the names and
glories of the Universesatya day tapa auca titikek amo dama
ahis brahmacarya ca tyaga svdhyya rjavam
santo samadk sev grmyehoparama anai
n viparyayehek maunmtmavimarnam
anndyde savibhago bhutebhyaca yathrhata
tevtmadevatbuddhi sutra nu pava
rava krtana csya smar mahat gate
sevejyvanatidvanatirdsya sakhyamtmasamarpaam
nmaya paro dharma sarve samudhta
tllakaavnrjansarvtm yena tuyati5

In this way it can be said that the Dharma

regulates human conduct and casts individuals
into right type of moulds of character by
inculcating in them in them social and moral
virtues. It is the sense of Dharma is each
individual member of the society that spurs him
on to behave with dignity and becoming
demeanour in relation to his fellow beings.
Hence it is said-Dharma is the rock on which
all virtues are founded. It is the basis of all
excellences and the validation of all noble
ideas. In other words. Dharma is an evolutionary,
holistic concept and not a fragmentary idea.
Just as white light shines in different colours
according to the medium it is passing through,
Dharma takes on diverse hues according to the
individual or society through which it
manifests itself. While light is single, but its
constituent colours are multiple and distinct6.
Dharma is the life-force of the society, like
Prana in an individual. Any state or institution
or even society or an individual cannot exist
without Dharma. In the field of Dharma,
theoretical knowledge is not enough. Real
knower of Dharma is one who is friendly to all
and who is engaged in doing well to all, in
thought, word and deedsarve ya suhnnitya sarve ca hite rata
karma manas vc sa dharma veda jjale7

Nothing is superior to Dharma in this

creation.8 Valmiki Ramayana also says-


dharmakmrthatatvajna smtimn pratibhavn

laukike samaycre ktakalpo virada9
Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

i.e. one who knows the truth about the

principles of Dharma, material enjoyments and
prosperity, possess a keen memory and
perspicacious. He attains proficiency in
discharging all types of duties.
In effect, Dharma is paramount in the
world and truthfulness is rooted in itdharmo hi parmo loke dharma satya pratihitam10

If these are facts, we are left with no other

option but to make Dharma part and parcel of
our life. Here one has to understand that
Dharma being violated destroys; Dharma
being preserved preserves. Dharma should not
be violated, lest violated Dharma destroys usdharma eva hato hanti dharmo rakati rakita
tasmddharmo na hantavyo m no dharmo hatoavadhit 11

One should never indulge in Adharmic

deeds even if he is a sufferer. It is a well known
fact that Adharmic persons ultimately reap the
consequences even though in the beginning
they might seem to prosperna sdannapi dharme manoaadharme niveyet
adhrmika ppnmu payanviparyayam12

The acts of Adharma may not give him

bad results initially, but slowly and gradually it
cuts the root of an individual who had indulged
in Adharmandharmacarito loke sadya phalati gauriva
anairvartamnastu karturmulni kntati 13

Brahmapurana has rightly pointed out that

Dharma alone is helper and protector
everywhere. The seers have paid utmost heed
to the noble thoughts of all. There is no room
for malevolence, falsehood, enmity, deception,
treachery, lasciviousness, arrogance, greed,
crookedness, usurpation of others wealth,
uncalled for anger and conspiracy. The Indian
concept of Dharma does not allow anybody to
do anything to anybody, which is not agreeable
to oneselftmana pratikulni pare na samcaret 14

Vedas preach that we should try our level

best to do good to all and harm to none.
Maharshi Veda Vyasa has uniquely epitomised
the nature of righteousness and oppression.
There is no righteousness like benevolence and
no violence like oppressing others
atdaapuraeu vyasasya vacanadvayam
paropkra puyya ppya parpanam15

In Riga Veda, the word Dharma signifies

the meaning of upholder or supporter. The
word Dharma was given more elaboration,
emphasis and extension during the
Upanishadic period. Some Upanishads
conjoined it with truth and regarded it as the
highest principle of human life. There is
nothing higher than Dharma. Taittiriya
Upanishad gives emphasis on the ethical
meaning of Dharma pertaining to mans social
duties. Chhandogya Upanishad refers to
studies, austerities and contemplation as being
comprehended under the concept of Dharma.
The importance and significance of Dharma is
very well established in Shrimad Bhagvad Gita.
Lord Krishna says- Whenever there is decline
of virtue (Dharma) and increase of vice
(Adharma), then do I manifest Myself. For the
protection of the pious, the destruction of evildoers, and establishing virtues, I manifest
Myself in every ageyad yad hi dharmasya glnirbhavati bhrat
abhyuthnamadharmasya tadtmna sjmyaham
paritrya sdhnm vinya ca duktm
dharmasasthpanrthya sambhavmi yuge yuge16

The similar view has been expressed in

Shrimad Bhagvad Mahapuranayad yadeha dharmasya kayo vddhica ppmana
tad tu bhagavna tmna sjate hari17

Here one thing is clear. Dharma alone is

the friend of virtuous; Dharma is their refuge;
all the movable and immovable objects in the
three worlds of creation are guided by Dharmadharma sat hita pus dharmacaivraya satm
dharmllokstrayastta pravtt sacarcar18

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita divides human

propensities into two categories divine and
devilish. One should try to follow divine
qualities and do away with devilish qualities in
order to establish Dharma. Fearlessness,
purification of ones existence, cultivation of
spiritual knowledge, charity, self-control,
performance of sacrifice, study of the Vedas,
austerity, simplicity, non-violence, truthfulness,
freedom from anger, renunciation, tranquillity,
aversion to faultfinding, gentleness, modesty,
determination, vigour, forgiveness, fortitude,
cleanliness, freedom from envy and the passion
for honour- these transcendental qualities
belong to Godly men endowed with divine


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

nature. Arrogance, pride, anger, conceit,

harshness and ignorance-these qualities belong
to those of demoniac qualities made for
bondageabhaya sattvasauddhirjnnayogavyavasthiti
dna damaca yajnaca svdhyyastapa rjavam
ahis satyamakrodhastyga ntirapaiunam
day bhtevaloluptva mrdava hracpalam
teja kam dhti aucamadrohontimnit
bhavanti sampada daivmabhijtasya bhrata
dambho darpoabhimnaca krodha p ruyameva ca
ajnna cbhijtasya prtha sampadamsurm19

Those who believe in discrimination, in

effect, dont practice Dharma. They never
attain real happiness. They are not respected in
the society. Dharma on the social plane, aims at
attaining all round welfare for the entire
community. By means of injunctions and
prohibitions, Dharma directs human activity so
that each unit in society may fulfil its function
and contribute to the general good of the
In AS Narayan Deepshitulu case, the
Supreme Court of India has defined the word
Dharma. 20 As per it-Dharma is that which is
indicated by the Vedas as conducive to the
highest good, which sustains and ensures
progress and welfare of all in this world.
Dharma embraces every type of righteous
conduct covering every aspect of life essential
for the sustenance and welfare of the individual
and the society and includes those rules which
guide and enable those who believe in God and
heaven to attain Moksha
Here it would be justified to quote
Mahabharata, where Dharma has been
explained to be that which helps the upliftment
of living beings. In this way, that which ensures
welfare of living things is Dharmaprabhavrthya bhtn dhrmapravacana ktam
ya sytprabhavasayukta sa dharma iti nicaya 21

Rules of Dharma are meant to regulate the

individual conduct, in such a way as to restrict
the rights, liberty, interest and desires of an
individual. A man (or even a country) devoid of
Dharma may sometimes grow on immensely
like Ravana, Hiranyakasipu, Duryodhana and
others, but at last they cannot escape the
onslaughts of horrible destruction -

adharmeaidhate tvat tato bhadri payati

tata sapatnajayati samlastu vinayati22
Therefore, Artha and Kama devoid of Dharma
should be forsaken by all meansparityajedarthakmau dharmapkarau npa
dharmamapyasukhodarka lokavidviameva ca23

The bodies are perishable, the wealth is

not everlasting. The death is always quite near.
Hence, one should accumulate Dharmaanityni arri vibhavo naiva vata
nitya sannihito mtyu kartavyo dharmasgrah24

In fact, from Dharma arises wealth,

Dharma is the source of happiness, through
Dharma we attain everything; Dharma is the
essence of the world dharmdartha prabhavati dharmt prabhavate sukham
dharmea labhate sarva dharmasrmida jagat25

Man is believed to be a social animal,

therefore it becomes his duty to uphold and
integrate the society, which will automatically
result in prosperity for all. We can live to our
fullest potential only if we practice dharma at
all levels: physical, emotional, intellectual, and
spiritual. We need to make sure that all our
actions contribute toward the sustenance and
integration of society, and avoid actions that go
against the natural laws, which are called
At the physical level, dharma is that which
nourishes and supports the health of the body.
Whether we want to serve others, obtain
liberation, or even enjoy life in this world we
need a healthy body. Proper sleep, healthy
eating, exercise, and cleanliness all contribute
to good health. Therefore, practicing these are
all acts of dharma.
At the mental level we all want to be
peaceful and happy. Therefore to think in a
loving way is dharma and to think negatively of
someone is adharma because it will disturb our
personality and can also cause harm to the
other person.
The same rule applies intellectually. We all
want enlightenment and knowledge and do not
want to be ignorant or exploited because of our
ignorance. Independence and freedom are our
inherent desires. We want freedom from
sorrow, freedom from fear and grief, and most
importantly freedom from delusion. Knowledge


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

helps us to attain the understanding that frees

us from any dependence. But in the process of
trying to be free we become slaves to the very
things that we thought would make us happy
and due to ignorance we do not even realize
that. Therefore, knowledge and enlightenment
are dharma and ignorance is adharma.
Any action that integrates and brings
prosperity to community level is considered to
be dhamika. Dharma is that which brings about
self-integration. In his introduction to the Holy
Gt, Swami Chinmayananda affirms that
when our subjective mind becomes one with
the objective mind, then there is personality
integration. Lacking that, we may know many
things intellectually, but our mind, coloured by
personal prejudices and judgments, will give
way to its own desires. Our evaluation of a
situation may be wrong because the mind lacks
the necessary purity. Therefore, the problem is
due to a lack of vision only, and what happens
at the physical level is only a symptom. For
every one of us there is a dharma and this is
fully elaborated upon in the scriptures. The
idea is that every person lives in the society as
an individual relating to many others.
Whether we are students, administrators,
businessmen, labourers or even monks, all are
governed by the duties established for their
particular stages and professions. When
everyone accepts the responsibilities of their
dharma, the entire society prospers.
It goes without saying that Dharma is the
greatest and the most valuable contribution to
humanity by Bharata Varsha. On account of its
antiquity, utility and universality the very
mention of the word rouses the conscience of
an individual in this land. All our present day
problems are a direct result of disregarding
'Dharma', under the influence of a materialistic
philosophy, in the belief that it alone can usher
in happiness and secure the welfare of the
people. Now it is becoming clear that human
problems multiply as we go on multiplying our
lust and desire for material wealth and pleasure
and that the solution to all the problems, Social,
Economic and Political, which the world and
our nation are facing, in particular the crash of
our moral edifice is, Dharma alone panacea.
There is no alternative to 'Dharma'. This is the
eternal truth.

"Dharma" has the power to prevent a man

from committing an offence by acting as an
antigen against the six enemies inherent in
every man. It is preventive. It gives immunity
against sinful thoughts.
There is a vast difference between Dharma
and Religion. All the rules of righteous conduct
in every sphere of human activity evolved from
times immemorial in this country, falls within
the meaning of the word "Dharma". Religion
means mode of worship of God by all believers
calling him by different names. There are many
religions. There are instances of religious
fanaticism creating conflict. Religion might
divide but Dharma unites. It applies to all
human beings. It sustains life. It does not create
conflict. The rules of Dharma are meant to
regulate individual conduct in such a way as to
restrict the rights, liberty, interest and desires
of an individual as regards all matters to the
extent necessary in the interest of other
individuals, i.e., society, at the same time
making it obligatory on the part of society to
safeguard and protect the individual in all
respects through its social and political
Shortly put, Dharma regulates the mutual
obligation of the individuals and the society.
Dharma as a concept is very wide and
comprehensive. It stands for establishing
harmony, peace, stability and progress in the
society. Right from the very ancient times,
Dharma has been accepted as an ideal of
human life and has accordingly fascinated and
inspired the people. We can say that Dharma
constitutes the foundation of all affairs in the
world. People respect one who adheres to
Dharma. It insulates man against sinful
thoughts and actions. It is the basis of all
excellences and the validation of all noble
ideas. It is evolutionary, holistic concept and
not a fragmentary idea. When Dharma is
practised, it confers on man and society health,
wealth and happiness. Progress and prosperity
follow in quick succession as a matter of course.
Everything in this world is founded on Dharma.
Dharma, therefore, is Supreme.


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

1. pte Vman Shivarm, The Students
Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Motll
Banrasids, Delhi, 1973, pp 274
2. Pdeya Padit Rm Nryaadutta astri
(Tr.), Mahari Vedavyas Prait
Mahbhrata, Gt Press, Gorakhpur,
Samvat 2065, Karaparva, 69/58
3. Ibid, ntiparva, 60/7-8
4. stri Rjvr (Ed.), The Manusmti, rsh
Shitya Pracar Trust, Delhi, 2005, 6/92
5. Goswami CL (Tr.), mad Bhgvata
Mahpura (Part II), Gt Press,
Gorakhpura, 1982, 7/11/8-12
6. Anonymous, Dharma and its Practice, ri
Ramaka Maha, Chennai, 2008, pp 4-5
7. Mahbhrata, ntiparva, 262/9
8. Anonymous, Bhadrayakopniad
(nkar Bhsya Sahita), Gt Press,
Gorakhpur, Samvat 2029, 1/4/14
9. Vlmki, Vlmki Rmyaa, Gt Press,
Gorakhpur, 1974, 2/1/22
10. Ibid, 2/21/41
11. The Manusmti, 8/15
12. Ibid, 4/171

13. Ibid, 4/172

14. Updhyya chrya Baldeva, Bhratiya
Dharma Aur Darana, Chaukhamba
Publishers, Varanasi, 2000, pp 89
15. Pndeya Dr. Vivambharnath, Skti-saptaati, Bhratiya Sanskrit Sansthan,
Lohardaga, 2003, pp 667
16. Mira chrya ri Vamshidhar (Com.),
rimad Bhagvada Gita, Samprnanda
Sanskrit University, Varanasi, 1990, 4/7-8
17. rimada Bhgavata Mahpuraa,
18. Keshoram Aggarwal (Ed.), Kaly
Kalpataru, Volume 55 (1), Gt Press,
Gorakhpur, 2009, pp 14
19. rimad Bhagvad Gita, 16/1-4
20. AIR 1996 SC 1765
21. Mahbhrata, antiparva, 109/10
22. The Manusmti, 4/174
23. Vyasaveda, Vishu Pura, Gt Press,
Gorakhpur, Samvat 2059, 3/11/7
24. Pndeya Shyma Charaa (Com.),
riviusarmpratam Pacatantram,
Motilal Banrasids, Delhi, 1983, 3/94
25. Vlmki Rmyaa, 3/9/30


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 161-165

ISSN 0974 - 200X

yeew efyenej keer efMe#eCe heCeeueer : Ske efJeMues<eCe

[e@ efveMeeble kegceej
meJes#eke, je<^ere heeC[gefueefhe efceMeve
mebmke=efle ceb$eeuee, Yeejle mejkeej, veF& efouueer
yeew efJenej meefoeeW mes Yeejleere heeeerve efMe#eCe heCeeueer keer Deelcee jns nQ~ FvneWves efMe#eCe heefle kees veeer Deble&ef oer~ efMe#eCe kees meJe&peve efnleee
yeveeee, efMe#ee ceW ye{leer kece&keeb[ere peefuelee kees otj kej Gmes leeefke&ke yeveeee~ efJenejeW ves Deheveer ceveve-efebleve hejbheje kees kesJeue yeew Oece& leke kesefvle
veneR jKee Deefheleg meejs Oece& leJeeW kes meeLe-meeLe ueewefkeke efJe<eeeW keer Yeer efMe#ee oer~ ntpe DeekeceCeeW kes meeLe Yeejleere meceepe ceW pees pe[lee Leer, Gmes efJenejeW
ves ner otj efkeee SJeb Yeejleere %eeve efJe%eeve kees DeJeueesefkele efkeee~ eefo efJenej veneR nesles lees mebYeJele: Yeejleere mebmke=efle kes peerJeblelelJe efleyyele, eerve,
keesefjee, peeheeve veneR hengBeles~ FvnW hengBeves Jeeues efyenejeW kes efMe#eCe heCeeueer mes efvekeues Deeeee& ner Les~ hemlegle MeesOe DeeuesKe ceW efJenejeW kes efMe#eCe
heCeeueer kes lelJeeW keer legueveelceke efJeJeseveelceke SJeb JeCe&veelceke keejCe hej Ske veeer ef jKeves keer keesefMeMe Yeer ieF& nw~

efJeefMeMeyo - efJenej, GheeOeee, ej hebef[le, Dehheoerhe, efmenefJenejke

yeew efMe#eCe heefle SJeb yeeeCe efMe#eCe heefle ces keF& Deblej
eeCe efMe#eCe heefle ceW ieen&mLe kes JeeleeJejCe keer
"er meoer F&het keF& osMeeW ceW DeeOeeflceke Demeblees<e SJeb
yeewefke Keueyeueer kes efueS heefme nw~ eerve ceW ueeDeeslmes, Je DeeJeMekelee nesves mes iegkegue efJemle=le yevekej ye[s efJeMJeefJeeeuee
kevheegefMeeme, etveeve ceW hejcesveeF[erme Deewj Sbhes[eskeume, F&jeve ceW ee heer" kee he ve ues mekes~ yeew heefle ceW efMe#eCe keF& efMe#ekeeW
pejLegm$e leLee Yeejle ceW ceneJeerj SJeb yege~ yeew Oece& kes heJele&ke kes meebefOeke mJeeefcelJe keer mebKee yeve iees~ FmeefueS yeew heefle ceW
ieewlece yeg ves Oece&, peerJeve SJeb mebmke=efle kes heefle veee efkeesCe ye[s-ye[s efJenej efJeMJeefJeeeuee efveefce&le nes mekes~ efpevemes npeejeW
efJekeefmele efkeee~ Deheves peerJeve keeue ceW ner GvneWves mebIe SJeb efyenej DeOeeheke SJeb efJeeeLeer& Ske meeLe jn mekeles Les~ JeemleJe ceW Deepe
pees efJe<eeiele efJeefJeOelee efuees ngS efJeMJeefJeeeuee efoKeles nw, Gmekes
keer cenee kees mLeeefhele efkeee~
YeejleJe<e& ceW efMe#eCe heCeeueer meoe mes ner Oece& hebLeeW SJeb hetJe&Jeeer& yeew efJenejeW keer ner efMe#eCe heCeeueer Leer~ yeew Oece& keer
mebmLeeDeeW mes hesefjle jner nw~ eneB efMe#eCe mebmLeeve jepe SJeb peve Debeflece leerve eej MeefleeeW ceW es efJeMJeefJeeeuee meejs peiele ceW
eje heesef<ele Les SJeb Fmes meJee&efOeke heefJe$e kee&Je ceevee peelee Lee~ efJeKeele nes iees SJeb ogefveeeYej kes efJeeeLeer&, Keemekej SefMeeeF&
Yeejleere meYeleeDeeW kees peeveves kes efueS Fmekeer efMe#eCe heCeeueer kees #es$eeW kes, Deekeef<e&le neskej eneB Deeves ueies~ yeeo kes efJeMJeefJeeeuee
peevevee DeeJeMeke nw, keeeWefke Fmeer kes menejs Yeejleere mebmke=efle - veeueboe, JeuueYeer, efJekeceefMeuee, peieoodue Deewj Deesoblehegjer ceW
je<^ keer meerceeDeeW mes hejs Leer~1 ceneYeejle ceW JeefCe&le nw efke efJeee kes [s{ npeej Je<ees leke pees efJekeeme neslee jne, Gmekeer Debeflece DeJemLee
meceeve ves$e leLee mele kes meceeve lehe keesF& otmeje veneR nw~ efJeee cees#e kees Jee kejles nQ~
Jemlegle: yeew heCeeueer kee Fefleneme yeew ce"-efJenejeW Deewj
kee meeOeve nw~ efJeee ceelee kes meceeve j#ee kejleer nw, efhelee kes meceeve
IeeW kes Fefleneme kee ner Ske he#e nw~ FmeceW Fve efJenejeW kes
efnlekeejer keeees ceW efveeesefpele kejleer nw, helveer kes meceeve og:KeeW kees
otj kej Deevebo heoeve kejleer nw, eMe SJeb JewYeJe kee efJemleej kejleer Yeerlej kes yeewefke peerJeve keer heefkeee Jee nesleer nw~ Fme peerJeve keer
nw~ en keuheuelee kes meceeve iegCekeejer nw~ Fmeer keejCe Meem$eeW ceW heieeflehejke mece=ef keer, Gmekes MeefeeeW leke efJemle=le Deewj Goej
kene ieee nw - efJeodeeefJenerve: heMeg:~ efJeodee keer cenee meeJe&ceewce heceeCe keer, Gmekes efJekeefmele nesves Deewj hewueves keer~ efYe#egDeeW kes
Leer, Fmeer keejCe Gmekes nj he hej efJeMeo eee& nceejs ceveeref<eeeW ves efueS heefMe#eCe keer heefle mes DeejbYe neskej veeer yeew
efkeee~ Yeejle keer meJee&efOeke heeeerve efMe#eCe heefle yeeeCe heefle DeeJeMekeleeDeeW Deewj efeeeW kes Devegmeej Gvekee #es$e SJeb GsMe
nw~ en efMe#eCe hejbheje Jewefoke keeue mes Deepe leke eueer Dee jner nw~ ye{lee ieee~ Gmes Ske veeer ceeveefmeke ef#eeflepe heehle nesles ieS~
en efMe#ee iegkegue ceW nesleer Leer, peneB Skeeble ee Deeece ceW ieg kes Deblele: efJenej Ske Ssmeer peien yeve ieS, pees kesJeue ce"ye ceveve
meceerhe efMe<e yew"kej Ske efveefele meceeeJeefOe eeveer meceeJele&ve SJeb Oece& efebleve kes mLeeve ner veneR, Deefheleg mebmke=efle, %eeve SJeb efMe#ee
mebmkeej mes hetJe& leke DeOeeve kejles Les~ yeew efMe#eCe heefle keer keer heer" yeve ieS~ GveceW mes keg efJeMJeefJeeeuee yeve ieS~ hejbleg
hejbheje efJenejeW keer Leer, pees efYe#eg peerJeve mes meyeb nw~ etjeshe ceW en Fefleneme pees Jesoesej heeeerve Yeejle kes meejs keeueKeC[ ceW hewuee
efiejpes keer efMe#eCe hejbheje mes hetJe& ner Yeejle keer Oejleer hej yeew nw, menmee F&mee keer 12 JeeR meoer ceW Deekej ke peelee nw, Skeoce
efJenejes keer efMe#eCe hejbheje mLeeefhele nes egkeer Leer~
yebo nes peelee nw~ Fme uebyeer keneveer keer meceeefhle hetJeer&Yeejle-yebieeue

SJeb efyenej - ceW yeefKleeej efKeuepeer kes efJepee DeefYeeeveeW kes meeLe
nesleer nw~3
MeesOe heefJeefOe
hemlegle MeesOe DeeuesKe efJeMues<eCeelceke SJeb JeCee&veelceke
heke=efle keer nw~ MeesOe keee& kes efueS efleereke m$eesleeW kee Gheeesie
efkeee ieee nw~ Fmekes efueS cegKele: iepesefej, hekeeefMele iebLe,
he$e-heef$ekeeDeeW ceW hes efJeJejCe, efveyevOe SJeb uesKe leLee efJeefYevve
MeesOe iebLeeW kees DeOeeve kee DeeOeej yeveeee ieee nw~
leLe efJeMues<eCe
efJenej efMe#eCe heCeeueer kee heejbefYeke he ieewlece yegkes mecee
mes ner efoKeves ueielee nw~ leLeeiele ves Ske veeer heCeeueer kee met$eheele
efkeee, efpemeceW GejeefOekeejer keer hejbheje veneR Leer~ leLeeiele kes mecee
ceW Deve heeefjJeepekeeW ceW iegJeeo SJeb cenbleeF& heeefuele Leer, efpemeceW
Jes Dehevee GejeefOekeejer efveege kejles Les~ efkevleg leLeeiele ves
Oecee&vegMeemeve kees ner efYe#egDeeW kee efoioMe&ke ceevee~4
Jewefoke ieg-efMe<e hejbheje egefle SJeb lelhekeeMe %eeve kes
mebkeceCe hej DeeOeeefjle Leer, hej yeew hejbheje ceW ieg kee he
keueeCeefce$e SJeb ceeie& heoMe&ve keer nw~ Meekee cegefve kes efMe<eeW kees
Deheves Thej euevee SJeb efveYe&j jnvee Lee, FmeefueS GvneWves
`Dehheoerhees YeJe, DeveveMejCe, Oece&oerhe, Oece&MejCe' keer yeeleW
yeg Deheves DevegeeefeeeW kee Oeeve Deheves heeefLe&Je JeefelJe mes
hejs Deheveer efMe#ee mes metefele Dece=le he{ Deewj Gme leke ues peeves Jeeues
DeeOeeeflceke efveeceeW SJeb mJeYeeJeiele hejsCee keer Deesj ues peevee
eenles Les SJeb mees efMe#eke ner Yeebefle Gvekee DeYeer Lee efke Gvekes
efMe<e Deheves hewjeW hej Ke[s neW~6
ueieYeie eewLeer Meleeyoer F&het ceW yeew efJenejeW ceW en heMve
G"e efke veJeoeref#ele efYe#egDeeW kees efkeme hekeej keer efMe#ee oer peees~
Fmekes efueS efvemmee-heefle efveOee&efjle keer ieF&, efpemekee DeLe& hej
efMe#eCe ceW jnves keer heefle~ efvemmee keeue efMe#eCe ienCe kejves kee
keeue Lee, efpemekeer leguevee yeeee& heefle mes efkeee pee mekelee nw~
efJeeve SJeb eesie Jeefe heeBe Je<e& leke efvemmee ceW jnlee Lee peyeefke
meeOeejCe peve DeepeerJeve efvemmee ceW jnlee Lee~7 veJeoeref#ele kees Ske
DeeOeeeflceke efveos&Meke efceuelee Lee, efpemes GheeOeee kene peelee Lee,
Ske JeJeefmLele hee" he{evesJeeuee Yeer efceuelee Lee, efpemes Deeeee&
kene peelee Lee~ oesveeW kes efueS kece mes kece 10 Je<e& efYe#eg peerJeve
Jeleerle kejvee DeeJeMeke Lee~8 GheeOeee SJeb Deeeee& keer Jener
Yetefcekee Leer, pees Jewefoke Deeece JeJemLee ceW Gvekeer nesleer Leer~
efYe#eg Deeeee& Deheveer eser meer ke#ee yengle Deveewheeeefjke {bie
mes eueeles Les~ ceLegje kes heeeJemleg mebieneuee ceW Ske efIemeer ngF&
cetefle& mes Kegues DeekeeMe kes veeres peceerve hej keg efJeeeLeer& efJeefJeOe
cege ceW yew"s nw Deewj Gvekes meeceves ieg yew"e nw, efpemekes yeeeW neLe ceW
Gmekes efmej hej efleje G"eee ngDee neslee nw~ Fmemes mhe neslee nw

efke he{eF& ceewefKeke hejbheje mes eJeCe, mcejCe, ognjeves SJeb jves keer
Leer~ yeeeCe efMe#ee heefle mes eneB Ske Deblej en Lee efke meYeer
peeefleeeW SJeb JeCees kes yeeueke efMe#ee ienCe kej mekeles Les~ efMe#ee
meecetefnke Leer SJeb efYe#egDeeW keer mebKee DeefOeke ngDee kejlee Leer~ efYe#eg
mJeeb ke=ef<e kejkes DeVe Ghepeeles Les SJeb efJenej kes Deboj ner heMegDeeW
kees heeuekej ogiOe Glheeo SJeb Gheuee heehle kejles Les~
efmen efJenejkeeW kees meeOeejCeleee efJevee, ieeLeeDeeW peeleke
keneefveeeW, heeLe&veeDeeW, cetue lelJeeW SJeb yeew-oMe&ve keer efMe#ee oer
peeleer Leer~ efJevee efheke eje GvnW DeYeer cevegMeemeve efmeKeeee
peelee Lee SJeb DeefYeOecce efheke eje yeew Oece& kes efmeeble he{ees
peeles Les~ efMe#ekeeW kes efueS pejer Lee efke Jen efJeeeefLeeeW kees Oece&
SJeb efJevee keer yeeleW mecePeeS, Oece& kes Devegmeej MeeeeLe& kejW SJeb
kejees, Deewj ieuele efmeeble keewve nw, Jen yeleees~ efJeeeefLe&eeW kes
efueS DeeJeMeke Lee efke Jen Jeeo efJeJeeo heg nes, efMe#eke eefo
ieuele efmeeble ienCe kejs ee DeewjeW kees ienCe kejees lees Jes Gmekee
efJejesOe kejW~
Jeeo-efJeJeeo, Meem$eeLe& Deewj Keb[ve keer DeleefOeke mJeleb$elee
heleske efYe#egDeeW kees oer peeleer Leer~ heleske Jeefe Deheves Deehe meeses,
efJeeej kejs, leke& kejs, efveMee kejs~ mebIe kes meeceves Deewheeeefjke
he mes Deheves celeYeso jKeves kes heefle yeves ngS Les~ hejbleg mebIe kee
Debeflece efveCe&e, pees celeoeve ee Mueekee heefle mes lee neslee Lee,
Jeefeiele cele efJeeeme kees kegef"le veneR kejlee Lee~ Gmeer efJeeej
mJeleb$elee kes keejCe efJeefYeVe hebLeeW SJeb mebheoeeeW kee yeerpe-Jeheve ngDee
SJeb yeew Oece& kee efJemleej peve-ceeveme ceW ngDee~
yeewiebLe efceefuebohevnes yeleelee nw efke yeeeCe eejeW JesoeW,
Fefleneme, hegjeCekeesMe, bo GeejCe efJeefOe, JeekejCe efvee,
Jesoebie peesefle<e, Mejerj kes Megke-DeMegke meteke heleerC[, MekegveefJe%eeve, mJehve efe, ienCe, Yetkebhe, ien, efJe%eeve, ieefCele,
efkebkele&Je-efJe%eeve Deeefo efJe<eeeW kee DeOeeve kejles Les~ #eef$ee
neefLeeeW, Iees[eW, jCeeW, OevegefJe&ee, Ke[dieefJeee, egefJeee,
omleeJespe %eeve Deewj cege efJe%eeve meerKeles Les~ JewMe SJeb Meg ke=ef<e
efJe%eeve, JeeefCepe SJeb heMegheeueve keer efMe#ee heehle kejles Les~13
yeeuekeeW kees heejbefYeke efMe#ee osves Jeeues efJeeeuee efueefheMeeuee
kenueeles Les~ FveceW ejkeeeee& yeeuekeeW kees efueKevee SJeb efieveleer
efmeKeeles Les~ FveceW keveeSB Yeer efMe#ee heeleer Leer~ ceneJeiie ceW oes
hekeej kes DeOeehekeeW kee GuuesKe nw - GheeOeee SJeb Deeeee&~14
hee" efJe<eeeW kes Devegmeej efYe#egkeeW kes Jeie& Les~ Jeiees& kes Devegmeej
GvnW Deueie-Deueie e$eeJeemeeW ceW jKee peelee Lee efpememes efke Skeotmejs keer he{eF& ceW yeeOee GlheVe ve nes~ uesKeve keuee kee %eeve Lee,
keeeWefke henueer oes MeleeefyoeeW ceW Yeejle ceW heege 64 efueefheeeW kes
veece ueefuele efJemleej ceW efoes iees nw~ Oece& iebLeesW kees keb"mLe kejvee
eskej ceevee peelee Lee~
keg efJeeeLeer& DeOeeheke kees Meguke Yeer osles Les~ keg Fmekes
yeoues Gvekes OejeW kes keee& kejles Les~ DeeegJes&o keer efMe#ee le#eefMeuee


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ceW meele Je<e& ceW meceehle nesleer Leer~ Fmekee Meguke 1000 mJeCe& cege
Lee~ efkevleg DeefOekelej efJeeeLeer& ieg keer mesJee kej ner DeOeeve
efkeee kejles Les~ keYeer-keYeer hejeshekeejer Jeefe oeve Yeer osles Les~ Deewj
efveOe&ve efJeeeeeefLe&eeW kee mJeCe& Yeer Jenve kejles Les~ ie=n heefle
efJeeeefLe&eeW kes Yeespeve kes JeJemLee kejlee Lee~ efveOe&ve efJeeeefLe&eeW kes
Yeespeve keer JeJemLee kejlee Lee~ efveOe&ve efJeeeefLe&eeW kee Ske
efJeeeuee JeejeCemeer ceW Lee~ pevelee Fme efJeeeuee kee Kee& G"eleer
Leer~ le#eefMeuee ceW efJeeeefLe&eeW kees e$eJe=efe Yeer oer peeleer Leer~
LesjerieeLee ceW 32 efJeog<eer keJeefeef$eeeW keer jeveeSB mebieefnle nQ, pees
%eeve heeefhle kes efueS DeepeerJeve DeefJeJeeefnle jner~
Keeefle heehle ce"eW-efJenejeW kee DeefmlelJe ueeskeeee SJeb
jepeee hej Lee~ heuele: hegjeves ce" efMe#eCe kes keg penve SJeb yebo
he kee veeMe neskej es efJenej efJeeeheer" ceW heefjJeefle&le nesves ueies~
DeOeeve kes efJe<ee-Jemleg yeew-Oeceer& iebLees kes DeueeJee keF& efJe<eeeW
leke Jeeheke Les~ DeeOegefveke meboYe& keer yeeleW kejW lees heee efJeee kes
meeLe-meeLe lekeveerke SJeb heyebOeve keer Yeer efMe#ee oer peeleer Leer~ en
oeriej nw efke efMe#ee kee GsMe yeepeej hesefjle ve neskej Deelcekesefvle
SJeb meceepe kesefvle %eeve Je&ve Lee~
efJeeeheer"eW ceW efMe#ee heeefhle kes meeLe-meeLe efJeeeefLe&eeW kees
efveOee&efjle DevegMeemeve SJeb efveeceeW kee heeueve kejvee he[lee Lee~
efYe#egDeeW kes DeueeJee efJeeeefLe&eeW kes oes Jeie& Les - ceeCeJe SJeb
yeeeejer~ yeew efJenejeW ceW efJeeeefLe&eeW kes Jeieer&kejCe mes Gvekes
Mewef#eCeke GsMeeW hej Yeer keg hekeeMe he[lee nw~ efmeefJenejke Jes
efYe#eg nesles Les pees yeew iebLeeW kee DeeJeMeke %eeve heehle kejkes Deheveer
DeeOeeeflceke GVeefle kejvee eenles Les~ ceeCeJe Jes yeeueke Les, pees
yeew efmeebleeW kee DeOeeve FmeefueS kejles Les efke YeefJe<e ceW efYe#egOece& keer oer#ee ues mekes~ yeeeejer meeOeejCeleee Oeces&ej iebLe he{les
Les~ Jes Gheemeke jnkej ner peerJeve Jeleerle kejvee eenles Les~ efme
efJenej kee YejCe-hees<eCe kee Jee mebIe kejlee Lee, efkevleg YeeCeJeeW
SJeb yeeeeefjeeW kees Dehevee meYeer Jee mJeeb Jenve kejvee he[lee
eerveer ee$eer heeefneeve ves efJenejeW SJeb ce"eW keer JeJemLee kes
yeejs ceW efJemleej mes efueKee nw~ Gmeves efueKee efke jepee Deewj eser
efJenejes kees Kesle, Iej, yeeieeres, heue-Geeve, heMeg Deeefo oeve ceW
efoes peeles Les~ ....... peye Ske jepee efYe#eg mebIe kees keesF& oeve oslee
Lee, lees Jen Dehevee cegkeg Gleejkej Deekej Jee kejlee Lee~ Deheves
efjMlesoejeW SJeb cebef$eeeW kees ueskej, Fve efYe#egDeeW kees Deheves neLeeW mes
efueKelee Lee~19 meeleJeeR meoer leke ce" Fleves MeefeMeeueer nes iees efke
Feflmebie efJenejeW keer mebheefle keer efveboe kejlee nw~ Jen efueKelee nw en
ce" kes efueS nw~ Gefele veneR efke JeneB DeeJeMekelee mes DeefOeke Je
nes, DeVe Yeb[ejeW ceW ieuee ngDee DeVe nes, Deveefievele m$eer-heg<e,
veewkej-eekej Deewj hewmee Flevee mebefele nes efke kees<e ceW Gmekee keesF&
Gheeesie ner ve nes~20

efJeeeefLe&eeW kee peerJeve hetCe& hesve DevegMeeefmele Lee~ ieg mesJee

kes yeeo ner Jes efJeeeheejbYe kejles Les~ Wiemeebie efueKelee nw efke Yeejleere
DeOeeheke Deheves efMe<eeW kees %eeve-heeefhle kes efueS heeslmeeefnle kejles
Les Deewj Gveke yegef leer#ee yeveeles Les~ eefj$e efvecee&Ce, yeewefke
efJekeeme, DevegMeemeve keer YeeJevee, ueeskeleb$eere JeJenej SJeb yeew
efmeebleeW kes heefleheeove hej Keeme peesj Lee~ meeOeejCe leLee efJeeeLeer&
30 Je<e& leke keer DeJemLee leke efMe#ee heehle kejles Les~ keg efJeeve
Ietce-Ietce kej efMe#ee osles Les~
meecetefnke efMe#ee kee heyebOe heebeJeer meoer kes ueieYeie yeeweW ves
efkeee~ Fmekes hetJe& yeew efJenejeW ceW kesJeue efYe#egDeeW kees efMe#ee oer
peeleer Leer~ yeew efJenejeW ceW mes kesJeue 10 ceW Ge efMe#ee kee
heeJeOeeve Lee~22
efJenejeW ceW oes heefj<eod nesleer Leer~ Ske Mew#eefCeke efJe<eeeW hej
efJeeej kejves kes efueS leLee oes, heyebOe keer osKeYeeue kes efueS
Mew#eefCeke heefj<eod ner hee"ekece leweej kejleer Leer~ Feflmebie efueKelee nw
efke JeuueYeer pees nerveeeveer efJeeeuee Lee, Ge ke#ee kes efJeeeLeer&
veereueer ke#ee kes efJeeeeeefLe&eeW kees he{eles Les~
heeefneeve pees eerveer yeew ee$eer Lee heeefueheg$e kes oes efJenejeW
ceW ieee Lee~ FveceW Ske ceneeeveer SJeb otmeje nerveeeveer efJenej Lee~
oesveeW efceuekej 600 efJeeeLeer& jnles Les~ heeefneeve efueKelee nw efke Fve efJenejeW kes Deeeej-JeJenej kes efveece Deewj efJeeeefLe&eeW kes efueS
JeJemLee osKeves eesie nw~ meye peien kes meyemes Des efJeeeLeer&
eceCe Deewj mele efpe%eemeg JeneB Deeles nw~ le#eefMeuee ceW etveeve leke
kes efJeeeLeer& efMe#ee heeves kes efueS Deeles Les~ Jene JesoeW, 18 efMeuheeW kes
DeueeJee nefjle efJeee ce=ieIe, heMegDeeW keer yeesueer OevegefJe&ee Deeefo keer
he{eF& nesleer Leer~24
smeiemeebie efueKelee nw efke henues efJeeeLeer& ejoMeeOeeeer
veeceke heejbefYeke hegmleke he{lee Lee~ efhej meele Je<e& keer Deeeg mes Gmes
heeBe efJe%eeve-JeekejCe, efMeuhe Je keuee efJe%eeve, DeeegJes&o,
leke&Meem$e Deewj Deelce efJe%eeve he{ees peeles Les~ Feflmebie kes Devegmeej
yeeuekeeW kees meyemes henues efmejmleg veeceke hegmleke he{eF& peeleer Leer~
Dee"JeW Je<e& ceW heeefCeveer kes mete& SJeb Oeeleghee" he{ees peeles Les~ omeJeW
Je<e& ceW mes DeOeeleg, ceb[ke SJeb GCeeefo he{vee heejbYe kejles Les, pees
heebe Je<e& leke euelee Lee~ Fmekes Deefleefje Jes ceneYee<e Yele=&nefj
erkee, Jeekeeheoere SJeb hesF&ve veeceke hegmleke he{les Les~
Fmekeeue ceW DeefOekelej hee"e hegmlekes metle Mewueer ee hee ceW
Leer~ Fmemes mejuelee mes FvnW keb"mLe efkeee pee mekelee Lee~
5 JeeR meoer kes yeeo efJenejeW kee efMe#eCe he#e keeheer efJekeefmele
nes ieee Lee~ osMe-efJeosMe kes efJeeve eneB hegmlekes efueKeves kes efueS,
DeOeeve kes efueS Deewj meerKeves kes efueS Deeves Les~ Fve efJeeeheer"eW
keer keerefle& otj kes yeew osMeeW ceW Yeer hewueer~ Fme keejCe mes efJeeve
leerLe&ee$eer, efJeMes<ekej eerveer, JeneB KeeRes eues Deees Deewj Fve efJenejeW
kes hele#e oMe&ve hej DeeOeeefjle efJeJejCe efueKee es ceneefJenej Yeejle


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ceW Ssmes kesveW keer lejn mes ues, pees Deve osMeeW ceW yeew mebmke=efle Deewj
%eeve hewueeves Jeeues hekeeMe JeenkeeW kee keee& kejles Les~ 500 F&
leke eerve ceW yeew Oece& Dehevee heYeeJe pecee egkee Lee~ JeneB yeew
Jeleeeej meJe&$e heees peeles Les, cebefoj SJeb ce" heleske metyeeW ceW yeveees
iees~ efYe#eg^-efYe#egefCeeeW keer mebKee keeheer DeefOeke Leer Deewj GvnW
yengle Deeoj efoee peelee Lee~ 5 JeeR mes 8 JeeR meoer leke kesJeue eerve
mes ner kece mes kece 162 leerLe&ee$eer Yeejle Deees~ peeheeve kes efueS
yeew Oece& veee oMe&ve Lee~ Ske veeer mebmke=efle LeeR keueelceke hesjCee
osves Jeeueer Ske keceer meceehle ve nesves Jeeueer Keeve Leer~ peerJeve kes
meYeer osMeeW ceW yeew efYe#eg veslee kees Gvekeer mesJee SJeb efMe#ee mes
heYeeefJele neskej Gme mecee keer mejkeej ves Deveske efJenej SJeb cebefoj
Ge efMe#ee kes meyemes ye[s kesv veeueboe, JeuueYeer,
efJekeceefMeuee, Deesoblehegjer SJeb peieue veeueboe Ske ye[e
efJeMJeefJeeeuee Lee~ JeneB DeOeeve keer keF& MeeueeeW Leer~ JeeKeeve
kes efueS hekees kes iebLeeuee kes JeeKeeveeW kes efueS heJesMe SJeb
GheefmLeefle kes efveece Les~ DevegMeemeve SJeb efJeeeefLe&eeW kes JeJenej kes
efveece Les~ en Debleje&<^ere efMe#eCe kesv Lee, pene efleyyele, eerve,
oef#eCe-hetJe& SefMeee kes efJeeeLeer& DeOeeve kes efueS Deeles Les~ Fme
efJeMJeefJeeeuee ceW heefJe nesvee Flevee keef"ve Lee efke 10 ceW mes cee$e
oes ee leerve efJeeeLeer& ner meheue nes heeles Les~ eneB DeOeehekeeW keer
mebKee 1500 Leer, efpemeceW mes 100 heefleefove JeeKeeve osles Les~
efJeeeefLe&eeW keer mebKee 10,000 mes DeefOeke Leer~ Fme
efJeMJeefJeeeuee ceW 8 ceneefJeeeuee Les~ eneB ceneeeve mebheoee kes
18 hebLeeW keer efMe#ee oer peeleer Leer~ Jeso-Jesoebie Deeefo yeewej efMe#ee
Yeer oer peeleer Leer~ 1000 Jeefe eneB Ssmes Les, pees 20 mete& iebLe
SJeb Meem$e mece#e mekeles Les, 500 DeOeeheke Ssmes Les, pees Ssmes 30
iebLe efmeKee mekeles Les, 10 efMe#eke Ssmes Les, pees 50 iebLe efmeKee
mekeles Les~ Dekesues MeerueYe Ssmes nQ, pees meejs iebLeeW kees he{s nw SJeb
Gvekees mecePee mekeles nQ~
Feflmebie efueKelee nw efke veeueboe kes efJeeeefLe&eeW kes DeOeeve kee
DeefveJeee& efJe<ee mebmke=le JeekejCe Lee~ Jen Deeies efueKelee nw efke
Yeejle ceW oes hejbhejeeW Ssmeer nw, efpevekes eje ceveg<e TBeer yeewefke
Meefe heehle kej mekelee nw - Ske, yeej-yeej keb"mLe kejves mes yegef
ye{leer nw Deewj oes, JeCe&ceeuee kes De#ejeW mes efJeeej efveMefele nes peeles
nw~ Fme hekeej mes 10 efoveeW kes Yeerlej efJeeve kees Ssmes ueieves ueielee
nw efke Gmekes efJeeej heJJeejs keer lejn G" jns nw Deewj Ske yeej megveer
ngF& eerpe ogyeeje yeleeves keer pejle ve nesles ngS Yeer yejeyej eeo jn
peeleer nw~31
veeueboe ceW hee"ekece keer meceeefhle kes yeeo oer#eeble meceejesn
neslee Lee~ FmeceW efJeeeefLe&eeW keer meeceeefpeke efmLeefle Deewj iegCeeW kees
osKeles ngS GheeefOeeeB oer peeleer Leer~ hegjeleeefJeke DeJeMes<e yeleeles nQ
efke veeueboe efJeMJeefJeeeuee kes heeme mebieneuee Yeer Lee~
efJeMJeefJeeeuee keer pees cegnj efceueer nw, pees helLej hej Kegoer nw, Gme

hej Oece&eke nQ, Gmekes oesveeW Deewj Ske-Ske ce=ieMeeJeke nw~ Gme hej
efueKee nw veeueboe ceneefJenej ceneefYe#eg mebIe~ en cegnj yeleelee nw efke
efJeMJeefJeeeuee Deheves Deehe ceW Ske hetCe& mJeeee mebmLee Leer, efpemeceW
Deveefievele-efJenej Les~
efMe#ee kee otmeje heefme kesv Heef"eevee[ kee JeuueYeer Lee~
eneB 100 efJenej Les SJeb 6000 efYe#eg efMe#ee ienCe kejles Les~ Fme
nerveeeveer efJeeeheer" ceW ceneeeve mebheoee keer Yeer efMe#ee oer peeleer
Leer~ eneB kes oes heefme efJeeve efmLej-ceefle SJeb iegCe-ceefle Les~ eneB
Yeer Meem$eeLe& kejkes efJeJeeoeW kee efveheeje efkeee peelee Lee~ JeuueYeer
efJeMJeefJeeeuee Deheveer meefn<Ceglee SJeb yeewefke mJeleb$eelee kes efueS
heefme Lee~ Feflmebie kes efJeJejCe mes helee euelee nw efke eneB kes
mveeleke heMeemeefveke heoeW hej efveege efkees peeles Les~32
hetJeer& Yeejle ceW 8JeeR meoer kes yeeo hecegKe efJeMJeefJeeeuee ceW efJekeceMeeruee, Deesoblehegjer SJeb peieue Les~ efJekeceefMeuee kes
ceneefJenej keer mLeehevee heeue Meemeke Oece&heeue (8775-8003
F&) ves kejJeeeer Leer~ Fme efJeMJeefJeeeuee ceW n ceneefJeeeuee Les
SJeb heleske ceW Ske kesvere ke#e SJeb 108 DeOeeheke Les~ kesvere
ke#e kees efJe%eeve YeJeve kene peelee Lee~ heleske ceneefJeeeuee ceW Ske
heJesMe eje neslee Lee, efpeve hej ej hebef[le yew"lee Lee~ ej hebef[le kes
hejer#eCe kes yeeo ner efkemeer efJeeeLeer& kees ceneefJeeeuee ceW heJesMe
efceuelee Lee~ Fme ceneefJeee heer" kes kegueeefOeheefle heeueMeemeke nesles
Les, pees oer#eeble meceejesn ceW GheeefOeeeB efJeleefjle kejles Les~ mveelekeeW keer
GheeefOe hebef[le keer Leer~ cenehebef[le, GheeOeee SJeb Deeeee& keceMe:
Gelej GheeefOeeeB Leer~
11JeeR-12JeeR meoer ceW YeejleJe<e& kee meJee&efOeke mecheVe,
megmebieef"le SJeb heefleefle efJeeefJeeeuee efJekeceefMeuee
efJeMJeefJeeeuee Lee~ eneB kes efJeeveeW pewmes Deeeee& oerhebkej ves
Yeejleere %eeve efJe%eeve kees Debleje&<^ere peiele ceW heefleefle kejJeeee~
heeue keeue ceW ner peieue efMe#eCe kesv mLeeefhele kejeee
ieee~ peieue efJeMJeefJeeeuee lebceeeve efMe#ee kee kesv Lee, peneB
Deveske efJeeveeW kee heeogYee&Je ngDee~ FveceW efJeYetefleeb, oeveMeerue,
cees#eekej ieghle Deeefo heefme leebef$eke efJeeve Les~ Fme kesv kee
efleyyeleer yeew Oece& kes efJekeeme ceW cenlJehetCe& eesieoeve Lee~ Deesoble
hegjer heeuekeeue mes hetJe& efJeeceeve Lee, hej efJeMJeefJeeeuee heeue keeue
ceW yevee~ eneB 1000 efYe#eg efMe#ee heeles Les~ efleyyele ceW pees henuee
yeew efJeeeuee yevee Jen Deesoble hegjer kes DeeoMe& hej ner mLeeefhele
ngDee Lee~
yeew efJenejeW keer efMe#eCe heefle ves Yeejleere efMe#eCe hejbheje
kees veee heueke heoeve efkeee~ efMe#ee kees meJe&peve efnleee SJeb
DehheoerheeW kes GsMeeW kes Devegmeej heoeve efkeee~ efJeeeefLe&eeW ceW leke&,
%eeve SJeb Jeekeheglee keer ef$eDeeeeceer lelJeeW kee mebeej efkeee, efpemekes
keejCe Ske ese mee hebLe Debleje&<^ere Oece& kee he ues efueee Deewj
ce" efyenej efJeMJeefJeeeuee kee he ues efuees~ jepeeee SJeb


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ueeskeeee kes keejCe jevee, MeesOe SJeb %eeve kee ef#eeflepe Glejesej
efJemle=le neslee euee ieee~ meyemes ye[er yeele en efke Yeejleere
efJeMJeefJeeeueeeW kee pees he Deepe nceW efoKeeeer oslee nw, Gmekeer
veeRJe yeew-efJenej SJeb ce" efMe#eCe heCeeueer ves ner jKeer~ eens Jen
heJesMe hejer#ee kee nes, efJe<eeiele efJeefJeOelee, e$eeJeeme mveelekeesej
kesv, MeesOe kesv SJeb lebolej oer#eeble meceejesn keer nes~ hetJe&
ceOekeeue ceW keeefnje, mhesve Deeefo ceW keF& efMe#eCe kesv mLeeefhele
ngS hej Gvekes DeOeeve kes efueS Yeejleere efJeeeLeer& veneR ieS keeeWefke
GveceW eneB yeew efJenej efMe#eCe heCeeueer hej DeeOeeefjle ogefveee kes
meJe&es efJeMJeefJeeeuee Les~
1. Aktekar A.S., Education in Ancient India, Manohar
Publication, Varanasi,1975, pp 1-2

2. yeehe heeryeer (meb), yeew Oece& kes 2500 Je<e&, hekeeMeve

efJeYeeie, metevee SJeb hemeejCe ceb$eeuee, Yeejle mejkeej, veeer
efouueer, 1997, he= 147
3. JeneR, he= 148
4. heeC[se ieesefJebo ebo, yeew Oece& kes efJekeeme kee Fefleneme,
Gej heosMe efnvoer mebmLeeve, ueKeveT, 2006, he= 107
5. oerOe&efvekeee, megeble, 16
6. heeb[se, JeneR, he= 108
7. Deesce hekeeMe, heeeerve Yeejle kee meeceeefpeke SJeb DeeefLe&ke
Fefleneme, efJeMJe hekeeMeve, veeer efouueer, 1997, he= 246
8. yeehe heeryeer, JeneR, he= 149
9. Jener
10. Deesce hekeeMe, Jener, he= 247
11. yeehe yeerheer, JeneR, he= 150


Jener, he= 151

efceefuevohevnes, 4,3,26
ceneJeppe, 5,4,2
peeleke, 1,239/peeleke 1, 317/ peeleke, 3, 171
peeleke 5,127
Deesce hekeeMe, JeneR, he= 251
Jener, he= 253
yeehe Jeerheer, Jener he= 154


Deesce hekeeMe, Jener, he= 252

yeehe heeryeer, he= 154
peeleke 2, 300/- peeleke 3, 415/peeleke 3,219
Deesce hekeeMe, he= 253-54
JeneR, he= 254


Waters T (Edj, On Yuan Chwangh's Travels in India,

Vol - 1, London, 1904-05, pp 159-61

Zerold Fitz, Short Cultural History of China, P 276

[e@ megpegkeer, peeheeveerpe yegefOeppe, Smmespe Fve pesve

yegefppejLe[s meerefjpe, jeF[j, uebove, 1953, he= 340
Waters, ibid, vol II, pp 164-165
Beal S., Life of Hiuen Stang by the Shaman Hwwili,
London, 1911, p 112

31. Feflmebie efjkee[&, yeew Oece& kes Je=eeble kee 34 JeeB DeOeee mes
32. eerJeemleJe kesmeer, heeeerve Yeejle kee Fefleneme SJeb mebmke=efle,
etveeF&s[ yegke ef[hees, Fueeneyeeo, 2002, he= 777


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 166-169

ISSN 0974 - 200X

ceieOe kes Glke<e& kes efJeefJeOe he#e

(600 F&het - 300 F&het) leke
Deefcee Deevevo
MeesOe e$e
I.C.H.R. Research Fellow

mveelekeesej Fefleneme efJeYeeie

jeBeer efJeMJeefJeee}e, jeBeer

ceieOe meeceepe Yeejleere Gheceneerhe ceW meeceepe efvecee&Ce keer efoMee ceW Ske ye[e heeesie Lee keg cet}Yetle keejkeeW ves ceieOe keer meHe}lee kees megefveefMele
efkeee~ ceieOe keer meHe}lee ceW Jemleghejke SJeb Jeefkelehejke keejkeeW ves cenlJehetCe& Yetefcekee efveYeeF&~ efpemeceW Gmekeer efJeefMe Yeewieesef}ke efmLeefle Leer~ ceieOe keer
oesveeW jepeOeeefveeeB jepeie=n leLee hee}erheg$e Deleble megjef#ele Yeewieesef}ke efmLeefle ceW Les~ jepeie=n heneef[eeW mes efIejer nesves kes keejCe Me$egDeeW eje Deemeeveer mes
veneR peerlee pee mekelee Lee~ Fmeer hekeej hee}erheg$e Yeer veefoeeW mes efIejer nesves kes keejCe megjef#ele Leer~ meeLe ner Deve keejkeeW ceW ceieOe keer DeeefLe&ke mehevvelee,
ceieOe kes heeme cenlJehetCe& mebmeeOeveeW keer Ghe}yOelee pewmes }esne, neLeer, }ke[er Deeefo cenlJehetCe& Les~ Fve mebmeeOeveeW kee Gheeesie kej eneB kes cenlJeekeeb#eer
Meemeke efyebefyemeej, DepeeleMe$eg ceneheodcevebo Deeefo ves Deheveer mewve #ecelee kees mece= efkeee~ efpememes GvneWves Deheves efJepee DeefYeeeve kees Deeies ye{eee~
meyemes cenlJehetCe& leLe ceieOe eje lekeveerkeer leLee Yeewieesef}ke mebmeeOeveeW kee Gheeesie jne~ Fmekee }eYe ceieOe keer mesvee leLee Jeneb keer ke=ef<e heCee}er oesveeW kees
efce}e~ Fme meYeer lelJeeW ves ceieOe kes Glke<e& kees hesefjle efkeee~ Deeies ceeweexb kes DeOeerve ceieOe meeceepe Yeejleere Gheceneerhe kes DeefOekeebMe YeeieeW ceW Hew} ieee~

efJeefMeMeyo - lekeveerke, Yeewieesef}ke leLee ceeveJeere mebmeeOeve, Jemleghejke keejke, Deenle efmekekes, meeceepeJeeo
MeemekeeW keer Yetefcekee cenlJehetCe& ceeveer peeleer nw~ ceieOe kee hen}e
Jele&ceeve efyenej jepe kes hevee, ieee, vee}boe efpe}s keer Yetefce cenlJehetCe& Meemeke efyebefyemeej Lee pees o={ efveefMeeer leLee jepeveerefleke
ceW efmLele ceieOe heeeerve Yeejle kee Ske cenlJehetCe& jepe jne nw~ yeg otjoefMe&lee mes mechevve Lee~ Gmeves iebiee hej efveeb$eCe kejves Jee}s Ske
kee} ceW ceieOe kees nce Ske MeefkeleMee}er jepeleb$e kes he ceW mebieef"le efJeMee} jepe keer mebYeeJeveeDeeW kees mecePee Deewj efveMee efkeee efke
heeles nQ~ $e+iJeso ceW keerke veece kes Ske #es$e kee Gu}sKe nw~ en ceieOe ner Jen efJeMee} jepe nesvee eeefnS~ Gmeves keesMe}, JewMee}er
keerke ceieOe #es$e ner Lee~ DeLe&Jeso ceW ceieOe kees yeele kene ieee nw~ mes JewJeeefnke mebyebOe mLeeefhele efkeee, efpevneWves Gmekeer efJemleej veerefle ceW
kee}eblej ceW ceieOe kee Gejesej efJekeeme neslee ieee~ceieOe meeceepe meneesie efoee~ Deheveer heefMeceer Deewj Gejer meercee kees megjef#ele kej
Yeejle kee heLece Je=nle meeceepe Lee pees Ske cenepeveheo mes Je=nle Gmeves oef#eCe-hetJe& ceW peekej Debie jepe hej efJepee heehle keer,
ceewe& meeceepe kes he ceW Deheves eceexlke<e& hej Lee~ Deiej nce ceieOe efpemekee iebiee kes cegneveeW ceW Jeeheej leLee mecego yebojieen leke peeves
meeceepe keer meHe}lee kes keejCeeW hej efJeeej kejles nQ lees en %eele Jee}s ceeieexb hej efveeb$eCe Lee~ efyebefcyemeej Ske kegMe} Meemeke Yeer
neslee nw efke Fmekes ef}S keg Jemleghejke SJeb Jeefkelehejke keejke Lee~
Gejoeeer nw~ Jeefkelehejke keejkeeW ceW ceieOe kes DeejbefYeke
Gmeves Deheves meeceepe ceW Ske mebieef"le SJeb mego={ Meemeve
cenlJeekeeb#eer MeemekeeW kee eesieoeve ceevee peelee nw~ Jemleghejke JeJemLee keer veeRJe [e}er~ Jen Meemeve keer mecemeeDeeW hej mJeeb
keejkeeW ceW ceieOe keer jepeOeeveer keer efJeefMe Yeewieesef}ke efmLeefle, efe }slee Lee~ yeew meeefnle ceW Gmekes heoeefOekeeefjeeW kes veece Yeer
}esns, neLeer }ke[er Deeefo keer Ghe}yOelee, cegoe DeLe&JeJemLee kee efce}les nQ~3 efyebefyemeej yeew Oece& kee mebj#eke Lee~ yeew meeefnle ces
efJekeeme hecegKe Les~1
Gmes mesefvee, DeLee&led mesvee mes egkele kene ieee nw efpemekee cele}ye
MeesOe heefJeefOe
mebYeJele en efveke}lee nw efke Jen hen}e jepee Lee efpemekeer Deheveer
en MeesOe JeCe&veelceke Ske JeeKeelceke nw FmeceW Ssefleneefmeke mLeeeer mesvee Leer~4 efyeefcyemeej Deheves cebef$eeeW kee eeve ye[er meleke&lee
leLee leg}veelceke efJeefOe kee heeesie efkeee ieee nw~ FmeceW heeLeefceke mes kejlee Lee Deewj Gvekes hejeceMe& keer keYeer Dehes#ee ve kejves kes ef}S
Ske efleereke eesleeW kee heeesie efkeee ieee nw meeLe ner Fbjves kee heefme Lee~ DeefOekeeefjeeW kees Gvekes keee& kes Devegmeej Gmeves
Yeer mecegefele Gheeesie efkeee ieee nw~ FmeceW Deble ceW eesleeW kee efJeefYeveve esefCeeeW ceW yeebe Lee~5 ceieOe Deewj keewMe} kes yeere
efJeM}s<eCe, JeeKee mheerkejCe SJeb cetueebkeve efkeee ieee nw~
cew$eerhetCe& mebyebOeeW kes keejCe efyebefyemeej kees ceieOe kes Jeveeeb}eW ceW jnves
leLe efJeM}s<eCe
Jee}eW keyeer}eW kees peerlekej Gve hej Dehevee heYeglJe mLeeefhele kejves kee
Jemlegle: ceieOe kes Glke<e& ceW keg cenlJeekeeb#eer ceieOe kes DeJemej efce}e~ Fme hekeej efyebefyemeej kes cenlJeekeeb#ee Deewj ketveerefle

kes keejCe ceieOe MeerIe ner Ske mece=Mee}er jepe yeve ieee~
efyebefyemeej kes heMeeled Depeele Me$eg ceieOe kee Meemeke yevee
Gmeves DeejcYe mes ner efJemleejJeeoer veerefle DeheveeF&~ Gmeves keeMeer hej
Dehevee DeeefOehele mLeeefhele efkeee~ pewve ebLe YeieJeleer met$e kes
Devegmeej DepeeleMe$eg kee JeppeermebIe kes meeLe Yeer eg ngDee~ Gmeves
Deheves ketveerefle%e ceb$eer Jemkeej keer meneelee mes ef}efJeeeW keer
Meefkele hej efJepee heehle keer~6 cebefpPeceefvekeee mes helee e}lee nw efke
heeesle kes DeeeceCe mes yeeves leLee jepeie=n kees megjef#ele kejves kes
ef}S DepeeleMe$eg ves jepeie=n kee ogieeakejCe kejJeeee~7 keeMeer, Debie
leLee JeefppeeeW kes ceieOe ceW efJe}e nes peeves kes yeeo en meeceepe
yengle ye[e nes ieee Lee~ jepeie=n Gme o=ef mes Gheegkele veneR Lee~
DeleSJe veS veiej hee}erheg$e kees DepeeleMe$eg kes heg$e GoeYeo kes
kee} ceW jepeOeeveer yeveeee ieee~ Jemlegle: Deheves efJepee-DeefYeeeveeW
kes ye} hej Depeele Me$eg ves ceieOe jepe keer meercee kee efJemleej efkeee
Deewj Fme hekeej hejJeleea kee} kes ceieOe meeceepe keer veeRJe [e}er~
}sefkeve DeYeer Gmekes GejeefOekeeefjeeW kes ef}S yengle keg kejvee Mes<e
DepeeleMe$eg kes yeeo heebe jepee efmebnemeve hej yew"s~ Deble ceW
heebeJeW jepee kees ne kej efMeMeghee} ves meee mebYee}er Deewj
efMeMegveeie JebMe keer mLeehevee keer~ Fme JebMe ves DeeOeer Meleeyoer leke ner
jepe efkeee~ Fmekes heMeeled ceneheodcevebo ves ceieOe hej DeefOekeej
kej ef}ee~ veboeW kees keYeer-keYeer Yeejle kes heLece meeceepe kee
efvecee&lee kene peelee nQ GvnW ceieOe kee efJeMee} meeceepe efJejemele ceW
efce}e Lee Deewj Jes Gmekeer meercee kee Deewj DeefOeke efJemleej eenles Les~
Fme GsMe kes ef}S GvneWves Ske ye[er mesvee kee mebie"ve efkeee~
hegjeCeeW ceW Gme jepeJebMeeW kes veece efoes ieS nQ, pee Gmekes meeceepe ceW
Meeefce} Les~ vebo JebMe Ssmee hen}e jepeJebMe Lee, efpemeves efyebefyemeej Je
DepeeleMe$eg kes eje [e}er ieF& veeRJe hej heLece Je=nle ceieOe meeceepe
keer mLeehevee keer~ vebo JebMe kes meceeeW ves efJeMee} mesvee kee mebie"ve
efkeee Deewj osMe kes ef}S Ske megJeJeefmLele leLee mebieef"le Meemeve
heCee}er kees pevce efoee GvneWves hee}erheg$e kees mecemle Gejer Yeejle
kee kesvo Yeer yevee efoee~ hee}erheg$e vee kesJe} jepeveerefle kee yeefuke
efMe#ee Deewj mebmke=efle kee Yeer kesvo yeve ieee~ veboeW kes vesle=lJe ceW ceieOe
meeceepe kee Flevee Glke<e& ngDee efke Deeies e} kej ceewe& meeceepe
keer mLeehevee ngF&~
ceieOe kee Glke<e& leLee efJemleej kee ese kesJe} efyebefyemeej,
DepeeleMe$eg leLee ceneheodcevebo pewmes cenlJeekeeb#eer Meemekees kes keejCe
ner veneR ngDee keeeWefke DepeeleMe$eg kes yeeo keF& Deeesie Meemeke DeeS
efHej Yeer ceieOe MeefkeleMee}er yevee jne~12 Jemlegle: Depeele Me$eg leLee
ceneheodceovebo kes GejeefOekeejer Deeesie Les efHej Yeer ceieOe keer
Meefkele ye{leer ieF& Deewj meercee kee efJemleej neslee ieee~ JeemleJe ceW
ceieOe keer meHe}lee kes keg ienjs keejCe Les~
Deheveer Devegkeg} Yeewieesef}ke efmLeefle kes keejCe ceieOe iebiee kes
efvee}s yeneJe kes meceeveeblej Hew}s ngS hetjs cewoeve hej efveeb$eCe jKe

mekelee Lee~13 jepeieerj/efieefjepe ceieOe keer heeeerve jepeOeeveer Leer

efpemes jepeie=le DeLee&led jepee kee efveJeeme mLeeve kene peelee Lee~ Fmes
efieefjepe, DeLee&led heneef[eeW mes efIeje ngDee Yeer kene peelee Lee~
jepeie=n heebe heneef[ee mes efIeje ngDee Lee~ Fmekee #es$e }ieYeie
2300 ceer} Lee~ oef#eCe ceW efJevOe Deewj heefMece ceW meesve ceieOe keer
meercee Leer~15 oef#eCe efyenej ceW ieee mes Deeies kes Ieves pebie}eW mes YeJeve
efvecee&Ce kes ef}S }ke[er Deewj mesvee ef}S neLeer menpe meg}Ye Les~
meyemes cenlJehetCe& yeele en Leer efke ieee mes Deeies oef#eCe-hetJe& keer
heneef[eeW ceW efJeeceeve leebyes Deewj }esns keer Keeve hej ceieOe kee
efveeb$eCe Lee~16 jepeieerj kes meceerhe keer heneef[eeW keer pees OeejJee[
heJe&lecee}e keer meyemes Gej keer MeeKee keer nw YetieYeeae mebjevee Ssmeer
nw efke FveceW }ewn Keefvepe Deemeeveer mes heehle nes peeleer nQ~ eneb }ewnDee@kemeeF[ kes Meuke} heheef[eeb kes he ceW heee&hle cee$ee ceW efce}les
nQ Deewj FvnW DeefOeke Keesos efyevee ner edeveeW mes he=Leke efkeee pee
mekelee nw, Fme Keefvepe kees }ke[er kes keese} mes Meg yeveeves kes
yeeo Deewj leye meHeso nesves leke iece& kejkes nLeew[s mes heerves hej Fmemes
Deewpeej leLee yee&ve yeveeS pee mekeles Les~
jepeieerj keer Ske Deewj megefJeOee en nw efke eejes Deesj mes
heneef[eeW mes efIeje nesves kes keejCe Fmekeer j#ee keer pee mekeleer Leer~
DeejbYe ceW ner heeerme ceer} }byes hejkeess mes Fmekeer efke}syeboer kej
}er ieF& Leer Deewj en hejkeess mes efIeje ngDee megjef#ele veiej Lee~
hejkeess mes efIejs ngS Fme #es$e ceW iejce SJeb "b[s heeveer kes meesles Les~
oerJeejeW kes yeere Gece eejeieen nesves mes Deeheefekee} ceW }byes mecee
leke eneB kes efveJeemeer [s jn mekeles Les~ meeLe ner ceieOe kes oef#eCe ceW
eseveeiehegj kes #es$e ceW }esne leLee leebyee meJee&efOeke cee$ee ceW heeee
peelee Lee hejbleg Fmekee Gheeesie Fve hene[er #es$eeW ceW Glevee }eYeheo
veneR Lee efpelevee keer pe}es{ efceder Jee}s #es$e ceW~ Dele: ceieOe keer
ceneve Meefkele kee eesle en Lee efke Fmeves Oeeleg kee mecegefele
Fmlescee} kejkes pebie}eW kees meeHe efkeee Deewj Jeneb n} keer Kesleer keer
MegDeele keer~17 ceieOe keer otmejer jepeOeeveer hee}erheg$e Yeer meesve SJeb
iebiee veoer keer mebiece hej efmLele Lee en Jeeheej Deewj ke=ef<e kes ef}S
Gheegkele #es$e lees Lee ner~ meeLe ceW en megj#ee keer o=ef mes Yeer
Gheegkele Lee~
Jemlegle: heeke=efleke mebmeeOeve Yeer ceieOe kes Devegket} Les ke=ef<e kes
ef}S Yetefce GhepeeT Leer, heeme kes pebie}eW mes YeJeve efvecee&Ce kes ef}S
kee Deewj mesvee kes ef}S neLeer Ghe}yOe Les Deewj }esns keer mLeeveere
KeeveeW mes yesnlej efkemce kes GhekejCeeW SJeb Dem$e-Mem$eeW leLee
}eYekej Jeeheej kes ef}S }esne efce} peelee Lee~ ceieOe Ske Dee
Ge GhepeeT heosMe Lee Fmeer keejCe yeew ebLees ceW Fmekes ef}S
`megceieOee:' Meyo kee heeesie efkeee ieee nQ ceieOe ceW Yeer Des efkemce
kee eeJe} neslee Lee~ ceieOe-Mee}er (eeJe}) kee Fme hekeej
Gu}sKe efkeee ieee nw, efpememes helee e}lee nw, efke Jes Ge keesef
kes nesles Les Deewj otj-otj leke efveee&le efkees peeles Les~ Fme lejn eneb
keer ke=ef<e Deve #es$eeW keer leg}vee ceW Gvvele Leer~


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

ceieOe kes mego={erkejCe ceW meneelee hengbeeves Jee}e otmeje lelJe

en Lee efke jepekees<e kes ef}S Yetefcekej Deee kes cenlJehetCe& meeOeve
yeve ieS~ eneb keer Yetefce GhepeeT Leer eneb Deefleefjkele Glheeove neslee
Lee~ Fmeef}S kej DeefOeke efce} mekeles Les~ Fmeer keejCe eneb kes
cenlJehetCe& Meemeke kej meben kes ef}S DeefOekeejer efveegkele kejves }ies
Deewj Fmekee meyemes DeefOeke }eYe veboeW kees efce}e~ Gmekee jepekees<e
Yejlee e}e ieee~ veboeW ves venjeW kee Yeer efvecee&Ce kejeee Deewj efmebeeF&
heefjeespevee kees keeee&efvJele efkeee~ Fme hekeej Yeejleere ceeveme ceW
cegKe he mes eeceerCe DeLe&leb$e hej DeeOeeefjle meeceepeJeeoer {ees kes
efvecee&Ce keer mebYeeJevee ves pevce ef}ee~19 Fme meboYe& ceW hees jeceMejCe
Mecee& kes efJeeej en Gheegkele SJeb leke&mebiele heleerle nesles nQ~ Gvekes
Devegmeej efyevee Yeewefleke heieefle kes meceepe ceW ve mlejerkejCe neslee nw
Deewj ve megefJeOee heehle Jeie& kee Goe neslee nw Fmeer Jeie& kes }esie
Deheveer meee kees mego={ kejves kes ef}S jepe keer mebjevee kejles nQ~
keesF& Yeer jepe kej JeJemLee Deewj mewve Meefkele kes efyevee veneR e}
mekelee nw Deewj es mebmLeeSb Des hewoeJeej kes efyevee Ke[er veneR nes
mekeleer nw~20
ceieOe kes Glke<e& kes heers Gmekeer mewve Meefkele Yeer Leer~ OeelegDeeW
keer Ghe}yOelee kes keejCe ceieOe Deheveer mewefveke heeweesefiekeer kee Yeer
megOeej kej mekee~ Fmekee heceeCe JewMee}er kes efKe}eHe }[eF& ceW
ceieOe eje yesnlej neefLeeeW kee Fmlescee} nw~21 pewve meeefnle kes
Devegmeej DepeeleMe$eg JewMee}er kes meeLe eg ceW ceneefMe}ekebke leLee
`jLecet}me' veeceke DeeegOe kee heeesie efkeee Lee~ efJeeveeW kee
Devegceeve nw efke `ceneefMe}ekebke' iegjles} keer heke=efle kee Lee pees
Me$eg hej ye[s ye[s helLej HeWkelee Lee~ jLe-cetme} ee}tDeeW Deewj hewves
efkeveejeW mes }wme jLe Lee efpemeceW meejLeer kes ef}S megjef#ele mLeeve neslee
Lee, peneB yew"kej Jen jLe kees neBkekej Me$egDeeW hej Ieeleke henej
kejlee Lee~23 ceieOe kes MeemekeeW ves Deheves mesvee ceW neefLeeeW kee Yejhetj
Gheeesie efkeee Lee~ neefLeeeW kees o}o}er F}ekeeW ceW Yeer JeJenej ceW
}eee pee mekelee Lee, peyeefke Iees[eW kees veneR~ neefLeeeW mes ogie& Yesoves
kee keece Yeer ef}ee peelee Lee~ ceieOe kes Deeme heeme efJeMes<e kej
eseveeiehegj ceW neefLeeeW keer mebKee heee&hle Leer~ Deve mecekee}erve
MeemekeeW kes heeme Fmekee DeYeeJe Lee~ eseveiehegj #es$e keer
pevepeeleere }esieeW kees ceieOe keer mesvee ceW Meeefce} efkeee ieee Lee pees
}[ekeg heJe=efe kes Les~ otmejer lejHe }esns keer Ghe}yOelee ves Yeer ceieOe
kees Dem$e-Mem$eeW mes megmeefppele efkeee~ DeJebleer kees es[ kej Deve
jepeeW kes heeme }esns keer keceer o=efiele nesleer nw~ efpemekee }eYe ceieOe
kes Glke<e& ces DeJeMe ner efce}e nesiee~
Fmekes Deefleefjkele meyemes cenlJehetCe& leLe en Yeer GYej kej
meeceves Deelee nw efke ceieOe keer lekeveerke Deewj lekeveerkeer mebmeeOeve Yeer
Fmekes Glke<e& kees hetCe&lee keer Deesj }s ieS~ yeew meeefnle mes helee
e}lee nw efke ke=ef<e GhekejCeeW kee heeesie yengleeele ceW nesves }iee Lee~
Fme mecee kes }esie efmebnYetefce keer mece=lece }esns keer Keeve kee
Gheeesie kejves }ies Les~ Fme kee} ceW }ewn GhekejCe efmebnYetefce leLee

ceetjYebpe kes kees }esns mes yeveeS peeles Les~ Fmemes %eele neslee nw efke
}esieeW kees efheJeeB }esns keer heeweesefiekeer kee %eeve Lee~ heeefCeefve kes
`Ye^e' leLee heejbefYeke heeef} ebLeeW ceW `Yemlee' MeyoeW kee heeesie Fme
yeele keer metevee osles nQ efke hetJe& ceewe& kee} ceW ece[s keer yeveer
OeewkeefveeeW kee heeesie neslee Lee~ Fme #es$e kes }esieeW kees Ske yeej
mece=lece kees }esns leLee efheJeeb }esns Deewj De&-Fmheele kes
efvecee&Ce kee %eeve nes ieee lees efveMee keer Gvekeer efmLeefle hetJe& keer
Dehes#ee Deer nes ieF&b~ }ewn GhekejCeeW kes heeesie mes ner eeboer kes
Deenle efmekekes yeveeS peeles Les~ Jemlegle: }ewn GhekejCeeW mes ner eeboer
keer }byeer eeojW leweej keer peeleer Leer GvnW Deeeeleekeej ee iees}
gke[eW ceW keee peelee Lee~ ceewe&kee}erve cen}es kes he ceW heehle
ye[s-ye[s }ke[er kes YeJeveeW mes Yeer }ewn GhekejCeW kes heeesie kes
efve<ke<e& efvekee}s pee mekeles nQ~ en mhe nw efke Fme hekeej kes YeJeveeW
kee Gheeesie ceewe& kee} mes hen}s heejbYe nes ieF& nesieer leLee }esns keer
yemeg}e, sveer, Deejer, keer}, Deeefo kes Gheeesie kes efyevee Fmekee
efvecee&Ce mebYeJe veneR nes mekelee Lee~ Fmeer hekeej ceOe iebiee kes leere
#es$e ceW n} kes heeesie mes ke=ef<e kee hemeej ngDee~ hee}er meeefnle ceW
n} kes ef}S `vebie}' Meyo kee heeesie efce}lee nw~ `megeefveheele'
ceieOe ceW Fevebie} veeceke ieebJe kee Gu}sKe kejlee nw~24
ceieOe kes Glke<e& ceW pevepeeleere }esie leLee Gvekeer lekeveerke mes
Yeer meneelee efce}er~ ceieOe kes oef#eCe ceW eseveeiehegj #es$e ceW Demegj
pevepeeefle veJe-hee<eeCe kee} mes }skej }ewn egie leke eseveeiehegj ceW
He}les - Het}les jns~ FvneWves }esne ie}eves mes }skej YeJeve efvecee&Ce
leke keer lekeveerke meerKe }er Leer~ Fvekes yeveeS ieS Demegj ie{eW kes
DeJeMes<eeW kees Deepe Yeer osKee pee mekelee nw~ meeLe ner eermeie{ kes
Ske Deve pevepeeefle Deieefjee efpe}s Yeer DemegjeW mes mebye ceevee
peelee nw~ efpemekee DeLe& nw Deeie ee Deeie mes keece kejves Jee}e~
Deieefjee }esie heeeerve kee} mes ner keese}e pe}ekej efceder keer
eser-eser YeefdeeW ceW Deemke efheIe}ekej }esne efvekee}les Les~
Deieefjee }esie Ske efJeMes<e hekeej keer ekekeervegcee Oeewkeveer kee Yeer
heeesie kejles Les efpemes Jes hewjeW mes e}eles Les~26 Deieefjee pevepeeefle
eje yeveeS ieS }esns kes Deewpeej heeeerve kee} mes ke=ef<e
DeLe&JeJemLee kee DeeOeej Les~ Deieefjee Fmeer }esns mes Heme} keeves
Jee}er nbefmeee Deewj n} yeveeles Les~ en Yeer kene peelee nw efke
Deieefjee eje yeveeS ieS }esns hej yengle mee}eW leke pebie veneR
}ielee Lee~28 Fme hekeej Fve pevepeeefleeeW keer lekeveerkeeW kee }eYe
DeJeMe ner ceieOe kees efce}e nesiee~
Gheeg&kele leLeeW kee efJeM}s<eCe kejves hej en kene pee mekelee
nw efke ceieOe kes Glke<e& ceW keF& keejke Gejoeeer jns nQ~ eeefhe ceieOe
kes DeejbefYeke MeemekeeW keer Yetefcekee Deleble cenlJehetCe& jner~ Gvekeer
cenlJeekeeb#ee ves ceieOe kees peveheo mes meeceepe ceW heefjJeefle&le efkeee,
leLeeefhe ceieOe keer Yeewieesef}ke efmLeefle Deewj heeke=efleke, ceeveJeere leLee
lekeveerkeer mebmeeOeveeW keer Ghe}yOelee Fmekes Glke<e& kes hecegKe keejke


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

jns~ MeemekeeW keer Ghe}efyOe Fme yeele ceW efveefnle nw kes GvneWves Fve
mebmeeOeveeW kee mecegefele Gheeesie Deheves meeceepe efJemleej ceW efkeee~
meeLe ner kej JeJemLee efveeefcele kej Meemeke Jeie& Deewj mesvee keer
DeeJeMekelee keer hetefle& mecegefele he ceW efkeee~ Fmekes yeeJepeto ceieOe
kes Glke<e& kes Jeefkelehejke hej keejkeeW mes DeefOeke cenlJehetCe& Fmekes
Jemleghejke keejkeeW kees ceevee pee mekelee nw~ ceieOe keer Fmeer efJeefMe
efmLeefle kes keejCe ceieOe }byes mecee leke Yeejle kes meee kee kesvo jne
Fmeer mebmeeOeveeW kes ye} hej ceewe& meeceepe kee efvecee&Ce ngDee, Deewj
Yeejle ceW heLece meeceepe DeefmlelJe ceW Deeee~ Fleves ye[s #es$e hej
meHe}lee kes ef}S Debespe Yeer meoe ueeueeefele jns~ Fme hekeej ceieOe
kee Fefleneme mebhetCe& Yeejle kee Fefleneme yeve ieee~
1. efmebn ceefCekeeble, Yeejleere Fefleneme Ske efJeM}s<eCe, efkeleeye
cen}, 2005, veF& efou}er, he= 197
2. Leehej jesefce}e, Yeejle kee Fefleneme, jepekece} hekeeMeve,
1975 veF& efou}er, he= 47
3. eerJeemleJe ke=<Ce ebo, heeeerve Yeejle kee Fefleneme leLee
mebmke=efle, egveeFs[ yegke ef[hees, 2004, F}eneyeeo, he=
4. keesmebyeer oeceesoj Oecee&vebo, heeeerve Yeejle keer mebmke=efle Deewj
meYelee, jepekece} hekeeMeve, 1990, veF& efou}er, he=
5. hetJeexkele, jesefce}e, Leehej, he= 48
6. Pee efpesvo veejeeCe, ke=<Ce ceesnve eercee}er (mebhee) heeeerve
Yeejle kee Fefleneme, efnvoer ceeOece keeee&vJeeve efveosMee}e,
1997, veF& efou}er, he= 168
7. hetJeexkele, ke=<Ce ebo eerJeemleJe, he= 116
8. hetJeexkele, efpesvo veejeeCe Pee, ke=<Ce ceesnve eerce}er, he=
9. Pee efopesvo veejeeCe, heeeerve Yeejle meeceeefpeke DeeefLe&ke Deewj
meebmke=efleke efJekeeme keer he[lee}, ebLe efMeuheer, veF& efou}er,



2000, he= 92
Jener, 93
hetJeeskele, efpesvo veejeeCe Pee, ke=<Ce ceesnve eercee}er, he=
hetJeeskele, jesefce}e Leehej, he= 49
hetJee&kele, efpesvo veejeeCe Pee, he= 95
keefveIebce, heeeerve Yeejle kee Ssefleneefmeke Yetiees}, Deveg
DeeoMe& efnvoer hegmlekee}e, 1971, F}eneyeeo, he= 308
Deefivenes$eer heYegoee}, heblepeef}kee}erve Yeejle, F&mve& yegke
ef}bkeme&, 2007, veF& efou}er, he= 90
hetJeexkele, efpesvo veejeeCe Pee, he=0 95
hetJeexkele, oeceesoj Oecee&vebo keeWmeyeer he= 157
hetJeexkele, heYegoee} Deefivenes$eer, he= 90
hetJeexkele, jesefce}e Leehej, he= 50
Mecee& jeceMejCe, ceOeiebiee #es$e keer mebjevee hegjeleeeflJeke Deewj
ve=leeeflJeke DeOeeve, (Deveg), ebLe efMeuheer, 1998, veF&
efou}er, he=0 hh .
hetJeexkele, efpesvo veejeeCe Pee, he= 95
efmebn meYeeheefle, heeeerve Yeejle ceW mewve JeJemLee, ogiee&
heefy}kesMeve, 1990, veF& efou}er, he= 145
hetJeexkele, jesefce}e Leehej, he= 49
Mecee& jeceMejCe heeeerve Yeejle ceW Yeewefleke heieefle SJeb
meeceeefpeke mebjeveeSb, jepekece} hekeeMeve, 1992, veF&
efou}er, he= 143
efJejesece yeer, PeejKeC[ : Fefleneme SJeb mebmkeefle, efyenej
efnvoer ebLecee}e Dekeeoceer, 2003, hevee, he= 18
SefuJeve Jesefjeej, Deieefjee (Deveg) jepekece} hekeeMeve,
2007, veF& efou}er, he= 35-36, Artical 16 July, 2008, 20.4.2010

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 170-172

ISSN 0974 - 200X

PeejKeC[ kes pevepeeleere meceepe ceW ceefnueeDeeW keer efmLeefle

heeflecee Pee
MeesOe e$ee, meceepeMeem$e
efmees-keevng cegcet& efJeMJeefJeeeuee, ogcekee
ogefveeeYej ceW pevepeeleere meceepe MeesOe kee efJe<ee jne nw~ Fme mJeeefYeceeveer meceepe ves keYeer Deheves heg<eeLe& kees ueskej mecePeewlee veneR efkeee~ uesefkeve Deepe
en meceepe oee kee hee$e yeve ieee nw, pees ogKeo nw~ heeke=efleke mebmeeOeveeW hej efveYe&j pevepeeleere meceepe keer efmLeefle hetjs osMe ceW Ske Ssmeer ner nw~ pevepeeleere
ieebJeeW keer ceefnueeDeeW keer efmLeefle peme keer leme yeveer ngF& nw~ ceefnueeDeeW kes efueS meeceeefpeke he mes peeoe Goej ceevee peevesJeeuee PeejKeC[, Yeues ner Fvekes
efueS keF& ceeeveeW ceW Deve jepeeW mes yesnlej nes hej ceefnueeDeeW kes efueS lees eneB Deepe Yeer leceece meJeeueeW keer yesef[eeB henues pewmeer ner meK]le Deewj kemeeJe
efueS nQ, Fmes eneB meehe cenmetme efkeee pee mekelee nw~ DeeefoJeemeer Deefmcelee Deewj DeefOekeej kes veece hej yeves Deueie PeejKeC[ jepe ceW Yeer pevepeeleere
ceefnueeDeeW keer efmLeefle ceW megOeej veneR nes jne nw~ hemlegle DeeuesKe ceW PeejKeC[ keer pevepeeleere ceefnueeDeeW kes Glheer[ve, Mees<eCe Deewj Gvekeer mebIe<e& kees hemlegle
efkeee ieee nw~

efJeefMeMeyo - ceefnue meMeefekejCe, Jee&mJeJeeoerheJe=efle, mJeeJeuecyeve, heueeeve, je<^ere ieeceerCe jespeieej ieejber keevetve
yeBJeejs nQ pees eer kees heg<e mes kecelej cenmetme kejves kes efueS ie{s
Yeejle kes mebefJeOeeve ves ceefnueeDeeW kees meceepe keer Ske ngS nw~ pevepeeleere mecegoeeeW ceW meceepe keer mebjevee SJeb mebeeueve
cenlJehetCe& FkeeF& ceevee Deewj FvnW veeieefjkelee, Jeemke celeeefOekeej hejbhejeDeeW kes DeeOeej hej neslee nw~ Yeejle ceW peeoelej pevepeeleere
Deewj cetue DeefOekeejeW kes DeeOeej hej heg<eeW kes yejeyej opee& leLee mecegoee efhele= meeelceke nw~ efkebleg Gej-hetJeer& jepeeW kes keg #es$eeW ceW
meceeve DeefOekeej heoeve efkeS, efkebleg JeemleefJeke Meefkele ceefnueeDeeW mes ceele= meeelceke heefjJeej heeS peeles nQ~ ceele=meeelceke mecegoeeeW ceW
Deye Yeer otj Leer~ Keemekej ieeceerCe SJeb pevepeeleere meceepeeW keer heefjJeej kee vesle=lJe ceefnueeDeeW kes heeme neslee nw~ Gvekes DeefOekeej
ceefnueeDeeW mes~ mebefJeOeeve kes Devegso 39 ceW keer ieF& JeJemLee kes Deewj oeefelJe heg<eeW mes DeefOeke ceeves peeles nQ~ peneB ceele=heOeeve meee
Devegmeej jepe Deheveer veerefle kee efJeMeleee Fme hebkeej mebeeueve nw, JeneB Yeer iees$e Yeues ceeB kes veece mes euelee nw Deewj keneR-keneR
kejsiee efke megefveefele he mes heg<e Deewj m$eer meYeer veeieefjkeeW kees mecheefle keer DeefOekeejer Yeer heg$eer nesleer nw, Fmekes yeeJepeto Gme meceepe
meceeve he mes peerefJekee kes heee&hle meeOeve heehle kejves kee DeefOekeej ceW Yeer efhelee ee ceecee ner DeefOeke cenlJehetCe& mLeeve jKeles nQ~
nw~ Yeejle ces veejerJeeoer meefkeelee ves 1970 kes oMeke kes Geje& MeesOe heefJeefOe
hemlegle DeeuesKe efJeMues<eCe SJeb JeCee&lceke heJe=efle kee nw~ MeesOe
kes oewjeve jhe]leej heke[er~ Je<e& 2001 kees je<^ere ceefnuee
meMeefekejCe Je<e& kes he ceW ceveeves kee hewmeuee efueee ieee uesefkeve DeeuesKe kes efueS cegKele: efleereke eesleeW kees DeeOeej yeveeee ieee
mees DeLees& ceW ceefnuee meMeefekejCe kes efuees meceepe keer heg<e nw~ Fmekes efuees cegKele: hekeeefMele iebLe, efJeefYeVe he$e-heef$ekeeDeeW ceW
heOeeve ceeveefmekelee kees yeouevee pejer nw, Fmekes meeLe ner hes uesKe, hekeeefMele SJeb DehekeeefMele MeesOekeee& Fleeefo kees
leLeekeefLele meYe meceepe kees ceefnueeDeeW kes Glheer[ve keer jeskeLeece DeeOeej yeveeee ieee nw~
Deewj Gvekes mecceeve keer j#ee kes meeLe keer keueeCe kes efuees Yeer Deeies leLe efJeMues<eCe
pevepeeleere meceepe meecetefnkelee Deewj meceevelee ceW efJeeeme
Deevee nesiee~ meceepe ceW ceefnueeDeeW kes heefle DehejeOe kes veS lejerkes
nw~ PeejKeC[ kes pevepeeleere heefjJeej efhele=meeelceke nw~ et
efJekeefmele nes jns nQ pees efebleveere nw~ Yeejleere mebmke=efle ceW veejer kee
Deye en efJe<ee efkemeer mee#e kee ceesnleepe veneR efke pevepeeleere
ncesMee mecceeve jne nw, Gmekees oesece opes& kee ceeveves keer heJe=efe ve
heefjJeej henues ceele=meeelceke ngDee kejles Les~ uesefkeve en Keespe kee
osMe Deewj meceepe kee vegkemeeve efkeee nw~
efJe<ee nw efke es keye mes efhele=meeelceke nesles iees~ Jewmes, Deepe Yeer Fme
ceefnueeDeeW kes efueS meeceeefpeke he mes pevepeeleere meceepe yeele kes mebkesle efceueles nQ efke keF& pevepeeefleeeW ceW efhele=meeelcekelee kee
peeoe Goej ceevee peelee nw~ Fmekes yeeJepeto pevepeeleere ceefnueeeW efJekeeme leye mes Meg ngDee, peye mes Gvekes peerJeve kes OeejCeDeveee kes heefle meefoeeW mes petPeleer Dee jner nQ Deewj Deepe Yeer ue[ mebeeueve-efveeb$eCe kee `heke=efle' mes meerOee mebyebOe kecepeesj Je
jner nw~ Ssmes lees pevepeeleere ceefnueeDeeW keer mJeleb$elee Deewj Demeblegefuele nesves ueiee~
mJevolee kes efceLeke Deewj Yece kee heeej Ketye efkeee peelee jne nw
DeBiejspeeW kes Deeves mes henues mecheefle veece keer keesF& DeJeOeejCee
~ meYeer yejeyej kes n]keoej nesles Les~ pevepeeefleeeW kes
uesefkeve Gvekes meceepe kes Yeerlej Yeer keg Ssmes ke[s efveece Deewj

efhele=heOeeve meceepe ceW Yeer ue[efkeeeB efhelee kes Iej peye leke eens jn
mekeleer Leer~ heefle kes cejves kes yeeo Yeer Gvekes YejCe-hees<eCe keer
efpeccesJeejer efhelee Deewj YeeFeeW hej nesleer Leer~ Oeerjs-Oeerjs yeenjer meceepe
keer meejer efJeke=efleeeB Yeer Fme meceepe ceW Yeer heJesMe kejves ueieer Deewj
meecetefnke heJe=efe keer peien Jee&mJeJeeoer heJe=efle keer MegDeele ngF&~
mebleeue, cegC[e, GjebJe, nes leLee Keef[ee pevepeeefleeeW ceW efeeeW kees
efhelee keer mecheefe hej keesF& DeefOekeej veneR efceue heeee nw~ hewle=ke
mecheefe ceW DeefOekeej keer ceeBie efJeiele Je<ees& mes DeeefoJeemeer meceepe ceW,
Keemekej PeejKeC[ ceW G"ves ueieer nw~ mecheefe kee es efJeJeeo
DeeefoJeeefmeeeW kes keg keyeerueeW ceW ner nw~ hetJees&lej ceW efmLeefle keg
efYeVe nw~ cesIeeuee ceele=meee heOeevejepe nw~ JeneB Keemeer meceepe ceW
mecheefe hej yesefeeB kee DeefOekeej neslee nw~ yees[esmeceepe ceW Yeer
yesefeeB Jebefele veneR nw~ efcepees meceepe neueeBefke efhele=meee heOeeve nw
uesefkeve JebMe ceeB kes ieew$e mes ner euelee nw~ hetJees&ej jepeeW ceW keece kes
yeBJeejs ceW Yeer keesF& he#eheelehetCe& jJewee veneR Deheveeee ieee~ JeneB
m$eer-heg<e efceuekej meYeer keece kejles nQ~ efcepeesjce ceW m$eer Yeer nue
eueeleer nw~ oef#eCe ceW DeeefoJeemeer meceepe DeefOekelej Deheves-Deheves
heosMe keer mebmke=efle ceW meceeeesefpele nes ieee nw, kesJeue keg
DeeefoJeemeer Deeefoce pevepeeefleeeW leLee yebpeejs, uecyee[er, keghheve
pewmeer Iegcebleg pevepeeefleeeW kees es[kej~
keece kes yeBJeejs ceW Yeer efm$eeeB kes meeLe Deveee efkeee ieee
nw~ cesnvele kejves kes ceeceueW ceW heg<eeW mes p]eeoe ner #eceleeJeeve nesleer
nQ~ eens pebieue mes ueke[er keevee nes ee Kesle kee keece kejvee nes
DeLeJee efMekeej kejvee nes, meeceeefpeke leewj hej keneR Yeer iewj yejeyejer
veneR Leer~ m$eer Deewj heg<e keer Meejerefjke yeveeJe kes DeeOeej hej keece
ceW yeBJeeje mecePe Dee mekelee nw, uesefkeve DeeefoJeemeer heg<e meceepe ves
keee& kee yeBJeeje Meejerefjke yeveeJe ee #ecelee kes DeeOeej hej ve
kejkes, m$eer hej DeefOekeej peleeves kes efkeesCe mes, ke[s-ke[s
efveece-keevetve yeveekej GvnW keg keeceeW mes Jeefpe&le kej efoee, pewmes
nue eueevee, Iej kee hhej evee ee Oeveg<e tvee DeLee&led ]peceerve
Deewj Iej pees Deepe keer heefjYee<ee ceW mecheefle kes heleerke nw, hej
DeeefoJeemeer heg<e meceepe kee ner DeefOekeej jns~
pevepeeleere ceefnueeSB mJeeJeuecyeer nesleer nQ~ es Ke-keceekej
Dehevee Deewj Deheves hetjs heefjJeej kee YejCe-hees<eCe kejleer nQ~ Ssmeer
efm$eeeW kees mecheefe ceW efnmmes kee DeefOekeej ve nesves kes keejCe
heefjleee ee efJeOeJee nesves hej [eeve kenkej Deheceeefvele, heleeef[le
kejvee ee Gvekeer nlee leke kej efoee peevee pevepeeleere meceepe ceW
Deepe Deece yeele nes ieeer nw~ [eeve heLee efhele=meee Jee&mJeJeeoer
Peeve kes meeLe-meeLe efm$eeeW kes mecheefe ceW n]ke ve nesves kes
heefjCeecemJehe Yeer Ghepeer nw~ meeceeefpeke mebjevee kee pees Yeer
mJehe nes, heee: meYeer pevepeeleere mecegoeeeW ceW ceefnueeSB heg<e keer
leguevee ceW DeefOeke ece kejleer nQ~ Jes heefjJeej keer DeLe&-JeJemLee keer
Oegjer nesleer nQ~ pevepeeleere mecegoee meefoeeW ceW pebieueeW ceW jnles DeeS
nQ~ Jes Fve pebieueeW kes mebj#eCe kees ueskej yengle meleke& jnles nQ~ FmeceW
ceefnueeDeeW keer ner Yetefcekee DeefOeke nesleer nw~ pevepeeleere ceefnueeSB

meebmke=efleke SJeb meeceeefpeke ef mes meMee nQ~ mJeeJeuecyeve Gvekee

heeke=efleke iegCe nw~ efkebleg Deepe pevepeeleere ceefnueeSB Deheves mebkeceCe
keeue mes iegpej jner nQ~ meefoeeW mes eueer Dee jner Gvekeer hejbhejeSb
yeoue jner nw~ yeenjer ogefveee mes pevepeeleere mecegoeeeW kee mebheke&
lespeer mes ye{e nw~ uesefkeve ogYee&ieJeMe Gvehej yeenjer ogefveee keer
DeeFeeW kee kece peyeefke yegjeF&eeW kee DeefOeke heYeeJe he[ jne nw~
Fmemes ceefnueeSB Yeer Detleer veneR nw~ efMe#ee Deye leke DeeefoJeeefmeeeW
keer heeLeefcekelee veneR yeve heeeer nw~ heg<e eje kepe& uesves keer heJe=efle
kes keejCe Yeer ceefnueeDeeW keer efmLeefle hej efJehejerle heYeeJe he[lee nw~
GvnW Yeer heefjJeej kes Deve meomeeW kes meeLe yebOegDee cepeotjer kejves kes
efueS cepeyetj nesvee he[lee nw~
pevepeeleere ceefnueeDeeW kes meMeefekejCe kes efueS pees Yeer
hejsKee yeveeF& peeS, GmeceW Fme yeele kees DeJeMe Oeeve ceW jKee
peeS efke Fve ceefnueeDeeW kees Yeer veJeegie kee meecevee kejvee nw~ eneB
ef{eeW Deewj hejchejeDeeW ceW Deblej kejvee nesiee~ hejchejeSb Ske heer{er
kes yeeo otmejer heer{er kees nmleebleefjle nesveer eeefnSb efkevleg ef{eeW kes
ceeceues ceW Ssmee veneR nesvee eeefnS~ efJeefYeVe pevepeeefleeeW ceW heeefuele
hejchejeiele meceepe mebeeueve efJeefOeeeB kee DeOeeve kej efJemebieefleeeB
Je DemeceeveleeDeeW kees otj kejves keer efoMee ceW henue keer peeveer
pevepeeleere ceefnueeSB mJeYeeJe ceW Deve ceefnueeDeeW mes peeoe
mejue Deewj Yeesueer nesleer nQ Deewj mecee-mecee hej GvnW Fme Yeesuesheve
keer keercele Yeer Deoe kejveer he[leer nw~ pevepeeleere ceefnueeSB cenpe
ebo hees keer Keeeflej pebieueeW keer Keeke eveves kees Jes efJeJeMe nw~ Jes
Deepe Yeer oeletve, heee yesekej heefjJeej kee YejCe-hees<eCe kej jner nw~
Fmekes efueS GvnW pebieueeW Je heneef[eeW hej keesmeeW keer otjer hewoue lee
kejveer he[leer nw~ yegefveeeoer pejleeW kes meJeeue mes ueskej leceece
megefJeOeeDeeW leke ceefnueeSB Kego kees Ghesef#ele ner heeleer nw~ PeejKeC[
kes keF& ieeBJeeW ceW ceefnueeDeeW kes efueS ve keesF& peee Demheleeue nw
Deewj vener ner ceefnuee efJeeeuee~ Ssmeer megefJeOeeSB ieeBJe mes Keemeer otjer
hej nQ hej JeneB leke henBgeves kes efueS ieeBJe mes keesF& me[ke ee meeOeve
DeYeer leke veneR yevee nw~
efouueer, ceneje<^, esVeF& ceW PeejKeC[ keer ceefnueeDeeW keer
mebKee ves efJekejeue heOeejCe kej efueee nw~ ieebJe ceW efpeleveer Yeer
mejkeejer eespeveeSB Deeeer nw Fmemes ieebJe kees keg efceuee lees efmehe&
heueeeve~ mejkeej Fmekes efueS keesF& eespevee vener yevee heeleer nw~
peye-peye ke=ef<e JeJemLee tsieer heueeeve Glevee ner DeefOeke nesiee~
keg ceefnueeSB Ssmeer Yeer nQ efpevekes heefle ves GvnW es[ efoee nw~
ceefnueeDeeW kes heefle meeseves Jeeuee keesF& veneR nw~
hetjs PeejKeC[ ceW osKeW lees efpeleves Yeer mejkeejer eespevee ieeBJe ceW
ueeeer peeleer jner nw~ GmeceW ceefnueeDeeW kes meeLe YesoYeeJe hetCe& jJewee
yejlee ieee~ ieeceerCe iejeryeer kes veece hej henues mes ueeiet keer ieF&
leceece jespeieej eespeveeDeeW, je<^ere ieeceerCe jespeieej ieejber keevetve,
ieeceerCe Yetefcenerve jespeieej ieejber keee&kece, peJeenj jespeieej


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

eespevee pewmes Deveskees eespeveeeW nQ~ je<^ere ieeceerCe jespeieej ieejber

mebmeo eje heeefjle Ske keevetve nw ve efke eespevee, Deewj efkemeer keevetve
keer heeceeefCekelee keer hejer#ee Gmekes efkeeevJeeve mes nesleer nw~ je<^ere
ieeceerCe jespeieej ieejber keevetve Yeues ner Fve efokekeleeW mes cege {ebes
ceW efveefce&le efkeee ieee Lee~ uesefkeve PeejKeC[ ceW DeefOekelej efpeueeW ceW
en heMeemeefveke {guecegue jJewes kee efMekeej ngDee~ keevetve lees keF&
yeves efkevleg PeejKeC[ keer ceefnueeDeeW kee heueeeve veneR kee~
efJemLeeheve Deewj [eeve heLee keer mecemee henues keer lejn ner keeece
nw~ PeejKeC[ mes Deepe Yeer ceneveiejeW ceW npeejeW ceefnueeSB henBge jner
nQ~ efpememes ceneveiejeW ceW ceeveJe Jeeheej kes he ceW Ske veeer mecemee
Dee Ke[er ngF& nw~ jepe ceW ceefnuee veerefle Deye leke veneR yeve heeF& nw~
Fmekes eueles pevepeeleere meceepe efyeKejeJe keer efmLeefle ceW Dee ieee nw~
Ssmeer efkeleveer ner egveewefleeeB kes yeere Yeer Iej mes ueskej leceece
meebmke=efleke Iejesnj kees mebYeeueves kee ef]peccee pevepeeleere ceefnueeDeeW
hej ner nw~
pevepeeleere meceepe ceW ceefnueeDeeW kes efueS pees mLeeve nw Jees
meeceeve he mes osMeYej ceW osKeves kees veneR efceuelee~ Fmekes yeeJepeto
Deheves ner meceepe ceW Fvekees yejeyejer kee opee& veneR efceue jne nw~ peneB
leke PeejKeC[ kes pevepeeleere mecegoeeeW ceW ceefnueeDeeW keer efmLeefle kee
hee nw, Gmes Yeer DeeoMe& veneR kene pee mekelee~ pevepeeleere meceepe
Deepe Deiej efJekeeme keer cegKe Oeeje mes kee ngDee nw, lees Fmekes
efueS heefjefmLeefleeeW mes peeoe Jes lelJe oes<eer nQ, efpevneWves Fve efveMue
meceepe kees "iee nw~ jepe ceW peuo mes peuo ceefnuee veerefle ueeiet
kejves keer pejle nw~ Fme veerefle ceW Ske DeOeee DeeefoJeemeer
ceefnueeDeeW kes efueS nesvee eeefnS~ ceefnuee efJemLeeheve, efmebieue
Jegcesve, DeeOeer Deeyeeoer keer eFue keer mecemee, [eeve efve<esOe
DeefOeefveece kee ueeerueeheve Kelce kejvee pejer nw~


cegC[e jeceoeeue, DeeefoJeemeer DeefmlelJe Deewj PeejKeb[er
Deefmcelee kes meJeeue, hekeeMeve mebmLeeve, veF& efouueer, 2002
Yet<eCe efJeee, meceepe mebmke=efle Deewj efJekeeme, hekeeMeve
mebmLeeve, veF& efouueer, 2000
Gefce&uesMe, PeejKeC[ peeogF& peceerve kee DebOesje, hekeeMeve
mebmLeeve, veF& efouueer, 2000
Jecee& heeb, Yeejleere pevepeeefleeeb, hekeeMeve efJeYeeie,
metevee Deewj hemeejCe ceb$eeuee, Yeejle mejkeej, veF& efouueer,
Jecee& GcesMe kegceej, pevepeeleere meceepeMeem$e,peevekeer
hekeeMeve, hevee, 2008
efJeeeLeer& Sue heer Deewj jee yeer kes, efo ^eFyeue keueej
Dee@he Fbef[ee, kebmesh heefyueefMebie kecheveer, veF& efouueer,
Jecee& et kes, PeejKeC[er meceepe Deewj mebmke=efle, mesJee megjefYe,
mesJee Yeejleer, jeBeer, 2001
Jecee& Deej, Yeejleere pevepeeefleeeB-Deleerle kes PejesKes mes,
hekeeMeve efJeYeeie, metevee leLee hemeejCe ceb$eeuee, Yeejle
mejkeej, veF& efouueer, 1997
ogyes MeeceeejCe, ceeveJe Deewj mebmke=efle, jepekeceue hekeeMeve,
veF& efouueer, 1989
Jecee& et kes, efyenej ceW pevepeeleere m$eer efMe#ee keer efmLeefle,
yeguesefve Dee@he efyenej ^eFyeue Jesuehesej efjmee& Fbefmdeg,
jeBeer, 1995
Menz Diwakar, Encyclopedia of schedule
tribes of Jharkhand, Gyan Publishing House,
Delhi, 2000

12. Mecee& efyeceuee ejCe SJeb efJekece keerefle&, PeejKeC[ keer

pevepeeefleeeB, keeGve heefyuekesMeve, jeBeer, 2006


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 173-176

ISSN 0974 - 200X

efyenej keer hegjeleeefJeke Oejesnj

[e@ efJevee kegceej efceee
meneeke mejb#eCeefJeo
je<^ere heeC[gefueefhe efceMeve
mebmke=efle ceb$eeuee, Yeejle mejkeej, veF& efouueer
Yeejle ceW GheueyOe hegjeleeefJeke cenlJe kes mLeueeW ceW efyenej keer meercee ceW DeevesJeeues heeeerve GsKeveere mLeueeW keer Yetefcekee cenlJehetCe& nw~ hee<eeCeegie, leeceegie
SJeb keebme egie keer heefleceeDeeW kes meeLe-meeLe ceeveJe kes Gheeesie ceW ueeF& peevesJeeueer Deveske JemlegDeeW, pees Keemekej hegjeleeefJeke cenlJe keer nQ, mes meboefYe&le
Yejhetj meeceieer GheueyOe nw~ heeeerve keeue ceW eLee ceewe&, Megbie, ieghle Deeefo JebMeeW kes Meemeve ceW me=efpele Jeemlegkeuee keer meeceefieeeb Yeer heegj cee$ee ceW efyenej kes
heeme, mebieneueeeW ceW, Decetue efveefOe kes he ceW ceewpeto nQ~ hemlegle MeesOe DeeuesKe ceW efyenej keer hecegKe hegjeleeefJeke OejesnjeW kee JeCe&ve efkeee ieee nw~ FmeceW
hegjeleeefJeke efkeesCe mes cenlJehetCe& YeiveeJeMes<eeW SJeb mLeueeW kes yeejs ceW peevekeejer GheueyOe kejeves keer keesefMeMe keer ieeer nw~

efJeefMeMeyo - yeew mlethe, Jeemlegkeuee, veJehee<eeCe keeue, heeiewefleneefmeke keeue, hegjeefYeuesKe

efkeee ieee nw~ Fmekes efueS cegKele: iepesefej, hekeeefMele iebLe,
$ekeeDeeW ceW hes efJeJejCe, efveyevOe SJeb uesKe leLee efJeefYevve
efyenej kee Deleerle ieewjJeMeeueer jne nw~ Fmekee veece yeew
efJenejeW kee efJeke=le he ceevee peelee nw~ en #es$e iebiee leLee Gmekeer MeesOe iebLeeW kees DeOeeve kee DeeOeej yeveeee ieee nw~
meneeke veefoeeW kes cewoeveeW ceW yemee nw~ heeeerve keeue kes efJeMeeue leLe efJeMues<eCe
meeceepeeW kee ie{ jne en heosMe Jele&ceeve ceW osMe keer DeLe&JeJemLee
hegjelelJe%eeW keer ef mes efyenej kee ye[e cenlJe nw~ efyenej kee
kes efhe[s eesieoeleeDeeW ceW Ske efievee peelee nw~ efyenej kee veece Deeles ner Yeejle keer mebmke=efle, meYelee, Fefleneme Deewj %eeve
Ssefleneefmeke veece ceieOe nw~ efyenej keer jepeOeeveer hevee kee efevleve meeceves Deekej Ke[e nes peelee nw~ eneB Deveske hegjeleeefJeke
Ssefleneefmeke veece heeefueheg$e nw~ heeeerve keeue ceW ceieOe kee meeceepe SJeb Ssefleneefmeke cenlJe kes heeeerve mLeue nQ, efpevekee eefo mener {bie
osMe kes meyemes MeefeMeeueer meeceepeeW ceW mes Ske Lee~ eneB mes ceewe& mes mejb#eCe SJeb efJekeeme nes lees Jen cenlJehetCe& hee&ve mLeue kes he
JebMe, ieghle JebMe leLee Deve keF& jepeJebMeeW ves osMe kes DeefOekelej ceW mLeeefhele nes mekeWies~
efnmmeeW hej jepe efkeee~ ceewe& JebMe kes Meemeke mecee DeMeeske kee JewMeeueer : JewMeeueer kee Yeejle kes heeeerve Fefleneme ceW cenlJehetCe&
meeceepe heefMece ceW De]heieeefvemleeve leke hewuee ngDee Lee~ ceewe& JebMe mLeeve nw~ Fmekee Deeeer&kejCe ceieOe (ceOe efyenej) kes henues ngDee~
kee Meemeve 325 F&mJeer hetJe& mes 185 F&mJeer hetJe& leke jne ~ "er Fmekee ke=ef<e Deewj JeeefCepe kes he ceW efJekeeme ngDee~ eneB Meemeve
Deewj heebeJeer meoer FmeehetJe& ceW eneB yeew leLee pewve Oecees kee GJe kes #es$e ceW Ske ceneve heeesie efkeee ieee~ Je=efpeeeW (JeefppeeeW)
ngDee~ yeejnJeeR meoer ceW yeefKleeej efKeuepeer ves efyenej hej DeeefOehele DeLeJee efueefJeeeW ves eneB ieCeleb$e keer mLeehevee keer, pees heeeerve
pecee efueee~ Gmekes yeeo ceieOe osMe keer heMeemeefveke jepeOeeveer veneR Yeejle kes ieCeleb$eeW ves meyemes DeefOeke heefme nw leLee efJeMJe kee
jne~ peye MesjMeen metjer ves meesuenJeeR meoer ceW efouueer kes cegieue heeeervelece ieCeleb$e nw~ pewveeW kes eewyeermeJeW SJeb Debeflece leerLekej
yeeoMeen ngceeetB kees njekej efouueer keer meee hej keypee efkeee leye Je&ceeve ceneJeerj kee pevce eneR #eef$eekegb[hegj ceW ngDee Lee, pees
efyenej kee veece hegve: hekeeMe ceW Deeee hej en DeefOeke efoveeW leke JewMeeueer kes meceerhe kee ieebJe yeemeeskegb[ nw~ JeefppeeeW keer jepeOeeveer
veneR jn mekee~ Dekeyej ves efyenej hej keypee kejkes efyenej kee yebieeue ieewlece yeg kees Deleble efhee Leer Deewj Jes yengle yeej Deees Les~ Gme
ceW efJeuee kej efoee~ Fmekes yeeo efyenej keer meee keer yeeie[esj mecee JewMeeueer jepevewefleke Deewj Oeeefce&ke enue-henue kee kesv Leer~
yebieeue kes veJeeyeeW kes neLe ceW eueer ieF&~ jepe ceW Ssefleneefmeke SJeb
Flevee ner veneR GlKeveve keeees mes efme ngDee nw efke JewMeeueer
hegjeleeefJeke OejesnjeW keer hetjer e=bKeuee nw~ yeew, pewve, efmeKe Je heeeerve keeue ceW yeew mlethe, Jeemlegkeuee, ce=Ccetefle&keuee Deewj Jele&ve
efnvot Oece& mes peg[s keF& mLeue nw peneB keeheer mebKee ceW osMeer SJeb yeveeves keer keuee kee kesv Leer~ eneB heeeerve efmees Deewj efceer keer
efJeosMeer hee&ke Ietceves Deeles nQ~
cegnjs Yeer keeheer mebKee ceW efceueer nQ~ yeew Oece&, pewve Oece& Deewj
MeesOe heefJeefOe
ieCeleb$e Meemeve heefle kes Fefleneme ceW Fmekee efJeefMe mLeeve nw~
hemlegle MeesOe DeeuesKe efJeMues<eCeelceke SJeb JeCee&veelceke JewMeeueer kes hecegKe hegjeleeefJeke mLeueeW ceW yemee{, njhegj Jemeble,
heke=efle keer nw~ MeesOe keee& kes efueS efleereke m$eesleeW kee Gheeesie kecceve heje, yeemeeskegb[, yeefveee, keesungDee Deewj ceb[hemeesvee kee

veece Deelee nw~ yemee{ ceW hevnJeerW meoer kes cegmeefuece metheer meble MesKe
cegncceo hewpeguueen keeefpeve Megeejer keer ojieen yeveer ngF& nw~ yemee{
kes ner nefjkeese veeceke ceefvoj ceW ceetje{ keeefle&kese keer Ske
heeuekeeueerve cetefle& nw, pees keeues helLej keer yeveer nw~ njhegj Jemeble ceW
YeieJeeve yeg kes Meejerefjke DeJeMes<e hej yevee mlethe 1958 F& keer
KegoeF& kes heuemJehe hekeeMe ceW Deeee nw~ keesungDee ceW DeMeeske kes
mecee kee Ske yeeoeceer jbie kes yeuegDeener helLej kee yevee mlebYe yevee
nw~ Fmekes Meer<e& hej Ske efmebn yew"e nw Gej keer Deesj osKe jne nw~
echeejCe : hetJeer& echeejCe Deewj heefece echeejCe efpeueeW kee
hegjeleeefJeke efkeesCe mes keeheer cenlJe nw~ eneB mes heehle
efJeeefJeKeele DeMeeske mlebYe Deheves Deehe kes cenlJehetCe& mLeeve jKeleer
nw~ echeejCe kes hegjeleeefJeke mLeueeW ceW yesoerJeve, kesmeefjee,
ueewefjeevebove ie{, jecehegjJee mlebYe heefme nw~ yesoerJeve efheheje jsueJes
msMeve mes ueieYeie 3 efkeceer Gej hetjye keer Deesj efmLele nw, eneB
hej Ske hegjeves efkeues kee DeJeMes<e nw~ "erke Fmeer kes mes Gej keer
Deesj Ske yengle ner ye[e eruee nw~ erues kes "erke Thej efnvot cebefoj
efmLele nw~ kesmeefjee keer peevekeejer 1861-62 F& ceW keefvebIece kes
efjhees& mes efceueleer nw~ keefvebIece kes Devegmeej eneB hej yeew mlethe kes
DeJeMes<e efceueves kes mebkesle efceues nQ~ eerveer ee$eer sve-meebie ves Yeer
Deheves ee$ee Je=eeble ceW Fmekeer eee& keer nw~ kene peelee nw efke
YeieJeeve yeg kegMeerveiej peeles mecee eneB mes iegpejs Les~
ueewefjeeveboveie{ yesefleee Menj kes kejerye 22 efkeceer Gej-heefece
ceW efmLele nw~ Fme Keb[nj kee helee 1835 F& ceW ne@pmeve ves ueieeee
Lee~ DeMeeske mlebYe ueewefjeeveboveie{ mes kejerye 3 efkeceer Gej-hetJeer&
efoMee keer Deesj efmLele nw~ en mlebYe ceesveesefueLe nw leLee yeuegDeeF&
helLej kee yevee ngDee nw~ efpemes jie[kej Fmes eceke oer ieF& nw~ mlebYe
hej yeenjer DeefYeuesKeeW kes DeueeJee heejmeer, veeiejer leLee Debiespeer ceW
efueKes ngS DeefYeuesKe osKeves kees efceueles nQ~
meejCe : meejCe kes efejeBo GlKeveve mes heehle veJehee<eeCe keeue keer
meeceefieeeb Ssefleneefmeke ef mes yengle cenlJe jKeleer nQ~ efejeBo heje
kes 10 efkeceer hetJe& [esjeriebpe kes heeme iebiee veoer kes Gejer le hej
yemee ngDee nw~ nese ves Fmes yeg mes yeg mes mecyeefvOele yeleueeee~
MeesOe ievLeeW kes Devegmeej en mLeeve veJehee<eeCe keeue kes ueesieeW eje
yemeeee ngDee Lee~ veJehee<eeCe egie kes DeJeMes<eeW kes nefeeW kes
Deewpeej, hemlej kes Deewpeej, helLej kes cekes, efceer kes yee&ve leLee
efceer keer ner yeveer keg Deeke=efleeeB heehle ngF&~ Deeceer ieece heje
Menj mes 19 efkeceer hetJe& iebiee veoer kes le hej yemee nw~ Fme ieebJe
kes Debleie&le Ske cebefoj nw, pees Ske heeeerve ie{ kes Thej efmLele nw~
Fme cebefoj ceW Deefcyekee YeJeeveer keer hetpee nesleer nw, efpeme keejCe Fme
mLeue kees Deefcyekee mLeeve Yeer kene peelee nw~ Fme ie{ kee
hegjeleeefJeke keeue kejerye heLece meoer F& leke pee mekelee nw~ ceebPeer
ieece heje Menj mes 15 efkeceer heefece kes lejhe iebiee veoer ves
Gejer efkeveejs hej yemee nw~ 1900 F& ceW meJe&heLece nese ves Fme

mLeue kee efvejer#eCe efkeee leLee Fmekes hegjeleeefJeke cenlJe kees

Gpeeiej efkeee~ Fme ieeBJe ceW yengle ner ye[e Ske efkeueevegcee ie{ nw,
Fme ie{ kes Gejer SJeb heefeceer Yeeie keer eejoerJeejer kee DeJeMes<e
DeYeer Yeer osKee pee mekelee nw~ eneB mes heehle cetefle&eeB Yeer JeneR kes
ceOesej cebefoj ceW mLeeefhele nw~ 1915 F& cebs mhetvej ves Ske F hej
DeefYeuesKe heeee~ Fme DeefYeuesKe ceW eer heLeceeefole kee veece Deelee nw
pees "er meoer kee nw~
esCe yegpeg&ie ieebJe meerJeeve mes oef#eCe heefece kes osJeefjee efpeuee
mes mes efmLele nw~ Fme ieeBJe kes Debleie&le pees heeeerve eruee efceuee Gmes
ueesie esCe kee ie{ kenles nQ~ nese kee kenvee nw efke en veece esCe
mlethe mes mebyebefOele nw efpemekee mecyevOe yeew Oece& mes nw~ heheewj ieece
meerJeeve mes 4 efkeceer keer otjer hej hetjye ceW efmLele nw~ Fme mLeue kees
heeJeehegjer ceW Yeer pees[e peelee nw~ YeieJeeve yeg kegMeerveiej peeves mes
henues eneR hej Dehevee Debeflece Yeespeve efkeee Lee~ nese kees eneB mes
keg hegjeleeefJeke DeJeMes<e Yeer heehle ngS Les efpemeceW FC[es
yewefkeefjeve efmeeeW kee GuuesKe nw~
ceieOe : ceieOe heeeerve Yeejle kes 16 cenepeveheoeW ceW mes Ske Lee~
DeeOegefveke hevee leLee ieee efpeuee FmeceW Meeefceue Les~ Fmekeer
jepeOeeveer efieefjJepe Leer~ YeieJeeve yeg kes hetJe& ye=nLe leLee pejemebOe
eneB kes heefleefle jepee Les~ DeYeer Fme veece mes efyenej ceW Ske heceb[ue
nw - ceieOe heceb[ue~ ceieOe kee meJe&heLece GuuesKe DeLeJe& Jeso ceW
efceuelee nw~ DeefYeeeve efevleeceefCe kes Devegmeej ceieOe kees keerke
kene ieee nw~ ceieOe yegkeeueerve mecee ceW Ske MeefeMeeueer
jepelev$eeW ceW Ske Lee~ en oef#eCeer efyenej ceW efmLele Lee pees keeueevlej
ceW Gej Yeejle kee meJee&efOeke MeefeMeeueer cenepeveheo yeve ieee~ en
ieewjJeceeer Fefleneme Deewj jepeveerefleke SJeb Oeeefce&kelee kee efJee kesv
yeve ieee~ ceieOe cenepeveheo keer meercee Gej ceW iebiee mes oef#eCe ceW
efJevOe heJe&le leke, hetJe& ceW echee mes heefece ceW meesve veoer leke efJemle=le
LeeR~ ceieOe keer heeeerve jepeOeeveer jepeie=n Leer~ en heeBe heneef[eeW mes
efIeje veiej Lee~ keeueevlej ceW ceieOe keer heeeerve jepeOeeveer heeefueheg$e
ceW mLeeefhele ngF&~ ceieOe jepe ceW lelkeeueerve MeefeMeeueer jepe
keewMeue, Jelme Je DeJeefvle kees Deheves peveheo ceW efceuee efueee~ Fme
hekeej ceieOe kee efJemleej DeKeC[ Yeejle kes he ceW nes ieee Deewj
heeeerve ceieOe kee Fefleneme ner Yeejle kee Fefleneme yevee~
veeueboe : efyenej kes veeueboe efpeues ceW yevee veeueboe efJeMJeefJeeeuee
ogefveee kee meyemes heeeerve efJeMJeefJeeeuee nw~ 450 F& ceW Fmekeer
mLeehevee ngF& Leer~ Gme peceeves ceW eneB efJeefYeVe osMeeW kes 10 npeej mes
DeefOeke efJeeeLeer& efveJeeme Deewj DeOeeve kejles Les~ 12JeeR Meleeyoer ceW
yeefKleeej Keuepeer ves Fmes lenme-venme kej efoee Lee~ veeueboe
efJeMJeefJeeeuee keer mLeehevee ieghle JebMe kes Meemeke kegceejieghle ves
keer~ mLeehevee kes yeeo Fmes meYeer Meemeke JebMeeW kee meceLe&ve Yeer
efceuelee ieee~ ceneve Meemeke n<e&JeOe&ve ves Yeer Fme efJeMJeefJeeeuee kes
efueS oeve efoee~ Fme efJeMJeefJeeeuee kees efJeosMeeW MeemekeeW keer Yeer


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

meneelee efceueer~ veeueboe efJeMJeefJeeeuee kes ce"eW kee efvecee&Ce

heeeerve keg<eeCe JeemlegMewueer mes ngDee Lee~
Meeneyeeo : Yeespehegj, jesnleeme, yekemej Deewj kewcetj efpeues efyenej
jepe kes heefeceer #es$e Meeneyeeo kes Devleie&le Deeles nQ~ Yeewieesefueke
SJeb Ssefleneefmeke meboYe& ceW es eejeW efpeues Ske-otmejs mes heeeerve keeue
mes ner hetjer lejn peg[s ngS Les~ eneB leke efke meved 1971 leke es eejeW
ner efpeues Devegceb[ue kes he ceW hegjeves Meeneyeeo efpeues kes Devleie&le
Les~ meved 1971 ceW heMeemeefveke Deewj jepeveerefleke keejCeeW mes
Meeneyeeo efpeuee oes Deueie efpeueeW eLee-Yeespehegj Deewj jesnleeme mes
efJeYeeefpele nes ieee Deewj hegve: meved 1991 ceW Yeespehegj mes Deueie kej
yekemej Ske Deueie efpeuee yeveeee ieee Deewj jesnleeme mes Deueie kej
kewcetj (YeYegDee) kees Yeer Ske Deueie efpeuee yevee efoee ieee~ heeeerve
keeue kes keF& meboYees ceW hegjeves Meeneyeeo efpeues kee mechetCe& #es$e ke<e
osMe kes veece mes GefuueefKele nw~ heewjeefCeke DeeKeeveeW Deewj mLeeveere
hejchejeDeeW kes GjCeeW mes %eele neslee nw efke heeeerve keeue ceW meesve
Deewj kece&veeMee veefoeeW kes yeere kee #es$e ner ke<eosMe Lee~ ueieYeie
400 F&mee hetJe& ceW ke<e ceieOe meeceepe kes Devleie&le Dee ieee Deewj
Fmekee Ske Deueie osMe kes he ceW DeefmlelJe meceehle nes ieee efkevleg
Deheveer efJeefMe meYelee Deewj mebmke=efle kes keejCe Fme #es$e keer Ske
Deheveer Deueie heneeve yeveer jner~ Deepe Yeer Deueie-Deueie efpeueeW kes
he ceW nesves kes yeeJepeto Fve eejeW efpeueeW kes Ssefleneefmeke SJeb
meebmke=efleke he#e Ske-otmejW mes peg[s ngS nQ, eneB leke efke Yee<ee
(Yeespehegjer) jnve-menve Deewj meeceeefpeke-Oeeefce&ke efkeee-keueeheeW ceW
Yeer Skehelee nw~ heeiewefleneefmeke keeue mes ueskej DeeOegefveke keeue
leke kes hegjeleeeflJeke SJeb Ssefleneefmeke mee#e eneB kes efJeefYeVe mLeueeW
mes heehle ngS nQ efpevemes ve kesJeue Fme #es$e yeefuke heeeerve ceieOe
meeceepe Deewj ceOekeeue leLee DeeOegefveke keeue kes efyenej kes
jepeveerefleke SJeb meebmke=efleke Fefleneme kes efJeefYeVe henuegDeeW keer
peevekeejer efceueleer nw~ Fve meYeer efpeueeW ceW hetJe& ceW efkeS ieS DevJes<eCeeW
mes keF& hegjeleeefJeke mLeueeW Deewj hegjeJeMes<eeW keer peevekeejer GheueyOe
nes egkeer nw peyeefke neue ceW efkeS ieS DevJes<eCeeW mes keF& veF&
peevekeeefjeeB Deewj veS mLeue kes hetjeJeMes<e Deewj mceejke Deeefo Yeer
hekeeMe ceW DeeS nQ pees hegjeleeefJeke cenlJe kes nQ~ neue ner ceW kewcetj
efpeues kes ienve DevJes<eCe mes Jeemlegkeuee Deewj cetefe&keuee kes keF&
heeeerve DeJeMes<e efceueW pees Fme #es$e Deewj efyenej keer heeeerve keuee
SJeb mebmke=efle kes Oejesnj nw~ kewcetj heJe&le e=bKeuee kes keF& efnmmeeW ceW
Meewueeece SJeb GveceW yeves Mewueefe$e hee<eeCekeeueerve mebmke=efle kes
mce=efleefevn nQ Deewj Jeeheke mlej hej Yeejle kes Deve efnmmeeW mes Fme
keeue keer mebmke=efle Deewj meYelee kees pees[les nQ~ kewcetj efpeues kes
DeueeJee yekemej efpeues ceW Yeer keg veS hegjeleeefJeke mLeue hekeeMe ceW
DeeS nQ, pewmes kewLeer, kesme" Fleeefo~ yekemej ceW 1963-64 F& ceW
GlKeveve mes Fme #es$e kes Fefleneme kes efJeefYeVe ejCeeW kes keceye
e=bKeuee keer peevekeejer eneB mes heehle hegjeJeMes<eeW mes nes mekeer~ Fmeer

hekeej jesnleeme efpeues kes mesvegDeej veeceke mLeeve ceW efkeS ieS
GlKeveve mes Yeer keF& cenlJehetCe& hegjeleeefJeke leLeeW keer peevekeejer
ngF&~ Yeespehegj efpeues kes cemee{ SJeb osJeyeveejke cenlJehetCe&
hegjeleeefJeke mLeue nQ peneB heeeerve cebefoj kes DeJeMes<e SJeb cetefle&eeB
Jeemlegkeuee SJeb cetefe&keuee kes Deheeflece GoenjCe nw~ heeeerve cebefoj
SJeb cetefe&eeB yekemej, jesnleeme Deewj kewcetj efpeueeW kes Yeer keF& mLeueeW ceW
efceueer nw Deewj Gvemes Yeer efyenej kes heeeerve Oeeefce&ke, meeceeefpeke Deewj
meebmke=efleke Fefleneme keF& veS DeOeee pees[s pee mekeles nQ~
ceOekeeueerve Fefleneme kes keF& mceejke Jee&ceeve mecee ceW Yeer Fve
efpeueeW kes keF& mLeeveeW ceW osKes pee mekeles nw~
efceefLeueebeue : ceOegyeveer, ojYebiee, mecemleerhegj Deewj yesietmejee,
Gej efyenej kes es eej efpeues, Ssefleneefmeke Deewj meebmke=efleke he mes
efceefLeuee kes efnmmes jns nQ~ ome npeej Jeie& efkeueesceerj mes Yeer DeefOeke
en efJemle=le Yet-Yeeie, Yeewieesefueke ef mes ceOe iebiee-cewoeve kes
Devleie&le Deeves Jeeues hetJe& efceefLeuee cewoeve kee Ske ye[e efnmmee nw~
#es$eheue keer Jeehekelee keer ef mes ner veneR, Deefheleg SsefleneefmekehegjeleeefJeke mece=ef kes keejCe Yeer en #es$e cenlJehetCe& jne nw~
hegjeleeefJeke mee#e Fme efJeefMe Yeewieesefueke yeveeJe ceW yegveer
ngF& Ssefleneefmeke efJekeeme kees heefjheg kejlee nw~ yet{er ieb[ke Deewj
kejsn keYeer cenlJehetCe& peueere ceeie& jns Les~ kejsn kes efkeveejs
heejefcYeke Ssefleneefmeke keeue kes veiej eLee-keesheie{, cebieue ie{
SJeb keefjceve kes he ceW heeee peevee Fmeer yeele keer Deesj mebkesle kejlee
nw~ yet{er ieb[ke kes efkeveejs-efkeveejs yesietmejee efpeues ceW veewueeie{ SJeb
Deve heeeerve erueeW kee ueieeleej efceuevee Fme mecYeeJevee kee Deewj
Yeer yeue oslee nw~ yesietmejee efpeues kes Deemeheeme kee #es$e keg
Yeewieesefueke efJeMes<eleeDeeW kes keejCe Deewj Yeer DeefOeke cenlJe kee nes
peelee nw~
Fme #es$e ceW heejefcYeke Ssefleneefmeke keeueerve (yeefuejepeie{,
kees<eie{, cebieueie{, veewueeie{ peecebieueeie{, Deeefo) Deewj hetJe&
ceOekeeueerve ie{ (Devnej"e{er, Dekeewj, efJemheer, yensje Deeefo)
yengleeele mes heees peeles nQ, heeue-keeueerve cetefle&eeW keer GheueefyOe Yeer
Fme #es$e ceW keeheer heeYeeMeeueer jner nw, efpeveceW efnvot Deewj yeew
cetefe&eeB lees Deer Keemeer mebKee ceW efceueleer nw, hejvleg pewve cetefle&eeW
kee meJe&Lee DeYeeJe jne nw~ FOej yeew mletheeW kee mecetn efJeMes<e
GuuesKeveere nw~ efmeeeW keer GheueefyOe yesietmejee efpeues kes Devleie&le
efJeefYeVe mLeueeW mes efJeMes<ekej GuuesKeveere nw, hejvleg hegjeefYeuesKe
Delevle ner meerefcele mebKee ceW efceues nw~ Ske meJes&#eCe kes oewjeve
ojYebiee efpeues kes keg #es$eeW mes ke=<Ce-ueesefnle ce=oYeeC[ kes hekeeMe
ceW Deevee FmeefueS cenlJehetCe& nw, efke Fme lejn kes ce=odYeeC[ meeceeve
leLee leece-hee<eeCe keeueerve egieerve mebmke=efleeeW mes mecye ceeveer peeleer
nQ, efpememes Fme #es$e keer Ssefleneefmekelee heeiewefleneefmeke keeueerve nes
peeleer nw~


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

efyenej kee Deleerle ieewjJeMeeueer jne nw~ %eeve-efJe%eeve,
meeefnle-keuee-mebmke=efle Deeefo Deveske #es$eeW ceW efyenej kee eesieoeve
Yeejle keee, efJeMJe kes Fefleneme ceW yespees[ nw~ heeiewefleneefmeke keeue
mes ner efyenej Deveske Ssefleneefmeke GLeue-hegLeue kee kesv jne nw~ en
jepe meblees, ceveeref<eeeW, oeMe&efvekeeW Deewj Yee<eeefJeoeW kee kesv jne nw~
Deepe DeeJeMekelee Fme yeele keer nw efke efyenej kee pees eesieoeve nw
Gmekeer peevekeejer osMe kees efJeMes<ekej efyenej kes ueesieeW kees oer peeS~
1. efmebn Mebkejoeeue, efyenej:Ske meebmke=efleke JewYeJe, [eeceb[
heekes yegkeme hee efue, veF& efouueer, 1994
2. Iees<e S, Sve FvemeeFkeueesheeref[ee Dee@he FefC[eve
Deeefke&eesueespeer, FefC[eve yegke mesvj, efouueer

3. YeeMeeueer Svekes, m[erpe Fve Dee& SC[ Deeefke&eesueespeer

Dee@he efyenej SC[ yebieeue, veeruekeC"e meleJeeef<e&ke mesverveefj
Jeuegce, 1888-1988
4. efmevne Seheer, Deeefke&eesueespeer SC[ keueejue efnm^er
Dee@he veesLe& efyenej Jeero mhesMeue jshesvme g vegueerefLeke efejebo
5. hemeeo heermeer, heme&veue kecegefvekesMeve, efyenej
Deeefke&eesueesefpekeue ef[hee&cesv, hevee, 1991
6. Sinha Harendra Prasad, Archaeology of Saran
Distt. with special reference to Chirand, Ph-D
thesis, Patna University, Patna, 1985



Sinha Harendra Prasad, Cultural and

Archaeological History of North Bihar,
Ramanand Vidhya Bhawan, New Delhi, 1994

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 177-181

ISSN 0974 - 200X

Yeejleere jepeveerefleke JeJemLee ceW peeefle kee jepeveereflekejCe

heoerhe kegceej meent
MeesOe e$e
jepeveerefle efJe%eeve efJeYeeie, je@eer kee@}spe, jeBeer
[e@ Jeer meer hee"ke
jepeveerefle efJe%eeve efJeYeeie, je@eer kee@}spe, jeBeer
Yeejleere jepeveerefleke JeJemLee kees peeefle ves meowJe heYeeefJele efkeee nw~ Fmekee heYeeJe mekeejelceke SJeb vekeejelceke oesveeW jne nw~ mekeejelceke o=efkeesCe mes
peeefleeeW ceW jepeveerefleke peeiekelee DeeF& leLee efvecve peeefleeeW keer jepeveerefleke menYeeefielee ye{er JeneR otmejer Deesj Fmemes meceepe ceW peeleere efnbmee SJeb ss<e kees
Yeer ye{eJee efce}e~ peeefle kes jepeveereflekejCe ves jepeveerefle ceW heeflemhee& kees ye{eJee osles ngS heejbheefjke he mes heYeglJeMee}er peeefleeeW kes Meefkele kees kecepeesj
efkeee~ hemlegle Dee}sKe ceW oesveeW kes hejmhej heYeeJe kee efJeM}s<eCe efkeee ieee nw~

efJeefMeMeyo - meeF}W efjJeesuetMeve, }eskeleebef$eke hegvepe&vce, peeefleefJenerve meceepe, meeceeefpeke mlejerkejCe, mebmke=leerkejCe, kece&keeb[
yeveeee ieee nw leLee efJe<ee kes mebeespeve, mebke}ve Deewj Gmes hemlegle
heeeerve kee} mes ner peeefle Deewj jepeveerefleke Ske-otmejs kees kejves kes ef}S Deheves {ie mes heeeme efkeee ieee nw~
heYeeefJele kejles jns nQ~ Ge peeefleeeW ves ncesMee efvecve peeefleeeW hej leLe efJeM}s<eCe
Dehevee heYeglJe yeveeS jKeves kee heelve efkeee nw~ Deepeeoer kes 64
Yeejleere jepeveerefle kees heYeeefJele kejves Jee}s meeceeefpeke
Je<ees kes yeeo Yeer peeefleefJenerve meceepe keer mLeehevee kes GsMe kees mebmLeeDeeW ceW peeefle kee Ske cenlJehetCe& mLeeve nw~ Yeejleere mebefJeOeeve
heehle veneR efkeee pee mekee~ Jele&ceeve DeeOegefvekeerkejCe kes lenle peeefle peeefle-Yeso kees DemJeerke=le kejkes peeefleefJenerve meceepe JeJemLee keer
mebjevee kes kecepeesj nesves keer Gcceero keer ieF& Leer pees efvecet&} meeefyele mLeehevee keer yeele kejlee nw~ mJeleb$elee heeefhle kes mecee je^ere
ngF&~ }sefkeve peeefle ves heefleefveOeelceke }eskeleebef$eke JeJemLee ceW vesleeDeeW Deewj mebefJeOeeve efvecee&leeDeeW kees en Gcceero Leer efke
jepeveerefleke peeiekelee Hew}eF& nw~ Fmemes efvecve peeefleeeW kee GYeej }eskeleebef$eke Meemeve Deewj DeeOegefvekelee peeefle pewmeer mebmLeeDeeW kees
ngDee~ Deveske jepeveerefleke o} SJeb vesleeDeeW ves peeefle kes meceLe&ve mes kecepeesj kejkes FvnW Deheemebefieke yevee osieer~ Gcceero keer ieF& Leer efke
meee ceW efJeMes<e mLeeve heehle efkeee nw~ peeefle kee peg[eJe Oece& kes meeLe DeeOegefvekeerkejCe kes lenled GeesieerkejCe kes keejCe peeefle kecepeesj
Yeer nw, keg efJeeveeW ves Fmes kece& DeeOeeefjle ceevee lees keg ves Fmes nesieer Deewj }esie efnle DeeOeeefjle heneeve keer Deesj ye{Wies~ Fmekes
pevce DeeOeeefjle ceevee nw~ Deebyes[kej, veeekej, }esefnee, }e}t, meeLe ner en mecePee ieee Lee efke heefleefveefOelJecet}ke }eskeleb$e keer
ceg}eece, jeceefJe}eme, keebMeerjece, ceeeeJeleer Deeefo vesleeDeeW ves egveeJeer heefeee ceW GeesieerkejCe mes GlheVe meeceeefpeke Jeieexb keer
efvecve peeefleeeW ceW jepeveerefleke eslevee Yejves keer hegjpeesj keesefMeMe keer, Yetefcekee DeefOeke cenlJehetCe& nesieer~1 }sefkeve Yeejle keer }eskeleebef$eke
efpemekee GvnW jepeveerefleke }eYe Yeer efce}e~ jepeveerefle ceW Yeeieeroejer kes jepeveerefle ceW efnleeW kes mebIeve Deewj DeefYeJeefkele kes ef}S peeefle keer
peefjS peeefle kee }eskeleebef$eke hegvepe&vce ngDee nw~ jepeveerefle Deewj Yetefcekee yesno cenlJehetCe& nes ieF&~ jepeveerefleke heefeee ceW peeefle Ske
peeefle kes efveke Deeves mes oesveeW kee he yeo}e nw~ meee hej keypee kesvoere efeeelceke lelJe yeve ieF&~ ne}eBefke peeefle Deewj jepeveerefle kee
kejves kes ef}S efJeefYevve peeefleeeW kes yeere ie"yebOeve ves hejhebje hej mebyebOe efmLej ve neskej mecee kes meeLe yeo}lee jne nw~ peeefle kes
DeeOeeefjle peeefle JeJemLee kees heefleeesieer peeefle JeJemLee ceW yeo} Deefleefjkele Ssmes otmejs keejke Yeer nQ, pees jepeveerefleke heefeee ceW
efoee~ Ssmes ceW efhe[er Deewj oef}le peeefleeeW kees Yeer meee heeefhle ceW cenlJehetCe& Yetefcekee Deoe kejles nQ~2 keF& yeej DeeefLe&ke DeeOeej,
keeceeeyeer efce}er nw~ Fmemes heejhebefjke he mes pees heYeglJeMee}er efkemeer Ske peve-veslee kee heYeeJe ee efkemeer GcceeroJeej ee o} kes
peeefleeeB Leer Gvekeer efmLeefle kecepeesj ngF& nw~ Fme lejn peeefle ves ef}S menevegYetefle keer }nj pewmes keejkeeW keer Yetefcekee peeoe
heomeesheeve hej DeeOeeefjle Jee&mJe kees lees[e nw~
cenlJehetCe& nes peeleer nw~ efHej Yeer, Yeejle kes meYeer YeeieeW keer jepeveerefle
MeesOe heefJeefOe
kees mecePeves kes ef}S peeefle Ske heemebefieke DeeOeej nw~
hemlegle Dee}sKe efJeM}s<eCeelceke SJeb JeCe&veelceke heke=efle kee
jpeveer kees"ejer kee ceevevee nw efke peeefle Deewj }eskeleebef$eke
nw~ MeesOe Dee}sKe kes ef}S cegKele: efleere m$eesleeW kees DeeOeej jepeveerefle keer Deveesveefeee kees jepeveerefle ceW peeefleJeeo keer meb%ee oer

peeleer nw, hej Deme} ceW en peeefleeeW kee jepeveereflekejCe nw~ Yeejleere
peeefle heLee Deewj DeeOegefveke mebmeoere jepeveerefle keer Deveesveefeee ves
meceepe heefjJele&ve keer heefeee kees pevce efoee~3 keg je^ere vesleeDeeW
keer Fme DeJeOeejCee kees Ske vewefleke keLeve kes he ceW mJeerkeej efkeee
peelee nw efke peeefle Ske meeceeefpeke yegjeF& nw~
Yeejle ceW peeefle pewmeer Deeefokee}erve mebmLee jepeveerefleke meceLe&ve
kes ef}S Ske cenlJehetCe& DeeOeej heoeve kejleer nw~ en mele nw efke
peeefle ceW yeo}eJe Deees nQ~ heomeesheeveere ee TBe-veere keer mebjevee
kes he ceW en kecepeesj ngF& nw~ }sefkeve egveeJeer jepeveerefle ves
peeefleiele heneeve kees cepeyetleer heoeve keer nw~ ojDeme}, peeefle
DeeOeeefjle }eskeleebef$eke jepeveerefle Ske Ssmee DeeOeej hesMe kejleer nw,
efpemekes ceeOece mes meYeer peeefleeeB meceeve mlej mes meee kes ef}S
heefleeesefielee kej mekeleer nQ~
peeefle ves mebJewOeeefveke leb$e kes }eskeleb$eerkejCe ceW cenlJehetCe&
Yetefcekee efveYeeF& nw~ JeJenejle: peeefle nceejer mebmeoere JeJemLee kees
yengle DeefOeke heYeeJeefle kejleer nw~ meeceevele: Ske ner peeefle kes }esie
Deheveer ner peeefle kes GcceeroJeej kees Jees osves kees heeLeefcekelee osles nQ
ee efHej peeefle-hebeeele ee Fmeer hekeej keer efkemeer mebmLee eje
efveOee&efjle GcceeroJeej kees Jees osles nQ~ Fmeef}S jepeveerefleke o}eW
eje egveeJeeW kes ef}S GcceeroJeej egveles mecee peeefle Ske cenlJehetCe&
keejke kee keee& kejleer nw~ }sefkeve en Yeer Ske leLe nw efke efmeHe&
peeefle ves ner jepeveerefle kees heYeeefJele veneR efkeee, yeefuke jepeveerefle ves
Yeer peeefle keer mebjevee Deewj mebie"ve hej cenlJehetCe& heYeeJe es[e nw~
meee Deewj megefJeOeeDeeW kes Demeceeve efJelejCe kes heefle peeieke yengle
mes peeefle-mecetn jepeveerefle kees mebie"ve nsleg Jeenve kes he ceW heegkele
kejles nQ~5 Fme hekeej kes peeefle mebIe ee meYeeSB nQ pees MeefkeleMee}er
oyeeJe mecetneW keer Yetefcekee Deoe kejleer nQ~ peeefle meYeeSB meeJe&peefveke
he mes peeefle hej DeeOeeefjle cegeW ee peeefle kes efnleeW kees cenlJe osles
ngS peeefleeeW kees mebieef"le kejves kee heeeme kejleer nQ~ Fme hekeej,
peeefle jepeveerefle ceW Ske meefee lelJe kes he ceW Deheveer Yetefcekee
efveYeeleer nw~ en heomeesheeve Deewj kece&keeb[ keer JeJemLee keer peien
meee kes ef}S heefleeesefielee mecetn ceW leyoer} nes ieF& nw~ }sefkeve
jepeveerefle ceW peeefle keer Yetefcekee kes meeLe keF& mebYeeefJele Kelejs Yeer peg[s
nesles nQ~ keF& yeej cenlJehetCe& Deewj heemebefieke cegeW kees lejpeern osves
keer peien peeefleiele heneeve kees Yegveeves keer heJe=efe neJeer nes peeleer nw~
Ssmes ceW, jepeveerefle kee heefjJele&vekeejer SpeW[e heers t peelee nw Deewj
peeefle DeeOeeefjle jepeveerefle eLeeefmLeefle kees keeece jKeves kee meeOeve
yeve peeleer nw~
Je<e& 1990 kes yeeo Gejer Yeejle keer jepeveerefle ceW efvee}er
peeefleeeW kee GYeej ngDee Deewj Fme he ceW eneB `ceewve-eebefle' ee
`meeF}W efjJeesuetMeve' ngDee nw~
Yeejle ceW Je<e& 1931 ceW peeefle DeeOeeefjle peveieCevee ngF& Leer~
Fmekes yeeo efkemeer Yeer peveieCevee ceW efJeefYeVe peeefleeeW keer efieveleer keer
peien mecetneW keer efieveleer ner keer ieF&~ efpeve mecetneW keer pevemebKee kee

DeOeeve efkeee ieee nw, GveceW Devegmetefele peeefle, Devegmetefele

pevepeeefle, cegefm}ce cegKe nQ~ 1931 kes yeeo yeeeCe, #eef$ee,
eeoJe Deeefo peeefleeeW keer pevemebKee keer efieveleer veneR ngF&, ve ner
TBeer peeefleeeW ee efhe[er peeefleeeW kes mecetn keer ner efieveleer keer ieF&~
peeefle-DeeOeeefjle peveieCevee ve kejves kes heers cegKe meese en Leer efke
Fmemes meceepe ceW peeefle DeeOeeefjle YesoYeeJe kees kecepeesj efkeee pee
mekesiee~ Devegmetefele peeefleeeW, pevepeeefleeeW Deewj cegefm}ce keer
peveieCevee kejves kee cegKe keejCe meceepe ceW neefMeS hej he[s Fve
mecetneW kes ef}S efJeMes<e veerefle Deewj keee&ece leweej kejves keer pejle
Leer~ hegve: Je<e& 2011 ceW keeHeer efJeJeeoeW kes Ghejeble peeefleDeeOeeefjle peveieCevee mecheVe keer pee jner nw~ efpemekes heYeeJe kee
hegJee&vegceeve }ieevee keef"ve nw~
peeefle-JeJemLee Yeejleere meeceeefpeke JeJemLee keer meyemes
cenlJehetCe& efJeMes<elee nw~ peeefle heLee ceW TBes-mes-TBes Deewj veeres-mesveeres Jeefkele kees De}ie-De}ie nwefmeele efce} peeleer nw~ en meYeer
kees peeefleiele heneeve kes peefjS mebieef"le nesves kee hetje ceewkee osleer nw~
Yeejle ceW heefleeesieer jepeveerefle kee cet} {ebee pevce hej DeeOeeefjle
mecegoeeeW mes yevee nw, ve efke efJeeej ee efnleeW hej DeeOeeefjle JeefkeleeeW
ee mecetneW mes~ Fme vepeefjS mes Yeejle ves Goej }eskeleb$e kes DeeoMe&
kees efJeke=le kej efoee nw~ keF& yeej en kene peelee nw efke peeefle ves
Deeefoce efveeDeeW kees GYeej kej }eskeleb$e kes mecetes GsMe hej ner
meJee} Ke[e kej efoee nw~
Yeejle ceW peeefle-JeJemLee kes he ceW meeceeefpeke mlejerkejCe
ogefveee keer meyemes peef} Deewj Devet"er JeJemLee nw~ Fme JeJemLee
kee DeefmlelJe npeejeW mee}eW mes nw~ eens efnvot nes ee iewj efnvot, meYeer
YeejleereeW kees pevce mes ner Ske peeefle efce} peeleer nw~ en peeefle
meeceeefpeke Deble:efeee ee JeJenej kes ef}S Gvekeer heneeve yeve
peeleer nw~ }sefkeve efnvogDeeW Deewj iewj efnvogDeeW kes ef}S peeefle kee
cele}ye Ske pewmee veneR nw~ iewj efnvogDeeW kes ef}S peeefle Oeeefce&ke
yeeOelee kes he ceW veneR nesleer nw, en kesJe} Gme meceepe ceW Gmekes
mlej kees yeleeleer nw, efpemekes Jes Yeeie nesles nQ~ meeceeve leewj hej
efnvogDeeW ceW en efJeMJeeme efkeee peelee nw efke efkemeer Jeefkele keer peeefle
Gmekes hetJe& pevce kes keceexb keer mepee ee Fveece nw~
Yeejle keer peeefle-JeJemLee hej yengle DeefOeke MeesOe-keee& efkeee
ieee nw, }sefkeve Fmes heefjYeeef<ele kejvee yengle cegefMke} jne nw~ peer
Sme Oegex kee ceevevee nw efke peeefle kees heefjYeeef<ele kejves keer keesF& Yeer
keesefMeMe Gmekeer peef}lee kes keejCe veekeece nes peeSieer~11 S[ceb[
Deej }ere peeefle kees Ske meebmke=efleke heefjIevee kes he ceW osKeles
nQ~12 cewkeme Jesyej ves peeefle kees Yeejle kes efnvogDeeW Deewj otmejs
mecegoeeeW keer yegefveeeoer mebmLee ceevee nw~ Sce Sve eerefveJeeme ves
peeefle kees Ske meebmke=efleke heefjIevee ceevee nw~14 FvneWves
mebmke=eflekejCe kes ceeOece mes peeefleeeW ceW nesves Jee}s yeo}eJe keer
hejsKee Yeer oer~ }sefkeve ceekeme&Jeeoer en ceeveles nQ efke peeefle Yeejle
ceW Deeefokee} mes GheefmLele veneR jner nw~ Gvekes Devegmeej peeefle


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

efJeefYeVe Jeieexb kes yeere efJejesOeeYeeme kees efheeleer nw Deewj Mees<eCe kes
ef}S leeefke&ke DeeOeej hemlegle kejleer nw~ en heeke=efleke Gelee kes
efceLeke kes DeeOeej hej Ge Jeieexb eje efvecve Jeieexb kes Mees<eCe kees
mener efme kejleer nw~15
}sefkeve JeemleefJekelee ener nw efke peeefle Ske ieefleMeer}
JeJemLee nw~ Fmekee DeLe& ncesMee Ske meceeve veneR neslee nw~ Ske
meceepeMeem$eer, Ske ceeveJeMeem$eer Deewj Ske jepeveerefleke-Jew%eeefveke
kes ef}S peeefle kee DeLe& De}ie-De}ie neslee nw~ Fme hekeej,
JewJeeefnke ee heeefjJeeefjke meboYe& ceW peeefle kee Ske DeLe& neslee nw,
DeeefLe&ke Deble:efeee kes ef}S Fmekee De}ie DeLe& neslee nw, peyeefke
jepeveerefleke GsMeeW kes ef}S Fmekee leermeje DeLe& neslee nw~
Yeejle ceW DeewheefveJesefMeke oewj ceW Deewj Gmekes yeeo kes MegDeeleer
oMekeeW ceW peeefle kees DeeOeej yeveekej heefjJele&vekeejer jepeveerefle kejves
keer keesefMeMeW ngF&b~ Decyes[kej ves oef}leeW ceW jepeveerefleke eslevee Yejves
keer hegjpeesj keesefMeMe keer~ oef#eCe Yeejle ceW jeceemJeeceer veeekej
hesefjeej kes vesle=lJe ceW yeeeCe efJejesOeer Deevoes}ve e}e~ Fmeer lejn,
jece ceveesnj }esefnee ves efhe[eW keer jepeveerefleke iees}yevoer kejkes
keebesme Deewj TBeer peeefleeeW kes Jee&mJe kees lees[ves keer keesefMeMe keer~
}sefkeve Fmekes yeeJepeto meeceevele: peeefle Deewj jepeveerefle kes Deehemeer
mebyebOeeW kees mebosn keer vepej mes osKee peelee jne nw~ jepeveerefle ceW
peeefleJeeo keer efMekeeele kejles ngS Dekemej Fmes nceejer }eskeleebef$eke
JeJemLee kes ef}S Keleje ceevee peelee nw~ Deeceleewj hej }eskeleebef$eke
jepeveerefle kees DeeOegefvekelee Deewj peeefle kees hejbheje kee heleerke ceeveles
ngS oesveeW kes efJejesOeeYeemehetCe& mebyebOeeW hej peesj osves keer heJe=efe jner
nw~ Dekeeoefceke mlej hej jepeveerefle ceW peeefle keer Yetefcekee kees mecePeves
keer meved mee" kes oMeke ceW MegDeele ngF&~ 1964 ceW ef}Keer Deheveer
efkeleeye ceW cee@efjme peesvme ves en ceevee efke mJeleb$e Yeejle keer veF&
heefjefmLeefleeeW kes keejCe jepeveerefle peeefle kes ef}S leLee peeefle
jepeveerefle kes ef}S cenlJehetCe& nes ieF&~ Fmeer lejn [esuHe e ves
jepeveerefle ceW peeefle keer Yetefcekee kees hejbheje kes DeeOegefvekeerkejCe kes
he ceW mecePeves hej peesj efoee~17 FvneWves en ceevee efke DeeOegefveke
}eskeleebef$eke JeJemLee ceW peeefle Ske heejbheefjke mebjevee nw, }sefkeve
DeeOegefveke }eskeleebef$eke JeJemLee ceW Fmekee DeeOegefvekeerkejCe nes ieee
nw~ FvneWves es yeleeee efke jepeveerefle ceW Yeeieeroejer kes peefjS peeefle kee
}eskeleebef$eke hegvepe&vce ngDee nw~ }sefkeve Yeejle keer jepeveerefle ceW peeefle
keer Yetefcekee Deewj Fmekes heYeeJeeW kees yeleeves ceW jpeveer kees"ejer ves
meyemes cenlJehetCe& eesieoeve efoee~ FvneWves en yeleeee efke peeefleeeB
DeeOegefveke jepeveerefle ceW Yeeieeroejer kejves kes oewjeve efkeme lejn meceepe
heefjJele&ve keer heefeee kees Debpeece os jner nw~ kees"ejer kes hen}s kes
}sKeve ceW ee lees peeefle Deewj jepeveerefle kees hejbheje Deewj DeeOegefvekelee
kes De}ie-De}ie KeeveeW ceW jKee ieee, ee efHej yengle ner mej}erke=le
efve<ke<e& efvekee}s ieS~ Deheves keg hetJe&Jeleea }sKekeeW eje peeefle kes
}eskeleebef$eke hegvepe&vce keer Iees<eCee kees kees"ejer ves Deefle-mej}erkejCe
keer meb%ee oer~18 kees"ejer ves Deheves efJeM}s<eCe ceW peeefle Deewj jepeveerefle

kes heejmheefjke heYeeJe keer ienjeF& mes he[lee} keer~

en Ske leLe nw efke jepeveerefle iees}yeboer kejves kes ef}S Deewj
Deheveer efmLeefle cepeyetle kejves kes ef}S hen}s mes ceewpeto Deewj GYejleer
ngF& efveeDeeW kees Fmlescee} kejleer nw~ Keemeleewj hej peve DeeOeeefjle
jepeveerefle ceW pevemeceLe&ve mebie"veeW kes peefjS Jekele neslee nw~ mebie"veeW
kes peefjS ner efJeMee} pevemecetn iees}yebo nesles nQ~ efpeme meceepe ceW
peeefleiele mebjeveeDeeW kes ceeOece mes mebie"ve Deewj iees}yeboer keer
megefJeOee nes, Deewj efpeme meceepe ceW peveieCe peeefleeeW kes he ceW
mebieef"le nes, JeneB jepeveerefle ceW peeefle-DeeOeeefjle iees}yeboer nesvee
mJeeYeeefJeke nw~ Ske meeceeefpeke mebmLee kes he ceW peeefle keer pe[W
nceejs meceepe ceW yengle ienjer nQ~ Ske Jeefkele meeceevele: Deheveer
peeefle keer meerceeDeeW kes Yeerlej pevce }slee nw, peerJeve iegpeejlee nw Deewj
Fmeer meercee ceW Gmekeer ceewle nes peeleer nw~
kees"ejer kee ceevevee nw efke }eskeleebef$eke jepeveerefle ceW peeefle Deewj
jepeveerefle Ske-otmejs kes vepeoerke Deeleer nw~ Fme heefeee ceW oesveeW kee
ner he yeo}e nw~ Deheves mebie"ve kes oeejs ceW }ekej jepeveerefle ves
peeefle mes Deheveer DeefYeJeefkele kes ef}S meeceeer heehle keer nw Deewj Fmes
Deheveer eesieleevegmeej {e} ef}ee nw~ GOej peeefle-mecetneW ves
jepeveerefle kees Deheveer ieefleefJeefOe kee kesvo yeveekej Deefmcelee kee oeJee
hesMe kejves Deewj jepe-leb$e ceW Deheveer efmLeefle megOeejves kee ceewkee
neefme} efkeee~ JeemleJe ceW, }eskeleebef$eke jepeveerefle Deewj DeeOegefveke
Deeweesefieke efJekeeme ves meee hej Dehevee keypee kej Deheveer efmLeefle
megOeejves kes ef}S peeefle-mecetneW kees hesefjle efkeee~ peeefleeeW ves egveeJeer
jepeveefle Deewj o}iele jepeveerefle mes Kego kees pees[ efoee nw~
heefjCeecemJehe, ieefleMeer}lee kes DeefOeke meecetefnke Deewj menYeeieer
he meeceves Deees nQ Deewj efJeefYeVe mlejeW kes yeere yesnlej mecevJee
ngDee nw~ jepeveerefle keer efveCe&keejer heefeee ceW DeefOekeeefOeke leyekes
Yeeieeroejer kejles pee jns nQ~ en heefeee efJeefYeVe peeefleeeW kees Dehevee
Debie yeveeleer pee jner nw~ DeewheefveJesefMeke Deewj Gej-DeewheefveJesefMeke
jepe eje Deheves ef}S meceLe&ve Deewj JewOelee heeves kes ef}S
Devegmetefele peeefle, Devegmetefele pevepeeefle, Deve efhe[s Jeieexb keer
esefCeeeW kee efvecee&Ce efkeee ieee Deewj Deej#eCe pewmes keoceeW kees
Deheveeee ieee~ Fmeves peeefleeeW kes jepeveereflekejCe kees ye{eee Deewj
FvnW jepeveerefleke eslevee leLee meee keer Deekeeb#ee mes Yeje~
}eskeleebef$eke jepeveerefle ves efJeefYeVe peeefleeeW kes yeere ie"yebOeve keer
heJe=efe kees ye{eee~ }eskeleebef$eke jepeveerefle kes keejCe veF&
Ghe}efyOeeeW keer mebYeeJeveeSB peieeR~ Fve mebYeeJeveeDeeW kes meeLe en
yeele Yeer peg[er ngF& Leer efke kesJe} peeefleiele mebyebOe mLeeeer meceLe&ve kee
DeeOeej yeveeves kes ef}S veekeeHeer ner veneR Jejved neefvekeejke Yeer nesles
nQ~ Fmekee keejCe en nw efke efmeHe& Ske peeefle kes meceLe&ve kes Yejesmes
meee neefme} kejvee mebYeJe veneR nw, Fmekes ef}S otmejer peeefleeeW Deewj
mecegoeeeW kes meceLe&ve keer pejle Yeer he[leer nw~ otmejs efkemeer Yeer
}eskeleebef$eke he mes egveer ngF& mejkeej keer JewOelee Fme hej efveYe&j


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

nesleer nw efke Gmes meceepe ceW efkeleveer efJeefJeOe peeefleeeW Deewj mecegoeeeW
kees meceLe&ve neefme} nw~
meee hej keypee kejves kes ef}S efJeefYeVe peeefleeeW kes yeere yeveves
Jee}s ie"yebOeve ves heejbheefjke he mes kece&keeb[ hej DeeOeeefjle ee
TBe-veere keeece jKeves Jee}er peeefle JeJemLee kees mecemlejere SJeb
heefleeesieer peeefle JeJemLee ceW leyoer} kej efoee nw~ Ssmes ceW efhe[er
Deewj oef}le peeefleeeW ves Yeer meee hej meceeve he mes Deheveer oeJesoejer
hesMe keer nw Deewj Jes meee hej Dehevee keypee kejves ceW keeceeeye Yeer jner
nw~ peeefleeeB mebie"ve kes vees }#eeW kes ef}S Keg}s meskeg}j heeW kees
Deheveeves mes veneR efnekeleeR~ peeefle-meYeeSB ee peeefle mebIe Yeer FvneR
heeW ceW mes Ske nQ~ DeeOegefveke peeefle meYeeDeeW Deewj heejbheefjke peeefle
hebeeeleeW ceW keeHeer Devlej nw~ Ske peeefle hebeeele Ske ieeBJe keer
meerceeDeeW mes yeBOeer nesleer nw~ }sefkeve peeefle meYee Jeeheke #es$e ceW Hew}er
peeefle kee heefleefveefOelJe kejves kee oeJee kejleer nw~ keF& yeej Ske peeefle
meYee ee mebIe ceW keF& peeefleeeB Meeefce} nesleer nQ~ keF& yeej peeeflemeYeeSB jepeveerefleke efnleeW kees meeOeves kes ef}S Deeheme ceW ie"pees[ Yeer
kejleer nQ~ es peeefle mebIe ee meYeeSB heejbheefjke peeefleeeW kes
kece&keeb[ere Deewj hetpee mebyebOeer }eYeeW kes ef}S keece veneR kejleer nQ~
es `efpeeW' ee `Meemeke' peeefleeeW keer peeefle-meYeeDeeW keer eewOejen
kes efKe}eHe Skeleeye mebIe<e& kes mhe GsMe mes keece kejleer nQ~
peeefle-mebIeeW ves Deheves jepeveerefleke efnleeW kes ef}S meerOes leewj hej
jepeveerefleke o}eW mes meewosyeepeer keer~ Fmekes leerve heefjCeece meeceves
Deees - hen}e, efJeMes<e he mes iejerye Deewj neefMeS hej he[er peeefleeeW
kes meomeeW kee jepeveereflekejCe ngDee~ es Deye leke jepeveerefleke
heefeee mes Detles Les~ Deheves efnleeW kes hetje nesves keer DeeMee ceW FvneWves
egveeJeer jepeveerefle ceW Yeeie }svee Meg efkeee~ otmeje, peeefle kes
meomeeW kee efJeefYeVe o}eW kes yeere efJeYeepeve ngDee, efpememes peeefle keer
heke[ kecepeesj ngF&~ leermeje, mebKeelceke he mes ye[er peeefleeeW ves
mebmeo Deewj efJeOeeveceb[}eW ceW heefleefveefOelJe heehle efkeee~ Fmemes
heejbheefjke he mes pees heYeglJeMee}er peeefleeeB LeeR, Gvekeer efmLeefle
kecepeesj ngF&~
mhele: jepeveerefle ves peeefle kees Deheves DeeOeej kes he ceW hemlegle
efkeee nw Deewj Fme lejn Fmes heomeesheeve ee TBe-veere hej DeeOeeefjle
TIJe& ee efhejeefce[ keer mebjevee pewmeer JeJemLee mes meee kes ef}S
heefleeesefielee kejves Jee}er #eweflepe ee mecemlejere mecetneW keer JeJemLee
ceW yeo}e nw~ efHej Yeer, yengle mes efJeeejkeeW kee ceevevee nw efke egveeJe
heCee}er ves peeefle-DeefmceleeDeeW kees veJepeerJeve heoeve kej efoee nw~
ojDeme}, jepeveerefleke meee kes Skecee$e DeeOeej kes he ceW peeefle
keer meee kee #ee nes peeves kes keejCe peeleere ieefCele kee cenlJe ye{
ieee nw~ peeefle kes meomeeW ceW efkemeer Ske o} kees Jees osves keer
heJe=efe nesleer nw, efkevleg Ssmee veneR kene pee mekelee nw efke Ske peeefle
kes meYeer meome Skehe neskej celeoeve kejles nQ~ GcceeroJeejeW keer
peeefle kes meeLe otmejs keejke Yeer cenlJehetCe& nQ, pees celeoeleeDeeW keer
celeoeve heJe=efe kee efveOee&jCe kejles nQ~ peeleere ieefCele keer Gme mecee

pejle veneR Leer, peye keg peeefleeeW kes }esie ner meee kes oeJesoej
Les~ peeefle Deheveer meJe&MeefkeleMee}er efmLeefle kes keejCe jepeveerefle kes
ef}S Deheemebefieke Leer~ peeefle jepeveerefle keer efveOee&jke Yetefcekee mes
efiejkej Gmes heYeeefJele kejves Jee}e Ske lelJe cee$e yeve ieF& nw~
celeoeleeDeeW kees Jees osves keer heJe=efe kees heYeeefJele kejves ceW otmejs keF&
keejkeeW keer Yeer cenlJehetCe& Yetefcekee nesleer nw~ GcceeroJeej kee
Jeefkeleiele, efJekeeme kee ceme}e, jepeveerefleke o} kee SpeW[e Deeefo
Ssmes keejkeeW kes GoenjCe nQ~
meee kes m$eesle kes he ceW peeefle ves heomeesheeve hej DeeOeeefjle
Jee&mJe kees lees[e nw Deewj meYeer peeefleeeW kees meee keer Deekeeb#ee kejves
Jee}s heefleeesieer #eweflepe mecetneW ceW yeo} efoee nw~ Deveske efvecve peeefle
leLee efhe[s Jeie& kes vesleeDeeW kees peeefle ves meee heehle kejves ceW
keeceeeyeer efo}eF&~ Fve keejkeeW mes heefleefveOeelceke }eskeleebef$eke
JeJemLee ceW jepeveerefleke Yeeieeroejer kees ye{eJee efce}e~ meceepe kes
heleske }esieeW ceW jepeveerefleke peeiekelee kee hemeej ngDee~ Fmekes
meeLe ner peeefle ves Yeejleere meceepe ceW leveeJe SJeb mebIe<e& kees Yeer pevce
efoee~ 1990 kes yeeo lees peeefle Jees keer jepeveerefle kee kesvo yeve
ieF& leLee Deej#eCe pewmes cegs kees nJee efoee, efpememes jepeveerefle ceW
GLe}-hegLe} ye{ ieF&~ efveke YeefJe<e ceW peeefle DeeOeeefjle jepeveerefle
kes meceeefhle nesves kes Deemeej Yeer veneR efoKeeF& os jns nQ~ Dele: Gcceero
keer pee mekeleer nw efke Yeejleere jepeveerefleke JeJemLee kees heYeeefJele
kejves Jee}s Deveske keejkeeW ceW peeefle kee cenlJehetCe& mLeeve yevee
1. keefJejepeve megoerhle, hee@ef}efkeme Fve Fbef[ee, Dee@kemeHees[&
etefveJeefme&er hesme, efou}er, 1997, he= 8
2. yesles Deebos, keem Sb[ hee@ef}efke} eghe Hee@jcesMeve Fve
leefce}vee[g, Deesefjeb }ebicewve, veF& efou}er, 1972,
he= 245
3. kees"ejer jpeveer, Yeejle ceW jepeveerefle : ke} Deewj Deepe, JeeCeer
hekeeMeve, efou}er, 2006, he= 251
4. jece jeceeee, keem Sb[ hee@ef}efke} efjetceW Fve efyenej,
Deesefjeb }ebicewve, efou}er, 1972, he= 228
5. [esuHe }esS[ Deewj [esuHe megpesve , o cee[eaefveer Dee@He
^sef[Meve : hee@ef}efke} [sJe}sheceW Fve Fbef[ee, efMekeeiees
etefveJeefme&er hesme, efMekeeiees, 1967
6. efce$ee jescee, keem hees}jeFpesMeve Sb[ hee@ef}efkeme,
efmeb[erkes heefy}kesMevme, hevee, 1992, he= 4
7. pesHej}e@ efemesHes, Fbef[eepe meeF}W efjJeesuetMeve : o
jeFpe Dee@He o }es keemdme Fve vee@Le& Fbef[eve hee@ef}efkeme,
hejceeveW y}wke, efou}er 2003
8. eewyes kece} veeve, peeefleeeW kee jepeveereflekejCe, JeeCeer
hekeeMeve, veF& efou}er, 2008, he= 22


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

9. eeoJe eesiesvo, keeeehe} keer keneveer : veee heeesie, veF&

mebYeeJeveeSB, veS DebosMes, mebkeef}le, DeYee kegceej otyes,
}eskeleb$e kes meele DeOeee, JeeCeer hekeeMeve, veF& efou}er,
2002, he= 44
10. Meen IeveMeece, keem Sb[ [sceesesefke hee@ef}efkeme Fve
Fbef[ee, hejceeveW y}wke, veF& efou}er, 2002, he=1
11. Ietex peer Sme, keem ke}eme Sb[ DeekeethesMeve, hee@heg}j
yegke ef[hees, yee@cyes, 1969, he= 1
12. }ere S[ceb[ Deej, Dee@mheskedme Dee@He keem Fve Fbef[ee,
heeefkemleeve Sb[ Jesm heeefkemleeve, kewefcyepe, Fbi}wC[,
1960, he=1-2
13. Jesyej cewkeme, ke}eme, msdme Sb[ heeea, mebkeef}le oerheebkej
ieghlee, meesMe} m^sefefHekesMeve, Dee@kemeHees[& etefveJeefme&er
hesme, veF& efou}er, 1991, he= 455-470

14. eerefveJeeme Sce Sve, DeeOegefveke Yeejle ceW meceepe heefjJele&ve,

veF& efou}er, 1982, he= 16
15. ieghlee oerheebkej, keem Fbeem^keej Sb[ meghejm^keej : S
efeerke, Fkeesveesefceke Sb[ hee@ef}efke} Jeerke}er, 19
efomecyej 1981, he= 2093
16. peesvme [yuet Se ceeHeefjme, o ieJeve&ceW Sb[ hee@ef}efkeme
Dee@He Fbef[ee, nefevemeve etefveJeefme&er, }bove, 1964,
he= 65
17. [esuHe }ese[ DeeF& Deewj [esuHe megpesve Se, o
cee@[efve&er Dee@He ^sef[Meve: hee@ef}efke} [sJe}sheceW Fve
Fbef[ee, etefveJeefme&er Dee@He efMekeeiees hesme, efMekeeiees,
1967, he= 12
18. otyes DeYee kegceej, jepeveerefle keer efkeleeye : jpeveer kees"ejer kee
ke=eflelJe, JeeCeer hekeeMeve, meerSme [erSme, veF& efou}er,
2003, he= 193-193


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 182-185

ISSN 0974 - 200X

meecheoeefekelee keer DeeefLe&ke he=Yetefce

keceuesMe kegceej keceuesv
DeefleefLe JeeKeelee, Fefleneme efJeYeeie
iespegS mketue kee@uespe hee@j Jeescesve, peceMesohegj

meebheoeefekelee nceejs osMe keer DeeefLe&ke meeceeefpeke, meebmke=efleke, mecejmelee ceW Ske hecegKe mecemee jner nw~ Fmeves Yeejleere peve-mecetn kees Oece&, peeefle,
mebmke=efle Deeefo kes DeeOeej hej Ske Deueie-Deueie mecegoee nesves kee yeesOe kejeee~ Fme meebheoeefekelee kees ye{eJee osves ceW mejkeej keer het [eueeW Deewj
Meemeve kejes keer veerefle keer Yetefcekee keeheer cenJehetCe& jner~ uesefkeve en Yeer Glevee ner mee nw efke Fmekes efueS osMe ceW ceewpeto meeceeefpeke, DeeefLe&ke SJeb
jepeveerefleke heefjefmLeefleeeW kes keejCe ner GvnW meheuelee efceueer~ JeemleJe ceW meebheoeefekelee keer pe[ DeeefLe&ke cemeueeW ceW gheer nesleer nw~ osMe ceW peye keYeer
meecheoeefekelee keer mecemee Ke[er ngF& lees Gmekes pe[ ceW DeeefLe&ke keejCe ner cenJehetCe& jne nw~ uesefkeve efJe[cyevee en nw efke Fve DeeefLe&ke keejCeeW keer
meceer#ee veneR kej, Gvekes meceeOeeve kee Gheee veneR meesekej Deheves mJeeLees& ceW hesefjle neskej Demeeceeefpeke leJeeW eje meecheoeefekelee kee peecee henvee efoee
ieee~ Fme meecheoeefekelee kes keejCe Yeejleere je<^ere Deeboesueve ceW Yeer keeheer nueeueW DeeF& keeeWefke Fmekee efJekeeme je<^ere mJeeleb$e Deeboesueve kes meeLe ner
nes jne Lee~ Dele: DeeJeMekelee nw meebheoeefekelee keer Fme mebkeerCe& ceeveefmekelee mes Thej G"kej Jeeheke je<^ere efnle kee meceLe&ve efkeee peee~

efJeefMeMeyo - meebheoeefekelee, mecejmeee, DeewheefveJesefMeke Meemeve, heefleefkeeeJeeoer, GheefveJesMeJeeo

leLee DeeefLe&ke "njeJe ves Ssmeer heefjefmLeefleeeB GlheVe keer efpevneWves
Deepe nce meYelee kes efJekeeme kes keF& ejCeeW kees hetje kej 21 meceepe kes Yeerlej Deebleefjke efJeYeepeve SJeb meebheoeefekelee kees pevce
JeeR meoer ceW hengBe iees nQ~ efkevleg DeYeer lees heleve keer Deesj mes efoee~
peevesJeeueer heeflekeeeJeeoer MeefeeeW ves nceeje heere veneR es[e nw~
[yuetmeer efmceLe meebheoeefekelee kes DeLe& kees mhe kejles ngS
nce Deheves Yeerlej meebheoeefekelee pewmeer #eg YeeJeveeDeeW kees efvekeeue kenles nQ efke Ske meecheoeefeke Jeefe DeLeJee mecetn Jen nw pees
heWkeves ceW meceLe& veneR nes mekes~ Ssmeer heefjefmLeefle ceW Demeeceeefpeke heleske Oeeefce&ke DeLeJee Yee<eeeer mecetn kees Ske Ssmeer he=Leked
leJeeW kees meecheoeefeke YeeJeveeDeeW kees Gkemeeves ceW keeheer Deemeeveer meeceeefpeke leLee jepeveerefleke FkeeF& ceevelee nw efpemekes efnle Deve
nesleer nw~ es Demeeceeefpeke leJe Deheves mJeeLees mes hesefjle neskej keg mecetneW mes he=Leke nesles nQ Deewj efJejesOeer Yeer nes mekeles nQ~ Ssmes ner
ueesieeW kees Yee<ee, JesMe-Yet<ee, jbie, peeefle, Oece&, mebmke=efle, DeLe& Jeefe mecetneW keer efJeeejOeeje kees mecheoeeJeeo ee meecheoeefekelee
heueeheeW, oble keLeeDeeW, JebeveeDeeW leLee DeheJeeneW kes eje otmejs kene peeesiee~
mecegoee kees Dehevee Me$eg ee efce$e yeleueeves kee megefveeesefpele <e[deb$e
Fmeer hekeej kee efJeeej Jee kejles ngS SceSce Mecee& ves
kejles nQ~ JeneB keer Yeesueer-Yeeueer pevelee Fve yenkeeJes ceW Deekej kene nw efke - meecheoeefekelee kes Debleie&le Jes meodYeeJeeveeSB SJeb keee&
meebheoeefekelee kes peeue ceW GuePe peeleer nw~
meefcceefuele nQ efpeveceW efkemeer Oece& ee Yee<ee kes DeeOeej hej efkemeer mecetn
meebheoeefekelee Ske efJeeejOeeje nw efpemes keYeer Yeer mJeerkeej efJeMes<e kes efnleeW kees je<^ere efnleeW hej heeLeefcekelee oer peeS leLee Gme
veneR efkeee peevee eeefnS~ FmeceW Ske mecetn ee mecegoee kes ueesie mecetn ceW he=Lekelee keer YeeJevee hewoe nes peeS ee Gmekees heeslmeenve
otmejs mecetn ee mecegoee kes ueesieeW kees nerve mecePeles nQ Deewj Gvekes efoee peeS~
heefle Me$eglee kee YeeJe jKeles nQ~ Yeejle ceW efJeeceeve jner
efJeefheveev ves meebheoeefekelee keer heefjYee<ee, Gmekes GodYeJe
meebheoeefekelee Fmekee GoenjCe nQ meebheoeefekelee Meyo kee heeesie Deewj efJekeeme kee efJemle=le efJeJeseve efkeee nw~ Gvekee kenvee nw efke
keYeer-keYeer yengle ner Demhe SJeb Deefveefele DeLees ceW efkeee peelee nw~ meecheoeefekelee ee meecheoeefeke efJeeejOeeje kes leerve leJe ee ejCe
Fmekes Delebie&le Jes meYeer YeeJeveeSB SJeb efkeee-keueehe Dee peeles nQ nesles nQ~ henues lelJe, en efJeeeme nw efke Ske ner Oece& ceevevesJeeueeW kes
efpeveceW efkemeer Oece& DeLeJee Yee<ee kes DeeOeej hej efkemeer mecegoee meebmeeefjke efnle jepeveerefleke, DeeefLe&ke, meeceeefpeke, meebmke=efleke Ske
efJeMes<e kes efnleeW hej yeue efoee peelee nw~
pewmes nesles nQ~ otmeje leJe en efJeeeme nw efke Gvekee efnle Deve Oecees&
meebheoeefekelee JeemleJe ceW GheefveJesMeJeeo kee og<heefjCeece nw~ kes DevegeeefeeeW mes efYeVe nesles nQ~ leermeje leJe, en efJeeeme nw efke
en Ske peefue mecemee nw efpemekee ceeveJe heke=efle Deewj JeeleeJejCe Gvekes efnle Deve Oecees kes DevegeeefeeeeW kes efnleeW ceW efJejesOeer nw~2
oesveeW mes ienje mebyebOe neslee nw~ Ssefleneefmeke ef mes DeeOegefveke
meecheoeefekelee Ske efJeeejOeeje, Ske efJeefMe efkeesCe nw
jepeveerefle Deewj meeceeefpeke Jeiees& kee Goe Gmeer keeue ceW ngDee Lee peye peyeefke Deve keejke kesJeue Glhesjke nesles nQ~ meecheoeefekelee kee
Yeejleere DeLe&JeJemLee ceW GheefveJesMeerkejCe kee hetje heYeeJe DevegYeJe pevce Gme #eCe neslee nw peye keesF& Jeefe ee mecetn otmejs Oece& kees
efkeee peeves ueiee Lee~ GheefveJesMeJeeoer DeLe&JeJemLee, Deuhe efJekeeme nerve, leg ee kehe (heehe) mecePelee nw~ Deheves Oece& kees Gece

ceevevee~ mJeeYeeefJeke SJeb Gefele nw uesefkeve otmejs Oecees kee eflejmkeej

keer YeeJevee mes osKeves meecheoeefekelee kee pevce neslee nw~ DeMeeske ves
Fmekee pees nue hemlegle efkeee Jen meJees&ece leLee DeeoMe& nQ~ Jen
kenlee nw Deiej keesF& Jeefe Deheves Oece& keer Je=ef eenlee nw lees Jen
otmejs Oecees kee mecceeve kejW~ otmejW Oecees& kee mecceeve kejves mes
meecheoeefekelee kee Deble nes mekelee nw~ cegmeueceeve otmejs Oecees kees
keghe ceevelee nw~ ener cegefmuece meecheoeefekelee kee cetue nw~
ceOekeeue ceW efnvot cegefmuece Meemeve kes Devleie&le jns Les~ Dele:
cegefmuece Yeer efnvot Meemeve kes Debleie&le jn mekeles Les~ JeemleJe ceW
Fmekeer keesF& mebYeeJevee veneR Leer~ keeeWefke keebiesme Oece& efvejhes#e Leer
Deewj cegmeueceeveeW kee je<^ere Deeboesueve ceW cenJehetCe& eesieoeve Lee~
efhej Yeer cegefmuece ueerie ves cegmeueceeveeW ceW efnvot Meemeve keer Yee
Ske mecheoeeJeeoer ee meecheoeefeke efkeesCe meceepe efJejesOeer
neslee nw~ en efyeefMe Meemevekeeue keer cenJehetCe& vekeejelceke
efJejemele nw~ FmeefueS Yeejleere Fefleneme jepeveerefleke JeJemLee kes
meboYe& ceW meecheoeefekelee Meyo vekeejelceke he ceW mecePee peelee nw~
meecheoeefeke efkeesCe meceepe efJejesOeer nesves kes meeLe ner je<^
efJejesOeer FmeefueS kene pee mekelee keeeWefke Jen Deheves mecetn kes
mebkeerCe& efnleeW kees hetje kejves kes efueS Deve mecetneW Deewj mebhetCe& osMe
kes efnleeW keer DeJensuevee kejves mes Yeer heers veneR nlee nw~
MeesOe heefJeefOe
hemlegle MeesOe DeeuesKe efJeMues<eCeelceke SJeb JeCe&veelceke heke=efle
keer nw~ MeesOe DeeuesKe kes efueS heeLeefceke SJeb efleere oesveeW hekeej kes
eesleeW kee Gheeesie efkeee ieee nw~ Fmekes efueS hekeeefMele iebLe leLee
efJeefYeVe meceeeej he$eeW ceW hes DeeuesKeeW kees DeeOeej yeveeee ieee nw~
leLe efJeMues<eCe
Yeejle keer pevelee Keemekej DeeefLe&ke efJe<eceleeDeeW kee obMe
Pesueleer nw~ keF& yeej mejkeej meeceeefpeke mejbevee ceW Jeehle DeeefLe&ke
efJe<eceeleeDeeW kees otj kejves kes efueS Deheveer Ssmeer veerefle lee kejleer nw
efpememes hele#e ee Dehele#e he mes meebheoeefekelee keer Deeie kees
nJee efceueleer nw~ Deheves efnle ceW mejkeej Yeer keYeer-keYeer
meecheoeefekelee kees Gkemeeves kee keee& kejleer nw~ keeeWefke meve
mebleeJeve keer keebefle kes mecee leke Yeejle ceW meebheoeefekelee keer YeeJevee
efJekeefmele veneR ngF& Leer~ Fme efJeesn ceW efnvot cegefmuece Ske neskej
Ske otmejs mes kebOes mes kebOee efceueekej Debiespeer mejkeej kes efJe
ueesne efueee Lee~ Dele: GvneWves Ske Ssmeer eeue eueer pees Gvekes efnleeW
ceW Lee~ Fmekes efueS GvneWves het [euees Deewj Meemeve kejes keer veerefle
Deheveeeer Deewj eneB kes hecegKe Jeie& efnvot Deewj cegmeueceeveeW kees
Ye[keeves kee keece Meg efkeee~ hemlegle MeesOe uesKe keer DeJeefOe
(1929-1947) ceW Fmekes keF& GoenjCe efceueles nw~ mee lees en
nw efke efyeefMe mejkeej keer yegefveeeoer veerefle ner Leer - het [euees Deewj
Meemeve kejes~ nceejs osMe ceW henues mes ner meeceeefpeke, DeeefLe&ke

efJe<ecelee Leer~ efyeefMe mejkeej keer veerefle mes en Deewj ienjer Deewj
eew[er nes ieeer~5
efnvot Deewj cegefmuece DeefYepeve ves Yeer Deheves DeeefLe&ke efnleeW keer
j#ee keer hetefle& kes efueS meecheoeefekelee kee meneje efueee~ meeceeefpeke
DeeefLe&ke heefjJele&ve kes keejCe Fme Jeie& ceW DeeefLe&ke Demegj#ee kee YeeJe
ye{ves ueiee~ Fmeer keejCe cegefmuece peeefle kes DeefYepeveeW ves ye[er
veewkeefjeeW leLee Deve heoeW kes efueS efmehe& GeJeieer&e cegmeueceeveeW kees
ner megefJeOee osves kee Deeien efkeee~ Deheves heYeeJe kees yeveees jKeves kes
efueS efMeef#ele kegueerve cegmeueceeve Deheves mecegoee kes meeceeefpeke
efhe[sheve kees yeveees jKeves kes efueS efpeccesoej Les~ Ge Jeieer&e
cegmeueceeveeW kes jepeveerefleke cenJe kees efyeefMe mejkeej Deer lejn
peeveleer Leer keeeWefke hetjs mecegoee kee vesle=lJe GvneR kes neLeeW ceW Lee Deewj
Jes Debiespeer mejkeej kes MegYe efebleke SJeb j#eke Les~
Ge Jeieer&e cegmeueceeveeW Deewj efyeefMe mejkeej kes meeLe pees
ie"yebOeve mej meweo Denceo ves 19 JeeR Meleeyoer ceW mLeeefhele efkeee
Jen efJeosMeer Meemeve kes Deble leke euelee jne~ DeefYepeele Jeieer&e
cegmeueceeve Deewj efyeefMe mejkeej oesveeW Deheves efveefnle mJeeLees& keer hetefle&
kes efueS meecheoeefekelee keer Dees ceW Ske otmejs kees yuewkecesue kejles
jns~ oesveeW ceW meebheoeefekelee keer uehes Fleveer ye{er efke efmLeefleeeB
oesveeW kes efveeb$eCe kes yeenj eueer ieeer~
Deeweesefieke meYelee kes efJekeeme kes keejCe Yeejle ceW Yeer
ceOeJeie&, efvecveJeie& kee Goe ngDee~ efkemeeveeW keer efmLeefle efoveesefove
yeolej nesleer ieeer~ nceejs osMe Yeejle kee DeeefLe&ke DeeOeej ke=ef<e,
heMegheeueve SJeb ess-ess ueIeg SJeb kegerj Geesie jne nw~ efkevleg
Fme DeJeefOe ceW Deeweesefieke meYelee kes efJekeeme, ueieeleej je<^ere
SJeb Debleje&<^ere mlej hej eg leLee mejkeej keer DeewheefveJesefMeke veerefle
kes keejCe ke=ef<e heMegheeueve SJeb ess-ess Geesie yegjer lejn
heYeeefJele ngS~ ueIeg SJeb kegerj Geesie kees DebiespeeW eje Deheveer
DeeefLe&ke veerefle kes Debleie&le hetjer lejn ve kej efoee ieee~ Gvekeer
peien keee ceeue Fbieuew[ Yespee peeves ueiee Deewj JeneB mes leweej ceeue
Yeejleere yeepeejeW ceW Yej ieee~ FmeceW Gve GeesieeW hej efveYe&j ueesie
DeeefLe&ke lebieer kes keieej hej Dee iees~ GveceW heveheer ngF& Demegj#ee keer
YeeJevee meebheoeefeke obieeW kes he ceW Jee nesves ueieer~ otmejer Deesj
mejkeejer veewkejer Yeer efceueveer yebo ieF&~ Fmemes mecegoee keer veewkejer kes
DeYeeJe ceW Jes meebheoeefeke YeeJevee kes efMekeej nesles iees~
Yeejle ceW efkemeeveeW kes efueS keesF& "esme DeeefLe&ke keee&kece veneR
Lee~ FmeefueS Jes efyeefMe mejkeej keer ebiegue ceW hebmeves mes Deheves kees
jeske veneR mekes~ DeewheefveJesefMeke eefj$e kes heuemJehe Yeejleere
DeLe&JeJemLee hebieg nes ieeer Deewj ceOeJeieer&e egJee Jeie& Deheves YeefJe<e
kees ueskej DeeMebkeeDeeW F&<ee&DeeW SJeb efvejeMeeDeeW mes efIej ieee~ ye{leer
ngF& yesjespeieejer kes keejCe egJekeeW kes efueS Yeer DeeefLe&ke GheueefyOe
Deewj meheuelee kes DeJemej Ieles vepej Dee jns Les~ Deheveer efmLeefle
cepeyetle kejves kes efueS ceOe Jeieer&e cegmeueceeve meeseles Les efke
mejkeejer veewkeefjeeW Deewj JeJemeeeeW ceW cegmeueceeveeW kee efnmmee ye{e


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

efoee peee peyeefke ceOeJeieer&e efnvot meeseles Les efke Fmemes Gvekee nke
erve peeesiee~ heuemJehe oesveeW mecegoee Ske otmejs kees F&<ee& Deewj
DeeMebkee keer vepej mes osKeves ner veneR ueies, yeefuke Ske otmejs kes
DeJemejeW kees erve uesves keer Gele nes iees~ FmeefueS peye keneR
mejkeejer veewkeefjeeW ceW keesF& efveegefe nesleer Leer leye Gmes meecheoeefeke
jbie efoee peelee Lee~ JeemleJe ceW efnvot Deewj cegefmuece mecegoee kes
Yeerlej kes DeeefLe&ke mebyebOeeW keer Jew%eeefveke JeeKee kej Gvekeer
mecemeeDeeW kees meguePeeves keer efoMee ceW keesF& heeeme veneR efkeee
Yeejle ceW Debiespeer jepe kee GJe Deewj efJekeeme Jeeheej SJeb
JeJemeee mes ngDee Lee~ Debiespe Yeejle ceW Jeeheej kejves Deees Les Deewj
Deheves Jeeheej keer Je=ef SJeb megj#ee kes efueS GvneWves jepe eueevee
Gefele mecePee~ mejkeej keer veF& Deeweesefieke veerefle kes Devleie&le
efkemeeve SJeb meeOeejCe pevelee kee Mees<eCe efkeee peeves ueiee~ efyeefMe
mejkeej eje Deheves DeeefLe&ke ueeYe kes efueS ke=ef<e kee
JeJemeeeerkejCe efkeee ieee~ ke=ef<e kee JeJemeeeerkejCe mes ke=ef<e kee
efJekeeme ngDee~ ke=ef<e efnvot mecheoee kee hecegKe DeeOeej Lee~
FmeefueS ke=ef<e kes efJeveeMe mes efJeMes<ekej efnvot pevelee kee DeeefLe&ke
DeeOeej t ieee~ otmejer Deesj mejkeejer veewkeefjeeB efceueveer yebo nes
ieeer leLee eneB efveJeeme kejvesJeeueer yengmebKeke efnvot pevelee keer
mejkeej eje Yeer Ghes#ee keer peeleer Leer~ cegefmuece mebheoee keer
meebheoeefeke ceebieeW kees peneB legjble mJeerkeej kej efueee peelee Lee JeneRs
efnvogDeeW keer eser mes eser ceebieeW kees Yeer DemJeerkeej kej efoee
peelee~ Fmemes cegmeueceeveeW kes heefle efnvot pevelee ceW jes<e ye{e Deewj
meebheoeefekelee keer KeeF& kees eew[e efkeee~
cegefmueceeW ceW en Gvekes DeeefLe&ke meebmke=efleke efhe[eheve kes
keejCe meebheoeefekelee GYeejves ceW DeefOeke meneeke jne~ mejkeej keer
DeeefLe&ke veerefleeeW kee Yeer cegefmuece mebheoee hej efJehejerle heYeeJe he[e~
Debiespeer mejkeej keer Deesj mes cegefmuece meebheoeefekelee kees mejkeejer
heeslmeenve efoee peeves ueiee~ Fmemes cegefmuece meebheoeefekelee kees
heueves hetueves kee Gefele DeJemej efceuee~ GveceW heveheer ngF& Demegj#ee
keer YeeJevee yeere-yeere ceW meebheoeefeke obieeW kes he ceW Jee nesves
Yeejle ceW meebheoeefekelee kes efJekeeme kes efueS hecegKe he mes
DebiespeeW keer heg [euees Deewj jepe kejes keer veerefle efpeccesJeej nw~
1905 F& kes yeeo DebiespeeW keer en veerefle heKej he ceW cegKeefjle
ngF&~ efnvogDeeW Deewj cegmeueceeveeW ceW otjer ye{eves kes efueS heMeemekeere
megefJeOee kes veece hej uee[& kepe&ve ves yebieeue kee efJeYeepeve efkeee~
yebieeue kes efJeYeepeve mes efnvogDeeW kes meeLe ner cegmeueceeveeW Yeer efJejesOeer
Les~ efkevleg cegmeueceeveeW kees yebie-Yebie kes he#e ceW kejves kes efueS
efyeefMe veewkejMeener ves DeleefOeke heeeme efkees~ mJeeb uee[& kepe&ve
ves yebieeue kee oewj efkeee leLee keg meercee leke Deheves GsMe ceW
meheuelee Yeer heehle keer~ {ekee kee veyeeJe meerueceguuee yebie-Yebie kejves
kees leweej nes ieee~ efkebleg efhej Yeer DeefOekeebMe cegmeueceeveeW ves yebieYebie kee efJejesOe ner efkeee~8

Deheveer Fme eeue keer Demeheue nesles osKekej mejkeej ves

Yeejleere cegmeueceevees bkees keebiesme efJejesOeer mebmLee kees yeveeves kes efueS
hesefjle efkeee~ Fmeer GsMe mes DebiespeeW kes meceLe&ke {ekee kee veJeeye
meueerceguuee ves efomebyej 1906 ceW ceesncce[ve SpegkesMeveue keebheWme
kes mecee {ekee ceW cegmeueceeveeW kes Deueie jepeveerefleke mebie"ve yeveeves
kee hemleeJe jKee~ Fmekee GsMe efyeefMeeW kee meceLe&ve kejvee leLee
cegmeueceeveeW kes mJeeLees& keer j#ee kejvee Lee~ GvneWves en Yeer mhe
efkeee efke Fmekes eje keebiesme kes efvejblej ye{les heYeeJe kees jeskevee
leLee cegmeueceeve veewpeJeeveeW kees jepeveerefle ces bheJesMe kes efueS DeeOeej
heoeve efkeee peeesiee~ veyeeJe meueerceguuee kes Fme hemleeJe kees
mJeerkeej efueee ieee leLee 30 efomebyej 1906 F& kees veyeeJe yekej
Gue ceguke keer DeOe#elee ceW cegefmuece ueerie keer mLeehevee kee efveCe&e
efueee ieee~
Debiespe Deheves GsMe ceW meheue nes iees leLee cegmeueceeveeW kees
Deheves he#e ceW jKeves kes efueS GvneWves cegmeueceeveeW kees DeefOeke mes
DeefOeke megefJeOee heoeve kejves kee heeeme efkeee~ Fmemes Debiespeer
mejkeej kees oesnje ueeYe efceuelee Lee~
1. henuee en efke cegmeueceeve DebiespeeW kees Dehevee MegYeefebleke
mecePekej Gvekes Deewj kejerye Deeles Les~
2. otmeje Fmemes keebiesme ee efnvogDeeW eje cegmeueceeveeW kees oer
peevesJeeueer megefJeOeeDeeW kee efJejesOe efkeee peelee Lee lees Debiespe
cegmeueceeveeW kees Ye[keekej efke efnvot Gvekee Yeuee veneR eenles, oesveeW
keer otjer ye{eles Les~
GoenjCe kes he ceW Jeeemejee uee[& efmeveW kes heMeemeve
keeue ceW Gvekes efvepeer meefeJe efmceLe ves Deueerie{ kee@uespe kes
heOeeveeeee& kees he$e efueKekej cegmeueceeveeW kee Ske heefleefveefOe ceb[ue
Deheveer ceebieeW kes meeLe Jeeemejee mes efceueves kes efueS kene~ Deeiee
KeeB kes vesle=lJe ceW Ske heefleefveefOe ceb[ue Jeeemejee mes efceuee~ Fme
heefleefveefOe ceb[ue ves efvecveefueefKele ceebieeW kees Jeeemejee kes meeceves
1. cegmeueceeveeW kes efueS he=Leke efveJee&eve #es$e~
2. efJeOeeveceb[ueeW ceW cegmeueceeveeW kees Gvekeer pevemebKee mes DeefOeke
3. mejkeejer veewkeefjeeW ceW cegmeueceeveeW kees DeefOeke mLeeve~
4. cegefmuece efJeMJeefJeeeuee keer mLeehevee ceW mejkeejer Devegoeve
5. ieJe&vej pevejue keer keeQefmeue ceW eefo YeejleereeW kees jKee lees
cegmeueceeveeW kees Yeer Oeeve jKee peee~
Fme heefleefveefOeceb[ue keer ceebieeW kees Jeeemejee ves lelhejlee mes
mJeerkeej kej efueee Deewj Iees<eCee keer efke Deehekeer yeele efyeukegue mener
nw efke Deehe ueesieeW kee cenJe Deehekeer mebKee mes veneR Deebkeer peee
yeefuke Deehekes mebheoee kes jepeveerefleke cenlJe kees osKee peee Deewj
GveceW Deeheves meeceepe keer pees mesJee keer nw Gvekee Oeeve jKee peee~
ceQ Deehemes hetCe&he mes mencele ntB~


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Fme heefleefveefOeceb[ue keer ceebieeW kees mJeerkeej kej mejkeej ves

hele#e he mes meebheoeefekelee kees ye{e efoee~ keebiesme SJeb efnvogDeeW
keer ceebieeW hej keesF& Oeeve veneR efoee ieee Deewj JeneR cegmeueceeveeW kes
meebheoeefeke ceebieeW kees legjble mJeerkeej kej efueee peelee~ efnvot
cegmeueceeveeW kees efJejesOeer mecePeves ueies Deewj Deewj Debiespeer mejkeej keer
heg [euees Deewj Meemeve kejes keer veerefle keeceeeye nesves ueieer~ efnvot
SJeb cegmeueceeveeW kes yeere keer otjer Fme het Deewj ojej kes keejCe
ye{leer ieF& pees keYeer veneR YejvesJeeueer KeeF& pewmeer eew[er nesleer eueer
ieF&~ jpeveer heeceoe ves efueKee efke Fme hekeej Debiespeer mejkeej ves Ske
Ssmeer veerefle kee eerieCesMe efkeee efpememes meecege ner ieeBJeeW Deewj
MenjeW ceW penj hewuevesJeeuee Lee Deewj Yeejle vejke yeve peevesJeeuee
Fme veerefle ves egveeJe heCeeueer hej Yeer DeeIeele efkeee~
meebheoeefeke mebie"veeW Deewj meebheoeefeke efJejesOe kees ye{eJee osves kee
Fmemes Dee keesF& meeOeve veneR nes mekelee Lee~ Fme veerefle kees
1909 F& - kes DeefOeefveece eje Yeejle ceW mLeeefhele kej efoee
ieee~ 1928-34 keer DeJeefOe ceW GYejles ngS DeeefLe&ke cegs ves Yeer
meebheoeefekelee kes efJekeeme ceW eesieoeve efoee~ meefJevee DeJe%ee
Deeboesueve kes oewjeve ieebOeerpeer pewmes vesleeDeeW kes heeeme mes ye[er
keef"veeF& mes Fve meeceepeJeeoer mejkeej eje Gkemeeeer Deewj lejnerpe
oer ieF&~ meebheoeefekelee kees oyee DeJeMe efoee ieee~ efkevleg Gve
YeeJeveeDeeW kee mecetue veeMe veneR efkeee pee mekee~ meebheoeefekelee kee
en penj ueesieeW kes ceve ceW yevee ner jne~
ceeceuee meeFceve keceerMeve kes yeefn<keej kee nes ee mebege
efveJee&eve ceb[ue keer DevegMebmee kee ieesuecespe meccesueve ee meefJevee
Dee%ee Deeboesueve,ieebOeer FjJeerve mecePeewlee ee hetvee mecePeewlee nj peie
meecheoeefekelee kee en penj osKee ieee~ Fmemes Ske mecegoee otmejs
mecegoee kees DeeMebkee, Yee Deewj F&<ee& keer vepej mes osKeves ueiee~
hetje kee hetje meeceeefpeke {ebee ner ceevees ejceje ieee~10
1935-1947 kes yeere keebiespe vesle=lJe keer Yetefcekee SJeb
GejoeefelJe ves efJeefYeVe je<^ere Deeboesueve kes meboYe& ceW
meebheoeefekelee kes efJekeeme ceW cenJehetCe& jne~ JeemleJe ceW je<^ere
Deeboesueve SJeb osMe kes vesle=lJe ceW keebiesme keer meyemes ye[er Yetefcekee
Leer~ Yeejleere je<^ere keebiesme osMe kee meyemes heefleefle cebe Lee peneB
mes je<^ere Deeboesueve kee mebeeueve SJeb osMe kee vesle=lJe efkeee pee
jne Lee~ keebiesme eje meebheoeefekelee SJeb he=LekeleeJeeoer veerefle kee
efJejesOe efkeee peevee eeefnS Lee~ uesefkeve keebiesme Deewj je<^ere
Deeboesueve keer meyemes ye[er kecepeesjer en Leer efke Jen Ssmee veneR kej
mekeer~ keebiesme ceW ceove ceesnve ceeueJeere, Svemeer kesuekej, ueeuee
ueepehelejee pewmes meecheoeefeke veslee SJeb meecheoeefeke efJeeejOeeje
Yeer heJesMe kej egkeer Leer~ Fmekee Keguekej efJejesOe veneR efkeee pee
mekee~ meebheoeefeke obieeW kes efmeueefmeues ceW ener jCeveerefle DeheveeF&

Fme hekeej meecheoeefekelee keer DeeefLe&ke he=Yetefce ceW DeeefLe&ke
ceboer, pevemebKee Je=ef, yesjespeieejer, efkemeeveeW keer oeveere efmLeefle,
cepeotjeW kee Mees<eCe, egJee Jeie& keer efvejeMee, mejkeej keer oesjbieer
veerefle Deewj ceOe Jeie& keer cenlJeekeeb#ee peefvele jepeveerefle keer hecegKe
jner~ DeeefLe&ke jmmeekeMeer ves efnvot meebheoeefekelee kees DeKeC[ Yeejle
kee veeje osves kes efueS efJeJeMe efkeee lees cegefmuece meebheoeefekelee kees
Ske Deueie je<^ Ieesef<ele kejves kes efueS~ Fmeer efnvot-cegefmuece
meebheoeefekelee kes keejCe Yeejle kee efJeYeepeve ngDee Deewj osMe Yeejle
Deewj heeefkemleeve kes he ceW oes gke[eW ceW yeB ieee~ osMe kee
efJeYeepeve meebheoeefekelee kes heuemJehe GlheVe heefjCeece kes he ceW
nce DeYeer Yeer osKe jnW nQ~ keeheer mebIe<e& SJeb yeefueoeveeW kes yeeo nceW
DebiespeeW keer iegueeceer mes Deepeeoer lees efceueer hej Jen Kebef[le Yeejle kes
he ceW~ 1947 keer Deepeeoer kes yeeo hewuevesJeeueer meebheoeefeke obiee
SJeb efnbmee, ceej-kee Fmeer meebheoeefekelee kee JeerYelme heefjCeece nw~
1. ev efJeefheve, DeeOegefveke Yeejle ceW meebheoeefekelee, efnvoer
ceeOece keeee&vJee efveosMeeuee, efnvoer efJeMJeefJeeeuee, veF&
efouueer, 1996, he= 14
2. Mecee& SceSce, jepeveerefle efJe%eeve mejmJeleer neGme (hee)
efue, veF& efouueer, 2005, he= 332
3. elegJes&oer Skes, Yeejle kee Fefleneme, SmeJeerheer[er
heefyuekesMebme, 2010, he= 213
4. cegKepeer& jJeervveeLe, Yeejleere meceepe SJeb mebmke=efle, efJeJeske
hekeeMeve, peJeenjveiej, efouueer, 2004, he= 416
5. eb efJeefheve, DeeOegefveke Yeejle ceW GheefveJesMeJeeo Deewj
je<^Jeeo Deveeefcekee heefyueMeme& SC[ ef[m^eryetme& (hee)
efue oefjeeiebpe, veF& efouueer, 2005, he= 249
6. eb efJeefheve, Yeejle kee mJeeOeervelee mebIe<e&, efnvoer ceeOece
keeee&vJee efveosMeeuee, efnvoer efJeMJeefJeeeuee, veF& efouueer,
1996, he= 185
7. osmeeF& SDeej, Yeejleere je<^Jeeo keer meeceeefpeke he=Yetefce,
heesheguej hekeeMeve, yebyeF&, 1959, he= 88
8. efceeue S kes, Yeejle kee Fefleneme, meeefnle YeJeve
heefyuekesMevme, Deeieje, 2010, he= 351
9. heeceoe jpeveer, Fbef[ee ^[s efhehegume heefukesMebme neGme,
1949, he= 202
10. vesn peJeenjueeue, mesueskes[ Jekeme&, Keb[ - 6,
peJeenjueeue vesn cesceesefjeue heb[ efouueer, 1997, he=
11. ev efJeefheve, DeeOegefveke Yeejle ceW GheefveJesMeJeeo Deewj
je<^Jeeo Deveeefcekee heefyueMeme& SC[ ef[m^eryetme& (hee)
efue oefjeeiebpe, veF& efouueer, 2005, he= 237


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011 / pp. 186-190

ISSN 0974 - 200X

oef}le Meyo kes efJeefYevve Deeeece

hegvece kegceejer
MeesOe e$ee, I.C.H.R. Research Fellow
mveelekeesej Fefleneme efJeYeeie, jeBeer efJeMJeefJeeeuee, jeBeer

oef}le Fefleneme }sKeve Jele&ceeve ceW Fefleneme }sKeve keer Ske hecegKe efJeOee yeve ieF& nw~ meeceeve leewj oef}le kee DeLe& Devegmetefele peeefle mes }ieeee peelee nw~
JeemleJe ceW en Meyo Devegmetefele peeefle kes ef}S ner heeesie efkeee peelee nw leLeeefhe Fmekee DeLe& yengle ner Jeeheke nw~ Fmekes Jeeheke DeLe& ceW Gve meYeer kees
Meeefce} efkeee ieee nw pees meceepe eje Je<eexb mes Ghesef#ele jns nQ Deewj meleees pee jns nQ~ oef}le Meyo kes Devleie&le efJeefYevve efJeeveeW ves }esieeW keer meeceeefpeke,
DeeefLe&ke, Oeeefce&ke SJeb ceveesJew%eeefveke efhe[sheve kees oMee&ee nw~ Fme Meyo keer heefjYee<ee ceW oef}leeW kee mechetCe& Fefleneme heoefMe&le neslee nw leLee Gvekeer
Jele&ceeve meeceeefpeke meebmke=efleke he#e SJeb Gvekeer ceveesoMee kees efJeefMe he ceW JeefCe&le efkeee ieee nw~

efJeefMeMeyo - ceeveJeleeJeeoer o=efkeesCe, Demhe=Me, JeCe& JeJemLee, meeceeefpeke ieefleMeerle}e, yengpeve

Deeies e}kej oef}le Meyo kes he ceW heefjYeeef<ele ngS~ meJe&heLece
heejbYe ceW Yeejleere Fefleneme ceW efmeHe& Meemeke peeefleeeW kes Met keer eee& $e+iJeso kes omeJeW ceC[} kes heg<e metkele ceW eejeW
GlLeeve heleve, Gvekes Oece& mebmkeej Deewj Gvekes peerJeve kes efmeJee, JeCeexb kees efJeje heg<e kes eejes DebieeW mes Glhevve kene ieee nw efpemeceW
Deve peeefleeeB Jeieexb Deewj mecegoeeeW kes peerJeve efoKeeF& veneR osles~ hewjeW mes Met keer Glheefe ceeveer ieF& nw~
yeeeCeeWIme cegKeeceemeero yeent jepeve: ke=le~
Fmeef}S Yeejle kes Fefleneme ceW ve lees oef}le GheefmLele nQ Deewj ve ner
Gmekee mebIe<e& vepej Deelee nw~ Fmekee keejCe en veneR nw efke es
Tleome eoxMe: heoYeeb MeteW Debpeeeleb~~
Fefleneme kes yeenj keer Jemleg nw yeefuke Fmekee keejCe en nw efke Yeejle
($e+iJeso 10.9.12)
kee Fefleneme ef}Keves Jee}eW ves oef}leeW Deewj efm$eeeW kees Fefleneme mes
JeCe& kee DeLe& jbie neslee nw Fme hekeej peeefle heLee kee DeeOeej
yeenj jKeves kee keece efkeee nw~ Gmeer ie}le Fefleneme yeesOe kes keejCe pevce Deewj Mejerj kee jbie heleerle neslee nw Yeejleere meeefnle ceW JeCe&
}esieeW ves oef}leeW Deewj efm$eeeW kees Feflenemenerve ceeve ef}ee peyeefke Deewj peeefle oesveeW ner MeyoeW kee Yejhegj heeesie ngDee nw efkevleg heeeerve
Yeejle kes Fefleneme ceW Gvekeer Yetefcekee cenJehetCe& nw Jes FeflenemeJeeve nQ meeefnle ces JeCe& Meyo kee Gu}sKe hen}s Je peeefle Meyo kee Gu}sKe
efmeHe& pejle oef}leeW Deewj efm$eeeW eje Deheves Fefleneme kees Keespeves yengle yeeo ceW ngDee nw~3 DeejbYe ceW en efJeYeepeve kece& DeeOeeefjle Lee~
keer nw~ [e0 DecyesGkej hen}s Yeejleere Feflenemekeej nw efpevnebWves pees Gejesej ceW pevce DeeOeeefjle neskej ke"esj neslee e}e ieee~4
Fefleneme ceW oef}leeW keer GheefmLeefle kees jsKeebefkele efkeee nw~ oef}le
eejes JeCeex& ceW eceMe: yeeeCe #eef$ee JewMe Deewj Met ceW meyemes
Meyo keer DeJeOeejCee kes mebyebOe ceW oef}le meeefnlekeejeW SJeb efJeeveeW efvee}s heeeoeve hej Met kees jKee ieee efpemes Ghej kes Jeieexb kee
ceW celeYeso nw~ Fme Meyo hej Deveske cenevegYeeJeeW ves Deheves-Deheves mesJeke ceevee ieee Deeies meg$ekee} ceW FvnW Metes kees Demhe=Me ee
efJeeej Jekele efkees nQ~ FveceW mes keg efJeeejes kees osKee pee mekelee Detle ceevee ieee~ yeeo kes Oeeefce&ke meeefnleeW ceW FvnW hebeJeCe& Ieesef<ele
nw~ meJe&heLece oef}le Meyo kees peeve }svee DeeJeMeke heleerle neslee nw efkeee ieee pees Fvekeer efiejleer ngF& efmLeefle kee heefjeeeke ceevee pee
oef}le meeefnle Deewj Gmekes jeveekeej efpeme oef}le Meyo kee heeesie mekelee nw~5
kejles nQ~ en oef}le Meyo DeeblekeJeeo, peeefleJeeo #es$eJeeo MeesOe heefJeefOe
mecheoeeJeeo kees vekeejlee nw leLee mechetCe& je^ osMe kees Ske met$e ceW
hemlegle MeesOe DeeuesKe efJeMues<eCeelceke SJeb JeCee&veelceke
efhejesves kee keee& kejlee nw~ oef}le Meyo Gve }esieeW keer heneeve heke=efle keer nw~ MeesOe keee& kes efueS efleereke m$eesleeW kee Gheeesie
mLeeefhele kejlee nw efpevekeer Deheveer heneeve Fefleneme kes ``he=eW mes efkeee ieee nw~ Fmekes efueS cegKele: iepesefej, hekeeefMele iebLe,
meoe kes ef}S efcee oer ieF& nw efpevekeer ieewjJehetCe& mebmke=efle, he$e-heef$ekeeDeeW ceW hes efJeJejCe, efveyevOe SJeb uesKe leLee efJeefYevve
Ssefleneefmeke Oejesnj kee}ee ceW Kees ieF& nw~1
MeesOe iebLeeW kees DeOeeve kee DeeOeej yeveeee ieee nw~
oef}le Meyo Ske DeeOegefveke Meyo nw oef}le ee ef[hesm[ ee leLe efJeM}s<eCe
Devegmetefele peeefle ceW Gve peeefleeeW kees jKee ieee nw pees Je<eexb mes
DeeOegefveke kee} ceW peye Oece& Deewj meeceeefpeke megOeej Deeboes}ve
DeeefLe&ke Mees<eCe Deewj meeceeefpeke eflejmkeej kes efMekeej jns nQ~ GvnW ngDee Gme mecee Metes Oeeve osves kee heeeme veneR efkeee ieee Gme
Demhe=Me ee Detle kene peelee jne nw~ Yeejleere Fefleneme kes Met ner mecee kee meeefnle Yeer oef}le keer efmLeefle ceW megOeej hej ceewve jne

Demhe=Me peeefleeeW keer meceepe megOeej Je peeie=efle Deeboes}ve 1854

kes oewjeve peesefle<ee Heg}s eje meleMeesOeke meceepe kes efvecee&Ce mes
Meg ngDee~ Fmeer yeere oef#eCe Yeejle ceb mesuHe jsmheske cetJeceW Yeer
e}s~ 1856 ceW veejeeCe ieg mJeeceer ves Deheve meeje Oeeve Fmeer
mecegoee kes GlLeeve ceW }ieeee Fmekes heMeeled [e0 yeer0Deej0
Decyes[kej ves yeefn<ke=le efnlekeeefjCeer meYee (1924) keer mLeehevee
kej oef}leeW kes jepeveerefleke Je meceeefpeke DeefOekeejeW keer }[eF& Meg
keer~ eeefhe oef}leeW kes yeejs ceW Decyes[kej, peesefleyee Heg}s
Detleevebo, jece ceveesnj }esefnee, pewmes efJeeveeW ves DeejefcYeke he
mes }sKeve heejbYe efkeee hejvleg 1960 kes hen}s oef}leeW kes Fefleneme
kes yeejs ceW keg Keeme veneR ef}Kee ieee Lee~ 1960 kes heMeeled
oef}le Fefleneme }sKe Ske vees efJeOee kes he ceW DeejbYe ngDee Deewj
oef}leeW kees efJeefYevve heefjhes#e ceW JeefCe&le efkeee ieee~ Fmeer meboYe& ceW
oef}le keer heefjYee<ee keer Yeer JeeKee efJeefYevve efJeeveeW eje keer ieF&
nw :oef}le Meyo Debespeer kes ef[hesm[ kee efnvoer heevlejCe nw
mebmke=le kes Fme Meyo kee DeLe& nw Meesef<ele ee oyeeee ngDee~6
Deepeke} Fme Meyo kee heeesie hetJe& ceW Demhe=Me kener pevesJee}er
Devegmetefele peeefleeeW kes mecyeesOeve kes ef}S kene peelee nw Devegmetefele
Meyo hen}er yeej Yeejle mejkeej kes 1935 kes DeefOeefveece ceW hemlegle
ngDee~ Jemlegle: 1931 kes oewjeve he$ekeeefjlee mebyebOeer }sKeeW ceW
Demhe=Me peeefleeeW kes ef}S oef}le Meyo kee heeesie efkeee ieee~
1930 ceW `oef}le yebOeg' veece mes Ske meceeeej heef$ekee hegCees mes
hekeeefMele ngF& pees oef}leeW kes ef}S ner Leer Fmeer ceW oef}le Meyo kee
heeesie meJe&heLece meeJe&peefveke leewj hej ceevee peelee nw~ Fmekes yeeo
yeer0Deej0 Decyes[kej eje Yeer ceje"er Yee<eCeeW ceW oef}le Meyo kee
heeesie efkeee Decesefjkee ceW ngS Black Panther Movement
kes yeeo Gmeer lepe& hej Yeejle ceW Yeer oef}le hefLej cetJeceW e}eee ieee
efpemeceW oef}le Meyo kee heeesie Jeeheeke he mes ngDee nw~7
Yeejle ceW 50-70 mee} hetJe& mes `oef}le' Meyo kee heeesie nes
jne nw Deewj leYeer mes oef}le Meyo kees }skej leLee Fme Meyo keer
Jeeefhle kees }skej efJeeveeW ceW cele efYevvelee nw~ oef}le Meyo keer
Jeglheefe mebmke=le Oeeleg `o}' mes ngF& nw~ Dele: Gme Meyo kes meboYe& ceW
Deveske Meyo keesMeeW ceW efJeefYevve DeLe& efoes ieS nQ~ pewmes 1. o}, ieg, Pegb[, es}er, efiejesn, Ske peeefle Jeie&, efJekemevee,
hegvee, gke[s kejvee~
2. ceje"er MeyokeesMe : egj[yes}s, veejeheeJeyes}e (efJeve ngDee)
leg[Jesyesyes (jefo ngS), cees[s}yee (ts ngS)
3. Debespeer ceW - ef[hesm[ ke}emesme
ef[hesm[ ke}emesme kee DeLe& nw heooef}le~ JeemleJe en Meyo

heee&eJeeeer Meyo kes he ceW heeesie efkeee peelee nw~ oef}le Meyo
DeeOegefveke egie keer osve nw }sefkeve oef}leheve heeeerve nw~ Yeejleere
heeeerve meeefnle ceW Meto, DeefleMeto, eeb[e}, Deblepe, oeme, omeg,
Demhe=Me MeyoeW kee heeesie efkeee ieee nw~ Deme} ceW, es meYeer Meyo
oef}le Meyo kes hegjKes nQ~
efJeefYevve jepeeW ceW efYevve-efYevve veeceeW mes hegkeejer peeves Jee}er
oef}le peeefleeeW kee hesMee meHeeF&, Pee[t-heeWe, ece[s kee keece,
opeea keece, eeF&-eskejer yegvevee, Kesleer cepeotjer, ce}er heke[vee,
ye{F&efiejer, }gnejer, les}er, ""js, ceu}en, Deeiej, Kewjen, vegmenj,
ogmeeOe, yensef}S, efe[erceej, veS ke}eyeepe, ceebPeer, [esce, kebpej,
Oeesyeer, mehesjs Deheves veece kes Deveghe JeJemeee kejles nQ~ Fve
peeefleeeW keer Deewjles Je yees hegMlewveer OebOeeW ceW ef}hle neskej Dehevee
peerJeve-eeheve kejles nQ efpevekee heeefjeefceke yesno kece nw~
1931 kes peveieCevee kes oewjeve ndve ves eceye lejerkes mes
oef}le Jeie& kees meteerye efkeee~ 1936 kes oewjeve Devegmetefele
peeefle keer pees veF& meteer yeveer GmeceW 1931 kes ndve kes meteer kees
Meeefce} kej ef}ee ieee~ 1950 ceW mJeleb$elee heeefhle kes Ghejeble pees
meteer yeveer Jen 1936 kes meteer ceW heefjJele&ve kejkes yeveeeer ieeer Leer
Fme hekeej Devegmetefele peeefle veece keer Glheefe heMeemeefveke nw peyeefke
meeceeefpeke SJeb meeefnle mlej hej oef}le Meyo Deepeke} DeefOeke
Gheegkele nw~ JeemleJe ceW oef}le Meyo Ske DeeOegefveke Meyo nw hejvleg
Fmeer heeeervelee yewefoke kee} kes Met Meyo mes ner peg[er ngF& nw~
1960 kes heMeeled peye oef}le meeefnle }sKeve kee hee}ve
Jeeheke he mes ngDee leYeer mes efJeefYevve efJeeveeW eje oef}leeW kees
heefjYeeef<ele efkeee ieee~ meJe&ceeve nw efke oef}le Jeie& ceW Jes Deeles nQ
pees meefoeeW mes oeCe o}ve, oesnve SJeb Mees<eCe kes efMekeej jns nQ
Deewj Yeejleere meceepe ceW Jebefele Ghesef#ele leLee heleeef[le nesles jns nQ~
Deeeee& kegCee} efkeMeesj kes Devegmeej Meeske efpemekee Deenej, Deeg
efpemekee Godieej Deewj DeefYeMeehe efpemekee Ghenej jne nw Jen oef}le
nw~ Fmeer hekeej Debiet"e efpemekee oeve, heg<eeLe& efpemekee Oeveg<eJeeCe
Deewj Deheceeve efpemekee heefleceeve jne nw, Jen oef}le nw~10
[e0 meesnvehee} megcevee#ej ves oef}le Meyo kees heefjYeeef<ele
kejles ngS kene nw efke oef}le Jen nw efpemekee o}ve efkeee ieee nes
Ghesef#ele, Deheceeefvele, heleeef[le, yeeefOele, heeref[le Jeefkele oef}le keer
esCeer ceW Deeles nQ~
[e0 ebokeeble yeeefoJe[skej oef}le Meyo kes mebyebOe ceW kenles nQ
efke oef}le eeefve Devegmetefele peeefleeeb yeewefke ke G"eves Jee}er
pevelee, cepeotj, Yetefcenerve, iejerye, efkemeeve, KeeveeyeoesMe peeefleeeb,
DeeefoJeemeer Deeefo~ oef}le Meyo keer en peeefle efvejhes#e Jeeheke
heefjYee<ee nw~ Deme} ceW, efpeve peeefleeeW kees cenelcee ieebOeer ves nefjpeve


Anusandhanika / Vol. IX / No. II / July 2011

kene Lee Jes ner peeefleeeb oef}le kes veece mes heneeveer ieF&~
}#ceCeMeem$eer peesMeer kes MeyoeW ceW oef}le ceeveJeere heieefle ceW
meyemes heers he[e ngDee Deewj heers {kes}e ieee meceeefpeke Jeie& nw~
ceneje^ kes efnvot meceepe ceW cenej, eceej, [esce Deeefo efpeve peeefleeeW
kees meceepe mes yeenj jnves kes ef}S yeeOe efkeee ieee Deewj efpevemes
meceepe efJeMes<ele: meJeCe& meceepe Meejerefjke mesJeeSb }slee jne~ }sefkeve
efpevnW peerJeve kes ef}S DeeJeMeke heeLeefceke pejleeW mes Yeer peeve
yetPekej Jebefele jKee ieee Deewj heMeg-legue Ie=efCele peerJeve peerves kes
ef}S yeeOe efkeee ieee Gvekees Detle ee oef}le kene ieee~
meved 1931 ceW Yeejle kes lelkee}erve peieCevee keceerMvej ves
peeefleeeW kes JeieeakejCe kes DeeOeej hej peveieCevee heefleJesove ceW oef}le
peeefleeeW kes yeejs ceW ef}Kee nw - ceQves oef}le peeefleeeW ceW peeefleeeW kees
ceevee nw efpevekes meeLe Meejerefjke mheMe& nesves kes He}mJehe Ge
peeefle kes efnvogDeeW kees Deheveer Megef kejvee DeeJeMeke nes peelee nw~
Fmekee DeLe& en veneR keer Fme peeefle kees efkemeer hesMes mes mebye kej
efoee peeS Jejvee en Meyo GvneR peeefleeeW kes ef}S heegkele nesiee
efpevekee efnvot meceepe ceW Deheveer hejchejeiele efmLeefle kes keejCe cebefoj
heJesMe efveef<e nw ee efpevekes kegbS De}ie nQ ee efpevnW hee"Mee}eDeeW
ceW veneR yew"ves efoee peelee Deewj efpevnW yeenj ner jnvee he[lee nw ee pees
Fmeer hekeej keer Deve meceeefpeke DemeceeveeleeDeeW mes heeref[le nQ~12
oef}le Meyo Deheves Deehe ces Jeeheke DeLe& jKelee nw~ oef}le
Meyo ceW efhee ngDee iet{ DeLe& efpeme YeeJe keer JeeKee kejlee nw Jen
Ske heneeve nw Gve }esieeW keer efpevneWves meefoeeW mes oyes kege}s,
heleeef[le, Ghesef#ele eflejmke=le jnkej Fme osMe kes efvecee&Ce ceW Dehevee
peerJeve mJeene efkeee~ efkevleg meee Deewj Fmekes Fo&-efieo& efyeKejs
mJeeLeea leJeeW ves GvnW keYeer mJeerkeej veneR efkeee~ FmeceW mechetCe&
ceefn}e mecegoee kees oef}le ceevee ieee nw~
Yeejleere oef}le meeefnle kes }sKeke veejeeCe megJexb kes MeyoeW ceW
oef}le Meyo keer keF& efce}er peg}er heefjYee<eeSb nQ~ Fmekee DeLe& kesJe}
yeew ee efhe[er peeefleeeB ner veneR yeefuke meceepe ceW pees Yeer heeref[le nQ
Jes oef}le nQ~
efnvoer oef}le meeefnle Deeboes}ve kes meceLe& jeveekeej
DeescehekeeMe Jeeuceerefke kes Devegmeej oef}le Meyo oyeeS iees Meesef<ele,
heeref[le, heleeef[le kes DeLeexb kes meeLe peye meeefnle mes peg[lee nw pees
efJejesOe Deewj vekeej keer Deesj mebkesle kejlee nw Jen vekeej ee efJejesOe
eens JeJemLee kee nes, meceeefpeke, efJemebieefleeeW ee Oeeefce&ke ef{eeW
DeeefLe&ke efJe<eceleeDeeW kee nes ee YeeJe heehle kes De}ieeJe kee nes ee
meeefnefleke hejchejeDeeW ceeveoC[eW ee meewvoe&Meem$e kee nes, oef}le
meeefnle vekeej kee meeefnle nw pees mebIe<eexb mes Ghepee nw~15
[e0 Decyes[kej kes Devegmeej - ``oef}le peeefleeeb Jes nQ pees
DeheefJe$ekeejer nesleer nw'' FveceW efvecve esCeer kes keejeriej, Oeesyeer, Yebieer,
yemeewj leLee mesJeke peeefleeeb pewmes eceej, [bieejer, me[jer, {es}e Deeles

nQ~ kesJe} keg ner peeefleeeb hejchejeiele keee& kejves kes Deefleefjkele
ke=ef<e cepeotjer kee Yeer keee& kejleer nw~
nefjpeve, oef}le Deewj Devegmetefele peeefle kes mebyebOe ceW eer
heg<eesece oeme DeeJee} kenles nQ ``nefjpeve peeefle JeJemLee ceW
efveefnle Ssefleneefmeke Deveee keer eslevee kees meJeCe& o=efkeesCe mes
Jekele kejves Jee}e Meyo nw'' oef}le Meyo keCee ee heMeeleehe kees
veneR yeefuke JesJepen oceve Deewj Deheceeve kee efMekeej nesves kes
mJeYeeefJeke jes<e kees Jekele kejlee nw~ Devegmetefele peeefle Debespe
heMeemekeeW keer osve nw~ FmeceW efveefnle meese kes ef}S peeefle JeJemeee
keer helee[vee keer mecemee, keg} efce}ekej efJeMes<e DeJemej heeves keer
mecemee nw~16
efnvoer oef}le keefJelee mebke}ve oo& kes omleeJespe kes mecheeoke
Je keefJe [e Sve efmebn keer ceevelee nw efke oef}le kee DeLe& nw
efpemekee o}ve, Mees<eCe Glheer[ve efkeee ieee nw~ oef}le meeefnle
Ssmes ner }esieeW kes yesnlejer kes ef}S ef}Kee ieee nw~
[e YeieJeeve oeme kenej kee kenvee nw efke ``Jemlegle: oef}le
ee Meesef<ele Meyo kee heeesie DeLe& Jeeefhle kes mlej hej ceeveJeleeJeeoer
o=efkeesCe mes efkeee peevee eeefnS~ oef}le ee Meesef<ele Jeie& mes leelhee&
Ske Ssmes Jeie&, mecetn ee peeefle mes nw efpemekee Oeve mecheefe, cee}
Deeefo kee njCe efkemeer Deve meee mechevve Jeie& ee peeefle eje efkeee
peelee nw~ nceejs Oece&evLeeW ceW FvnW efheeeMe ee lemkej Yeer kene ieee
nw~ JeneR Yeejleere meble, Deeeee& SJeb JeefkeleeeW ves F&MJej Yeefkele hej
meceeve DeefOekeej GodIeesef<ele efkeee nw DeLee&led ``nefj kees Yepew mees nefj
nesF& Fmeef}S cenelcee ieebOeer ves FvnW Yebieer ee eceej ve kenkej
nefjpeve kene nw~
[e heg<eesece melehesceer kes MeyoeW ceW `oef}le' Meyo kees Ske
peeefle yeesOeelceke veneR Deefheleg Ske `mebJesove-Ske efJeeej - Ske
oMe&ves kes he ceW mJeerkeej efkeee nw keeeWefke oef}le Meyo ceW ceveg<e kes
eje ceveg<e SJe