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SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)

The ITU-defined international networking standard whose base Transmission level is 155 Mbit/s (STM-1). SDH standards were first published in 1989 to address interworking between the ITU and ANSI transmission hierarchies. As end users (particularly business users) become more dependent on effective communications, it need a reliable and flexible network with unlimited bandwidth PDH is not efficient to deliver and manage high bandwidth connections. SDH is to overcome the shortcomings of the PDH. Using the same fiber, the synchronous network is able to increase the available bandwidth while reducing the amount of equipment in the network Provision of network management system (NMS) provides more flexibility in the network SDH is able to inter-work with existing PDH systems In SDH, Plesiochronous signals are combined together and are encapsulated within a standard SDH signal

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

It is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media It is the international equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) Both technologies provide faster and less expensive network interconnection than traditional PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) equipment

What is SDH?
Synchronous: One master clock and all elements synchronized with it Digital: Information in binary Hierarchy: Set of bit rates in hierarchical order SDH is an ITU-T standard for high capacity Telecom network SDH is a synchronous digital transport system, aim to provide a simple, economical

Advantage of SDH
SDH is working in Ring configuration all the available Band width is used in the same O F cable Centralized supervision of NMS Auto restoration of faults in no time less manpower required

Up gradation of system is easy Existing PDH can work on SDH Network Simplification- A single synchronous multiplexer can perform the multiplexing Function As the numbers of equipments are reduced the space, power consumption. The maintenance also simplified

. Fully Software Control.


Bandwidth on demand - Any bandwidth required by customer can be provided In short notice. Future Proof Networking SDH is able to handle video on demand and all other new Systems like ATM, ADSL, etc. Standardization Any SDH equipment of any vendor can be interconnected.

Synchronous Transport Module (STM)


A structure in the SDH transmission hierarchy. STM-1 is SDHs base-level transmission rate equal to 155.52 Mbit/s. Higher rates of STM-4, STM-16, and STM-64 are also defined.

Tributary Unit (TU)


A Tributary Unit is an information structure which provides adaptation between the Lower-Order path layer and the Higher-Order path layer. It contains the Virtual Container (VC) plus a tributary unit pointer.

Tributary Unit Group (TUG)


Contains several Tributary Units.

Virtual Container (VC)


A signal designed for transport and switching of sub-SDH payloads The container and the Path Overhead together form VC. The pathoverhead bytes allow the network operator to achieve end to end monitoring.

Container (C)
The information from PDH signal is mapped into the relevant container. Each container then added with control information known as Path Overhead.

Number of rows in a frame Number of columns in a frame Number of bytes per frame Number of bits per frame Number of bits per second

=9 = 9 + 261 = 270 = 9 X 270 = 9 X 270 X 8 = 9 X 270 X 8 X 8000 = 155520000 Or 155.52 Mbps