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UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS


1. Define Computer The computer is an electronic device which converts raw data into valid or meaningful information. 2. What is Program? A device to manipulate the data according to the programmed instructions. An intelligent machine that solves problems by accepting data, performing certain operation and producing the result under the direction of step by step instruction called program. 3. Define Data Data is information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to process. 4. What is an Information? The processed data is called the information. 5. The Information Processing Cycle Using a computer to convert data into useful information is referred to as information processing (also called data processing). Processing data into information involves four basic functions: Input data entered into a computer for processing Processing the manipulation of data according to program instructions Output the creation of information resulting from processing Storage the retention of processed data on a storage medium for future use Collectively, these steps are known as the information processing cycle. 6. What are the Characteristics of Computers? Some of the characteristics of computers, which make them an essential part of every emerging technology. 1. Speed 2. Accuracy 3. Diligence

4. Reliability 5. Storage capability 6. versatility 7. Resource sharing 7. Write about various speed levels in computer. 1 nano seconds = 1 X 10-9 Sec 1 pico seconds = 1 X 10-12 Sec Computer process data at an extremely fast rate - Millions of instructions per second. The speed of a computer is calculated in MHz (Megahertz), that is one million instructions per second. Present computer can perform billions of operations in just one second 1 milli seconds = 1 X 10-3 Sec 1 micro seconds = 1 X 10-6 Sec 1 nano seconds = 1 X 10-9 Sec 1 pico seconds = 1 X 10-12 Sec 8. What do u mean by Accuracy? Besides efficiency, Computers are accurate as well. The level of accuracy depends on the instructions and the type of machine being used. Computers are extremely accurate when accurate programs and data are entered and processed correctly. The popular expression garbage-in, garbage-out (GIGO) means that if inaccurate programs and data are entered into a computer for processing, the resulting output will also be inaccurate 9 What do u mean by Diligence: A computer does not suffer from the human traits of tiredness and lack of concentration. If 4 million calculations have to be performed, then the computer will perform the last four-millionth calculation with the same accuracy and

speed as the first calculation. 10. What do u mean by Reliability: It is the measurement of performance of a computer, which is measured against some predetermined standard for operation without any failure. Computer have built in diagnostic capabilities, which help in continuous monitoring of the system 11 What is a Storage Capacity? Computers can store large amounts of data and can recall the required information Main memory of the computer is relatively small and it can hold only a certain amount of information, therefore the data is stored on secondary storage devices such as magnetic tape or disks. Small Sections of the data ca be accessed quickly and brought into the storage devices, as and when required for processing 12. What is Versatility? Computes are quite versatile in nature. They can perform multiple tasks simultaneously with great ease. For example, at one moment it can be used to draft a letter, another moment it can be used to play music and in between, one can print a document as well. 13. What do u mean by Resource Sharing? In the initial stages of development, computers used to be isolated machines. Sharing of costly resources like printers are possible Apart from device sharing, data and information can also be shared among groups of computers 14 What is a No Feeling? It does not have feelings , it does not get tired even after long hours of work. No IQ (intelligence quotient) Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user and it cannot take its own decision as you can

15 Difference between Computer and human S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Characteristics Speed Accuracy Performance Instructions Remember Different Situations Diligence Computer Fast and excellent Makes no error Very good Follow perfect Accurate and exact Makes good High Human Very slow High possibility of errors Poor Chance for imperfect inaccurate difficult low

16 Comparison between computer and calculator S.NO 1. 2. 3. Characteristics Speed Performance Memory Calculator Fast Computer Much fast

Simple calculation and Complex problem and non numeric processing numeric processing Less internal memory Large and no permanent and storage, storage only internal large memory permanent

temporary storage available Electronic Device Arithmetic and logical

4 5.

Machine Operation

Electronic Device Arithmetic

17 Name some Applications of computer 1. In business 2. in industry 3. in home 4. in education 5. in training 6. for entertainment 7. in science and engineering 8. in mathematics 9. In Medicine and Health care. 18 When to use a computer?

1. When accuracy to be improved 2. When delays are to be minimized 3. When high volume of data is required to store 4. When efficiency and economy is required 19 Evolution of computers: Abacus: Napier device: Slide rule: Pascaline: Stepped Reckoner. Charles Babbages Engines Holleriths Card reading machine: Mark I digital Computers: ENIAC EDVACEDSAC UNIVAC LARC Machine Microprocessor VLSI VLSI Very Large Scale Integration design 20. Generations of computers: In computer terminology the word generation is described as a stage of technological development or innovation. According to technology used there are 5 generations of computers Vacuum Tube transistor Integrated Circuit Microprocessor Super Large Scale Integrated (SLSI) 21 Classification of Computers

Computers also differ based on their data processing abilities. Based on physical size, performance and application areas we generally divide computers into four major categories i.Micro Computers ii.Mini Computers iii.Mainframe Computers iv.Super Computers

22 What is a Micro Computers A Micro computer is a small, low cost digital computer, Which usually consists of a micro processor, a storage unit, an input channel and an output channel all of which may be on one chip inserted into one or several PC Boards. The addition of a power supply and connecting cables, appropriate peripherals (keyboard, monitor, printer and disk drivers ), an operating system and other software programs can provide a complete micro computer system Examples IBM-PC, Pentium 100, IBM-PC Pentium 200 and Apple macintosh Micro computers includes a) Desktop Computer b) Laptop c) Hand-held 23 Desktop Computer Also known as Personal Computer(PC) Standalone system used by an individual These are the most common type of micro computers They consist of a system unit, a display monitor, a keyboard, internal hard disk storage and peripheral devices Main reason behind the importance of the PCs is that they are not very expensive for the individuals or the small businesses. Some of the major personal computer manufacturers are

APPLE, IBM, Del. 24 What do u mean by portable computers A portable computer, that is, a user can carry it around. Since the laptop computer resembles a notebook, it is also known as notebook Small computers which enclosing all the basic features of a normal desktop computers.

Advantage: i) Can use anywhere and at anytime, especially when one is traveling. ii) They do not need external power supply as a rechargeable battery is completely self contained in them Disadvantage: i) Expensive compared to desktop computers 25 Hand-Held Computer A hand-held, also called personal digital assistant (PDA) is a computer that can conveniently be stored in a pocket (of sufficient size) and used while the user is holding it. They are slightly bigger than the common calculators. A PDA user generally uses a pen or electronic stylus instead of keyboard for input. Since these computers are easily fitted on the palm, they are also known as palmtop computers. They usually have no disk drive, rather they use small cards to store programs and data. However they can be connected to printer or a disk drive to generate output or store data. Disadvantage: It has limited memory and are less powerful as compared to desktop computers Examples: eBookMan 26 Mini Computers Apple newton, casio cassiopeia and franklin

In the early 1960s, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) started shipping its PDP series computer, which the press described and referred as mini computers. The mini computer is a small digital computer whose process and storage capacity is lesser than that of a mainframe, but more than that of micro computer. Its speed of processing data is in between that of a mainframe and a micro computer. 27 Mainframe Computer A mainframe is an ultra-high performance computer made for highvolume, processor-intensive computing. It consists of a high-end computer processor, with related peripheral devices, capable of supporting large volumes of data processing, high performance online transaction processing systems, and extensive data storage and retrieval. It is able to process and store more data than a mini computer and far more than a micro computer. It is designed to perform at a faster rate than a mini computer and at even more faster rate than a micro computer. Mainframes are the second largest (in capability and size) of the computer family, he largest being super computers. Mainframes can usually execute many programs simultaneously at a high speed 28 What do u mean by Super Computers? Super computers are the special purpose machines, which are specially designed to maximize the numbers of FLOPS (Floating Point Operation per Second). Any computer below one gigaflop / sec is not considered a super computer. A super computer can process a great deal of information and make extensive calculations very quickly. 29 What are the Basic Computer Organization? A computer performs basically five major operations or functions irrespective of their size and make.

1. Input 2. Storage 3. Processing 4. Output 5. Controlling 30 Write about Input Unit Data and instructions are entered into the memory of a computer through input devices. It captures information and translates it into a form that can be processed by CPU. Computer accepts input in two ways 1. Manually 2. Directly Manually: The user enters data into the computer by hand. E.g. Keyboard, mouse etc Directly: Information is fed into the computer automatically from a source document(like barcode.). 31 Write about Storage Unit The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. It is because the processing speed of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the data has to be provided to CPU with the same speed. Therefore the data is first stored in the storage unit for faster access and processing. The storage unit performs the following major functions: Data and instructions required for processing (received from input devices) Intermediate results of processing Final results of processing, before they are released to an output device 32 What do u mean by Primary storage?

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Also known as main memory. Used to hold running program instructions Used to hold data, intermediate results, and results of ongoing processing of job(s) Fast in operation Small Capacity Expensive Volatile (looses data on power dissipation) Primary memory can be further classified into 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) 2. ROM (Read only Memory) 33 what is Secondary storage? Also known as auxiliary memory or external memory. Used to hold stored program instructions Used to hold data and information of stored jobs Slower than primary storage Large Capacity Lot cheaper that primary storage Non volatile (Retains data even without power)

34 write about Arithmetic and logic unit Arithmetic Unit: Contains circuitry that is responsible for performing the actual computing and carrying out the arithmetic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It can perform these operations at a very high speed. Logic Unit: Perform logical operation based on the instruction. The operations are logical comparisons between data items. This unit can compare numbers, letters or special characters. Logic unit can test for 3 conditions: equal-to condition, Less-than condition and Greater-than condition. 35 Control unit (Controlling)

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This unit checks the correctness of sequences of operations. It fetches program instruction from primary storage unit known as fetching, interpret them and ensure correct execution of the program known as decoding.

The time required to fetch and decode an instruction is called instruction time, or I-time.

It also controls the input/output devices and directs the overall functioning

36 Draw process of Central processing unit:

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit. The CPU consists of a control unit, an arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), and registers. CPU, the brain of any computer system.

It is just like brain that takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations. 37. Convert Binary to Decimal Conversion:

1010112

=> 1 0 1 0 1

1 x x x x x

20 21 22 23 24 25

= = = = = =

1 2 0 8 0 32

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---4310 38. Convert Decimal to Binary conversion:

39. convert Octal to Decimal 7248 =>

4 2 7

x x x

80 81 82

= = =

4 16 448 --------46810

40.Convert Decimal to octal:

41. Convert Hexadecimal to Decimal ABC16 => C x B A x 160 x 162 = 16 1 = 12 = x1 11 x 16 = = =12 176 2560 ---------274810 42. Convert Decimal to Hexadecimal

10 x 256

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43. Convert octal to Binary Convert 518 to binary: 58 = 1012 18 = 0012 Thus: 518 = 101 0012 44. Binary to octal Technique Group bits in threes, starting on right Convert to octal digits For instance, convert binary 1010111100 to octal: 001 1 010 2 111 7 100 4

Thus 10101111002 = 12748