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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8. Harmonics
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8. HARMONICS
The currents consumed by non-linear electrical equipment such as arc furnaces, lighting
systems, convertors, rectifiers, etc., are non-sinusoidal, and flowing through the impedances of
the power supply network they cause the sinusoidal supply voltage to become distorted. The
waveform distortion is characterised by the appearance of voltages at harmonic frequencies.
These harmonic voltages can disturb the operation of electrical devices on the network.
This chapter deals with the different sources of harmonic disturbance, as well as the methods
and techniques that can be applied to reduce it to an acceptable level.
8.1. Basic concepts
This paragraph gives the technical and theoretical fundamentals necessary for an investigation
of harmonics.
8.1.1. Fourier series periodic signal analysis
The French mathematician Joseph Fourier showed that a periodic signal ( ) s t , of period T , can
be expressed as the sum of sinusoidal signal components plus a d.c. component:
( )
( )
s t
a
a p t b p t
p
p p
+ +

0
1
2
cos sin
where:

2
T
( ) a
T
s t dt
T
0
0
2

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
a
T
s t p t dt
b
T
s t p t dt
p
T
p
T

2
2
0
0
cos
sin

where p is a whole number


This analysis may also be expressed as follows:
( )
( )
s t
a
c p t
p
p p
+ +

0
1
2
sin
where: c a b
p p p
+
2 2

p
p
p
b
a
arctan
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8.1.2. Definitions
A distorted voltage ( ) v t of period T ( T ms 20 at f Hz 50 ) can therefore be expressed in
the following manner:
( )
( )
v t V V p t
p
p p
+ +

0
1
2 sin where

2
T
V
0
: amplitude of the d.c. component, generally zero and taken to be so from now on.

p
: the initial phase of V
p
, ( ) t 0 .
Similarly, a distorted current ( ) i t of period T can be expressed as:
( )
( )
i t I I p t
p
p p
+ +

0
1
2 sin
I
0
: amplitude of the d.c. component, generally zero and taken to be so from now on.

p
: the initial phase of I
p
, ( ) t 0 .
fundamental component, or fundamental
V
1
is the fundamental component of the signal ( ) v t , that is to say the effective value of the
sinusoid whose frequency is the same as that of the supply network.
harmonic component, or harmonic
For values of p 2 , V
p
is the harmonic component of order p , of the signal ( ) v t ; that is, the
effective value of the sinusoidal voltage whose frequency is p times that of the supply
network.
order of harmonic
The whole number equal to the ratio between the frequency of the harmonic and that of the
fundamental.
p is therefore the order of the harmonic.
For example, V
3
is the third harmonic voltage, or simply the 3rd harmonic.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
Root mean square value (r.m.s.) of a periodic signal
The r.m.s. value of the signal ( ) v t is defined as:
( ) V
T
v t dt
rms
T


1
2
0
Parseval's theorem tells us that:
( )
1
0
2
0
2 2
1
T
v t dt V V
T
p
p

which gives the following relationship:


V V
p
p
rms

2
1
considering that V
0
0
similarly
I I
rms p
p

2
1
considering that I
0
0
distortion factor
The distortion factor characterises the level of harmonic disturbance on the network. There are
two definitions.
distortion factor according to the DIN standard (Deutsches Institut fr Normung)
- voltage distortion factor:
( ) D
V
V
V
p
p
rms
%

100
2
2
- current distortion factor:
( ) D
I
I
I
p
p
rms
%

100
2
2
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distortion factor according to IEC standard 1000-2-2
- voltage distortion factor ( )
V
p
p
V
V
%

100
2
2
1
- current distortion factor ( )
I
p
p
I
I
%

100
2
2
1
The distortion factor as defined by the IEC standard represents the ratio between the r.m.s.
value of the harmonics to that of the (undistorted) fundamental, and gives a good indication of
the degree of harmonic disturbance on the network. This definition will be used throughout the
remainder of the document.
The DIN factor can be converted to the IEC factor as follows:
1 1
1
2 2
D
V V
+

1 1
1
2 2
D
I I
+

As will be seen, IEC distortion factor values can be greater than 100 %.
For low distortion factors the two definitions give nearly identical values. On the other hand, for
high distortion factors the values turn out to be very different.
For example, for
I
10 % we find D
I
9 95 . %
for
I
120 % we find D
I
77 %
individual harmonic rate
The rate of the harmonic of order p is given by:
( ) V
V
V
p
p
% 100
1
( ) I
I
I
p
p
% 100
1
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
power values for non-sinusoidal signals
Definitions of power applying to sinusoidal signals are not appropriate to the treatment of non-
sinusoidal signals.
Consider a non-sinusoidal voltage and current whose Fourier series components are:
( )
( )
i t I p t
p
p
p
+

1
2 cos
( )
( )
v t V p t
p
p
p
+

2
1
cos
By definition, active power is equal to mean power:
( ) ( ) P
T
v t i t dt
T

1
0
and after calculation, we obtain:
( )
P V I
p p
p
p p

1
cos
By definition, apparent power is equal to:
S V I
rms rms

The definition of reactive power applied to purely sinusoidal waveforms is wholly inappropriate
to the treatment of non-sinusoidal signals.
Certain documents do offer a definition, but since the reactive power of a non-sinusoidal signal
has no practical relevance to an investigation of harmonics there is no need to refer to it in this
document.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
power factor
The power factor is defined as the ratio between active power and apparent power:
F
P
S
p

displacement factor (for the fundamental)
The displacement factor is the ratio between active power and apparent power for the
fundamental component:
cos
1
1
1

P
S
It can also be defined as the cosine of the phase displacement between the fundamental
voltage and current components :
1
phase displacement ( ) V I
1 1
, .
Note: Taking the reference (in time) relative to U
1
, we have
1
0 .
harmonic factor
This expresses the relationship between the power factor and the displacement factor:
F
F
h
p

cos
1
peak factor
This is the ratio of peak current to r.m.s. current:
F

I
pk
rms

interharmonics
Interharmonics are sinusoidal components whose frequencies are not multiples of the
fundamental frequency: 130 Hz, 170 Hz, 220 Hz, etc.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
infraharmonics
These are sinusoidal components whose frequencies are below that of the fundamental:
10 Hz, 20 Hz...
The presence of interharmonics or infraharmonics is due to periodic or random variation in the
power consumed by certain electrical equipment. In this case, the signal is not periodic over
time T (period of fundamental), a factor which explains the appearance of frequency
components supplementary to those expressed by Fourier analysis.
Common sources of the phenomena include:
- arc furnaces
- cycloconverters
- speed variators.
frequency spectrum
A graphical representation of harmonics showing their individual amplitudes and orders.
Usually, the level of each harmonic is represented by its value as a percentage of the
fundamental (see fig. 8-1).
1 3 5 7
100
n
I
1
(%)
I
p
Figure 8-1: frequency spectrum of a non-sinusoidal current
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
linear and non-linear loads
A load is said to be linear if its impedance is constant: the current input is therefore sinusoidal
when the applied voltage is sinusoidal (see fig. 8-2).
A load is said to be non-linear if its impedance varies over a given period: the current input is
therefore non-sinusoidal for a sinusoidal supply voltage (see fig. 8-3).
t
v t
i t
Figure 8-2: linear load
t
v t
i t
Figure 8-3: non-linear load
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8.1.3. The main sources of harmonics
non-linear loads
In this section we shall determine figures for the individual harmonic currents generated by
common non-linear loads.
The values given are approximate. They vary notably in relation to the upstream impedance
(generally, when the upstream impedance increases, the harmonic current levels decrease).
six-phase rectifier bridge (see fig. 8-4)
This is a device to convert 3-phase alternating current into a single-phase direct current.
T
t
t
t
T
3
T
6
i t
i t
a
i t
b
i t
c
i t
c
i t
b
i t
a
Figure 8-4: six-phase rectifier bridge current waveforms.
Theoretically, each of the currents I I I
a b c
, , has a rectangular waveform.
The Fourier series analysis of the rectangular signal gives us the following harmonic currents
of order p k t 6 1 ( that is: 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19...) and of amplitude I
I
p
p

1
I
1
: amplitude of fundamental .
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In reality, the current waveforms are not perfectly rectangular, with the result that the actual
values of the harmonic current are less than their theoretical values. An empirical law exists
(see IEC 146-1-2 3.6.2.1) enabling a calculation to be made of the approximate values of
harmonic currents 5 to 31:
I
I
p
p
p

_
,

1
1
5
.2
for 5 31 p
From it we can obtain the individual values of harmonic current as a percentage of the
fundamental (see table 8-1).
I
1
I
5
I
7
I
11
I
13
I
17
I
19
I
23
I
25
I
29
I
31
100 % 18.9 % 11.0 % 5.9 % 4.8 % 3.4 % 3 % 2.3 % 2.1 % 1.8 % 1.6 %
Table 8-1: values of the harmonic currents produced by a rectifier bridge
The formula yields approximate values, especially when high thyristor delay angles, , are
utilised. Moreover, the inductance of the d.c. circuit influences the harmonic content. A low
value of inductance is conducive to high d.c. ripple, thereby increasing the 5th. harmonic
(multiplied by 1.3 or greater ), as well as, but to a lesser degree, the 11th, 17th... ( ) 6 1 k . The
levels of harmonics 7, 13... ( ) 6 1 k + are usually lower. IEC standard 146-1-2, paragraphs 3.6.4
and 3.6.5 gives a (very complicated) method of calculating the precise figure for each
harmonic together with its phase angle.
Generally speaking, a calculation of the precise theoretical value of each harmonic current is
not essential for an investigation, indeed whenever possible, on-site measurement is the
preferred method of obtaining the precise values.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
computer switchmode power supplies (see fig. 8-5)
t
C
R
i t
v t
i t
v t
Figure 8-5: switchmode power supplies for computers, current waveform
The harmonic currents produced by a switchmode power supply are more or less high in
relation to the load and the upstream network impedance.
A spread of values, in line with the two assumptions of high and low harmonic content, is given
below (see table 8-2).
I
1
I
3
I
5
I
7
I
9
I
11
high 100 % 130 % 70 % 50 % 30 % 10 %
low 100 % 65 % 35 % 25 % 15 % 5 %
Table 8-2: values of harmonic currents for a computer switchmode power supply
lighting loads (fluorescent tubes, discharge lamps)
The values of harmonic currents supplied by fluorescent tubes and magnetic ballast discharge
lamps are given in table 8-3.
Electronic ballast discharge lamps supply harmonic currents having a value comparable to that
of a computer switchmode power supply (see table 8-2: high).
I
1
I
3
I
5
I
7
I
9
I
11
I
13
I
15
100 % 35 % 27 % 10 % 2.5 % 3.5 % 1.5 % 1.5 %
Table 8-3: fluorescent tube and magnetic ballast discharge lamp current harmonic values
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uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)
For example, the GALAXY model produces harmonic currents as shown in table 8-4.
I
1
I
5
I
7
I
11
I
13
I
17
I
19
100 % 33 % 2.5 % 6.1 % 2.4 % 2.5 % 1.6 %
Table 8-4: values of harmonic currents for the GALAXY model of UPS
Note: the newer generation of "sine wave sampling" inverters do not generate harmonics
(for example, the 0 to 4 kVA Pulsar models).
speed variators
Speed variators are used to vary the speed of an asynchronous motor.
The harmonic currents they generate depend to a large extent on:
- the ratio between the network short-circuit power S
sc
and the apparent power of the variator S
n
.
- The variator load S (apparent power of the motor) as a percentage of the apparent power
of the variator S
n
.
Measurement results obtained are summarised in tables 8-5, 8-6, 8-7.
S S
sc n
100% I
1
I
5
I
7
I
11
I
13
I
17
I
19
I
23
I
25
S S
sc n
250
100 % 85 % 72 % 41 % 27 % 8 % 5 % 6 % 5 %
S S
sc n
100
100 % 73 % 52 % 16 % 7 % 7 % 5 % 3 % 3 %
S S
sc n
50
100 % 63 % 35 % 6.2 % 1.3 % / / / /
Table 8-5: speed variator with a load of 100% of its apparent power rating
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S S
n
50 % I
1
I
5
I
7
I
11
I
13
I
17
I
19
I
23
I
25
S S
sc n
250
100 % 90.5 % 82 % 59.5 % 48 % 25.5 % 16.5 % 6 % 4.5 %
S S
sc n
100
100 % 82% 66.5 % 33 % 19.5 % 7 % 6.5 % 5 % 3.5 %
S S
sc n
50
100 % 74.3 % 53.9 % 18.3 % 7.9 % 1.9 % 2.5 % / /
Table 8-6: speed variator with a load of 50% of its apparent power rating
S S
n
25% I
1
I
5
I
7
I
11
I
13
I
17
I
19
I
23
I
25
S S
sc n
250
100 % 94 % 89 % 74 % 66 % 47 % 38 % 22 % 15 %
S S
sc n
100
100 % 89 % 78 % 53 % 40 % 17 % 9 % 5 % 6 %
S S
sc n
50
100 % 84 % 68 % 38 % 24 % 6.1 % 2.1 % / /
Table 8-7: speed variator with a load of 25% of its apparent power rating
arc furnace
Arc furnaces as used in iron and steel making can either be a.c. or d.c. supplied.
the a.c. supplied arc furnace (see fig. 8-6)
HV
transformer
cable
furnace
Figure 8-6: case of the a.c. supplied arc furnace
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The arc produced is non-linear, dissymetric and unstable. It gives rise to odd and even
harmonics, as well as to a continuous spectrum of currents (currents at all frequencies). The
levels of harmonics produced together with the continuous spectrum values will depend on the
type of furnace, its power, the duration of the process under consideration (casting, refining),
etc.
Therefore, the precise levels of harmonics can only be determined by measurement.
Figure 8-7 is an example.
1 3 5 7
100
10
1
0.1
9
4
3.2
1.3
0.5
100
order
continuous spectrum
I
1
(%)
I
p
Figure 8-7: current spectrum of an a.c. supplied arc furnace
the d.c. supplied arc furnace (see fig. 8-8)
HV
transformer
cable
furnace
cable
rectifier
Figure 8-8: case of the d.c. supplied arc furnace
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The d.c. supply is derived from a rectifier, the arc produced being more stable than for the a.c.
supplied furnace.
The current consumed comprises:
- a spectrum of harmonic currents similar to that of a rectifier
- a continuous spectrum with a lower overall value than for the a.c. supplied furnace.
Figure 8-9 gives the harmonic current spectrum for a 144 MVA d.c. driven arc, fed from a dual
bridge rectifier.
The use of the latter explains the high values of 11th and 13th harmonics (see 8-4-6).
order
I
1
(%)
I
p
3.8%
4.3%
2.5%
3.4%
1.5%
1.2%
2%
1.9%
3.4%
1.9% 1. 9%
9.1%
7.7%
3.2%
3.5% 3.5%
continuous spectrum
Figure 8-9: harmonic current spectrum of a d.c. supplied arc furnace fed from a dual bridge rectifier
magnetic circuit saturation in machines (transformers, motors, ...)
Electrical machines are designed to work close to their magnetic saturation limits when
operating under nominal supply voltage conditions.
Should the supply voltage become abnormally high (greater than 1.1 times its nominal value),
magnetic circuits will saturate and currents will become distorted. Henceforth, the machine
becomes a source of odd order harmonic currents.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
voltage sources
Voltage sources (utility, alternator, UPS) possess pre-existing harmonic voltages which
manifest even when the equipment is connected to perfectly linear loads.
utilities
Utilities possess pre-existing voltage harmonics due to other consumers (industrial and
domestic) who create voltage harmonics on the distribution and transmission network.
Measurements taken on the French electricity authority EDF's MV distribution network have
given the results provided in table 8-8:
V
1
V
5
V
7
high 100 % 9 % 3 %
medium 100 % 6 % 2 %
low 100 % 3 % 1 %
Table 8-8: harmonic voltages pre-existing on the French electricity authority EDF's M.V. network
Note: the 3rd harmonic currents, and multiples of them, which exist at high levels on the industrial
and domestic low-voltage network, are eliminated by the delta-star connection of MV/LV
transformers. This is why 3rd harmonic voltages, and multiples of them, do not appear on the
M.V. network.
Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)
The sinusoidal voltage supplied by an inverter will not be perfect even for a linear load.
A UPS will therefore possess pre-existing harmonic voltages (see table 8-9).
Hardware model EPS 5000 EPS 2000 ALPES 1000 GALAXY
Overall distortion factor 5 % 4 % 5 % 2 %
Table 8-9: pre-existing harmonic voltages of UPS
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alternators
The sinusoidal voltage supplied by an alternator will not be perfect even for a linear load.
An alternator therefore possesses pre-existing harmonic voltages. Taking the example of
Leroy-Somer 10 kVA to 5000 kVA alternators, the voltage distortion factor is around the 4 %
mark, with 2 to 3 % of 5th harmonics and some 3rd harmonics.

V
4 %
I
I
to
5
1
2 3 %
Note: the more unbalanced the load, the more 3rd harmonic an alternator will generate.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8.1.4. Method of determining harmonic currents and voltages on a supply network
non-linear loads model
For calculation purposes, non-linear loads are considered to be harmonic current generators
(for harmonics p 2 ). They are modelled as currents injected into the network (see fig. 8-10).
Note: this model is valid for a discrete spectrum. In the case of a continuous spectrum (arc furnace) a
more complex model must be devised. Such models are not dealt with in this document.
source
V
p
I
p
Z
I
p
: harmonic current of order p
( ) Z : impedance of network at angular frequency p
0 0
( angular frequency at 50 Hz or 60 Hz).
Figure 8-10: model for current harmonics generated by non-linear loads
Each non-linear load will thus be modelled by its impedance at 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) and by current
sources corresponding to the harmonic currents generated by the load.
A harmonic current I
p
, flowing across the network to the source through the impedance
( ) Z , gives rise to a harmonic voltage V
p
, such that:
( ) V Z p I
p p

0
The voltage distortion factor resulting from a spectrum of harmonic currents I I I
2 3 4
, , ... is then:
( )

V
p
p
Z p I
V

2
0
2 2
1
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
Where a network comprises inductances and capacitances the impedance spectrum ( ) Z
may vary significantly, as the curve below shows (see fig. 8-11).
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
0
p
0
Z( )
Figure 8-11: impedance spectrum
Harmonic voltages created on the network disturb the operation of electrical equipment. One
element of any investigation into harmonic content must therefore be to limit the values of
( ) Z for values of corresponding to the harmonic currents with the highest values.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
modelling of sources polluted by pre-existing harmonic voltages
For the sake of calculation, pre-existing harmonic voltages are considered to be harmonic
voltage sources (see fig. 8-12).
Z
V
p
load
V
p
: p order of harmonic voltage
( ) Z : impedance of the supply network at angular frequency p
0 0
( angular frequency at 50 Hz).
Figure 8-12: pre-existing harmonic voltage model
A voltage source polluted by pre-existing harmonic voltages will therefore be modelled by its
nominal value at 50 Hz plus harmonic voltage sources.
impedance of network elements
utility
The impedance of the utility is generally taken to be a pure reactance. Nevertheless, the
capacitor banks found at HV/MV substations may provoke resonances at undesired
frequencies.
This should be taken into consideration during an investigation of harmonics where the
installation comprises non-linear loads drawing large amounts of power (for example, an arc
furnace).
cables, power lines and transformers
These are considered as resistances of constant value and reactances proportional to the
order of the harmonic:
( ) Z p R jpX
0
+
p : order of the harmonic
X : reactance at 50 Hz.
652
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
capacitor banks
These are treated as capacitors whose impedance is inversely proportional to the order of the
harmonic:
( ) Z p
Cp

0
0
1

alternator
It will be explained further on why the reactance of an alternator is not proportional to the order
of the harmonic. An alternator is considered to have negligible resistance.
at the supply network frequency
The field created by the three stator currents rotates at the speed of the rotor and is therefore
fixed in relation to it.
When the stator current increases, the voltage decreases. The impedance of the alternator is
equal to the synchronous reactance X
d
which is of the order of 200 to 300 %.
at frequencies other than that of the network
The field created by the three stator currents does not rotate at the speed of the rotor and is
not therefore fixed in relation to it.
This rotating field causes harmonic currents to flow in the rotor, thereby producing a drop in
voltage.
For harmonic currents of order 3 1 k t , the alternator's impedance is a function of the sub-
transient impedance:
( ) X k X
k d 3 1
3 1
t
t
"
X
d
"
is of the order of 10 to 20 %.
For 3 k order harmonics, if the neutral is not distributed the impedance is infinite. Indeed, 3rd
order harmonics, and multiples of the 3rd, flowing in the neutral are in phase. However, if the
neutral is not distributed they cannot flow, with the result that the impedance is considered to
be infinite.
653
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If the neutral is distributed, 3rd order harmonic currents and multiples of them flow in it, the
alternator impedance then being a function of the zero-sequence impedance. Indeed, the field
created by harmonics which are multiples of 3 does not rotate, as in a zero-sequence current
system.
X k X
k 3 0
3
X
0
is roughly equal to half X
d
"
, or of the order of 5 to 10 %
asynchronous motor
The reactance of an asynchronous motor is not proportional to the order of the harmonic. Its
resistance is considered negligible.
At the supply network frequency the motors impedance Z
M
depends on the load.
Indeed, Z
V
I
M
n

V
n
: single-phase voltage
I : current consumed by the motor, which depends on its load.
For harmonic voltages of order 3 k , the impedance is infinite because generally the neutral of
the motor is not distributed.
For 3 1 k t order harmonics, the motor's impedance is a function of the locked rotor impedance
(or starting impedance if there is no starting current limiting system):
( ) X k
I
I
X
k
n
b
n 3 1
3 1
t
t
( ) X k
V
I
k
n
lr
3 1
3 1
t
t
X
n
: motor impedance at rated load, X
V
I
n
n
n

I
lr
: locked rotor current (or start up current if there is no starting current limiting system).
654
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
inverters
The output impedance is vastly different according to whether the machine is of the older type
(EPS 5000) or one of the newer generation (GALAXY or COMET).
older type inverters (EPS 5000)
The output impedance is equal to impedance of the output filter. The equivalent circuit as seen
from the output is that of figure 8-13.
V
Z
s ( )
Figure 8-13: older type inverter output impedance
Output impedance is therefore frequency dependant (see fig. 8-14).
At low frequencies the output impedance is close to L .
At high frequencies the output impedance is close to
1
C
.
At the resonance frequency f
LC
r

1
2
, the filter's impedance is very high, having an order
of magnitude equal to the nominal load impedance, that is ( ) Z f
out r
2 100 % .
In practice, the resonance frequency is chosen to be far from that of the most common
harmonic currents.
For example, 210 Hz might be selected since 4th order harmonics are virtually non-existent.
655
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newer generation inverters with phase-neutral voltage regulation (GALAXY, COMET)
This type of equipment uses a very high switching frequency (several kHz) and an extremely
fast voltage regulator, enabling output voltage quality to be maintained even with a high
current distortion factor. As a consequence, the output impedance is very low and virtually
constant for all orders of harmonic (see fig. 8-14).
150
100
50
0 50 250 500 750
new type of inverter
(GALAXY, COMET)
old type of inverter (EPS 5000)
ratio of the output impedance
to the nominal load impedance
Z
n
%
Z
s
f H
z
( )
Figure 8-14: inverter output impedance
656
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
particular case of 3rd harmonics and multiples of the 3rd
3rd harmonic currents are in phase, with a current equal to their sum flowing in the neutral
when distributed (see fig. 8-15). If the neutral is not distributed, 3rd harmonics and multiples of
them cannot flow, and thus cannot exist.
I
3
I
3
I
3
3
3
I
neutral
Figure 8-15: 3rd harmonic currents, and multiples of them, flowing in the neutral
why 3rd harmonics, and multiples of the 3rd, are in phase
Take 3 equal currents I t
a
( ) , I t
b
( ) and I t
c
( ) with phase displacements of 1/3 of a period:
( )
( )
( )
i t t
i t t
T
i t t
T
a
b
c

_
,

_
,

cos
cos
cos

3
2
3
where T
2

period of signal
Note !: the currents are phase shifted in time and must therefore be expressed as above.
The 3rd harmonics of these currents are obtained by replacing by 3 :
( ) i t t
a3 3
3 cos
( ) ( ) i t t T t t
b3 3 3 3
3 3 2 3 + + cos ( ) cos cos
( ) ( ) i t t T t t
c3 3 3 3
3 2 3 4 3 + + cos ( ) cos cos
giving i t i t i t t
a b c 3 3 3 3
3 3 ( ) ( ) ( ) cos + +
657
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The in-phase relationship can also be shown graphically (see fig. 8-16). The same is true for
all harmonics that are multiples of the 3rd.
I
3
I
2
I
1
t
t
t
3rd harmonic
t
I
neutral
3rd harmonic
3rd harmonic
Figure 8-16: the 3rd harmonics of a 3-phase system are in phase
658
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
superposition theorem
Consider the case of a network with the following characteristics:
- a voltage source with pre-existing harmonics V V V
2 3 4
, , , ...
- a transformer whose impedance is R L
T T
, , feeding a busbar
- various non-linear loads grouped together to form an equivalent load generating the
harmonic currents I I I
2 3 4
, , , ...
The loads are supplied from the busbar through an impedance R L
1 1
,
- various linear loads grouped together to form an equivalent load fed from the busbar
through an impedance R L
2 2
,
- the equivalent capacitor C representing the reactive energy compensating capacitors.
Each voltage and current source is considered to act in independently on the network.
The theorem of superposition states: for a linear network, the current (or voltage) generated in
a branch by several independent sources acting simultaneously, is equal to the currents (or
voltages) produced in the same branch by the different sources acting in isolation.
Figure 8-17 illustrates the application of this theorem.
659
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
R L
T T ,
V source
non-linear
loads
linear
loads
C
R
1
R
2
L
2
L
1
equivalent
non-linear
loads
linear
loads
V
1
o
C
1
R L
T T o
,
R
1
R
2
L
o 1
L
o 2
+
non-linear
loads
linear
loads
Vp
R pL T T o ,
pL o 1
R1 R
2
pL o 2
1
pC o
+
linear
loads I
p
R
1
pL
o 1
R
2
pL
o 2
1
pC
o
R pL
T T o
,
network at 50 Hz +
p harmonic networks of orders
1 2 , ,..., p supplied by voltage
sources V V V
p 1 2
, ,...,
+
p harmonic networks of orders
1 2 , ,..., p supplied by current
sources I I I
p 1 2
, ,...,
Figure 8-17: superposition theorem as applied to harmonics
660
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
addition of equal order harmonics arising from different non-linear loads
The harmonic currents of the same order generated by several non-linear loads are not
necessarily in phase. The resultant current is obtained by vector addition (see fig. 8-18).
r
I
p,1
r
I
p, 2
r
I
p sum ,
Figure 8-18: vector addition of two 2 harmonic currents of the same order
Take the two extreme situations.
their phase relationship is perfectly random
The modulus of the sum of two p order harmonics is, on average:
I
p mean ,
2
( ) ( )
[ ]
+ +

1
2
1 2
2
2
2
0
2

I I I d
p p p , , ,
cos sin
( )
+ +

1
2
2
0
2
1
2
2
2
1 2

I I I I d
p p p p , , , ,
cos
+ I I
p p , , 1
2
2
2
I
p mean ,
+ I I
p p , , 1
2
2
2
By extension, for a number k of non-linear loads supplying harmonics of order p , the
modulus of their sum is, on average:
I I
p sum p i
i
k
,
,

2
1
661
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the harmonics are perfectly in phase
In this case, the harmonics add together algebraically, giving :
I I
p sum p i
i
k
,
,

1
Practical instances fall somewhere between the two extremes, with phase correlation
depending to a greater or lesser degree on: diversity of harmonic sources, transformer vector
group, etc. Consequently, an empirical law has been defined to estimate the modulus of the
sum of equal order harmonics, expressed by the following relationship:
( )
I I
p sum p i
i
k
,
,
/

1
]
1
1

1
1
where 1 2
1 : the harmonics are perfectly in phase
2 : harmonic phases are perfectly random.
It can be seen that I
p sum ,
decreases as increases,


I
p sum ,
< 0 .
With regard to industrial networks, a value of 15 . is commonly used.
.
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662
influence of the network impedances on harmonic current values
At the beginning of this section we saw that harmonic currents produced by non-linear loads are modelled
by individual current sources whose values are indpendent of the network .
This is a very approximate model, since in reality harmonic currents are influenced by the upstream
network impedance. Generally, harmonic currents decrease when upstream impedance increases.
Harmonic tests have been carried on a switchmode power supply by modifying its source impedance
(see fig. 8-19).
C
R
Z
s
V
Figure 8-19: switchmode power supply fed from a variable impedance voltage source
The results are summarised in table 8-8.
( ) Z
s
%
Power
Factor
F
P
S
p

( ) I
3
% ( ) I
5
% ( ) I
7
% ( ) I
9
% ( ) I
11
% ( ) I
13
%
Voltage
distortion factor
0.25 0.64 87 64 38 15 1 7 2.8
0.5 0.65 85 60 33 11 4 7 3.5
1 0.68 81 52 24 6 7 6 5.4
2 0.72 76 42 14 7 6 3 7.5
4 0.75 69 29 8 8 4 4 11.2
6 0.77 63 21 8 6 3 3 14.2
8 0.78 59 17 8 5 3 2 16.8
Table 8-10: harmonic currents produced by a switchmode power supply as a function of
the source impedance of the supply
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663
It can be seen that the highest value harmonic currents ( ) I I I
3 5 7
, , decrease rapidly as the source
impedance increases. Therefore, harmonic voltage is not proportional to source impedance: V Z I
p s p
.
For example, when Z
s
drops from 4 % to 1 % , the distortion factor is merely halved.
Consequently, when trying to reduce harmonic voltage distortion by reducing the network source
impedance the results will quite likely be less beneficial than expected.
conclusion on the methods for calculating harmonics
In any case study of harmonics on an industrial network, it is difficult to determine the values of the
harmonic currents generated by non-linear loads, notably because of the influence on them of the
upstream network impedance.
Furthermore, for a given order of harmonic, it is difficult to determine the addition of harmonics coming
from different linear loads. Indeed, only a rough estimate of the correlation between the harmonic phases
allowing to be defined is possible. As a consequence, the calculation of harmonics will only yield
approximate values which will need to be confirmed by measurement. When possible, values of harmonic
currents and voltages taken on site will prove to be highly useful for subsequent calculations.
manufacturers' assumption
Non-linear loads modify the supply voltage waveform, which is more or less distorted depending on the
upstream network impedance. Power and power factor values thus depend on the upstream impedance,
which in turn leads manufacturers of non-linear loads to assume that this impedance is zero for the
purposes of defining their rated power figures. Put another way, the assumption is that the supply voltage
is undistorted, or that
V
0 and ( ) v t v t ( )
1
.
The expressions determining the power values are thus simplified.
Take a non-sinusoidal current whose Fourier series components are given by :
( )
( )
i t I p t
p p
p
+

2
1
cos
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664
To calculate the active power value we will consider that ( ) ( ) v t v t V t
1 1
2 cos :
( ) ( )
( )
P v t i t dt V I t p t dt
p
p
p
+

1
2
1
2
2 2
0
2
1
0
2
1



cos cos
now,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
[ ]
cos cos cos cos p t t p t p t
p p p
+ + + + +
1
2
1 1
The integral of this expression over one period is zero for p 1
and is equal to
1
2
1
cos for p 1 .
From here we can deduce the expression for P :
P V I
1 1 1
2 2
1
2
cos
P V I
1 1 1
cos hence
P P
1
By definition the single-phase apparent power is S V I
rms rms

hence
S V I
rms

1
Using this we deduce the expressions for power factor and harmonic factor:
F
I
I
p
rms

1
1
cos
F
I
I
h
rms

1
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665
o calculating harmonic current and cos
1
values using manufacturers' data
Data supplied by non-linear load manufacturers comprises: nominal phase-to-phase voltage U
1
, apparent
power S , power factor and a spectrum of the harmonic currents as percentages of the fundamental
(values
I
I
p
1
in %).
From this data we can derive:
I
S
U
rms

3
1
(for a three-phase load)
now, I I I I
rms p
p
2
1
2 2
2
+

I
I
I
I
rms
p
p
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1 +

I
I
I
I
rms
p
p
1
2
2
1
2
1

Next, we calculate the values of the harmonic currents in amps. Then,


we have that F
P
S
P
S
p

1
since P P
1
hence
cos
1
1 1
3

S F
U I
p (for a three-phase load)
The value of cos
1
is important because it is used in the calculation of reactive energy compensation.
The power factor figure must never be used since only the fundamental component will be compensated.
The reactive power of the harmonics can only be compensated by filters, if they exist.
The value of reactive power which can be compensated using capacitors is then:
Q U I
1 1 1 1
3 sin
(for a three-phase load)
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666
Remark: the relationship between power factor and harmonic factor is : F F
p h
cos
1
If the fundamental component is totally compensated ( ) cos
1
1 , the power
factor is equal to the harmonic factor
F
I
I
h
rms

_
,

1
.
Thus, the presence of harmonics rules out the possibility of obtaining a power
factor of 1.
o example
Consider a 500 kVA rectifier with a rated phase to neutral voltage V V
1
230 and a power factor of 0.80.
Its harmonic current spectrum is that given in table 8-1.
Calculation gives:
I A
rms


500 10
3 230
721 7
3
.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
I
1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
7217
1 0189 011 0059 0048 0034 003 0023 0021 0018 0016

+ + + + + + + + + +
.
. . . . . . . . . .
I A
1
702 3 .
From here we can derive values for each of the harmonic currents (see table 8-11)
I
5
I
7
I
11
I
13
I
17
I
19
I
23
I
25
I
29
I
31
132.7 A 77.3 A 41.4 A 33.7 A 23.9 A 21.1 A 16.2 A 14.7 A 12.6 A 11.2 A
Tableau 8-11: harmonic current values
cos
.
.
.
1
1 1
3
3
500 10 0 8
3 230 702 3
0 822



S F
V I
p
Q V I k
1 1 1 1
3 3 230 702 3 0 569 277 sin . . var
F
I
I
h
rms

1
0 973 .
By totally compensating the fundamental reactive power we would obtain a power factor of 0.973.
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667
8.1.5. resonant circuit between capacitors and supply source
Industrial networks very often use capacitors to compensate the reactive energy of their loads. The
upstream impedance seen by the capacitors can be considered to be a pure reactance, notably at
harmonic frequencies. Indeed, the
R
X
ratio for transformers or utility is low.
Taken together then, the capacitor banks and the inductance of the network form a parallel resonant
circuit likely to amplify the effect of any harmonics, especially if harmonic currents exist whose frequency
is close to the resonant frequency.
Consider an industrial network comprising non-linear loads and capacitors connected to the main busbar
of a transformer (see fig. 8-20).
non-linear
loads
linear
loads
upstream network
Figure 8-20: equivalent circuit of an industrial network comprising non-linear loads and capacitors
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668
Neglecting the reactive power of the linear loads, the harmonic model of the network is as shown in
figure 8-21.
I
p
busbar
R
L
T
L
up
L
up
: inductance of the upstream network based on the busbar voltage
L
T
: transformer inductance based on the busbar voltage
R : resistance corresponding to the active power .0of the linear loads.
Figure 8-21: harmonic model of the network
We have the following relationships:
L
U
S
up
n
sc up

0
2

,
L
U
U S
T
n
sc T

0
2

R
U
P
n

2
Q C U
n

0
2
where:
U
n
: nominal phase to phase busbar voltage
S
sc up ,
: short-circuit power of the upstream network
S
T
: rated power of the transformer
U
sc
: short-circuit voltage of the transformer
P : active power of the linear loads
Q : reactive power of the compensation capacitors

0
: angular frequency of the network,
0
2 50 at 50 Hz.
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669
Let us take L L L L
sc up T sc
+ , is the short-circuit inductance seen from the busbar.
S
U
L
sc
n
sc

2
0

is the short-circuit power seen from the busbar.


This gives us the simplified electrical circuit of figure 8-22:
I
p
R C L
sc
Figure 8-22: simplified circuit
n calculating Z
eq
, the equivalent impedance of the parallel resonant circuit R L C
sc
, ,
1 1 1 1 1
Z R
j C
j L R
j C
L
eq sc sc
+ + +

_
,

Let
r
be the angular frequency of resonance

r
sc
L C

1
When is small ( ) <<
r eq sc
Z L , .
If
r eq
Z R , .
and when is large ( )

>>
r eq
Z
C
,
1
.
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670
Figure 8-23 illustrates the variations in Z
eq
as a function of .
N
M
K
R
r
Z
eq
Figure 8-23: variations in Z
eq
as a function of angular frequency
n definition of amplification factor F
A
F
A
is the ratio of the network impedances with and without capacitors, at the resonant frequency.
F
KN
KM
A
(see fig. 8-22)
i.e. F
R
L
A
sc r

hence
F R
C
L
A
sc

now Q C U
n

0
2
and L
U
S
sc
n
sc

0
2

hence
F
Q S
P
A
sc

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671
definition of the order of resonance p
r
The order of resonance is defined as the ratio p
r
of the angular frequency of resonance to the angular
frequency of the network:
p
r
r

0
now
r
cc
L C

1
hence
p
S
Q
r
cc

determining the network behaviour in the presence of harmonic current the order of
which is equal to p
r
For
r eq
Z R ,
hence V R I
r r

V F L I
r A cc r r

V
r
: harmonic voltage of order r appearing on the busbar
The harmonic voltage V
r
on the busbar is therefore multiplied by F
A
compared to the case
where there are no capacitors (V L I
r cc r r
).
Let I
C r ,
be the harmonic current of order r flowing in the capacitors,
I C V C
L C
R I
C r r r
cc
r ,

1
I F I
C r A r ,

Let I
L r ,
be the harmonic current of order r flowing in the upstream network,
I
V
L
Lcc C
Lcc
RI
L r
r
cc r
r ,

I F I
L r A r ,

672
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The currents and voltages at resonance are those shown in figure 8-24.
R
I
r
I
r
C
I F I
L, r A r
I F I
C, r A r
V F L I
r A sc r r
L
sc
Figure 8-24: currents and voltages appearing at resonance
The following paragraphs will demonstrate that the value of F
A
could be very high on an
industrial network (in general anything from 2 to 5, and as much as 20).
As the diagram shows, harmonic currents flowing in the capacitors and upstream network are
each amplified by a factor of F
A
.
Therefore, compared to the case where there are no capacitors, the harmonic voltage of order
r produced on the busbar is amplified by a factor of F
A
. Compensating capacitors will then
more than likely pose significant problems when large, non-linear loads are connected to the
network.
example
Let us consider a 20 kV / 400 V transformer of S kVA
T
1250 , and U
sc
5 5 . %, supplying :
- day and night, a bridge rectifier whose power S kVA
B
500 and power factor F
p B ,
. 0 8 .
- a linear load whose power consumption S kVA
ld
600 during the daytime period, and
S kVA
ln
100 during the night-time period, with a power factor F
p l ,
. 0 9 .
The upstream network short-circuit power S MVA
up
130 .
The requirement is to compensate the reactive energy of the fundamental during the day so as
to obtain tan .
1
0 4 , where tan
1
1
1

P
Q
.
P
1
: active power of the fundamental component
Q
1
: reactive power of the fundamental component.
673
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
determining the reactive power of the capacitors to be installed
Using the manufacturers' assumption (see 8.1.5), we can calculate the fundamental
component values for the bridge rectifier:
P P F S kW
B B p B B 1
0 8 500 400
, ,
.
From the example of paragraph 8.1.5, Q kVA
B 1
277
,
.
The daytime period linear load is S kVA
ld
600 where F
p l ,
. 0 9 .
Calculating the active and reactive powers of a linear load is straightforward:
P S F kW
ld ld p l

,
540
Q S P k
ld ld ld

2 2
262 var
We can also calculate the installation's tan
1
value:
tan .
,
,

1
1
1
277 262
400 540
0 57
+
+

+
+

Q Q
P P
B ld
B ld
To compensate the reactive energy of the fundamental, the necessary capacitor bank power
rating is thus given by:
( )
( ) Q P P k
B ld
+
1 1
0 940 0 17 159 8
,
tan .4 . . var
The choice would be to install a standard value capacitor bank with a rated power value of
Q k
C
160 var .
674
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
calculation of the harmonic voltages and distortion factor in the absence of capacitors
Firstly, the equivalent impedance for the transformer and upstream network is calculated.
Using the approximation that the transformer and upstream network are composed of pure
reactance (see 4.2.1.4 - Protection Guide), we have:
X
U
S
up
n
up

2
and X
U
S
U
T
n
T
sc

2
hence ( ) X U
U
S S
m
sc n
sc
T up
+

_
,

_
,

2 2
3 6
1
400
0 055
1250 10
1
130 10
8 27
.
.
X X
up T
, : are the reactance of the upstream network and the transformer respectively
X
sc
: is the equivalent reactance of the transformer and upstream network (short-circuit impedance).
We can now calculate the harmonic voltages (see table 8-12) and the distortion factor.
Order of harmonic 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I
p
% 18.9 11.0 5.9 4.8 3.4 3 2.3 2.1 1.8 1.6
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
( ) V pX I V
p sc p
5.49 4.47 3.77 3.62 3.36 3.32 3.08 3.04 3.02 2.87
( )
V
V
p
1
%
2.39 1.95 1.64 1.58 1.46 1.44 1.34 1.32 1.31 1.25
Table 8-12: harmonic voltages in the absence of capacitors
From here, the voltage distortion factor is:

V
5 07 . %
This is an acceptable value, both for the operation of the bridge rectifier and for the rest of the
installation (see 8.2).
675
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
calculation of the harmonic voltages and distortion factor for the daytime period with
the compensating capacitors in service
Calculating the order of resonance:
p
S
Q
r
sc

where S
U
X
MVA
sc
n
sc

2
19 35 .
Q k 160 var
hence
p
r
1100 .
The order of resonance is the same as the order of a high value harmonic current generated
by the bridge rectifier.
Calculating the amplification factor:
F
Q S
P
A
sc

P is the active power of the linear loads, giving P P kW


ld
540
hence
F
A
3 26 .
Calculating the equivalent impedance Z
eq
:
1 1 1
0
0
Z R
j p C
p L
eq ld sc
+

_
,

Z
R
pC
p L
eq
ld
sc

_
,

1
1 1
2
0
0
2

where R
U
P
m
ld
n
ld

2
296 3 .
C
Q
U
n

0
2
100 .
L X m
sc sc

0
8 27 .
676
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Figure 8-25 shows the curve of the Z
eq
( ) impedance spectrum.
We can go on to calculate the harmonic voltages (see table 8-13)
Order of harmonic 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
Z m
eq
( )
51.3 92.5 296.3 199.7 95.7 76.5 55.4 48.9 39.9 36.6
( ) V Z I V
p eq p

6.81 7.15 12.27 6.73 2.29 1.61 0.90 0.72 0.50 0.41
( )
V
V
p
1
%
2.96 3.11 5.33 2.93 0.99 0.70 0.39 0.31 0.22 0.18
( ) I A
C p ,
34.1 50.1 135 87.5 38.9 30.6 20.7 18.0 14.5 12.7
Table 8-13: harmonic voltages during the daytime period with capacitors in service
From here, the voltage distortion factor is :

V
7 5 . %
The harmonic currents flowing in the capacitor bank are obtained from:
I pC V
C p p ,

0
(see table 8-14).
The r.m.s. current in the capacitor bank is :
I I
C rms C
p
, ,

2
1
I
C, 1
is the fundamental current in the capacitors, that is the nominal current, which gives
I I C V A
C C n n , , 1 0
230 .
hence I A
C rms ,
. 293 0
and
I
I
C rms
C n
,
,
. 127
Next, we can calculate V
rms
230 64 . .
677
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
It can be seen that despite the high values of some of the harmonic currents, the r.m.s. voltage
is virtually identical to the nominal voltage. The manufacturers' assumption is thus justified:
U U
rms

1
.
The r.m.s. current in the capacitor bank is close to the limit of 1.3 I
C n ,
, there is thus a risk of
the capacitors overheating.
The voltage distortion factor is only just acceptable, and certain loads may well be disturbed
(see 8.2). The bridge rectifier will be able to operate normally (see 8.2).
calculation of harmonic voltages and distortion factor for the night-time period with
the compensating capacitors in service
Calculating the amplification factor:
F
Q S
P
A
sc

P is the active power of the linear loads during the night-time period, giving
P P S kW
ln ln
0 9 90 .
hence F
A

160 19 350
90
F
A
19 6 .
Z
R
pC
p L
eq
sc

_
,

1
1 1
2
0
0
2
ln

where R
U
P
m
n
ln
ln

2
1778 .
C
Q
U
n

0
2
1 00 .
L X m
sc sc

0
8 27 .
Figure 8-25 shows the curve of the Z
eq
( ) impedance spectrum
678
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
We can go on to calculate the harmonic voltages (see table 8-14)
Order of harmonic 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
Z m
eq
( )
52.1 97.2 1778 267.3 101.1 79.1 56.3 49.6 40.3 36.9
( ) V Z I V
p eq p

6.91 7.51 73.61 9.01 2.41 1.67 0.91 0.73 0.51 0.41
( )
V
V
p
1
%
3.01 3.27 32.0 3.92 1.05 0.73 0.40 0.32 0.22 0.18
( ) I A
C p ,
34.6 52.6 809.7 117.1 41.0 31.7 20.9 18.3 14.8 12.7
Table 8-14: harmonic voltages during night-time period with capacitors in service
From here, the voltage distortion factor is :

V
32 6 . %
This figure is unacceptable to the majority of equipment, which will not operate properly and
may be damaged as a result (see 8.2). The bridge rectifier itself will malfunction, the
distortion factor being well above the permitted threshold (see 8.2).
The harmonic currents flowing in the capacitor bank are given by:
I pC V
C p p ,

0
(see table 8-15).
The r.m.s. current in the capacitor bank is :
I I
C rms C
p
, ,

2
1
I
C, 1
is the fundamental current in the capacitors, that is, the nominal current. We have then
I I C V A
C C n n , , 1 0
230 .
hence I A
C rms ,
.4 854
and
I
I
C rms
C n
,
,
. 371
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The r.m.s. current in the capacitor bank is much greater than the permitted maximum, with the
result that the protection system will disconnect them.
Next, we can calculate the r.m.s. voltage: V V
rms
242 .
Being 5 % above nominal voltage, this is an acceptable value in terms of the capacitors.
conclusion
The installation of reactive energy compensating capacitors increases the voltage distortion
factor, especially when harmonic currents exist close to the resonance frequency. When the
power consumed by any linear loads is reduced, voltage distortion increases resulting in higher
levels of disturbance.
For large, non-linear loads, the installation of capacitors should go hand in hand with an
investigation of the harmonics. This will enable calculations to be made for the equipment
necessary (see 8.4) to overcome the problem cited above.
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31
1700
1500
1300
1100
900
700
500
400
300
200
100
with capacitors, night-time
with capacitors, day-time
frequency
(p x 50 Hz)
without capacitors
Z m
eq
Figure 8-25: the different impedance spectrum curves
680
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8.2. Effects of harmonics on electrical apparatus, and working guidelines
Harmonics may well cause electrical equipment to malfunction, or to overheat, or to produce
mechanical vibrations which could lead to irreparable damage.
capacitors
Capacitors should conform to the IEC standard 871-1 for M.V. and to IEC standard 831-1 for
L.V. These standards stipulate:
- the ability to permanently pass a current of 1.3 times rated value, corresponding to a current
distortion factor of
I
83% . In fact,
I
p
p
p
p
rms
I
I
I I
I
I
I
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
+
+


I
1
: rated current of the bank
hence ( )
I
1 3 1
2
.
- the ability to withstand 1.1 times rated voltage 12 h / day for M.V. use, and 8 h / day in a
L.V. application, allowing their operating voltage to be 10% above rated value.
working guidelines
The above specifications are not cumulative, therefore the following condition should be
observed:
3 13 I V Q
rms rms n
.
Q
n
: nominal or rated power of the bank.
Should this condition not be met, techniques to limit harmonics could be implemented
(see 8.4). Otherwise, one approach might be to install, if this is adequate, over-insulated
capacitors (class H) able to permanently pass 1.5 times their rated current, a figure
corresponding to a current distortion factor of
I
112 %.
681
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
example
A capacitor bank of standard value 200 400 k V var, is supplied from a busbar whose voltage
characteristics are:
- daytime period V
V
d 1
400
3

- night-time period V
V
t 1
420
3

- measured harmonic voltages, identical for day and night-time periods, of:
V V V
5 7 11
3 5 7
V V V
1 1 1
%, %, % and
V
13
4
V
1
% .
calculating the r.m.s. current in the capacitors during the daytime period
For the fundamental component (at 50 Hz):
I C V
d 1 0 1

where V V
d n 1
: rated voltage of capacitor bank
I I
n 1
: rated current of capacitor bank

0
2 50 : angular frequency of the supply network .
For the harmonics:
I pC V
p p

0
hence
I
I
p
V
V
p p
d 1 1

I I p
V
V
p
p
d
2
1
2 2
1
2

_
,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
I I I p
V
V
I
rms
p
d
p
2
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
1 0 03 5 0 05 7 0 07 11 0 04 13 +

_
,
+ + + +

. . . .
I I
rms
1
1
.42
hence
I I
rms n
142 .
The capacitors will overheat and deteriorate prematurely if the protection system does not
disconnect them.
682
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
calculating the r.m.s. current in the capacitors during the night-time period
For the fundamental component (at 50 Hz):
I C V C V
V
V
C V
t n
t
n
n 1 0 1 0
1
0
420
400

_
,

_
,

hence
I I
n 1
105 .
For the harmonics :
I pC V
p p

0
hence
I
I
p
V
V
p p
t 1 1

I I p
V
V
p
p
t
2
1
2 2
1
2

_
,

I I I p
V
V
rms
p
t
p
2
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
+

_
,

I I I
rms n
142 142 105
1
. . .
hence
I I
rms n
149 .
The r.m.s. value of current is higher during the night-time period because the voltage is higher.
As a result the capacitors will overheat all the more.
683
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
transformers
When subjected to harmonic currents a transformer will suffer supplementary losses and
possible disturbance to its magnetic circuit. Moreover, it will tend to generate noise due to the
vibrations caused by the harmonics.
Joule losses
These are proportional to the square of the r.m.s. current : loss = R I
rms
2
.
Harmonic currents therefore increase Joule losses.
iron loss
This comprises eddy current losses and magnetic induction hysteresis losses.
Eddy current loss is proportional to the square of the frequency, whereas hysteresis loss is
proportional to the frequency. The higher frequency harmonic currents will therefore generate
significant iron losses.
disturbance of the magnetic circuit
Harmonic currents generate an extra magnetic flux proportional to the impedance of the
upstream network. This is superimposed on the flux produced in the transformer by the
fundamental.
The peak value of flux is thereby increased, which can lead to saturation and an increase in
magnetising current and iron losses. The transformer itself may also generate harmonics.
684
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
transformer de-rating formula, and working guidelines
To take account of the extra heat developed, transformers should be de-rated. The formula
commonly used is:
k
I
I
p
p
p

_
,

1
1 01
1
2
1 6
2
.
.
p : order of harmonic
I
1
: transformer rated current.
A transformer of rated power S
n
is therefore limited to supplying a load of k S
n
.
Another solution consists in obtaining the manufacturer's agreement to construct a transformer
specially designed to feed equipment that produces harmonics.
example 1
It is required to feed a 800 kVA, bridge rectifier from a transformer.
Using table 8-1, the de-rating factor is:
1
1 01
2
k
+ .
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
[
0189 5 011 7 0 059 11 0 048 13 0 034 17
2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6
. . . . .
. . . . .
+ + + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
]
+ + + + + 0 03 19 0 023 23 0 021 25 0 018 29 0 016 31
2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6
. . . . .
. . . . .
hence k 0 931 .
The bridge rectifier should therefore be supplied from a transformer whose rated power is at
least equal to 859 kVA.
example 2
It is required to feed a 250 kVA load in the shape of switchmode power supply from a
transformer.
Using the high harmonic level assumption of table 8-2, the de-rating factor is:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
[ ]
1
1 0 1 1 3 3 0 7 5 0 5 7 0 3 9 0 1 11
2
2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 6
k
+ + + + + . . . . . .
. . . . .
hence k 0532 .
A transformer of at least 470 kVA should therefore be installed.
685
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
motors
When harmonic voltages are present, motors are subject to supplementary losses and
pulsating torques.
Joule losses
Joule loss is proportional to the square of the r.m.s. value of current : loss = R I
rms
2
.
Harmonic currents generated by the harmonic voltages present in the supply will thus increase
Joule losses.
iron loss
This comprises Foucault current (eddy current) losses and magnetic induction hysteresis
losses.
Eddy current loss is proportional to the square of the frequency, whereas hysteresis loss is
proportional to the frequency. The higher frequency harmonic voltages will therefore generate
significant iron losses.
pulsating torques, opposing or motor
Harmonic voltages produce harmonic currents, creating rotating fields whose speeds differ
from that of the 50 Hz field. Such fields will produce either motor or opposing torques at
frequencies other than 50 Hz. These torques, and the vibrations they cause, may lead to
mechanical damage, extraneous noise, supplementary Joule loss in the rotor and a reduction
in motor efficiency.
working guidelines
IEC standard 34-1 lays down that a.c. current motors must be able to operate correctly with a
supply voltage whose harmonic voltage factor ( HVF ) is as follows:
HVF 2 %
The HVF value is calculated from the following formula:
HVF
V
V p
p
p

_
,

1
2
2
1
According to the standard only harmonics of order 13 need generally be considered.
686
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
example
Using the example of paragraph 8.6.1:
without capacitors
From table 8-12, calculation gives HVF 162 . % (whereas
V
5 07 . %). This value is
acceptable for motors conforming to IEC standard 34-1.
with capacitors during the day time period
From table 8-13, calculation gives HVF 2 50 . %. This higher value is the figure laid down by
the standard. Any motor installation must therefore involve specific calculations, or testing at
the manufacturers to check motor thermal withstand or to establish the de-rating figure that
may need to be applied to the machines.
with capacitors during the night time period
From table 8-14, calculation gives HVF 989 . %. This is a value far greater than that defined
by IEC standard 34-1, the strong resonance at the 11th harmonic producing intolerably high
harmonic voltages.
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
alternators
When supplying non-linear loads, an alternator will suffer supplementary losses and pulsating
torques due to the harmonic currents produced.
iron loss
This comprises Foucault current (eddy current) loss and magnetic induction hysteresis loss.
Eddy current loss is proportional to the square of the frequency, whereas hysteresis loss is
proportional to the frequency. The higher frequency harmonic currents will therefore generate
significant iron losses.
pulsating torques, opposing or motor
Harmonic currents create rotating fields whose speeds differ from that of the 50 Hz field. Such
fields will produce either motor or opposing torques at frequencies other than 50 Hz. These
torques, and the vibrations they cause, may lead to mechanical damage, extraneous noise,
supplementary Joule loss in the rotor and a reduction in alternator efficiency.
working guidelines
Alternators supplying less than 20% of non-linear loads will not generally have any difficulties.
Between 20 and 30 % certain manufacturers de-rate their machines by 10 %. Above 30%, the
the harmonic current spectrum must be shown to the manufacturer so that he can provide the
derating coefficient. For example, for an uninterruptible power supply manufacturers
recommend choosing an alternator with a power of 1.5 to 1.9 times that of the UPS.
688
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
neutral conductor heat problem
3rd harmonic currents, and multiples of the 3rd, are in phase and flow in the neutral conductor
when it exists, and when the transformer vector group makes it possible (e.g. a delta-star
transformer, which is the most common case).
The r.m.s. current in the neutral conductor is given by:
I I
neutral k
k

3
3
2
1
This current may be greater than that flowing in the phase conductors, and as a result the
neutral conductor must be oversized.
working guideline
The cross-section of the neutral conductor must take into account the existence of 3rd
harmonic currents and multiples of the 3rd.
example 1
Consider a lighting load whose current spectrum is that of table 8-15.
I
1
I
3
I
5
I
7
I
9
I
11
I
13
I
15
100 % 35 % 27 % 10 % 2.5 % 3.5 % 1.5 % 1.5 %
Table 8-15: lighting load current spectrum
We can derive:
I I
rms
110
1
.
( ) ( ) I I I
neutral
+ 3 0 35 0 025 1 05
1
2 2
1
. . .
The neutral current value is more or less equal to that flowing in a phase conductor, and as
such all cables can have similar cross-sections.
.
689
Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
example 2
Consider computer type loads that have a spectrum as shown in table 8-16.
I
1
I
3
I
5
I
7
I
9
I
11
100 % 65 % 35 % 25 % 15 % 5 %
Table 8-16: current spectrum for computer loads
We can derive:
I I
rms
128
1
.
( ) ( ) I I I
neutral
+ 3 0 65 0 15 2 00
1
2 2
1
. . .
and
I
I
neutral
rms
156 .
The current in the neutral is much larger than that flowing in a phase conductor. This demands
the use of a protection device (circuit-breaker with 4-pole protection) plus a neutral conductor
of sufficient cross-section.
electromagnetic disturbances in a TNC earthing system
Currents due to the 3rd harmonic, and multiples of the 3rd, flow in the neutral conductor. In a
TNC earthing system the neutral conductor and circuit protection conductor are one and the
same.
Now, since the circuit protection conductor connects together all exposed conductive parts,
including elements of the building's infrastructure, 3rd harmonic currents and multiples of them
flowing in these circuits will produce local variations in potential.
This phenomenon may cause problems such as :
- corrosion of metal parts
- overcurrent on a telecommunication link connecting the exposed conductive parts of two
loads (for example, between a microcomputer and a printer)
- electromagnetic radiation affecting computer screens.
Where 3rd harmonics or multiples of them are present the TNC earthing system must be
avoided.
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inverters
The level of harmonic disturbance created by an inverter will depend on the technique used to
generate the sine wave voltage, that is, either PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) or non-PWM.
non-PWM inverters
The output current of non-PWM inverters is limited to its rated value, giving an instantaneous
value of current no higher than 2 I
n
.
Manufacturers apply a de-rating factor that is a function of the peak factor
F

I
pk
n

This de-rating factor is given by :


d
F
pk

2
PWM inverters
The output current of Merlin Gerin PWM inverters is limited to 2.35 times the r.m.s. value of
rated current, giving an instantaneous value no higher than 2 35 . I
n
.
- if I
n
2 35 . de-rating is not applied
- if I
n
> 2 35 . the de-rating factor is given by:
d
I

2 35 .
hence
d
F
pk

2 35 .
example
Table 8-17a gives the de-rating coefficients for inverters feeding computer type loads.
Type of load IBM 4381 IBM AS400 IBM PCXT IBM site *
Peak Factor 2.14 2.53 5.54 2.21
Non-PWM de-rating 0.66 0.56 0.26 0.64
PWM de-rating / 0.93 0.42 /
Table 8-17a: inverter de-rating when feeding computer loads
* Example of an IBM site with a large number of terminals.
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semiconductor convertors
IEC standard 146-1-1, 2.5.4.1 lays down the operating limits, without performance loss, for
convertors, defining them according to the machine's immunity class (see table 8-17b):
- class A: limits are applicable to convertors used on highly (harmonically) disturbed
networks.
- class B: limits are applicable to convertors used on networks where there is an average
level of disturbance
- class C: limits are applicable to convertors used on networks where the disturbance is low.
If the immunity class is not specified, class B is deemed to apply.
Immunity class
A B C
Individual even harmonics (%) 2 2 1
Individual odd harmonics (%) 12.5 5 2.5
Total harmonic distortion (%) 25 10 5
Table 8-17b: operating limits without performance loss, for convertors
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special case of the uninterruptible power supply
The IEC standard 146-4, 5.1 lays down the guaranteed operating limits for a UPS:
- voltage distortion factor less than 10 %
- harmonic voltage components less than those defined by the curve shown in figure 8-26.
5%
1%
0.5%
0.4%
0.3%
3 5 7 9 11 13 25
100
V
p
V
1
(%)
Figure 8-26: maximum permitted harmonic voltage content on a UPS a.c. supply input
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permanent insulation monitors (PIM)
Such devices apply a d.c. or low-frequency voltage between the protection conductor and the
neutral (or phase if the neutral is not accessible), and measure the current.
PIMs using a d.c. voltage are not affected by harmonics since they measure a highly filtered
d.c. current.
On the other hand, the older type of PIM (before 1993), such as the XM100, will be affected.
These inject a 10 Hz voltage and filter the 50 Hz signal. However, the filter becomes ineffective
from, and including, the 3rd harmonic upwards. Thus, any 3rd harmonic currents or multiples
of them or unbalanced harmonic currents of monophased loads flowing in the neutral may be
"seen" by the PIM causing it to alarm in error.
Where an installation has in-circuit fault location core-balance current transformers on its
outgoing feeders, harmonic currents flowing in the neutral will disrupt the fault location system.
No permitted voltage distortion limits have been defined for PIMs, since any likely disruption
will depend on the characteristics of the network and loads.
The newer generation PIMs (post 1993), which use a 2.5 Hz voltage and filters which are
effective above 4 Hz, are immune to harmonics.
circuit-breakers with electronically tripping relay
The thermal or magnetic detection of older model circuit-breakers (still on sale today) are
sensitive to peak values of current.
High current distortion factors can mean high peak currents (see the values for computer
equipment, table 8-18) leading in turn to spurious opening of the circuit-breakers. The thermal
detection threshold must then be increased when this is possible or the harmonics filtered out.
Newer generation devices - compact or masterpact - sample the current and calculate its r.m.s.
value, and are therefore immune.
computer loads
The recommended threshold for reliable operation is:
V
V
p
p
1
2
1
5

_
,
<

%
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voltage measuring regulators
Voltage measurements may be erroneous if harmonic voltages are present, giving rise to
regulator malfunction. The recommended threshold is for these items:
1
15 2
1
p
V
V
to
p
< . % for p odd.
induction supply meters
Errors of measurement of active power at 50 Hz due to harmonics are low compared to other
sources of error: for example any effects due to ambient temperature changes.
Indeed, the induction supply meter is a poor detector of active power at harmonic frequencies,
which in any case is considered negligible.
measuring apparatus
Instruments which measure peak values will read in error.
On the other hand, those that sample and calculate an r.m.s. figure will give a correct reading.
power-line carrier system signals
For systems injecting a signal frequency of 175 Hz, the CENELEC standard gives the
harmonic voltage values permitted at the detection relays:
V
V
3
1
7 %
V
V
4
1
15 . %
V
V
5
1
8 %
Disruption of these relays can cause unwanted modifications to the customer pricing system
(peak/off-peak tariffs for example).
In addition, a customer's decision to install anti-harmonic inductors or filters may lead to
resonances around 175 Hz, with a consequent lowering of impedance at this frequency. The
signal voltage injected by the utility will therefore be virtually "invisible" to the detection relays
(see 8.4.2).
To ensure proper operation at 175 Hz, the detection relays must be able to see a voltage
defined by:
V V
relay n
15 . % or
V
V
relay
3 5
0 65
.
.
(see 8.4.2).
V
n
: nominal single phase voltage
V
3 5 .
: 175 Hz signal voltage injected by utility
V
relay
: 175 Hz voltage at detection relay
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8.3. Standards and regulations
Today, electricity is regarded as a product, and as such a utility's liability covers any damage
caused by an excess of harmonics on their supply networks. Indeed, to be in a position to
guarantee an adequate quality of energy to all users, utilities must fix, or have fixed by
standards bodies, the limits of disturbance caused to the supply network by customers'
installations and equipment.
8.3.1. Definitions
A definition of the principal terms is indispensable to a proper understanding of the scope and
content of standards. Such terms and their definitions are based on chapter 161 of the
international electrotechnical vocabulary (IEV), and are found throughout the text of IEC
standard 1000-1-1.
electromagnetic disturbance
Any electromagnetic phenomenon likely to degrade the performance of a system, apparatus or
electrical device. Phenomena may include harmonics, supply voltage fluctuations and dips,
short supply interruptions, voltage unbalance, frequency variation, d.c. components and mains
signalling.
electromagnetic environment
The whole of the electromagnetic phenomena existing at a given place.
electromagnetic compatibility
The ability of a system or apparatus to operate satisfactorily in its electromagnetic
environment, without itself introducing electromagnetic disturbances which could seriously
degrade any other element in that environment.
The two fundamental aspects of this definition are:
- "operate satisfactorily", signifies that the equipment can "tolerate other apparatus", or put
another way, that it is not sensitive to the electromagnetic interference in its environment.
- "without introducing electromagnetic disturbance", signifying that the apparatus will "not
degrade other equipment", or put another way, that any emissions it produces does not
result in other equipment operating unsatisfactorily.
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In relation to harmonic disturbance, it is the ability of equipment to operate in the presence of
supply voltage harmonics without generating large harmonic currents.
electromagnetic compatibility level
For a given environment, the maximum level of electromagnetic disturbance any equipment is
likely to be subjected to.
In relation to harmonics, it is the harmonic voltage levels (or distortion factor) likely to exist on a
given electrical network.
emission limit
The maximum permitted emission level of electromagnetic disturbance. For harmonic
disturbance, it is the maximum value of any harmonic currents (or individual value) that an
installation or apparatus is permitted to generate.
immunity level
The standardised level of disturbance tolerated by a given apparatus. Concerning harmonic
disturbance, it corresponds to the maximum values of individual harmonic voltage distortion
that the equipment can tolerate.
susceptibility level
The degree of electromagnetic disturbance above which the performance of the equipment is
degraded.
In relation to harmonic disturbance, it is the values of individual harmonic voltage distortion
which cause the equipment to malfunction.
Figure 8-27 is a visual representation of the different definitions as a function of the degree of
disturbance.
level of disturbance
0
susceptibility level:
disturbance level at which
a device malfunctions
immunity level:
standard level of a disturbance
withstood by a device
electromagnetic compatibility level:
specified maximumdisturbance level
to which a device is expected to be
subjected in a given environment
emission level: standard emission level
that a device must not exceed
immunity margin
Figure 8-27: the different definitions as a function of the level of disturbance
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8.3.2. Standards in use
The generation of harmonic currents creates supply voltage disturbances (harmonic voltages).
Official standards should therefore set down the permissible limits of harmonic currents
generated by equipment and users, in order to maintain a suitable level of electromagnetic
compatibility (harmonic voltages) .
As for the utility, it must have a sufficiently low value of short-circuit impedance to prevent
large harmonic voltages from being generated.
A compromise must therefore be found between improving equipment emission and immunity
levels, and making improvements to the utility network.
8.3.2.1. Compatibility levels
for utilities
IEC standard 1000-2-2 defines the compatibility levels for harmonic and interharmonic
voltages existing on public low-voltage networks.
For interharmonics, the level of compatibility is 0.2% per individual interharmonic.
For harmonic voltages, the values are given in table 8-18.
Odd harmonics not
multiples of 3
Odd harmonics multiples
of 3
Even harmonics
Order of
harmonic
n
Harmonic
voltage
%
Order of
harmonic
n
Harmonic
voltage
%
Order of
harmonic
n
Harmonic
voltage
%
5 6 3 5 2 2
7 5 9 1.5 4 1
11 3.5 15 0.3 6 0.5
13 3 21 0.2 8 0.5
17 2 > 21 0.2 10 0.5
19 1.5 12 0.2
23 1.5 > 12 0.2
25 1.5
> 25
02
12 5
.
.
+
n
Table 8-18: compatibility levels for harmonic voltages existing on low-voltage public networks
(IEC 1000-2-2 - table 1)
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The levels adopted in this standard in respect of low voltage are the same as those published
in the journals of CIGRE (International Conference on Large High Voltage Electrical Networks,
n123, March 1989). It is more than likely that the levels to be incorporated into future medium
and high voltage standards will similarly correspond to those published in the CIGRE journals
(see table 8-19).
In France, The EDF's new "Emeraude" contract gives values for information only. They are
identical to those found in the CIGRE journals with the exception of the ones marked with an
(*) in table 8-19.
Between now and 1998, the EDF will establish its commitments in terms of harmonics. The
specifications should be relatively close to those shown in table 8-19.
Odd harmonics
not multiples of 3
Odd harmonics
multiples de 3
Even harmonics
Order
of harmonic
n
Harmonic
voltage
%
Order
of harmonic
n
Harmonic
voltage
%
Order
of harmonic
n
Harmonic
voltage
%
MV HV MV HV MV HV
5 6 2 3 5 2 2 2 1.5
7 5 2 9 1.5 1 4 1 1
11 3.5 1.5 15 0.3/0.5* 0.3/0.5* 6 0.5 0.5
13 3 1.5 21 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5* 8 0.5 0.2/0.5*
17 2 1 > 21 0.2/* 0.2/ * 10 0.5 0.2/0.5*
19 1.5 1 12 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5*
23 1.5 0.7 14 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5*
25 1.5 0.7 16 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5*
> 25 0 2
12 5
.
.
+
n
*
01
12 5
.
.
+
n
*
18 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5*
20 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5*
22 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5*
24 0.2/0.5* 0.2/0.5*
> 24 0.2/ * 0.2/*
Total harmonic distortion
8 % on MV networks 3 % on HV networks
*
: values specific to the EDF "Emeraude" contract
: no value has been specified
Table 8-19: compatibility levels for harmonic voltages on medium and high-voltage public networks
(taken from Electra, n123 March 1989, and the EDF's Emeraude contract)
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on industrials networks
IEC standard 1000-2-4 lays down the compatibility levels for harmonic and interharmonic
voltages existing on industrial networks (see tables 8-20 and 8-21).
They apply to low and medium-voltage networks .
The compatibility levels are given for different classes of environment:
Class 1:
Environments in this class are essentially protected networks, with compatibility levels lower
than for public networks, where equipment particularly sensitive to supply network disturbance
is used: laboratory instruments, certain automatic and protective installations, certain
computers, etc.
Equipment in this type of environment is, of necessity, generally supplied from an
uninterruptible power supply. Only low-voltage networks are included in this class.
Class 2:
This class concerns the utility's take-over point and the internal network.
The compatibility levels are identical to those applying to public supply networks.
Class 3:
This class applies only to internal networks. Compatibility levels are higher than for class 2
environments.
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Odd harmonics not
multiples of 3
Odd harmonics
multiples of 3
Even harmonics
Order of
harmonic
n
Harmonic voltage
%
Order of
harmonic
n
Harmonic voltage
%
Order of
harmonic
n
Harmonic voltage
%
class
1
class
2
class
3
class
1
class
2
class
3
class
1
class
2
class
3
5 3 6 8 3 3 5 6 2 2 2 3
7 3 5 7 9 1.5 1.5 2;5 4 1 1 1.5
11 3 3.5 5 15 0.3 0.3 2 6 0.5 0.5 1
13 3 3 4.5 21 0.2 0.2 1.7
5
8 0.5 0.5 1
17 2 2 4 > 21 0.2 0.2 1 10 0.5 0.5 1
19 1.5 1.5 4 > 10 0.2 0.2 1
23 1.5 1.5 3.5
25 1.5 1.5 3.5
> 25
2
125
+
.
n
2
12 5
+
.
n
5
11
n
Total harmonic distortion
5 % for class 1 8 % for class 2 10 % for class 3
Table 8-20: compatibility levels for harmonic voltages existing on industrial networks
Order
h
Class 1
( ) U
p
%
Class 2
( ) U
p
%
Class 3
( ) U
p
%
< 11 0.2 0.2 2.5
11 to 13 inclusive 0.2 0.2 2.25
13 to 17 inclusive 0.2 0.2 2
17 to 19 inclusive 0.2 0.2 2
19 to 23 inclusive 0.2 0.2 1.75
23 to 25 inclusive 0.2 0.2 1.5
> 25 0.2 0.2 1
Table 8-21: compatibility levels for inter-harmonic voltages on industrial networks
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8.3.2.2. Emission levels
Harmonic currents emitted by customer installations and equipment must be limited in order
avoid harmonic disturbance attaining the maximum levels of compatibility defined previously
(see tables 8-18, 8-19, 8-20 and 8-21).
emission limits applied to low voltage apparatus drawing less than 16 A per phase
It would be extremely difficult to check the harmonic current emissions of each customer
connected to a low-voltage network. Besides, IEC 1000-3-4 was drawn up by standards bodies
to define emission limits for low-voltage apparatus drawing less than 16 A per phase, and
destined to be connected to the public low-voltage distribution networks. Table 8-22 defines
the emission limits for class A equipment: i.e. apparatus other than portable tools, lighting and
equipment drawing an input current with a "special waveform" whose active power
consumption is less than 600 W (for equipment of this type see IEC 1000-3-2, 7).
These limits do not apply to professional equipment with a power rating greater than 1 kW.
Order of harmonic
n
Maximum permissible harmonic current
( ) A
Odd harmonics
3 2.30
5 1.14
7 0.77
9 0.40
11 0.33
13 0.21
15 39 n
015
15
.
n
Even harmonics
2 1.08
4 0.43
6 0.30
8 40 n
0 23
8
.
n
table 8-22: harmonic current emission limits for class A, low-voltage apparatus
drawing less than 16 A per phase
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emission limits applied to industrial consumers
Precisely limiting the harmonic voltages generated by industrial users would penalise those
connected to a low short-circuit power network (highly impedant).
An equitable solution consists in permitting the level of disturbance generated to be
proportional to the customer's subscribed demand, as applied to each class of voltage ( LV,
MV, HV)
There is no international standard laying down the emission limits applying to industrial users.
case of France
In France, the EDF's new "Emeraude" contract gives the following tolerances applying to its
MV and HV networks for information only. At present, the limits shown are not obligatory
although customers are advised to conform since values more or less equivalent to them will
no doubt become statutory between now and 1998.
In the contract, the customer is obliged to take steps to limit the individual harmonic currents
introduced onto the EDF network. Such limits are calculated on a pro-rata basis according to
each customer's subscribed demand ( S
subscribed
).
A limiting coefficient, k
p
, is applied to each harmonic current of order p . The customer must
limit harmonics to a level given by:
I k
S
U
p p
subscribed
C

3
where U
C
is the contract voltage.
Table 8-23 gives the values for k
p
as a function of the harmonic order p .
Limits do not apply to an MV connection where subscribed demand is less than 100 kVA.
Odd orders k
p
(%) Even orders k
p
(%)
3 4 2 2
5 and 7 5 4 1
9 2 > 4 0.5
11 and 13 3
> 13 2
Table 8-23: emission limits for industrial users on the EDF's MV or HV networks.
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8.3.2.3. Equipment immunity levels
There is at present no official standard in existence.
A standard currently being drafted defines the permissible harmonic voltage levels for low-
voltage equipment according to its class.
The suggested levels are those shown in table 8-24.
n Class 1 Class 2
2 3 4
3 8 8
4 1.5 2
5 9 10
6 0.8 2
7 8 9
8 0.8 2
9 2.5 4
10 0.8 2
11 6 7
12 0.4 1.5
13 5 6
Total harmonic distortion 12 % 16 %
table 8-24: Low-voltage equipment harmonic immunity levels (draft standard)
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8.4. Preventing and reducing harmonic disturbance
The selection from the numerous methods available will depend on the exact nature of the
problem and the required results.
8.4.1. Installing a low output impedance source
Harmonic currents create harmonic voltage disturbance in proportion to the output impedance
of the source. Decreasing the latter will therefore reduce the levels of harmonic voltage
generated (see fig. 8-28).
I
p
V
V
p
Z p
s 0
( ) V Z p I
p s p

0

0
2 50 : angular frequency of the supply network.
Figure 8-28: harmonic voltage as a function of source output impedance
This is an appropriate solution chiefly in the absence of capacitors, for otherwise, reducing the
source impedance may well shift the existing frequency of resonance between the impedance
and the capacitors to a value close to that of a high amplitude harmonic current.
example
Using the example given in paragraph 8.1.6, we will replace the 1 250 5 5 , , . % kVA U
sc

transformer by one whose power rating is S kVA U
T sc 1 1
2 7 ,500 , % .
We have then ( ) X U
U
S S
m
sc n
sc
T up
1
2 1
1
2
3 6
1
400
0 07
2 500 10
1
130 10
571 +

_
,

_
,

.
,
. .
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calculating the harmonic voltages in the absence of capacitors
The results are given in table 8-25.
Order of the
harmonic
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I
p
% 18.9 11.0 5.9 4.8 3.4 3 2.3 2.1 1.8 1.6
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
( )
V p X I V
p sc p

1
3.79 3.09 2.60 2.50 2.32 2.29 2.13 2.10 2.09 1.98
( )
V
V
p
1
%
1.65 1.34 1.13 1.09 1.01 1.00 0.93 0.91 0.91 0.86
Table 8-25: harmonic voltages in the absence of capacitors
From this we can derive the voltage distortion factor:

V1
3 50 . %
The distortion factor is reduced in proportion to the ratio of the short-circuit impedances, as
shown: ( )
V
sc
sc
V sc V
X
X
X m
1
1
8 27 5 07 . . % and
.
Note: in practice, harmonic current values are influenced by the short-circuit impedance,
being increased by a low value of the latter (see 8.1.5). The improvement in
distortion factor will therefore be slightly less than calculation may indicate.
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calculating the harmonic voltages with capacitors in circuit over the daytime period
With the capacitors in circuit the order of resonance is given by p
S
Q
U
QX
r
sc n
sc
1
1
2
1
1323 . .
p
r1
is very close to the 13th harmonic, thereby giving rise to a high amplitude harmonic
voltage and a large value of voltage distortion factor.
Calculating the equivalent impedance of the network :
Z
R
pC
pX
eq
ld
sc

_
,

1
1 1
2
0
1
2

We can then calculate the harmonic voltages (see table 8-26).


Order of the
harmonic
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
Z
eq
33.1 54.5 167.6 293.4 133.3 96.6 63.5 54.6 43.1 39.1
( ) V Z I A
p eq p
4.39 4.22 6.94 9.89 3.19 2.04 1.03 0.80 0.54 0.44
( )
V
V
p
1
%
1.91 1.83 3.02 4.30 1.39 0.89 0.45 0.35 0.24 0.19
( ) I A
C p ,
21.96 29.52 76.32 128.56 54.17 38.74 23.66 20.07 15.74 13.58
Table 8-26: harmonic voltages with capacitors in service over the day time period
From here we can derive the voltage distortion factor:

V
614 .
Reducing the source impedance has produced a slightly lower value (7.5 % with the 1,250 kVA
transformer).
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The r.m.s. current in the capacitor bank is:
I A
C rms ,
. 2871
hence
I
I
C rms
C n
,
,
.
.
2871
230
125
The r.m.s. current in the capacitors is close to the limiting value of 13 .
,
I
C n
, producing a risk of
them overheating.
calculating the harmonic voltages with capacitors in service over the night-time period
Calculating the equivalent impedance of the network:
Z
R
pC
pX
eq
sc

_
,

1
1 1
2
0
1
2
ln

We can then calculate the harmonic voltages (see table 8-27).


Order of the
harmonic
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
Z
eq
33.3 55.5 201.9 1362.4 148.8 102.1 65.0 55.5 43.5 39.4
( ) V Z I A
p eq p
4.42 4.29 8.36 45.91 3.56 2.15 1.05 0.82 0.55 0.44
( )
V
V
p
1
%
1.92 1.86 3.63 19.96 1.55 0.94 0.46 0.36 0.24 0.19
( ) I A
C p ,
22.09 30.02 91.94 596.86 60.45 40.91 24.20 20.41 15.91 13.69
Table 8-27: harmonic voltages with capacitors in service over the night-time period
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From here we can deduce the voltage distortion factor:

V
20 6 . %
Reducing the source impedance has lowered the value of distortion factor (32.6 % with the
1,250 kVA transformer) but not by enough to make it acceptable.
The r.m.s. current flowing in the capacitor bank is:
I A
C rms ,
. 652 5
hence
I
I
C rms
C n
,
,
. 2 84
The current flowing in the capacitors is very much higher than the permitted maximum, which
will result in the protection system disconnecting them.
conclusion from the example
In this example, with capacitors in service, reducing the source impedance is not a sufficiently
effective measure to eliminate the problem of harmonics. It can be seen that increasing the
transformer power rating, a costly move, does not markedly reduce the distortion factor since
resonance is shifted close to the frequency of an existing harmonic current. The solution of
installing an anti-harmonic inductor, explained in the following paragraph, overcomes this
problem by shifting the resonance frequency to one where no harmonic current exists.
.
709
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8.4.2. Installing an anti-harmonic inductor
An inductor L is installed in series with the capacitor bank (see fig. 8-29) so as to shift the
tuning frequency of the resonant circuit to a value below that of the existing lowest order
harmonic current.
non-linear
loads
linear
loads
upstream network
L
C
Figure 8-29: installation of an anti-harmonic inductor in series with the capacitor bank
The harmonic model of the network is shown in figure 8-30:
L
C
R
V
p I
p
L
sc
R : resistance corresponding to the active power of the linear loads
L
sc
: short-circuit inductance at the busbars
(impedance of the network + impedance of the transformer).
Figure 8-30: harmonic model of the network with anti-harmonic inductor
710
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The anti-harmonic inductor and the capacitor bank form a series resonant circuit. The
equivalent impedance of the L C , branch is therefore almost zero at resonance (reduced to
the resistance of the induction coil). The resonant frequency of this series circuit is f
r
.
The tuning frequency of the resonant circuit comprising the short-circuit inductance in parallel
with the L C , branch is called the anti-resonant frequency f
ar
. At this frequency the
equivalent impedance of the network is R .
The equivalent impedance of the network as seen by the harmonic current sources has the
form shown in figure 8-31.
R
50
harmonic current
frequency area
f
r
f
Hz ( )
Z
eq
( )
impedance on branch L C ,
f
ar
Figure 8-31: equivalent impedance of the network in the presence of an anti-harmonic inductor
For the harmonic current frequencies, the equivalent impedance has a value close to (less
than or equal to) the short-circuit impedance. The voltage distortion factor is therefore almost
the same as the value obtained without the L C , branch. Hence, installing capacitors with anti-
harmonic inductors does not increase the voltage distortion factor.
Moreover, considering the harmonic current frequencies, the impedance of the L C , branch is
high compared to the short-circuit impedance, with the result that any harmonic currents will
flow through the short-circuit impedance and not through the capacitors. Being thus protected
from harmonic currents, there is no need for the capacitors to be overrated.
711
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
calculating the different values
The resonant frequency is:
f
LC
r

1
2
finding the anti-resonant frequency f
ar
The value of f
ar
is obtained when the equivalent impedance of L
sc
in parallel with L C , tends
towards infinity:
j L j L
j L j L
sc
j C
sc
j C

_
,

+ +

1
1
( ) L L
C
sc
+

1
0
hence
( )
f
L L C
ar
sc

+
1
2
finding the equivalent impedance of the network
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
Z j L j L R
j
L L R
eq sc
j C
sc
C
+
+
+ +

_
,

+


Z
L L
eq
R
sc
C

+ +

_
,

1
1 1
1
1
2
2

712
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
finding the compensation reactive power of the L C , branch at 50 Hz
This is the power actually compensated by the capacitors with the inductor L in series.
we have f
LC
r

1
2
hence L C
r

2
1 where
r r
f 2
L C
r

0
2
0
2
1

_
,

L C
p
r

0
2
2
1

p
r
r

0
: order of resonance
The impedance of the L C , branch at 50 Hz is therefore:
( ) Z j L
j C
j
L C
C

0 0
0
0
2
0
1 1
+

_
,

( ) Z
C
p
r

0
1
0
1
2

The compensation reactive power at 50 Hz is therefore:


( )
( )
Q
U
Z
C U
n
p
n
r


0
2
0
1
0
2
1
1
2

( ) Q
p
p
C U
r
r
n

0
2
2
0
2
1

( ) Q
p
p
Q
r
r
n

0
2
2
1

_
,

U
n
: nominal phase to phase voltage
Q
n
: rated reactive power of the capacitors alone
713
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The compensation reactive power is higher than for the capacitors alone. Table 8-28 gives the
values for compensation power at 50 Hz compared to the rated power of the capacitors, for the
most common orders of resonance.
p
r
2.7 3.8 4.3 4.8
Q
Q
n
1.16 1.07 1.06 1.05
Tableau 8-28: compensation power compared to rated power of the capacitors
finding the fundamental voltage and power at the capacitor terminals
the fundamental voltage at the capacitor terminals is:
V
j L
V
L C
V V
C
j C
j C
n n
p
n
r

1
1
0
0
2 1
0
0
2
1
1
1
1



V
p
p
V
C
r
r
n

2
2
1
The voltage at the capacitor terminals is higher than the nominal voltage, and is all the higher
the lower the order of resonance.
Capacitors with an appropriate voltage withstand must therefore be selected.
capacitor fundamental reactive power is:
Q C V
p
p
C V
p
p
Q
C C
r
r
n
r
r
n

_
,

_
,

3
1
3
1
0
2
2
2
2
0
2
2
2
2

Q
n
: the nominal reactive power of the capacitors alone
The fundamental reactive power is higher than for the capacitors alone, another factor which
will influence the rating of the capacitors.
714
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
Table 8-29 gives voltage and power values at the capacitor terminals for the most common
orders of resonance.
p
r
2.7 3.8 4.3 4.8
V
V
C
n
1.16 1.07 1.06 1.05
Q
Q
C
n
1.34 1.15 1.12 1.09
Table 8-29: voltages and powers at the capacitor terminals for common orders of resonance
finding the r.m.s. current flowing in the capacitors and anti-harmonic inductors
The p order harmonic current flowing in the capacitors is :
I
V
j L
j C
L C
V
C p
p
j C
p ,

+

1 2
1
V
p
: p order harmonic voltage
Now V Z I
p eq p

hence I
j C
L C
Z I
C p eq p ,

1
2
I I
C rms C p
p
, ,

2
1
I
C,1
: current in the capacitors at the supply voltage frequency of 50 Hz
715
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
practical values of anti-harmonic inductors (the example of France)
An anti-harmonic inductor is chosen to obtain a resonant frequency below the existing lowest
order harmonic current frequency (by at least 10%).
low-voltage distribution
The resonant frequency generally chosen is 190 Hz, corresponding to an order of resonance
of 3.8, and capacitors with series anti-harmonic inductors tuned for 190 Hz are standard
manufacturers' items.
However, tuning for a 3.8 order of resonance is a not a practical option for an installation
where 3rd harmonic currents exist, since the anti-resonant frequency may be close to the 3rd
harmonic, leading in turn to a high value of voltage distortion. In this case, capacitors with an
anti-harmonic inductor tuned to 135 Hz should be used, corresponding to an order of
resonance of 2.7 (also available from manufacturers).
A case of resonance at the 3rd harmonic is rare, and possible only if 3rd harmonic currents are
able to flow in the capacitors. These latter being connected without a distributed neutral, their
zero-sequence impedance (impedance seen by the 3rd harmonic) is infinite. It follows then that
3rd harmonics can only exist when loads are unbalanced. This is indeed the case with lighting
loads for example, which produce large amplitude 3rd harmonic currents.
medium-voltage distribution
The resonant frequency chosen is between 215 Hz and 240 Hz, corresponding to orders 4.3 to
4.8. The most commonly used value is 4.3.
This value can interfere with the power-line carrier system operating at 175 Hz (see following
section). If so, the resonant frequency must be increased to a value close to the 4.8 order of
resonance. On the other hand, this value has the disadvantage of being close to the 5th
harmonic, with currents at this frequency then flowing in the low impedance L C , branch. As a
consequence, the capacitors and anti-harmonic inductor would need to be suitably overrated.
At this point, an overall compromise is the best solution.
716
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
disturbance to the power-line carrier system (the example of France)
The power-line carrier system comprises the injection onto the network, at EDF supply
substations, of a 175 Hz main signalling voltage (188 Hz in the future) carrying the coded
information necessary for customer tariff switching or public lighting control.
The equivalent circuit of the network up to and including the utility substation is shown in
figure 8-32.
other
customers
customer
meter
MT line
customer transformer
anti-harmonic inductor
C
L
T
L
MV busbar
inductance upstream
of injection
HV/MV
substation
customer substation
HV/MV transformer
injection
at 175 Hz
L
MV
L
HV
Figure 8-32: equivalent circuit of the network up to the utility station
717
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The 175 Hz voltage being injected in series, a simplified circuit diagram of the network may be
drawn as shown in figure 8-33.
L
C
other customer
meters
customer
meter
L
T
V
3 5 .
L
HV
L
MV
L
HV
: equivalent inductance of the network upstream of the 175 Hz injection point (HV/MV transformer inductance
+ HV network inductance)
V
3 5 .
: a 175 Hz signalling voltage = order 3.5
Figure 8-33: equivalent circuit for the 175 Hz signalling voltage in series
At its source the 175 Hz signalling voltage represents 2.3 % of the phase to neutral voltage. To
operate, the detection relay needs to have a voltage of at least 1.5 % of the phase to neutral
voltage.
At the meter, the voltage attenuation must not be less than:
15
2 3
0 65
.
.
.
problem: the customer's meter
The 175 Hz voltage seen by the detection relay at the customer's meter is:
( )
( )
V
j L L
j L L L L
V
cus
T
j C
HV MV T
j C

+ +
+ + + +

3 5
1
3 5
1
3 5
3 5
3 5
.
.
.
.
.
where
3 5 3 5
2 2 175 2 3 5 50
. .
. f
718
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The voltage V
cus
is zero when L
T
is such that:
( )
f
L L C
T
3 5
1
2
.

+
now
( )
1
2 L L C
f
T
r
+
< since f
LC
r

1
2
therefore, if f
r
is greater than 175 Hz, the possibility exists of the transformer having an
inductance L
T
such that
( )
f
L L C
T
3 5
1
2
.

+
.
As a result, depending on the transformer inductance, the 175 Hz voltage seen by the
customer's meter could have a value of zero. Tariff metering would then not operate.
The condition that must be observed is :
V
V
cus
3 5
0 65
.
. .
On the other hand, for f
r
less than 175 Hz tuning cannot take place and the customer's meter
is not affected.
problem: the meters at other customer sites
The 175 Hz voltage seen by the detection relays at other customer sites is:
( )
( )
V
j L L L
j L L L L
V
o cus
MV T
j C
HV MV T
j C
.
.
.
.
.
.

+ + +
+ + + +

35
1
35
1
35
3 5
3 5
The voltage V
o cus .
is zero when L L
MV T
+ is such that:
( )
f
L L L C
MV T
3 5
1
2
.

+ +
now
( )
1
2 L L L C
f
MV T
r
+ +
< since f
LC
r

1
2
thus, if f
r
is greater than 175 Hz, there is an inductance L L
MV T
+ such that
( )
f
L L L C
MV T
3 5
1
2
.

+ +
.
719
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
Depending on the value of L L
MV T
+ , the 175 Hz voltage seen by the meters at other
customer sites could be zero. Tariff metering would then not operate.
The condition that must be observed is:
V
V
o cus .
.
.
35
0 65 .
On the other hand, for f
r
less than 175 Hz tuning cannot take place and other customer sites
are not affected.
problem: amplification of the 175 Hz voltage
The ratio
( )
( )
V
V
j L L L
j C
j L L L L
j C
o cus
MV T
HV MV T
.
.
.
.
.
.
35
35
35
35
35
1
1

+ + +
+ + + +

may have a value greater than 1 since the denominator can be zero. In this case the 175 Hz
voltage is amplified. The interaction of this voltage with the supply voltage at 50 Hz causes
harmonic voltage disturbance at 25 Hz, which will in turn cause lighting to flicker while the
power-line carrier system is operating. Certain installations will therefore need a 175 Hz notch
filter installed to counter this phenomenon.
conclusion
Resonant frequencies greater than 175 Hz for the L C , branch are likely to interfere with the
power-line carrier system.
In low-voltage distribution a frequency of 135 Hz is sometimes employed. However, since most
installations have anti-harmonic inductors tuned to 190 Hz, the EDF's change to 188 Hz for its
power-line carrier system will more than likely lead to incompatibility at a number of sites.
In medium-voltage distribution, the solution generally employed is to increase the resonant
frequency to order 4.8. However in this case, overrating of both capacitors and inductor will
doubtless be necessary since 5th harmonic currents will flow in these two elements.
In addition, there may be areas of the public distribution network where the 175 Hz voltage is
amplified, causing lighting to flicker.
720
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
example
Using once again the example of paragraph 8.1.5, we will calculate the value of anti-harmonic
inductor needed to obtain an anti-resonant frequency of 190 Hz.
We have Q C U
n

0
2
where Q k 160 var
( )
C mF



160 10
2 50 400
318
3
2

,
( )
190
1
2
1
2 190
2


LC
L
C
L mH 0 221 .
( )
f
L L C
ar
sc

+
1
2
now L m L H
sc sc

0
8 27 26 3 . .
hence
f Hz
ar
179 5 .
calculating the network harmonic quantities during the daytime period
( )
Z
eq
R
p L
p L j
sc
pC

+ +

_
,

1
1 1 1
2
2
0
0
1
0
l

( )
I
p C
p L C
Z I
C p eq p ,


0
2
0 0
1
where
R m C L m L m
j sc l
296 3 1 8 27 69
0 0 0
. . .43 , , ,
The results of the calculations are given in table 8-30.
721
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
Order of the
harmonic
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
Z
eq
32.1 48.9 77.4 90.6 115.1 126.4 147.1 156.5 173.4 181.0
( ) V Z I A
p eq p

4.26 3.78 3.20 3.05 2.75 2.67 2.38 2.30 2.19 2.03
( )
V
V
p
1
%
1.85 1.64 1.39 1.33 1.20 1.16 1.04 1.00 0.95 0.88
( ) I A
C p ,
28.94 11.01 4.76 3.70 2.45 2.11 1.53 1.36 1.10 0.96
Table 8-30: harmonic quantities during daytime period, anti-harmonic inductor installed
from here we can derive the voltage distortion factor:

V
4 04 . %
It is a little lower than the value of distortion factor without capacitors (5.07 %).
We find I A
C rms ,
. 232 2 , which is about equal to the rated current of the bank (230 A).
calculating the network harmonic quantities during the night-time period
R m
n l
1 778
The results of the calculations are given in table 8-31.
Order of the
harmonic
5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31
( ) I A
p
132.7 77.3 41.4 33.7 23.9 21.1 16.2 14.7 12.6 11.2
Z
eq
32.3 49.5 80.1 95.0 124.6 139.4 168.7 183.3 212.4 226.8
( ) V Z I A
p eq p

4.28 3.83 3.31 3.20 2.98 2.94 2.73 2.69 2.68 2.54
( )
V
V
p
1
%
1.86 1.66 1.44 1.39 1.29 1.28 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.10
( ) I A
C p ,
29.10 11.15 4.93 3.88 2.66 2.32 1.76 1.59 1.35 1.20
Table 8-31: harmonic quantities during night-time period with
anti-harmonic inductor installed
722
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
from here we can deduce the voltage distortion
factor:

V
4 35 . %
It is a little lower than the value of distortion factor without capacitors (5.07 %).
We find I A
C rms ,
. 232 2 , which is about equal to the rated current of the bank (230 A).
Calculating the disturbance to the 175 Hz power-line carrier system (use of France)
The impedance of the customer's transformer is:
( )
L
U U
S
m
T
n sc
T

0
2 2
3
400 0 055
1250 10
7 04


.
.
The short-circuit power of the upstream network at the transformer is S MVA
up
130
(see 8.1.6), giving:
( )
L
U
S
m
up
n
up

0
2 2
6
400
130 10
123

.
now, L L L
up MV HV

0 0 0
+
Making the following assumptions:
L m
MV

0
0 5 . and L m
HV

0
0 73 .
voltage attenuation at the customer's meter
( )
( )
V
V
L L
C
L L L L
C
cus
T
HV MV T
3 5
0 0
0
0 0 0 0
0
3 5
1
3 5
3 5
1
3 5
131
.
.
.
.
.
.
+
+ + +

voltage attenuation at other customer sites


( )
( )
V
V
L L L
C
L L L L
C
o cus
MV T
HV MV T
3 5
0 0 0
0
0 0 0 0
0
3 5
1
3 5
3 5
1
3 5
119
.
.
.
.
.
.
+ +
+ + +

723
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The power-line carrier system voltage is not attenuated, indeed its value is amplified at the
meters, which should therefore operate normally.
On the other hand, for a transformer impedance of L m
T

0
12 2 . (approximately the
impedance of a 500 kVA transformer), the 175 Hz voltage level at the customer's meter would
be zero.
In addition, it would be zero at the other customer sites for a value of L m
T

0
117 . .
conclusion from the example
Installing an anti-harmonic inductor has eliminated the problem of the harmonics produced
when capacitors are in service. The voltage distortion factor is even a little lower than when no
capacitors are connected.
The 175 Hz power-line carrier system is not disturbed.
724
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8.4.3. Installing a resonant shunt
A resonant shunt is a series L C , branch whose tuning frequency is equal to that of the
harmonic current (or voltage) that needs to be eliminated (see fig. 8-34).
non-linear
loads
linear
loads
upstreamnetwork
L
C
Figure 8-34: Installation of a resonant shunt L C ,
The simplified circuit diagram of the network is the same as that for the anti-harmonic inductor.
The operating characteristics of the resonant shunt differ from those of the anti-harmonic
inductor in the following ways:
- its tuning frequency is the same as that of an existing high amplitude harmonic voltage.
- the harmonic currents at the frequency of resonance flow through the shunt and not across
the supply network. Both capacitors and inductor must therefore be rated accordingly.
- at the busbars (the resonant shunt connection point) any pre-existing network harmonic
voltage whose frequency is the same as the resonant frequency will be suppressed.
Conversely, such a voltage will produce a potentially large harmonic current in the shunt,
indicating the need to overrate the capacitors and inductor.
- as many resonant shunts may be installed as there are harmonics to suppress in order to
achieve the required voltage distortion factor.
725
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
Typical resonant frequencies are 250, 350, 550 and 650 Hz, equivalent to harmonics 5, 7, 11
and 13.
As is the case for the anti-harmonic inductor, an anti-resonant frequency exists due to the
resonant circuit composed of the shunt and the short-circuit inductance. Its value is slightly less
than the resonant frequency.
This makes for some important considerations when defining the shunt's characteristics, since
the anti-resonant frequency should not be:
- close to the frequency of an existing high amplitude harmonic current
- close to the power-line carrier system frequency so that it is not disturbed. The problem
here is the same as for the anti-harmonic inductor (see 8.1.4).
Resonant shunt capacitors simultaneously compensate the reactive energy of the
fundamental.
Where several resonant shunts are installed, the equivalent impedance of the network has the
form shown in figure 8-35. To energize a bank of shunts, the ones with lower order resonances
should be energized first, progressively moving up to the highest value. This avoids any anti-
resonance problems during energization. For example, if the 13th order shunt is energized
before the 11th there is a risk of an anti-resonance effect for the 11th harmonic.
1 5 7 11 13
Z
eq
harmonic
order
L
sc
Figure 8-35:Network impedance spectrum when several shunts are installed
726
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
principal characteristics of the resonant shunt
Consider a resonant shunt of order p
r
, comprising an inductance L
r
and capacitance C
r
.
Now, we have that f
L C
r
r r

1
2
and p
f
f
r
r

0
.
f
r
: resonant frequency
f
0
: frequency of the network
calculating the resonant shunt compensation reactive power at 50 Hz
The calculation being identical to that of the anti-harmonic inductor (see 8.4.2), we find:
( ) Q
p
p
C U
sh
r
r
n

0
2
2
0
2
1

( ) Q
p
p
Q
sh
r
r
n

0
2
2
1

_
,

U
n
: nominal phase to phase voltage
Q
n
: (rated) reactive power of the capacitors alone
The compensation reactive power is higher than for the capacitors alone. Table 8-32 gives the
ratios of compensation powers at 50 Hz to rated capacitor power for commonly encountered
orders of resonance.
p
r
5 7 11 13
Q
Q
n
1.04 1.02 1.008 1.006
Tableau 8-32: compensated power to rated power values for the capacitors
The shunt orders of resonance being quite high, the compensation power is about equal to the
rated power of the capacitors.
So if two shunts, of orders 5 and 7 say, were installed, the value of ( ) ( ) Q Q
5 0 7 0
+ would be
made equal to, and therefore compensate, the reactive power of the network.
727
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calculating the shunt's anti-resonant frequency
The influence of any other resonant shunt is generally negligible. The formula for anti-resonant
frequency is thus identical to the one used for the anti-harmonic inductor.
( )
f
L L C
ar
sc r r

+
1
2
quality factor and shunt bandwidth
The shunt's inductor possesses an inherent resistance, r
c
(resistance of the coil). The quality
factor is therefore defined by:
q
L
r r C
r r
c c r r

1
now L C
r r r

2
1
hence
q
r
L
C
c
r
r

1
r
c is the shunt impedance at resonance (see fig. 8-36). The harmonic voltage V
r
created by
the harmonic current I
r
is thus V r I
r c r
.
To effectively filter out harmonic currents I
r
, r
c
must be small, resulting in a high quality factor
value.
The shunt's bandwidth is:
( )
BW
f f
f
f
f
r
r r

2
(see fig. 8-36)
After calculation, it can be shown that BW
q

1
728
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
Z f
sh
f
f
r
f
f
2 r
c
r
c
f
f q
r

1
Figure 8-36: resonant shunt bandwidth
For very high values of q the bandwidth is narrow, and tuning is a difficult operation, especially
since manufacturers' capacitor and inductor values are given with a tolerance of t 10 %.
Furthermore, capacitor values alter with temperature.
To overcome these difficulties the following measures must be taken:
- tapped inductors should be installed
- the quality factor chosen should not be too high | q 75 for air inductors
| q > 75 for iron core inductors
729
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
r.m.s. current flowing in the resonant shunt
Currents flowing in the resonant shunt are:
- a current at the fundamental frequency
( )
I
V
Z
p
p
C V
sh
r
r
r
r 1
1
0
2
2
0 1
1
,


- the p
r
order harmonic current I
r
, generated by any non-linear loads. (Harmonic currents at
other frequencies do not flow in the shunt because its impedance is very much higher than
that of the network at these frequencies).
- the p
r
order harmonic current due to the harmonic voltage V
r
pre-existing on the network
( )
I
V
r L
r net
r
c sc r
,

+
2
2

L
sc r
: impedance of the utility network at the shunt's resonant frequency
r
c
: impedance of the shunt at its resonant frequency
In the worst case, considering all harmonic currents to be in phase:
I I I I
rms sh r r net
+ +
1
2 2 2
, ,
This value of I
rms
determines the thermal withstand of the capacitors and inductor.
730
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8.4.4. Installing damped filters
damped 2nd-order filter
To filter harmonic currents generated by an arc furnace, the resonant shunt should be
damped.
Indeed, the harmonic current spectrum of an arc furnace is continuous (see fig. 8-7), with a
part of the spectrum close to the shunt anti-resonant frequency. This will give rise to high
amplitude harmonic voltages.
Not only therefore must the network impedance be lowered for frequencies at which high
levels of harmonics exist, anti-resonances must also be brought down.
The solution is to install a damped 2nd-order filter, consisting of a resonant shunt plus a
damping resistor R
d
added across the inductor terminals. (see fig. 8-37).
C
L
r
c
R
d
Figure 8-37: damped 2nd-order filter
A damped 2nd-order filter has the following properties:
- damps anti-resonance
- reduces harmonic voltages at frequencies equal to or higher than its tuning frequency ; it is
sometimes referred to as a " damped high-pass filter"
- damps any transients at filter energising time.
731
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After calculation, the resonant frequency can be shown to be:
( )
f
q Q
q LC Q
r
f
f

1
2 1
2

where q
r
L
C
c

1
: quality factor of the coil
Q R
C
L
f d
: quality factor of the filter.
Figure 8-38 compares the network impedance curve for a damped 2nd-order filter with that of
a resonant shunt.
f (Hz)
f
r
|Z network|
resonant shunt
order 2 filter
f
r
'
R
Figure 8-38: network impedance spectrums for 2nd order filter and resonant shunt
732
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
We can note the following:
- the resonant frequency of the filter f
r
is slightly higher (a few per cent) than that of the
equivalent shunt f
LC
r
'

_
,

1
2
- for frequencies less than f
r
, the damping resistor R
d
reduces the network impedance at
anti-resonance and thus any possible harmonic voltages.
- at the frequency f
r
, the network impedance is higher than for the shunt, therefore filtering
is less effective.
- for frequencies greater than f
r
, the network impedance is less than for the shunt. Any
possible higher order harmonic voltages are thus reduced, so less shunts are needed.
One other point: the presence of capacitor banks on the distributor's network can create anti-
resonances affecting the filter's performance, a factor that should be taken into account during
the harmonic investigation.
The value of compensation reactive power for the damped 2nd-order filter at 50 Hz is close to
that of the resonant shunt with the same capacitance and inductor values, or in practice:
( ) Q
p
p
C U
r
r
n

0
2
2
0
2
1

U
n
: nominal phase to phase voltage
p
f
f
r
r

0
: filter's order of resonance .
The filter's quality factor Q
f
is generally somewhere between 2 and 8.
The damped 2nd-order filter can be used alone, as a bank of two filters or in association with a
resonant shunt. In the latter case, the shunt is centred on the lowest frequency in the
spectrum.
The problem with the damped 2nd-order filter is that the thermal power dissipated in the
resistor R
d
is high for the fundamental current. Damped 3rd-order filters and type-C filters,
described next, can overcome this problem.
733
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
the damped 3rd-order filter (see fig. 8-39)
Having a more complex design than the 2nd-order filter, the use of a 3rd-order filter is mostly
confined to high power applications.
The filter is obtained by adding an extra bank of capacitors in series with the 2nd-order filter
resistor R
d
. This reduces the thermal losses due to the fundamental current. The choice of
value for C
2
also improves the filter's response below the resonant frequency, thereby
reducing anti-resonance. Nevertheless, the complexity of the 3rd-order filter, with its attendant
cost implications, often means that in an industrial environment a 2nd-order filter is preferred.
The 3rd-order filter should be designed to operate on the lowest frequencies in the spectrum.
C
2
is chosen such that the branch R
d
, C
2
presents a high impedance to the fundamental, or:
1
2 0
C
R
d

>>

0
: angular frequency of the fundamental
C
L
C
2
r
c
R
d
Figure 8-39: damped 3rd-order filter
734
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
the damped type- C filter (see fig. 8-40)
The design of this filter places the auxiliary capacitor bank, C
2
, in series with the inductor. The
filter's properties are largely similar to those of the 3rd-order filter.
The L, C
2
branch is that of the fundamental
( )
LC
2 0
2
1 , and as such it presents a low
impedance compared to R
d
for the fundamental current ( ) r R
c d
<< . Having a consequent low
value of fundamental current flowing in it, the heat dissipated in R
d
is low.
C
L
C
2
r
c
R
d
Figure 8-40: damped type- C filter
735
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
the damped dual resonant shunt filter (see fig. 8-41)
Comprising two resonant shunts connected through a resistor R, the action of this filter serves
to damp the anti-resonance existing between the tuning frequencies of the two shunts.
R
L
1
L
2
C1 C2
r
c1
r
c2
Figure 8-41: damped dual filter
the resonant shunt with a low inductor quality factor
Acting as a damped wide-band filter, this device has a specific use: it can only be employed on
small installations where compensating the reactive power is not a necessity. lndeed, since the
inductor coil resistance is very high (a series resistor is often added) the losses are too
prohibitive for use in an industrial setting.
736
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
8.4.5. Installing active filters
Figure 8-42 shows the two theoretical circuits of an installation using active filters, devices
which consist of electronic systems connected either in series or in parallel with the
interference generating (non-linear) load. The job of such filters is to supply the harmonic
voltages V
p
, or currents I
p
, required for the load to operate correctly, and thereby allow the
I
Hz 50
current and supply voltage to remain sinusoidal.
source
Z
S
I
Hz 50
I
p
I
p
active
filter
non-linear
load
parallel active filter
source
Z
S
I
Hz 50
active
filter
non-linear
load
series active filter
V
Hz 50
V V
Hz p 50
V
p
Figure 8-42: principle of the active filter
Figure 8-43 shows the current consumed by a non-linear load, in this case the supply current
of thyristor rectifier bridge. It comprises the 50 Hz fundamental component plus significant
harmonic currents.
737
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The idea is to have the active filter, connected in parallel, supply a current which when added
to the current consumed by the load produces a sinusoidal current. The parallel active filter
must therefore provide the difference between the load current and the sinusoidal supply
current.
This differential current contains all the harmonic currents produced by the load, with the
power supply thus providing only the fundamental current (see fig. 8-43).
Figure 8-44 illustrates the harmonic voltage spectrum at the output of an uninterruptible power
supply feeding non-linear loads, with and without the addition of an active filter.
current
in source current
in load
current in
active filter
I
t
Figure 8-43: current waveforms for a non-linear load and active filter
0.0
2.5
5.0
0 20 40
V
p
(%)
harmonic
order
v
7 %
0.0
2.5
5.0
0 20 40
V
p
(%)
harmonic
order
v
3%
wi t ou t a c t i ve f i l t er wi t h ac t i ve f i l t er
Figure 8-44: UPS output harmonic voltage spectrums, with and without active filter
738
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
An active filter comprises static switching elements to select either capacative or inductive
loads and draw a current of the same or opposite sign as the fundamental as appropriate.
Such filters may equally well be found in association with a classic LC filter.
Active filters have been made possible by developments in the production of electronic power
components, in particular GTO (gate turn off) thyristors and power transistors capable of
extinguishing current on demand and supplying a current corresponding to the signal
distortion.
Although still costly and limited in scope for power applications, active filters have a future as a
solution to the problem of harmonics. They are independent of the characteristics of the
network, and unlike passive filters, do not modify its impedance.
8.4.6. Restricting the generation of harmonics
use of a dual bridge rectifier
The principle consists of using a transformer having two secondaries supplying voltages
phase-shifted by 30,with each secondary feeding a bridge rectifier
(see fig. 8-45).
R
2
R
1
R
1
R
2
Figure 8-45: block diagram of a rectifier with two phase-shifted bridges
739
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
The two rectifiers must supply identical d.c. currents so that the a.c. currents they draw from
the transformer secondaries have the same value.
Under these conditions, the harmonic currents in the two secondaries add vectorially to the
primary.
After some calculation, it can be shown that harmonics whose order is given by 6 1 k t , where
k is odd, are eliminated.
This is particularly true for the 5th and 7th harmonics whose amplitudes are theoretically the
highest. Harmonics 11 and 13 remain, whereas the 17th and 19th are eliminated. The
remainder is composed of harmonics whose order is given by 12 1 k t , where k is an integer.
The two rectifiers may be connected in series or in parallel (see fig. 8-46).
R
2
R
1
R
1
R
2
~
=
+R
L
1
- R
a)
~
=
+R
- R
b)
L
2
~
=
~
=
R
2
R
1
R
1
R
2
L L
1 2
, : d.c. filtering inductors
: mid-point decoupling inductor.
Figure 8-46: series (a) or parallel (b) connection of the two rectifiers
The instantaneous voltages produced by the two rectifiers are not equal (since they are phase-
shifted by 30), so when connected in parallel, a mid-point inductor has to be added to ensure
a constant current flow in each of them. In the absence of this inductor, conduction would take
place in whichever of the bridges has the highest instantaneous voltage.
740
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
individual harmonic currents
Assuming the network source impedance is zero, and that the d.c. output current is ripple free,
the r.m.s. value of each harmonic current is given by:
I
I
p
p

1
where p k t 12 1 : order of the harmonic
I
1
: value of the fundamental current.
voltage distortion factor value
The voltage distortion factor depends on the source impedance.
For low values of source impedance (the sum of impedances upstream of rectifiers), the ratio
of the distortion factor for two rectifiers to that of a single rectifier is :
1
2
0 7 ,
For higher values of source impedance the improvement gain is higher, since the higher order
harmonics decrease rapidly with increasing source impedance. All the same, the gain is quite
modest with a practical figure being around the 0.5 mark in favour of the dual bridge.
For example, with a delay angle of 30 degrees, the ratio between the two distortion factors
is:
- 0.66 for a source impedance of 8 %
- 0.55 for a source impedance of 16 %.
For 0 , the ratios are 0.53 and 0.37 respectively.
741
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
multi-bridge rectifier
The basic idea is to increase the number of transformer secondaries and adapt the phase
displacements accordingly, with the intention of eliminating more of the harmonic currents (see
fig. 8-47).
~
=
+
-
R
2
R
1
R
3
~
=
+
-
~
=
+
-
1
2
~
=
+
-
n
3
R
n
Figure 8-47: example of n rectifiers
the 3 bridge rectifier application
This construction requires phase shifts of:
-
1
= 0 degree
-
2
=20 degrees
-
3
= 40 degrees.
The only harmonics now remaining are those whose order is 6 1 k t where k is a multiple of
3, that is 18 1 k t .
The first harmonic currents are at 17 and 19, the next being at 35 and 37.
742
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Industrial electrical network design guide T & D 6 883 427/AE
the 4 bridge rectifier application
This assembly requires phase shifts of:
-
1
= 0 degree
-
2
=15 degrees
-
3
= 30 degrees
-
4
=45 degrees.
The only harmonics remaining are those whose order is 24 1 k t .
The first harmonic currents are at 23 and 25, the next being at 47 and 49
The outcome is beneficial in terms of the low values of harmonic current and voltage distortion
obtained.
The disadvantage lies in the cost and complexity of the assembly. Consequently, it is only
employed for high power applications.
By way of example, the aluminium plating process, requiring d.c. current and several MW of
power, may use assemblies with anything up to 72 phases !
particular case of the application known as "phase shifting"
When several UPSs are connected in parallel they share the load current between them, the
currents used by the individual rectifiers having identical amplitudes.
This configuration makes it possible to supply the rectifiers from auto-transformers, the
required phase displacements created according to the number of rectifiers, as an alternative
to using transformer-based assemblies (see fig. 8-48).
743
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~
=
~
=
~
=
~
=
~
=
~
=
1
0
2
n
Figure 8-48: the "phase shifting" principle
The disadvantage of this method is that as soon as one UPS is momentarily interrupted, the
harmonic distortion factor increases.
Table 8-33 indicates the harmonic content for the principal assemblies. Figures are for all
rectifiers in service and one rectifier not operating.
construction used number of rectifiers order of harmonic
in service 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25
2 rectifiers
2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
3 rectifiers
3 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1 1 1/2 1/2
4 rectifiers
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1 1
0; 1/3; 1/2; 1: multiplying factor applied to the individual harmonic distortion figure in relation to a single bridge
Table 8-33: relative change in harmonic current content for the main applications