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The Crisis of Democratic Order 1 mark Name the judge who declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok

Sabha as invalid. Justice Jag Mohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High court passed a judgment declaring Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok sabha as invalid. How many states are affected by Naxalite Violence? 75 districts in 9 states are affected by Naxalite Violence. Who was the founder of CPI (Marxist Leninist)? Charu Majumdar was the founder of CPI (Marxist Leninist). Which slogan was given by D.K. Barooah? D.K. Barooah, the president of Congress in 1974 gave a slogan named Indira is India, India is Indira. What decision was given by the Supreme Court in Kesavananda Bharti case? The Supreme Court gave the decision that there are some basic features of the Constitution and the Parliament cannot amend those features. Who was the leader of the 1974 Railway strike? George Fernandez was the leader of the 1974 Railway strike. Mention the reason due to which emergency was declared by the then Indira Gandhi government? The Indira Gandhi government mentioned internal disturbance as the reason for declaring emergency. Mention the main constituents of Janata Party? The main constituents of Janta party were: Congress (0) Bharatiya Jan Sangh Bharatiya Lok Dal Socialist party What was the slogan of Bihar Movement in 1974? The slogan of Bihar Movement in 1974 was Sampoorna Kranti ab nara hai, bhavi itihas hamara hai. What was the slogan coined by D.K. Barooah who was the president of Congress in 1974? D.K. Barooah, the president of Congress in 1974, gave a slogan Indira is India, India is Indira. What decision was given by the Supreme Court in Kesavenenda Bharti case? The Supreme Court gave the decision that there are some basic features of the Constitution which cannot be amend by the Parliament at any cost. Who declared Indira Gandhi's election to the lok Sakha invalid?

Justice Jag Mohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High court passed a judgment declaring Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha as invalid. Who declared Indira Gandhi's election to the lok Sakha invalid? Justice Jag Mohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High court passed a judgment declaring Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha as invalid. Name the treaties signed when Indira Gandhi was the Prime minister. Shimla Pact with Pakistan and Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation with Soviet Union were the treaties signed under the prime Ministership of Mrs Indira Gandhi. 2 marks Define Preventive Detention. It is the Act in which people are arrested and detained not because they have committed any offence but on the apprehension that they may commit an offence. Under preventive detention act, the government made large scale arrests during the Emergency. What do you mean by Naxalbari movement? In 1967, there was a peasant uprising in the Naxalbari police station area of Darjeeling hills. The local cadres of the CPI (Marxist) led this uprising. The peasant movement started from the Naxalbari station area and spread to several states of India and came to be referred as the Naxalbari movement. The Naxalite movement used force to snatch land from the rich land owners and give it to the poor and the landless. State the reasons why President Rule was imposed in Gujarat in 1974? Due to bad economic conditions in the country, the students in Gujarat started an agitation against the rising prices of food grains, cooking oil and other essential commodities and against corruption in high places in the year 1974. The students' protest was later joined by major opposition parties which led to the imposition of president's rule in Gujarat. Why was Presidents Rule imposed in Gujarat in 1974? Due to the bad economic condition in the country, the students in Gujarat started an agitation in the year 1974 against the rising prices of food, ground nut oil and other essential commodities and corruption at higher places. The students protest was later joined by major opposition parties which led to the imposition of President Rule in Gujarat. What do you mean by Naxalite movement? In 1967, there was a peasant uprising in the Naxalbari police station area of Darjeeling hills. The local cadres of the CPI (Marxist) led to this uprising. The peasant movement started from the Naxalbari area of Darjeeling hills near the town of Siliguri spread to several states of India and came to be referred as the Naxalbari movement. The Naxalite movement used force to snatch land from the rich land owners and gave it to the poor and the landless. 4 marks Describe the role of Jai Prakash Narayan in the Bihar movement in 1974?

In March 1974 students of Bihar protested against rising price, food scarcity, unemployment and corruption. They invited Jai Prakash Narayan to lead the movement. He accepted their invitation on the ground that it would be a non violent movement and will not limit itself to Bihar. He demanded for the dismissal of the Congress government and gave a call for total revolution in the social, economic and political spheres in order to establish what he considered to be a true democracy. A series of bandhs, gehraos and strikes were organized in Bihar. He led a peoples march to the parliament in 1975 which is said to be the largest rallies ever held in capital. Trace the reasons behind the growth of Naxalite movement: Naxalite movement grew instates which were very backward and inhabited by Adivasis. In these areas, the share croppers, under-tenants and small cultivators were denied their basic rights with regard to security of tenure or their share in produce, payment of fair wages etc. Forced labour, expropriation of resources by outsiders and exploitation by money lenders were also common in these areas. All this led to the growth of Naxalite movement. Naxalite movement is now active in 75 districts in nine states. Describe the role of Jai Prakash Narayan in Bihar movement in 1974. In March 1974, students of Bihar protested against rising prices, food scarcity, unemployment and corruption. They invited Jai Prakash Narayan to lead the movement. He accepted their invitation on the grounds that it would be a non violent movement and will not limit itself to Bihar. He demanded for the dismissal of the Congress government and gave a call for total revolution in the social, economic and political spheres in order to establish what he considered to be true democracy. A series of bandhs, gheraos and strikes were organised in Bihar. He led a peoples march to the Parliament in 1975 which is said to be the largest rallies ever held in the capital. Who was Charu Majumdar? Charu Majumdar was an Indian Maoist revolutionary born in 1918 in Siliguri, West Bengal. He was a communist revolutionary and the leader of the Naxalbari uprising. He joined the Tebhaga movement in 1946. He was imprisoned in 1962 and on July 16, 1972 he left the CPI and founded the Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist). He believed in the Maoist path of peasant rebellion and defended revolutionary violence. Majumadar died in police custody at the Alipore Central Jail on July 28, 1972. Why was Shah commission appointed and what were its findings? The Janata party government appointed a commission of inquiry headed by Justice J.C. Shah. He was the retired Chief justice of India and on his name this commission was named as Shah Commission. This commission was set up to inquire into several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and actions taken in the wake of Emergency proclaimed on25 June, 1975. The Commission examined various kinds of evidence and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies. These included Indira Gandhi but she refused to reply to any questions of the commission. The Commission gave its findings, observations and recommendations in the form of two interim reports and final report. The reports were also tabled in the two Houses of Parliament which accepted the recommendations.

What were the reasons given by the government in favour of emergency? The government gave the following reasons: The government argued that the opposition parties must allow the elected ruling party to govern according to its policies in a democracy. The government felt that frequent recourse to agitations; protests and collective action were not good for democracy. Supporters of Indira government claimed that extra parliamentary politics to target the government led to instability and distracted the administration from its routine task of ensuring development. All the energies had to be diverted to the maintenance of law and order. Mention the economic condition in the country during the year 1971. Though the Indira Gandhi government gave the slogan 'Garibi Hatao' in the election in 1971, but the economic condition did not improve much. About eight million people migrated from East Pakistan. This was followed by war with Pakistan and subsequently Bangladesh, a new country was born. After the war, the U. S. government stopped all aid to India. Oil prices increased which led to an all round increase in prices of commodities. Prices increased by 23 percent in 1973 and 30 per cent in 1974. This high level of inflation caused many hardships to the people. Industrial growth was low and unemployment was very high. Agricultural productivity declined due to failure in monsoons in 1972-1973. In order to reduce expenditure, the government froze the salaries of employees. The entire crisis caused dissatisfaction among employees and general masses in the country. Mention some of the achievements of Indira Gandhi government. Indira Gandhi was one of the most charismatic leaders of modern India. Her ideas and activities touched different spheres of India's public life and politics and left an imprint on world affairs. The major achievements of Indira Gandhi government are: India played a major role in the liberation of Bangladesh including humane handling of 1971 war against Pakistan. Indira Gandhi gave direction to the Indian economy in reaching the declared objectives of democratic socialism and greater social justice for weaker sections. Shimla Pact with Pakistan's premier Z.A. Bhutto and Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation were signed under her prime Ministership. It was under her prime Ministership that banks were nationalised, Privy Purses of maharajas were abolished and India conducted her first nuclear test in 1974 at Pokhran. Who was the founder of CPI (Communist Party of India Marxist Leninist)? Write a short note on him. Charu Majumdar was the founder of CPI (Communist Party of India Marxist Leninist). Charu Majumdar was a Maoist revolutionary born in 1918 in Siliguri, West Bengal. He was the communist revolutionary and the leader of the Naxalbari uprising. He joined the Tebhaga movement in 1946. He was imprisoned in 1962 and on July 16, 1972. He left the CPI and founded the Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist). He believed in the Maoist path of peasant rebellion and defended revolutionary violence. Majumadar died in police custody at the Alipore Central Jail on July 28, 1972. 6 marks

Give some arguments given by the critics of Emergency. The critics of Emergency argued that ever since the freedom movement, Indian politics had a history of popular struggles and thus the people had the right to publicly protest against the government. The Bihar and Gujarat agitations were mostly peaceful and non-violent. Those who were arrested were never tried for any anti-national activity. The Home Ministry, which is entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring the internal situation of the country, also did not express any concern about the law and order situation in the country. If some agitations had over-stepped their limits, the government had enough routine powers to deal with it. There was no need to suspend democratic functioning and use draconian measures like the Emergency . The threat was not to the unity and integrity of the country but to the ruling party and to the Prime Minister herself. The critics say that Indira Gandhi misused a constitutional provision meant for saving the country in order to save her personal power. Write a short note on Jagajivan Ram. Jagjivan Ram was popularly known as Babuji. He was a freedom fighter and a social reformer hailing froma backward class of Bihar in India. He served as a minister in the Indian Parliament with various portfolios for more than forty years. He also served as deputy Prime Minister of India. In Indira Gandhi's government he worked as minister for labour, employment and rehabilitation during the period 1966-67 and minister of food and agriculture during the period 1967-70. It was during his tenure, as the minister of defence that the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 was fought and Bangladesh achieved independence. Though he initially supported Indira Gandhis declaration of the state of emergency, but in 1977 along with five other politicians, here signed from the Cabinet and formed a new political party. He remained a Member of Parliament until his death. Write a note on the prime ministership of Morarji Desai. Morarji Ranchhoodji Desai was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Prime minister who did not belong to the Indian Congress Party. He is the only Indian to receive the highest civilian awards from both India and Pakistan, namely the Bharat Ratna and Nishane-Pakistan. The landmark achievements during the Prime Ministership of Morarji Desai were to improve relations with Pakistan which were derailed after the 1971 war and tried restoration of political relations with China which received a set back after the 1962 war. The chief contribution of his government was that it enhanced popular faith in democracy. His government annulled some of the legislations passed during the emergency and made it difficult for any future government to impose emergency. Write a note on Jai Prakash Narayan. Jai Prakash Narayan, widely known as JP was born on October 11, 1902. He was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader. He is remembered for leading the opposition against Indira Gandhi in the 1970s. He was educated in universities in the United States, where he became a Marxist. After returning to India in 1929, he joined the Congress Party. In 1932, he was sentenced to a year's imprisonment for his participation in the Civil- disobedience movement against British Rule in India. He played an important part in the formation of the Congress Socialist Party with other Congress socialists and formed Praja Socialist Party in 1952. In 1955 he quit active politics and got involved in the Bhoodan Movement. In 1974, he appeared as a severe critic on what he saw as the corrupt and increasingly undemocratic government of

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. He was the moving force behind the formation of Janta Party. He died in the year 1979. What were the reasons which led to mid term elections in 1980? The Janta Party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme. The party failed to bring any fundamental change in policies from those pursued by Congress. The Janata party split and the government led by Morarji Desai lost its majority in less than 18 months. Another government headed by Charan Singh was formed with the support of Congress party. But the Congress party later withdrew its support and Charan Singh's government remained in power just for four months. Mid-term Lok Sabha elections were held in January 1980 in which the Janata party suffered a comprehensive defeat, especially in north India where it had swept polls in 1977. Congress party led by Indira Gandhi came into power. The party won 353 seats. What were the lessons learnt from emergency? The Emergency at once brought out both the weaknesses and strengths of Indias democracy. It is noteworthy that normal democratic functioning resumed within a short span of time. Thus, one lesson of Emergency is that it is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India. Secondly, it brought out some ambiguities regarding the Emergency provision in the Constitution which have been rectified now. 'Internal Emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of armed rebellion and it is necessary that the advice of the President, to proclaim Emergency, must be obtained in writing by the Council of Ministers. Thirdly, the Emergency made everyone more aware of the value of civil liberties. The Courts too, have played an active role after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals. This is a response to the inability of the judiciary to protect civil liberties effectively during the emergency. However, there is still tension between routine functioning of a democratic government and the continuous political protests by parties and groups. The actual implementation of the Emergency rule took place through the police and the administration. These institutions could not function independently. They were turned into political instruments of the ruling party and according to the Shah Commission Report, the administration and the police became vulnerable to political pressures. Briefly describe the relation between government and judiciary after 1971? Indira Gandhi government faced lots of challenges during 1970. One of them was the conflict with judiciary. The issues of conflict were whether Parliament can abridge Fundamental rights, whether Parliament has the power to curtail the Right to Property by marking an amendment .Supreme court said that it cannot be done and the Parliament can't amend the constitution in such a manner that rights are curtailed. The Parliament amended the constitution to give effect to Directive Principles but the Supreme Court rejected this provision. All these reasons led to tension between government and judiciary in 1973. Besides that, the decision given by Supreme Court on the famous Kesavananda Bharati case that there are some basic features of the Constitution and the Parliament cannot amend these features, also added to the tension. In the Kesavananda Bharati case, vacancy arose for the post of Chief justice. There had been a trend that the senior most judge of the Supreme Court is appointed as the chief justice but the government

set aside the seniority of three judges and appointed justice A.N. Ray as the Chief justice of India. This appointment became politically controversial because all the three judges who were superseded had given rulings against the government. What were the consequences of emergency? When emergency was proclaimed, the federal distribution of power remained practically suspended and all the powers were concentrated in the hands of the union government. Therefore, after the declaration of emergency: Strikes were banned. Many opposition leaders were put behind bars. There was a state of press censorship. The government was afraid of the social and communal disharmony, so it banned Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and Jamait-e-Islami. Protests, strikes and public agitations were disallowed. Various Fundamental rights of citizens were suspended. The government made extensive use of Preventive detention. People were arrested and detained not because they had committed any offence, but on the fear that they may commit an offence. Political workers arrested could not challenge their arrests through habeas corpus petitions. A bench of Supreme Court in April, 1976, declared the government's claims right. This judgment was one of the most controversial judgments of the Supreme Court. The government made amendments in the constitution. It declared that election of Prime Minister, President and vice president could not be challenged in the court. Also the duration of the legislature in the country was extended from five to six years. Trace the reasons for the declaration of Emergency. Indira Gandhi's government had to face lots of challenges during 1971. Enormous economic cost of 1971 war, increase in world oil prices and drop in industrial output added to the economic hardships. The government also faced conflicts with judiciary. On June 12, 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhis election invalid on the grounds of corrupt practices according to an election petition filed by Raj Narain. The court ordered her to vacate her seat. Besides that, the opposition demanded her resignation. Strikes by unions and protest rallies paralysed life in many states. J.P. Narayan pressed for Indira Gandhi's resignation and organised a massive demonstration on 25 June, 1975. In turn, Mrs. Gandhi advised President Fakharuddin Ali Ahmed to declare a state of emergency. She claimed that the strikes and rallies were creating a state of internal disturbance. Ahmed declared a state of emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provision of Article 352 of the Constitution on June 25, 1975.