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Rachel Frankenfield December 11th, 2011 Biology Chapter 7 Study Guide (from Ms.

Bishops website with added details by me, from textbook or notes) Summarize the cell theory
1. 2. 3. All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.

Summarize and identify the major conclusions/contributions made by each scientist in the discovery of cells / cell theory
1. 2. 3. Schleiden- concluded that all plants are made up of cells. Schwann- concluded that all animals are made up of cells. Virchow- proposed that all cells come from existing cells.

Describe the role microscopes played in formation of cell theory


1. One physicist, Robert Hooke, used a microscope to look at plants more closely. He noticed many small chambers in the slice of cork he observed and called these chambers cells, connecting their small size to the size of cells in monasteries. His discoveries sparked other scientists to look into this more. 2. For example, Schleiden started studying the matter and made his conclusions (see above), and so on with Schwann and Virchow.

Describe basic cell structures common to all organisms.


1. 2. 3. Cell Membrane- thin, flexible barrier surrounding cell Cell Wall- strong layer around membrane Nucleus- large structure, contains genetic material (chromatin), controls cells activities (many nuclei also contain a nucleolus, where the assembly of ribosomes begins). Basically the brain of the cell. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cytoplasm- material inside of membrane, excluding the nucleus Ribosomes- made of RNA and protein, produce proteins Endoplasmic Reticulum- other cell parts get modified here Golgi Apparatus- attaches carbohydrates and lipids to proteins and send them away Lysosomes- filled with enzymes, break down food into usable particles

9.

Vacuoles- where cells store materials like water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates the pressure in plant cells vacuoles allow them to stay upright and support structures such as leaves and flowers.

10. Chloroplasts- in plant cells only, take solar energy and use it to make food in photosynthesis 11. Mitochondria- release energy from food molecules ultimately used to power growth, development, and movement.

Differentiate between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (including their structures)


1. Prokaryotes: 1. 2. 3. 2. 1. 2. Smaller, simpler No nucleus Bacteria Contains a nucleus Plants, animals, and fungi

Eukaryotes:

Identify different organisms as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes (see above) Differentiate between plant and animal cells
1. 2. 3. Both have: smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulums, ribosomes (free and attached), nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondrion, Plant cells have: vacuoles, chloroplasts, cell wall Animal cells have: centrioles

Summarize the major functions of all cell structures / organelles (see above) Identify cell structures on a cell model (see p. 174 in the textbook) Match cell structures with function (see above) Describe the structure of the cell membrane (see above) Explain the phospholipid bilayer model, and the fluid-mosaic model of cell membranes: Two layers of phospholipids with hydrophobic fatty acid tails and hydrophilic phosphate heads which make up the cell membrane along with the proteins (creds to Teds).

Differentiate between passive and active transport based on energy expenditure and movement along concentration gradients

1.

Active Transport: requires energy in the form of ATP, moves against the concentration gradient Passive Transport: requires no energy, moves with the concentration gradient

2.

Summarize the three different types of passive transport

Explain what concentration and concentration gradients are: concentration is mass/volume Predict the movement of molecules based on concentrations

Explain what equilibrium is: everything is spread out equally Explain what selectively permeable means: some things can pass through, others cannot Differentiate between the effects of tonicity on plant and animal cells
1.

IN PLANT CELLS; Plasmolosis: Process in which a plant cell is in a hypertonic environment, looses cytoplasm, and shrinks. IN ANIMAL CELLS; Crenation: Process in which an animal cell is in a hypertonic environment, looses cytoplasm, and shrinks.

2.

Explain what plasmolysis is: the process in which plant cells shrink in a hypertonic solution Describe osmotic pressure: water is forced, by this pressure, into a cell which then swells and inflates like a balloon. Plant and bacteria cells have cell walls to protect them from overinflation. Other cells use the vacuole to pump out excess water. Still other cells are bathed in an isotonic solution which is very similar to the fluid going into the cell (I guess this means the fluids can pass through the selectively permeable membrane?)

Predict the effects of cells in solutions of different solute concentrations

1. 2.

Hypotonic- Hypo=Hippo, water diffuses in, cell swells Hypertonic- water diffuses out, cell shrinks

Describe how cell membranes relate to homeostasis Describe three types of active transport Identify different organisms as either unicellular or multicellular Trace the levels of organization from cells to organ systems

You should know the difference between: Cytoplasm and cytosol Prokaryotes and eukaryotes (see above) Plant and animal cells (see above) Smooth ER and Rough ER Nucleus and nucleolus Microfilaments and microtubules Cell membrane and nuclear membrane (envelope) Chloroplasts and mitochondria Active and passive transport Diffusion and facilitated diffusion Facilitated diffusion and active transport Turgid and lysis Hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic Endocytosis and exocytosis Phagocytosis Unicellular and multicellular organisms Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems