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COAL ENERGY Introduction

Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Coal begins as layers of plant matter accumulate at the bottom of a body of water. For the process to continue the plant matter must be protected from biodegradation and oxidization, usually by mud or acidic water. The wide shallow seas of the Carboniferous period provided such conditions. This trapped atmospheric carbon in the ground in immense peat bogs that eventually were covered over and deeply buried by sediments under which they metamorphosed into coal. Over time, the chemical and physical properties of the plant remains (believed to mainly have been fern-like species antedating more modern plant and tree species) were changed by geological action to create a solid material. Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide emissions. Gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage are slightly more than those from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas.[1] Coal is extracted from the ground by mining, either underground or in open pits.

The proven global coal reserve was estimated to be 9,84,453 million tonnes by end of 2003. The USA had the largest

share of the global reserve (25.4%) followed by Russia (15.9%), China (11.6%). India was 4 in the list with 8.6%. Globly coal status:
Table 1.1: Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel , 2003 In Million tonnes oil equivalent Oil Natural Coal Nuclear Gas Energy Country USA 914.3 566.8 573.9 181.9 Canada 96.4 78.7 31.0 16.8 France 94.2 39.4 12.4 99.8 Russian Federation 124.7 365.2 111.3 34.0 United Kingdom 76.8 85.7 39.1 20.1 China 275.2 29.5 799.7 9.8 India 113.3 27.1 185.3 4.1 Japan 248.7 68.9 112.2 52.2 Malaysia 23.9 25.6 3.2 Pakistan 17.0 19.0 2.7 0.4 Singapore 34.1 4.8 TOTAL WORLD 3636.6 2331.9 2578.4 598.8

Hydro electric 60.9 68.6 14.8 35.6 1.3 64.0 15.6 22.8 1.7 5.6 595.4

Total 2297.8 291.4 260.6 670.8 223.2 1178.3 345.3 504.8 54.4 44.8 38.9 9741.1

India has huge coal reserves, at least 84,396 million tonnes of proven recoverable reserves (at the end of 2003). This amounts to almost 8.6% of the world reserves and it may last for about 230 years at the current Reserve to Production (R/P) ratio. In contrast, the worlds proven coal reserves are expected to last only for 192 years at the current R/P ratio. Reserves/Production (R/P) ratio- If the reserves remaining at the end of the year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that the remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that level. India is the fourth largest producer of coal and lignite in the world. Coal production is concentrated in these states (Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal).

As geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions it is transformed successively into

Peat, considered to be a precursor of coal, has industrial importance as a fuel in some regions, for example, Ireland and Finland. In its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water Lignite, also referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power generation. Jet is a compact form of lignite that is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Iron Age Sub-bituminous coal, whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. Additionally, it is an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry. Bituminous coal, dense mineral, black but sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke Steam coal is a grade between bituminous coal and anthracite, once widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives. In this specialized use it is sometimes known as sea-coal in the U.S.[2] Small steam coal (dry small steam nuts or DSSN) was used as a fuel for domestic water heating Anthracite, the highest rank; a harder, glossy, black coal used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. It may be divided further into metamorphically altered bituminous coal and petrified oil, as from the deposits in Pennsylvania Graphite, technically the highest rank, but difficult to ignite and is not so commonly used as fuel: it is mostly used in pencils and, when powdered, as a lubricant.

The classification of coal is generally based on the content of volatiles. However, the exact classification varies between countries. According to the German classification, coal is classified as follows:

Coal Conversion Technologies

1. Coal carbonization or Pyrolysis. Carbonization is deflned as 'The destructive distillation of organic substances in the absence Of air. accompanied by the production of carbon and liquid and gaseous products". The coke

produced by carbonization of coal is used in the iron and steel industry and as a domestic smokeless fuel.

2. Coal Gasification
Coal gasification is the process of producing coal gas, a type of syngasa mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) gasfrom coal. Carbon monoxide, which is a combustible gas, was traditionally used as a source of energy for municipal lighting and heat before the advent of industrial-scale production of natural gas, while the hydrogen obtained from gasification can be used for various purposes such as making ammonia, powering a hydrogen economy, or upgrading fossil fuels. Alternatively, the coal gas (also known as "town gas") can be converted into transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel through additional treatment via the Fischer-Tropsch process. This latter purpose of coal gasification has been implemented by nations that have abundant sources of coal but little to no petroleum reserves, as well as by nations seeking to decrease their dependence on foreign sources of petroleum.


Scheme of a Lurgi gasifier During gasification, the coal is blown through with oxygen and steam (water vapor) while also being heated (and in some cases pressurized). If the coal is heated by external heat sources the process is called "allothermal", while "autothermal" process assumes heating of the coal via exothermal chemical reactions occurring inside the gasifier itself. It is essential that the oxidizer supplied is insufficient for complete oxidizing (combustion) of the fuel. During the reactions mentioned, oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal and produce a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), water vapour (H2O), and molecular hydrogen (H2). (Some by-products like tar, phenols, etc. are also possible end products, depending on the specific gasification technology utilized.) This process has been conducted in-situ within natural coal seams (referred to as underground coal gasification) and in coal refineries. The desired end product is usually syngas (i.e., a combination of H2 + CO), but the produced coal gas may also be further refined to produce additional quantities of H2: 3C (i.e., coal) + O2 + H2O H2 + 3CO If the refiner wants to produce alkanes (i.e., hydrocarbons present in natural gas, gasoline, and diesel fuel), the coal gas is collected at this state and routed to a Fischer-Tropsch reactor. If, however, hydrogen is the desired end-product, the coal gas (primarily the CO product) undergoes the water gas shift reaction where more hydrogen is produced by additional reaction with water vapor: CO + H2O CO2 + H2

Although other technologies for coal gasification currently exist, all employ, in general, the same chemical processes. For low-grade coals (i.e., "brown coals") which contain significant amounts of water, there are technologies in which no steam is required during the reaction, with coal (carbon) and oxygen being the only reactants. As well, some coal gasification technologies do not require high pressures. Some utilize pulverized coal as fuel while others work with relatively large fractions of coal. Gasification technologies also vary in the way the blowing is supplied.

Underground coal gasification

Underground coal gasification is an industrial in-situ gasification process, which is carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection of oxidants, and bringing the product gas to surface through production wells drilled from the surface. The product gas could to be used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. The technique can be applied to resources that are otherwise not economical to extract and also offers an alternative to conventional coal mining methods for some resources. Compare to the traditional coal mining and gasification, the UCG has less environmental and social impact.

The by-products of coal gas manufacture included coke, coal tar, sulfur and ammonia and these were all useful products. Dyes, medicines such as sulfa drugs, saccharine and sugar free soda drink, and dozens or organic compounds are made from coal gas. Coke is used as a smokeless fuel and for the manufacture of water gas and producer gas. Coal tar was subjected to fractional distillation to recover various products, including

Tar, for roads Benzole, a motor fuel Creosote, a wood preservative Phenol, used in the manufacture of plastics Cresols, disinfectants

Sulfur is used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid and ammonia is used in the manufacture of fertilisers.

3. Coal Liuefaction
Coal liquefaction is the process of producing synthetic liquid fuels from coal.

The liquefaction processes are classified as direct conversion to liquids processes and indirect conversion to liquids processeses. Direct processes are carbonization and hydrogenation.[1]

Pyrolysis and carbonization processe

There are a number of carbonization processes. The carbonization conversion occurs through pyrolysis or destructive distillation, and it produces condensable coal tar, oil and water vapor, non-condensable synthetic gas, and a solid residue-char. The condensed coal tar and oil are then further processed by hydrogenation to remove sulfur and nitrogen species, after which they are processed into fuels.[2] The typical example of carbonization is the Karrick process. The process was invented by Lewis Cass Karrick in the 1920s. The Karrick process is a low-temperature carbonization process, where coal is heated at 680 F (360 C) to 1,380 F (750 C) in the absence of air. These temperatures optimize the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar. However, the produced liquids are mostly a by-product and the main product is semi-coke, a solid and smokeless fuel.[3] The COED Process, developed by FMC Corporation, uses a fluidized bed for processing, in combination with increasing temperature, through four stages of pyrolysis. Heat is transferred by hot gases produced by combustion of part of the produced char. A modification of this process, the COGAS Process, involves the addition of gasification of char.[2] The TOSCOAL Process, an analogue to the TOSCO II oil shale retorting process and Lurgi-Ruhrgas process, which is also used for the shale oil extraction, uses hot recycled solids for the heat transfer.[2] Liquid yields of pyrolysis and Karrick processes are generally low for practical use for synthetic liquid fuel production.[3] Furthermore, the resulting liquids are of low quality and require further treatment before they can be used as motor fuels. In summary, there is little possibility that this process will yield economically viable volumes of liquid fuel.[3]

Hydrogenation processes
See also: Bergius process One of the main methods of direct conversion of coal to liquids by hydrogenation process is the Bergius process.[1] The Bergius process was developed by Friedrich Bergius in 1913. In this process, dry coal is mixed with heavy oil recycled from the process. Catalyst is typically added to the mixture. The reaction occurs at between 400 C (752 F) to 5,000 C (9,030 F) and 20 to 70 MPa hydrogen pressure. The reaction can be summarized as follows: n C + (n + 1) H2 CnH2 n + 2 After World War I several plants were built in Germany; these plants were extensively used during World War II to supply Germany with fuel and lubricants.[4] The Kohleoel Process, developed in Germany by Ruhrkohle and VEBA, was used in the demonstration plant with the capacity of 200 ton of lignite per day, built in Bottrop, Germany. This plant operated from 1981 to 1987. In this process, coal is mixed with a recycle solvent and iron catalyst. After preheating and pressurizing, H2 is added. The process takes place in tubular reactor at the pressure of 300 bar and at the temperature of 470 C (880 F).[5] This process was also explored by SASOL in South Africa. In 1970-1980s, Japanese companies Nippon Kokan, Sumitomo Metal Industries and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries developed the NEDOL process. In this process, coal is mixed with a recycled solvent and a synthetic iron-based catalyst; after preheating H2 is added. The reaction takes place in tubular reactor at temperature between 430 C (810 F) and 465 C (870 F) at the pressure 150-200 bar. The produced oil has low quality and requires intensive upgrading.[5] H-Coal process, developed by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., in 1963, mixes pulverized coal with recycled liquids, hydrogen and catalyst in the ebullated bed reactor. Advantages of this

process are that dissolution and oil upgrading are taking place in the single reactor, products have high H/C ration, and a fast ration time, while the main disadvantages are high gas yield, high hydrogen consumption, and limitation of oil usage only as a boiler oil because of impurities.[2] The SRC-I and SRC-II (Solvent Refined Coal) processes developed by Gulf Oil and implemented as pilot plants in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s.[5] The Nuclear Utility Services Corporation developed hydrogenation process which was patented by Wilburn C. Schroeder in 1976. The process involved dried, pulverized coal mixed with roughly 1wt% molybdenum catalysts.[1] Hydrogenation occurred by use of high temperature and pressure synthesis gas produced in a separate gasifier. The process ultimately yielded a synthetic crude product, Naphtha, a limited amount of C3/C4 gas, light-medium weight liquids (C5-C10) suitable for use as fuels, small amounts of NH3 and significant amounts of CO2.[6] Other single-stage hydrogenation processes are the Exxon Donor Solvent Process, the Imhausen High-pressure Process, and the Conoco Zinc Chloride Process.[5] There is also a number of two-stage direct liquefaction processes; however, after 1980s only the Catalytic Twostage Liquefaction Process, modified from the H-Coal Process; the Liquid Solvent Extraction Process by British Coal; and the Brown Coal Liquefaction Process of Japan have been developed.[5] Shenhua, the Chinese coal miner, decided in 2002 to build a direct liquefaction plant in Inner Mongolia, with barrel capacity of 20 thousand barrels per day (3.2103 m3/d). First tests were implemented at the end of 2008. A second and longer test campaign was started in October 2009. Chevron Corporation developed a process invented by Joel W. Rosenthal called the Chevron Coal Liquefaction Process (CCLP).[7] It is unique due the close-coupling of the non-catalytic dissolver and the catalytic hydroprocessing unit. The oil produced had properties that were unique when compared to other coal oils; it was lighter and had far fewer heteroatom impurities. The process was scaled-up to the 6 ton per day level, but not proven commercially.

Indirect conversion processes

See also: Fischer-Tropsch process and Gas to liquids The main indirect process is the Fischer-Tropsch process. In this process, coal is first gasified to make syngas (a balanced purified mixture of CO and H2 gas). Next, Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are used to convert the syngas into light hydrocarbons (like ethane) which are further processed into gasoline and diesel. This method was used on a large technical scale in Germany between 1934 and 1945 and is currently being used by Sasol in South Africa. In addition to creating gasoline, syngas can also be converted into methanol, which can be used as a fuel, or into a fuel additive. Syngas may be converted to liquids through conversion of the syngas to methanol which is subsequently polymerized into alkanes over a zeolite catalyst. This process, named as the Mobil MTG Process, was developed by Mobil in early 1970s.

Coal Gas
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system. Traditionally, coal gas was made by destructively distilling coal. Originally a by-product of the coking process, coal gas was extensively exploited in the 19th and early 20th centuries for lighting, cooking and heating.

Coal Tar
Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, which smells of naphthalene and aromatic hydrocarbons. Coal tar is among the by-products when coal is carbonized to make coke or gasified to make coal gas. Coal tars are complex and variable mixtures of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic compounds. Coal tar was subjected to fractional distillation to recover various products, including

Tar, for roads Benzole, a motor fuel Creosote, a wood preservative Phenol, used in the manufacture of plastics Cresols, disinfectants

Use of coal tar

Being flammable, coal tar is sometimes used for heating or to fire boilers. Like most heavy oils, it must be heated before it will flow easily. Like pine tar, it can be used in medicated shampoo, soap and ointment, as a treatment for dandruff and psoriasis, as well as being used to kill and repel head lice. When used as a medication in the U.S., coal tar preparations are considered an OTC (over-the-counter drug) pharmaceutical and are subject to regulation by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Name brands include Denorex, Balnetar, Psoriasin, Tegrin, TGel, and Neutar. When used in the extemporaneous preparation of topical medications, it is supplied in the form of Coal Tar Topical Solution USP, which consists of a 20% w/v solution of coal tar in alcohol, with an additional 5% w/v of polysorbate 80; [2] this must then be diluted in an ointment base such as petrolatum. Coal tar is also used to synthesize paracetamol (acetaminophen). Coal tar was formerly used as one of the primary ingredients of asphalt pavements. Today, petroleum derived binders and sealers are more commonly used. These sealers are used to extend the life and lower maintenance cost associated with asphalt pavements, primarily in asphalt road paving, car parks and walkways. Tar is used in treatment of the skin disease psoriasis, where coal tar is the most effective. Petroleum tar was also used in ancient Egyptian mummification circa 1000 BC.[3] Tar was a vital component of the first sealed, or "tarmac", roads. The streets of Baghdad were the first to be paved with tar from the 8th century AD.[4]

FischerTropsch process
The FischerTropsch process (or FischerTropsch Synthesis) is a set of chemical reactions that convert a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a petroleum substitute, typically from coal, natural gas, or biomass for use as synthetic lubrication oil and as synthetic fuel.[1] The F-T process has received intermittent attention as a source of low-sulfur diesel fuel and to address the supply or cost of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons.

Process chemistry
The FischerTropsch process involves a variety of chemical reactions, which lead to a series of both desirable and undesirable byproducts. Useful reactions give alkanes: (2n+1) H2 + n CO CnH(2n+2) + n H2O where 'n' is a positive integer. The formation of methane (n = 1) is generally unwanted. Most of the alkanes produced tend to be straight-chain alkanes, although some branched alkanes are also formed. In addition to alkane formation, competing reactions result in the formation of alkenes, as well as alcohols and other oxygenated hydrocarbons. Usually, only relatively small quantities of these non-alkane products are formed, although catalysts favoring some of these products have been developed.

Bergius process
The Bergius Process is a method of production of liquid hydrocarbons for use as synthetic fuel by hydrogenation of highvolatile bituminous coal at high temperature and pressure. It was first developed by Friedrich Bergius in 1913, in 1931 Bergius was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of high pressure chemistry.

The coal is finely ground and dried in a stream of hot gas. The dry product is mixed with heavy oil recycled from the process. Catalyst is typically added to the mixture. A number of catalysts have been developed over the years, including tungsten or molybdenum sulfides, tin or nickel oleate, and others. Alternatively, iron sulphides present in the coal may have sufficient catalytic activity for the process, which was the original Bergius process. The mixture is pumped into a reactor. The reaction occurs at between 400 to 500 C and 20 to 70 MPa hydrogen pressure. The reaction produces heavy oils, middle oils, gasoline, and gases. The overall reaction can be summarized as follows:

The immediate product from the reactor must be stabilized by passing it over a conventional hydrotreating catalyst. The product stream is high in naphthenes and aromatics, low in paraffins and very low in olefins. The different fractions can be passed to further processing (cracking, reforming) to output synthetic fuel of desirable quality. If passed through a process such as Platforming, most of the naphthenes are converted to aromatics and the recovered hydrogen recycled to the process. The liquid product from Platforming will contain over 75% aromatics and has a RON of over 105. Overall, about 97% of input carbon fed directly to the process can be converted into synthetic fuel. However, any carbon used in generating hydrogen will be lost as carbon dioxide, so reducing the overall carbon efficiency of the process.

Coalbed methane
Coalbed methane (CBM) or coalbed gas is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. In recent decades it has become an important source of energy in United States, Canada, and other countries. Australia has rich deposits where it is known as coal seam gas. The term refers to methane adsorbed into the solid matrix of the coal. It is called 'sweet gas' because of its lack of hydrogen sulfide. The presence of this gas is well known from its occurrence in underground coal mining, where it presents a serious safety risk. Coalbed methane, often referred to as CBM, is distinct from a typical sandstone or other conventional gas reservoir, as the methane is stored within the coal by a process called adsorption. The methane is in a near-liquid state, lining the inside of pores within the coal (called the matrix). The open fractures in the coal (called the cleats) can also contain free gas or can be saturated with water. Unlike much natural gas from conventional reservoirs, coalbed methane contains very little heavier hydrocarbons such as propane or butane, and no natural gas condensate. It often contains up to a few percent carbon dioxide. Some coal seams, such as those in certain areas of the Illawarra Coal Measures in NSW, Australia, contain little methane, with the predominant coal seam gas being carbon dioxide. To extract the gas, a steel-encased hole is drilled into the coal seam (100 - 1500 meters below ground). As the pressure within the coal seam declines, due to the hole to the surface or the pumping of small amounts of water from the coalbed, both gas and 'produced water' escape to the surface through tubes. Then the gas is sent to a compressor station and into natural gas pipelines. The 'produced water' is either reinjected into isolated formations, released into streams, used for irrigation, or sent to evaporation ponds. The water typically contains dissolved solids such as sodium bicarbonate and chloride. Coalbed methane wells often produce at lower gas rates than conventional reservoirs, typically peaking at near 300,000 cubic feet (8,500 m3) per day (about 0.100 m/s), and can have large initial costs. The production profiles of CBM wells are typically characterized by a "negative decline" in which the gas production rate initially increases as the water is pumped off and gas begins to desorb and flow. A dry CBM well does not look different from a standard gas well. CBM wells are connected by a network of roads, pipelines, and compressor stations. These structures can compromise the scenic quality of the landscape, fragment wildlife habitat, and displace local wildlife populations. Over time, wells may be spaced more closely in order to extract the remaining methane.

Additionally, the produced water may contain undesirable concentrations of dissolved substances. Water withdrawal may depress aquifers over a large area and affect groundwater flows

Coal Properties
Coal comes in four main types or ranks: lignite or brown coal, bituminous coal or black coal, anthracite and graphite. Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile content (in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons) and carbon content.
1. Moisture Moisture is an important property of coal, as all coals are mined wet. Groundwater and other extraneous moisture is known as adventitious moisture and is readily evaporated. Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analyzed. Moisture may occur in four possible forms within coal: o Surface moisture: water held on the surface of coal particles or macerals o Hydroscopic moisture: water held by capillary action within the microfractures of the coal o Decomposition moisture: water held within the coals decomposed organic compounds o Mineral moisture: water which comprises part of the crystal structure of hydrous silicates such as clays. 2. Volatile matter Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal, except for moisture, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air. This is usually a mixture of short and long chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulfur. The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards. In Australian and British laboratories this involves heating the coal sample to 900 5 C (1650 10 F) for 7 minutes in a cylindrical silica crucible in a muffle furnace. American Standard procedures involve heating to 950 25 C (1740 45 F) in a vertical platinum crucible. 3. Ash Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon, oxygen, sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. Analysis is fairly straightforward, with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight. 4. Fixed carbon The fixed carbon content of the coal is the carbon found in the material which is left after volatile materials are driven off. This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. Fixed carbon is used as an estimate of the amount of coke that will be yielded from a sample of coal. Fixed carbon is determined by removing the mass of volatiles determined by the volatility test, above, from the original mass of the coal sample.

Coal Proximate Analysis

The objective of coal ultimate analysis is to determine the amount of fixed carbon (FC), volatile matters (VM), moisture, and ash within the coal sample. The variables are measured in weight percent (wt. %) and are calculated in several different bases. AR (as-received) basis is the most widely used basis in industrial applications. AR basis puts all variables into consideration and uses the total weight as the basis of measurement. AD (air-dried) basis neglect the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures. DAF (dry, ash free) basis neglect all moisture and ash constituent in coal while DMMF (dry, mineral-matter-free) basis leaves out the presence of moisture and mineral matters in coal, for example: quartz, pyrite, calcite, etc. Mineral matter is not directly measured but may be obtained by one of a number of empirical formula based on the ultimate and proximate analysis.

Proximate Analysis unit Moisture Ash Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon


(ad) (db) (daf) 2.7

(wt. %) 3.3

(wt. %) 22.1 22.2 22.8 (wt. %) 27.3 27.5 28.3 36.6 (wt. %) 47.3 47.6 48.9 63.4

Gross Calorific Value (MJ/kg) 24.73 24.88 25.57 33.13

A table is shown above containing an example of proximate analysis data of coal. Conversion from one basis to another can be performed using mass balance equations. The standard practice for proximate analysis of coal may be referred to ASTM D3172-07a or ISO 17246:2005.

Coal Ultimate Analysis

Similar to coal proximate analysis, the objective of coal ultimate analysis is to determine the constituent of coal, but rather in a form of its basic chemical elements. The ultimate analysis determines the amount of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), sulfur (S), and other elements within the coal sample. These variables are also measured in weight percent (wt. %) and are calculated in the bases explained above.
Ultimate Analysis unit Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N) Total Sulfur (S) Oxygen (O) (ar) (ad) (db) (daf)

(wt. %) 61.1 61.5 63.2 81.9 (wt. %) 3.00 3.02 3.10 4.02 (wt. %) 1.35 1.36 1.40 1.81 (wt. %) 0.4 0.39 0.39 (wt. %) 8.8 8.8 9.1

A table is shown above containing an example of coal ultimate analysis data and showing significant elements only. Conversion from one basis to another can be performed using mass balance equations. The standard practice for ultimate analysis of coal may be referred to ASTM D3176-89(2002) or ISO 17247:2005.

Ash Analysis
Oxides wt.% of ash wt.% of ash Elements (Calculated) (Measured) Na Mg Al Si P K Ca Ti Mn Fe 0.26 0.29 10.6 34.6 0.05 0.92 0.49 0.48 0.05 2.28

Na2O 0.35 MgO 0.48

Al2O3 20.0 SiO P2O5 K2O CaO TiO2 74.1 0.05 1.1 0.68 0.80

Mn3O4 0.06 Fe2O3 3.25

An analysis of coal ash may also be carried out to determine not only the composition of coal ash, but also to determine the levels at which trace elements occur in ash. These data are useful for environmental impact modelling, and may be obtained by spectroscopic methods such as ICP-OES or AAS. An example of coal ash composition is shown on the right. Beside composition of coal ash, ash fusion point is also one significant parameter in ash analysis. The optimum operating temperature of coal processing will depend on the gas temperature and also the ash fusion point. Melting of the ashes may cause them to stick to the walls of the reactor and result in a build-up.