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Opinions and reasons An opinion is a resolution about which there can be valid disagreement.

. It can be introduced by an opinion indicator: o "I think/believe that smoking should be banned in public places..." A reason explains why that opinion is held and can be introduced by a reason indicator: o "...because/since second-hand smoke is harmful for nonsmokers."

Strong Reasons Versus Weak Reasons: A strong o it o it o it reason has the following qualities: logically supports the opinion. is specific and states the idea clearly. is convincing to a majority of people.

For example, smoking should be banned in public places because: it is bad. it gives people bad breath and makes their teeth yellow. second-hand smoke is harmful for non-smokers.

Exercise 1. Choose a partner. Write at least one strong reason for each opinion. 1. Women should quit their job after they get married.

2. Money is more important than love. 3. It is better to be married than single. 4. Writing by hand is better than writing by computer.

Exercise 2. Now lets compare all the reasons and decide which are stronger and why. Exercise 3. You have two minutes to argue one side of each resolution. When you hear "switch", you will have two minutes to argue the opposite side of the resolution. All Japanese writing should be in Roman letters. Women should stop working when they get married and have babies. Women should not change their family name when they get married.

Refutation: STEP 1: "They say ...", The opposite team says...

State the argument that you are about to refute so that the judges can follow easily. Take notes during your opponent's speeches so you will be clear about what they argued. "The other team said that smoking is harmful for nonsmokers." STEP 2: "But I disagree..." or "That may be true, but..." "That may be true, but I think that if non-smokers want to avoid cigarette smoke, they can walk away from it." STEP 3: "Because ..." "Because non-smokers should look out for their own health." STEP 4: "Therefore..." "Therefore it is not the responsibility of smokers to protect non-smokers."

Debate: Cars do more harm than good

Arguments in favour:

1. The roads are so often jammed with cars that ambulances and fire

engines find it difficult to fulfil their duties. 2. Driving a car brings out a man's worst qualities. He swears and becomes ill mannered and aggressive. 3. Peoples hidden frustrations and disappointments are brought to the surface when they drive. 4. Road networks for cars have not only made cities uninhabitable, but also have destroyed the countryside. 5. Towns have been made ugly by big car parks. 6. Cars often produce air pollution and fill the cities with unbearable noise. 7. Cars are the cause of traffic accidents. In China in 1994 66,000 people were killed in auto accidents. 8. Traffic accidents not only bring death and injury but also make people suffer great psychological damage. 9. Every year great amounts of money are spent on road taxes, purchases, oil etc. This is a great drain on their resources. 10. To own a private car can cost you a fortune. 11. If everyone had a car in China there would be no room on the roads and no place to park. 12. Because of China's large population, many cars would create many serious social problems. 13. Cars should be done away with. We should create a better means of transport that will bring joy and comfort instead of death and injury. 14. More cars mean more roads and car parking facilities. This decreases the land available for agriculture. 15. Too much good farmland is being consumed for the purposes of cars. Arguments against: 1. Autos are highly desirable for obvious reasons. We need to recognize this and adapt accordingly. 2. Cars enable people to become free. Without cars, the world would consist of many isolated communities. 3. Long distances can be covered rapidly, comfortably and conveniently.

4. China needs cars to complete its modernization. 5. Busses are often crowded and slow, especially during the rush hour, with more cars people could get around more easily. 6. Riding a bicycle is tiring and uncomfortable especially when the weather is bad or very hot. 7. With the popularization of cars, the suburbs will become more developed, and the downtown area will be less crowded. 8. If there were more cars in the countryside, people could get to the cities more easily. Therefore, the gap between the city and the countryside would become smaller. 9. Possessing a car gives one a much greater degree of mobility, enabling him to move around freely 10. The owner of a car is not forced to rely on public transport and is not compelled to work locally. 11. Cars do not cause accidents, drivers do. Driver training and enforcement of driving laws would cut accidents rates by great amount. 12. Road and fuel tax will allow the national road system to expand and make cars even more valuable. 13. Expansion of underground and multi-story car parks can solve the parking problem. 14. Electric cars, hydrogen powered cars can solve pollution problems in the future. 15. China needs a vast network of roads and a vehicle system to compete in the international markets. 16. The new fuel cell cars do not need gasoline. 17. Car ownership can result in many new jobs in repair and service. 18. Modern nations need better and faster transportation systems.