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LeadershipLeadership StylesStyles && thethe ArtArt ofof EffectiveEffective LeadershipLeadership

Anthony A. Miller, M.Ed., PA-C Associate Professor & Director Division of Physician Assistant Studies Shenandoah University Member, AAPA Leadership Advisory Commission

© 2002, Anthony A. Miller


• Upon completion of this presentation, you should be able to:

– Better understand basic leadership definitions, styles, skills, and traits.

– Identify resources for leadership development.

– Identify obstacles to effective leadership and how to overcome them.

– Understand how power impacts leader- follower relationships.


You want to lead!?

“If you think you can…or think you can’t…you’re probably right!”

(Mark Twain)

“If you believe you do not deserve whatever it is you want, you will not get it. Conversely, if you believe that you deserve all the goodness that life has to offer, you will be open to receive it.” (C. Carter-Scott)

MainMain PointsPoints

(what I have learned and want to share in case I don’t get through the rest of the stuff.)


• Be true to yourself…but you got to know that person first.

• Be true to your principles and values…but you got to figure that out first.

• Love others….but you’ve got to love yourself…first

• Aim high…but sometimes baby steps before running first.


PearlsPearls •…but also take time to relax/re-energize

•…but also take time to relax/re-energize


• Fight vigorously for what you believe…but choose your battles carefully.

• Promote yourself and promote others.

• Follow a leader…find a mentor.

• Find your niche.

• Build alliances.


• Plan ---- Do ---- Evaluate --- Redo

• Learn --- Teach --- Learn

• Change is inevitable, learn to deal with it.


• 12 Rules on Leadership….(winning)

– Don’t Quit. Don’t Ever Quit

– Kiss _ss

– Kick _ss

– Frame the Debate

– Understand the Difference Between Strategy & Tactics

– Be Open

– Know How to Communicate

– Work Your _ss off

– Turn Weakness into Strength

– Know How to Recover When You Really Screw Up

– Know What to do When You Win (from Carville and Begala, 2002)


The Essence of Leadership

– Clear vision

– Drive to share to your vision

– Courage to challenge the status quo & be a change agent

– Ability to inspire others (individually and teams)

– Foresight to empower, to develop and stretch abilities of others

– Wisdom to listen, learn and act

– Integrity to live your values

– Willingness to recognize others for their accomplishments

Adapted from J. Tracy O’ Rouke, Chairman & CEO, Varian Associates (1/93)

DefiningDefining LeadershipLeadership

• “Without any question, “leadership” is the most studied and least understood topic of any I can think of. To start with, there are more than 350 definitions with more coined by the dozens each month.” (Bennis)

WhatWhat isis Leadership?Leadership?

• “Giving the people not what they want but what they will learn to want” (Cronin quoting W.


• Managers do things right, leaders do the right things (Bennis)

• “Leaders don’t just report the news, they

make it.” (Kouzes & Posner, 1995)

WhatWhat isis Leadership?Leadership?


art of mobilizing others to want to

struggle for shared aspirations” (Kouzes &

Posner, 1995)



direction for a working group

of individuals,

direction, and then motivate members to achieve the direction’s outcomes” (Conger,

gain commitment




DefiningDefining LeadershipLeadership


– individual traits

– behaviors

– role relationships and interaction patterns

– influence over others

– hierarchical position

– legitimacy of influence

AdmiredAdmired CharacteristicsCharacteristics

• Honest

• Visionary

• Inspiring

• Competent

• Fair

• Supportive

from: Kouzes & Posner, 1995

CharacteristicsCharacteristics AdmiredAdmired












Honest Vision Inspiring Competent Fair Supportive 1995 1987

LeadershipLeadership QualitiesQualities

• Self-knowledge/self-confidence

• Vision

• Intelligence, wisdom, judgment

• Learning/renewal

• World mindedness

• Coalition building

• Morale building/motivation

LeadershipLeadership QualitiesQualities

• Stamina, energy, tenacity

• Courage

• Enthusiasm

• Character, integrity

• Risk-taking/entrepreneurship

• Communications (persuasion/listening)

LeadershipLeadership QualitiesQualities

• Understanding & use of power/authority

• Goal & achievement orientation

• Problem-solving

• Sense of humor, perspective

“I skate to where I think the puck will be.” (Wayne Gretzky)

InfluenceInfluence TacticsTactics

• Rational persuasion

• Inspirational appeals

• Consultation

• Ingratiation

• Personal appeals

• Exchange

• Coalition tactics

• Pressure tactics

• Legitimizing tactics

ConceptsConcepts ofof PowerPower

• Coercion

• Reward

• Legitimate

• Expert

• Referent/ Charisma

ConceptsConcepts ofof PowerPower • Coercion • Reward • Legitimate • Expert • Referent/ Charisma

BarriersBarriers toto OpportunitiesOpportunities

• Prejudice

• Poor Career Planning

• Poor Working Environment

• Lack of Organizational Savvy

• Risk-taking vs. Comfort Level

• Balancing Commitments

LearnLearn AboutAbout LeadershipLeadership

• Classes

• Observing

• Being a good follower

• Find a mentor/coach

• Reading for inspiration

• Self

“Try? There is not try! There is only do or not do!”

(Yoda from Empire Strikes Back)

DevelopingDeveloping aa PlanPlan

• Self- Analysis

– Strengths

– Opportunities for enhancement

(aka weaknesses)

– Principles/values

– Resources (intrinsic and extrinsic)

DevelopingDeveloping aa PlanPlan

• Vision

– How do I see myself in the future?

(intrinsic perspective)

– Where do I see myself in the future

(global/extrinsic perspective)

– Create a motto

DevelopingDeveloping aa PlanPlan

• Set Goals

– State as desired states or outcomes

(what you want to be, not what you want to do)

– Short term and long term

– Broad

• Develop Strategies

– What do I need to do to get there?

– Specific and time linked

– Address weaknesses & resources needed

DevelopingDeveloping aa PlanPlan

Write it down!

….then sign it and share it

DevelopingDeveloping aa PlanPlan

• Evaluate (on regular basis)

• Renew

HolisticHolistic LeadershipLeadership

ProfessionalProfessional WorkWork PersonalPersonal SpiritualSpiritual FamilyFamily

© Anthony A. Miller

ProfessionalProfessional PortfolioPortfolio

• What is it?

– Documents accomplishments, achievements – Augments & supports resume

PotentialPotential ContentsContents

• Published articles, editorials

• News

• Thank you letters

• Certificates & awards

• Testimonials/kudos

• Presentations

• Examples of creations/innovations

• Appointments

PortfolioPortfolio “Index”“Index”

• Title

– “Professional Highlights of …”

– “Accomplishments of …”

• Headings

– Do not use traditional resume headings

– Action oriented

PortfolioPortfolio “Index”“Index”

• Examples:

– “Developed billing follow-up mechanism that generated 25% increase in accounts paid”

– “Developed $250,000 grant funded by XYZ Corporation”

– “Secured donation for $100,000 endowed scholarship”

– “Planned and implemented campaign that yielded 100 new members”

PromotingPromoting YourselfYourself

• Be a good follower

• Seek new opportunities (aka volunteer)

• Don’t give up

• Decide on area of focus

• Network (be at right place @ right time)

PromotingPromoting YourselfYourself

• Partner (who can help me get there?)

• Promote othersdon’t be afraid to ride on someone’s coat tails…just know when to let go

• Associate yourself with a cause you believe in

• Specialist vs. multi-specialist vs. generalists

• Web site?

PromotingPromoting YourselfYourself

Try this exercise:

Write an introduction for yourself. Keep to one or two paragraphs and no more than one page.

“The“The onlyonly disabilitydisability inin lifelife isis aa badbad attitude.”attitude.”

Scott Hamilton

As for the best leaders, the people do not know their existence. The next best, the people honor and praise. The next, the people fear, and the next, the people hate.

When the best leader’s work is done, the people say, “We did it ourselves.”

Lao Tzu

AndAnd Finally…Finally…

Believe in yourself and your ability to create your own reality. Trust yourself and your own voice and continually assess whether you are being true to your voice or to something else.

C. Carter-Scott, 2000


MoveMove inin God’sGod’s RhythmRhythm (Ting-Yu Chen)


• Bennis, W. (1995). The artform of leadership. In J.T. Wren (ed.). The Leader’s companion: Insights on leadership through the ages. New York: The Free Press.

• Carter-Scott, C. (2000). If success is a game, these are the rules: Ten rules to a fulfilling life. New York: Bantam.

• Carville, J. & Begala, P. (2002). Buck up, suck up…and come back when you foul up. New York: Simon & Schuster.

• Covey, S. The seven habits of highly effective people. New York: Simon & Schuster.

• Hughes, R., et al. (1995). Power, Influence, and Influence Tactics. In J.T. Wren (ed.). The Leader’s companion: Insights on leadership through the ages. New York: The Free Press.

• Kouzes, J. & Posner, B. (1995). The leadership challenge. 2 nd ed. San Francisco:


• McConnell, C. (1998). Mixed Motivations: The Leadership Contradiction. Health Care Supervisor, 17(2). 63-75.

• Morrison, A. (1995). Challenging the Barriers to Opportunity. In J.T. Wren (ed.). The Leader’s companion: Insights on leadership through the ages. New York: The Free Press.

• Rosenbach, W. & Taylor, R. (eds.) (1993). Contemporary issues in leadership, 3 rd ed., Boulder: Westview Press.

• Souba, W. (1998). The job of leadership. Journal of Surgical Research, 80. 1-8.