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Autodesk Stitcher Unlimited 2009

®

User Guide

© 2008 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as otherwise permitted by Autodesk, Inc., this publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose. Certain materials included in this publication are reprinted with the permission of the copyright holder. Portions related to Jpeg6b are copyright ©1991-1998, Thomas G. Lane. All Rights Reserved except as specified below. Permission is hereby granted to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software (or portions thereof) for any purpose, without fee, subject to these conditions: (1) If any part of the source code for this software is distributed, then this README file must be included, with this copyright and no-warranty notice unaltered; and any additions, deletions, or changes to the original files must be clearly indicated in accompanying documentation. (2) If only executable code is distributed, then the accompanying documentation must state that “this software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group”. (3) Permission for use of this software is granted only if the user accepts full responsibility for any undesirable consequences; the authors accept NO LIABILITY for damages of any kind. ansi2knr.c is included in this distribution by permission of L. Peter Deutsch, sole proprietor of its copyright holder, Aladdin Enterprises of Menlo Park, CA. ansi2knr.c is NOT covered by the above copyright and conditions, but instead by the usual distribution terms of the Free Software Foundation; principally, that you must include source code if you redistribute it. (See the file ansi2knr.c for full details.) However, since ansi2knr.c is not needed as part of any program generated from the IJG code, this does not limit you more than the foregoing paragraphs do. The Unix configuration script “configure” was produced with GNU Autoconf. It is copyright by the Free Software Foundation but is freely distributable. The same holds for its supporting scripts (config.guess, config.sub, ltconfig, ltmain.sh). Another support script, install-sh, is copyright by M.I.T. but is also freely distributable. It appears that the arithmetic coding option of the JPEG spec is covered by patents owned by IBM, AT&T, and Mitsubishi. Hence arithmetic coding cannot legally be used without obtaining one or more licenses. For this reason, support for arithmetic coding has been removed from the free JPEG software. (Since arithmetic coding provides only a marginal gain over the unpatented Huffman mode, it is unlikely that very many implementations will support it.) So far as we are aware, there are no patent restrictions on the remaining code. The IJG distribution formerly included code to read and write GIF files. To avoid entanglement with the Unisys LZW patent, GIF reading support has been removed altogether, and the GIF writer has been simplified to produce “uncompressed GIFs”. This technique does not use the LZW algorithm; the resulting GIF files are larger than usual, but are readable by all standard GIF decoders. We are required to state that “The Graphics Interchange Format © is the Copyright property of CompuServe Incorporated. GIF(sm) is a Service Mark property of CompuServe Incorporated”. Portions related to Libtiff are Copyright ©1988-1997 Sam Leffler. Copyright ©1991-1997 Silicon Graphics, Inc. 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IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM LEFFLER OR SILICON GRAPHICS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER OR NOT ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE, AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. Portions related to F2c are Copyright 1990 - 1997 by AT&T, Lucent Technologies and Bellcore. 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iii Stitcher User Guide
TM

Chapter 1

Introduction ............................................................................................... 1
What is Autodesk®StitcherTM? .............................................................................................. 3
About this guide ......................................................................................................................... 4

Minimum system requirements ............................................................................................ 5
Software ......................................................................................................................................... 5 Hardware ........................................................................................................................................ 5

Installing Stitcher ........................................................................................................................ 6
Uninstalling Stitcher .................................................................................................................. 6

Autodesk Stand-Alone Licensing.......................................................................................... 7 Manage Your Stand-Alone License .................................................................................... 8
Check Product Information ..................................................................................................... 8 License usage types ........................................................................................................... 8 License behaviors ................................................................................................................ 8 View Product Information ........................................................................................................ 9 To view product information .......................................................................................... 9 Update Your Serial Number ..................................................................................................10 To update your serial number ......................................................................................10 Register and Activate Stitcher ..............................................................................................11 Online Registration and Activation ....................................................................................11 To activate Stitcher ...........................................................................................................11 Offline Registration and Activation ....................................................................................11 To register Stitcher offline ..............................................................................................12

Chapter 2

Quick Start to Stitcher Projects .............................................................. 13
The Stitcher Interface ..............................................................................................................15 The 5-phase Stitcher Workflow............................................................................................16
Phase 1: Loading images ........................................................................................................17 Working with thumbnails ..............................................................................................19 Working in the Stitching Window ...............................................................................19 Create and Organize Stacks ...........................................................................................22 Phase 2: Automatic and Semi-Automatic Stitching .....................................................25

iv

Contents

Automatic stitching ......................................................................................................... 25 Semi-automatic stitching .............................................................................................. 25 Phase 3: Alignment ..................................................................................................................26 Phase 4: Lighting equalization .............................................................................................27 Modifying exposure ........................................................................................................ 28 Phase 5: Projection Types and Rendering ........................................................................30 Snapshot projection ........................................................................................................ 30 Cylindrical projection ...................................................................................................... 31 Cubical projection ............................................................................................................ 32 Spherical projection ........................................................................................................ 33 Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection .................................................................... 34 Rendering your panorama ............................................................................................ 35 Saving your project ......................................................................................................... 36

Stitcher Command shortcuts ...............................................................................................37
Essential shortcuts ....................................................................................................................37 General Stitcher Operational shortcuts ............................................................................39 Customizing keyboard shortcuts ........................................................................................41

Chapter 3

User Guide ................................................................................................43
Shooting photographs ...........................................................................................................45
Recommended equipment ...................................................................................................45 Planning your shots .................................................................................................................45 Photograph overlap ........................................................................................................ 49 Shooting the panorama .........................................................................................................50 Camera settings ................................................................................................................ 51 Tips for taking shots .................................................................................................................51

Stitcher projects ........................................................................................................................53
The Stitcher workflow .............................................................................................................54

Preferences .................................................................................................................................55
Setting the temporary files directory ................................................................................56 To set the temporary files directory: ......................................................................... 56 Setting the blending application ........................................................................................57

.............................................................................................................................67 Setting the Manual Stitch Magnifier ........................................................................................66 Setting the Cache Size .................................................................................83 .....................................61 Changing the Stitching Window background color .......................................................................................65 Managing memory .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 Modifying the display of images ................73 General Information ...........................................................................................................................................................77 Loading HDR images .71 The Main Menu .........................................................................64 Changing the exposure .............................................................................................76 Preparing images for stitching.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................72 Thumbnail View ................68 The interface........................................................................................................72 The Stitching Window .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Loading images ..............................................................82 Relationship between image property values ...............................................v Stitcher User Guide TM Editing in an external application ...............................72 The Toolbar ........................................................................59 Changing the texture size ......................................................75 The Image Strip .............64 Displaying the Live Preview ...........................58 Changing the frame color ..........................................80 Setting the camera parameters .............................................................................63 Displaying HDR images .....67 Managing the Undo Buffer ...................73 Status Indicators ................................................................................................80 Loading fisheye images ...........................................................................................................................................................82 Rectilinear lens properties ............62 Adjusting the transparency of images .........58 Moving images as a frame ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................74 The Live Preview ...........................................68 Setting the GPU preferences .................................................................................................................................................................................................81 Image resolution .............................

...................vi Contents Film back values ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 105 Automatic stitching .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 105 Semi-automatic stitching ................................................................................................................................................ 93 Modifying the display of thumbnails ....87 Flat stitch properties ..... 99 Setting the camera orientation ............................................................................... 97 Rotating images in the Stitching Window .......................................... 101 Why use a fisheye lens? ................................ 101 Types of fisheye images ............................ 101 Calibrating fisheye images ......95 Working in the Stitching Window ..... 110 Force-stitching Images ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 83 Focal length ................................................. 100 Bookmarking the current viewpoint ... 95 Moving images to the Stitching Window ...... 102 Stitching images ................................ 93 Deleting thumbnails ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................88 Manipulating images ................................................................................ 85 Distortion values ............................................................................................................................................................. 89 Indicator markers ................................... 94 Displaying thumbnail information ...................................................... 92 Filtering thumbnails ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 96 Aligning images in the Stitching Window ................................................................................... 89 Indicator lines ............................................................. 113 ................................................................................................................................................................. 85 Fisheye lens properties ..................................................................................... 106 Manual stitching ................................................................................................................................................................89 About thumbnail lines and markers .............................. 100 Fisheye images ..........................................................................................................................................................96 Improving redraw performance .. 96 Selecting images in the Stitching Window .................... 83 Sensor shift values ............................................................................................................................................................. 98 Centering images in the Stitching Window ................................

................................... 130 Creating a PSD stencil .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................118 Closing the first row of a panorama . 132 Aligning the panorama............... 115 Overlapping and aligning images ........................................................................................................................................... 135 Centering a panorama .............. 129 Changing the shape of stencil polygons ..... 129 Copying stencil polygons ..................................................................................................... 135 Re-aligning the panorama with the horizon ............................................................... 123 Render preview ..................... 123 Loading a camera profile ......................................................... 133 Setting the horizon in the Align Panorama mode ............................................................................ 129 Moving stencil polygons .......... detaching......................................129 Deleting stencil polygons .............................................. 120 Camera Profiles .......... 129 Selecting stencil polygons ................... 124 Stencils............... 130 Viewing stencils ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 114 Detaching images ............................................. and moving stencil polygons ................................................................................................................................. duplicating............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 115 Tips for stitching images ................................................. 124 The Live Preview ...................................................................................................................................... 115 Stitching highly distorted images ............................................................................................................................................................. 126 Selecting.......................................... 117 Calibrating the Camera Response Curve ................................................ 129 Blending polygons .................................. 124 The Quick Preview ............................................................................................................ 116 Evaluating focal length ........................................ 135 .......................................................................vii Stitcher User Guide TM Unstitching............................................................................................................. 114 Unstitching images ..... and deleting images ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 133 Panning relative to the horizon ........ 114 Deleting images ................... 123 Saving a camera profile ............................................ 126 Creating a stencil polygon ..........................................................................................................................

....................................................... 141 Creating hotspots ...........139 Hotspots..... 145 Hotspots and panorama conversion .......................................................................................................... 146 Render Area ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................157 Render options ..................................................................................................................................................................... 143 Linking hotspots ...............151 Cubical projection ....................................... 149 Choosing projection types ....................................................................... 145 Viewing hotspots . 147 Rendering Your Project .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................142 Duplicating hotspots .............................................................................................................. 139 To equalize images: ....................................................................................................................155 HDR and Tone Mapping .................. 142 Selecting hotspots ......................156 Calibrating the Camera Response Curve .......................................... 156 Add EXIF Data ..........................................................viii Contents Aligning the panorama using the Display Grid ..............................................................................................................................................143 Deleting hotspots ........................................................................................ 141 Selecting.................................................143 Changing the shape of hotspots .....................................................................153 Cylindrical projection .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................138 To change the color of the Display Grid: ..........................................................154 Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................154 Setting QTVR output options .......................................................................................................... 136 To change the Display Grid .................................................................................................138 Equalizing images .....................................................................154 Spherical projection ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................143 Moving hotspots .......................................................... duplicating........................................155 VRML projection ..................................................................................... and moving hotspots ........................... 144 Setting QuickTime movie options ...................................... 158 ........................ 151 Snapshot projection ............................................................................................151 Understanding the naming of cubical images ..............................

.................................................................................................. 167 Compression Settings ....................................................... 173 Launching the animation tool ...................... 181 Sharing your panorama ............................................................................................................................................................. 182 Creating an *....................... 178 Publishing your panorama .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 164 Understanding width and height value constraints ....................... 177 Publishing HTML/KML..................................................................................................................................... 168 Preview ........................ix Stitcher User Guide TM Tips for rendering .................................................................. 168 Tiling (for Cubic QTVR only) ..... 190 .................................................................................................................. 189 Choosing a Quicktime panorama viewpoint ......... 184 Loading a panorama ........................ 184 Conversion possibilities ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 174 Checking the animation ................................................................................................................................................................... 168 Annotations.......................................................... 169 Authoring Tool ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 183 Panorama conversion ...................................................................................................................................................... 170 QuickTime scripting ........................................................................................................... 186 Aligning the panorama .............................................................. 178 Setting the html options ...... 173 Defining the camera path ................................................................................. 172 Movies............................................................. 175 Setting the frame gap ..... 188 Saving and loading hotspots ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 168 Rendering Quality ........................................................ 165 QuickTime output setup ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 189 Templates ........................... 179 Setting the kml options ... ....................................................................................................................................................... 187 Creating hotspots during a conversion ......................................................................................................... 165 Understanding interpolation ...................................................................................................... 189 Rendering a converted panorama .html template ............................................... 175 Editing key frames ..............

................................................................. 196 Glossary ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 190 Opening a template ............... 198 ............................... 193 Stitching problems .......................................x Contents Saving a project as a template ................................................................ 191 Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................................

1 Introduction .

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the application wraps each image to exactly match all adjacent images and to remove distortion. Results are accurate to within one pixel. Your high-quality panoramas can then be quickly produced and rendered to various formats (such as QuickTime VR) for web viewing or to animation software format for use as matte paintings (which can be used as backgrounds). Images that are loaded into Stitcher are displayed as thumbail images. Java. 3D models. These processes are rapid with precise. No information is required about the camera or the scale of the scene. high-impact Web pages including publishing in GoogleTMEarth. and in QuickTime® (Cylindrical QTVR and Cubic QTVR). plane. This means that you can create panoramic images for definition mattes. In addition. With advanced features. If the automatic process fails you can do semi-automatic stitching by placing the images in an overlapping position to match features in each of the images. such as the automatic stitching engine. environment maps. high-resolution 360° × 180° panoramic images from horizontally and vertically overlapping photos. However. you can build high-quality panoramas for the Web. or. film. or occlusions. Stitcher quickly creates wide-angle. and real-time previewing. pan. You can create new image sets from the panorama using a virtual camera that is equipped with zoom. automatic color-matching. high-quality results. Your panorama can be rendered as a cube. Stitcher automatically blends colors along the edges of each image to provide color consistency throughout your panorama. spherical projection. You can drag thumbnail images into the work area and stitch them manually. Stitcher gives photographers and artists the power to deliver the most impressive panoramas in all the popular formats. an approximate value for the camera’s focal length improves the panorama. print. Entire panoramas can also be environment mapped onto animated objects. cylinder. and HTML (version dependent). and roll motion. You can use the . Stitcher automatically stitches the loaded images together and then displays them in the display area.3 Stitcher User Guide TM What is Autodesk®StitcherTM? Using Autodesk Stitcher. ImmerVision® Pure Player. Stitcher calibrates the camera focal length and distortion parameters from original images. and 3D animations. using the default workflow. VRML.

4 Chapter 1 Introduction resulting panoramas to create new image sets by filming in the image using a virtual camera. press Ctrl+Z (Windows®) or Command+Z (Mac®). For example. For example. when you see Edit > Properties. Words referring to items within Stitcher menus and pop-up menus are shown with the symbol > indicating the path to a menu item. see “Stitcher Command shortcuts” on page 37. Select the Edit menu and select Properties. . About this guide This guide uses type conventions to help you quickly find and understand information. Key combinations are capitalized with bold type. “Click” means to click the left mouse button and “right-click” means to click the right mouse button (Windows only). For a complete list of keyboard combinations.

5 Stitcher User Guide TM Minimum system requirements Software Autodesk® Stitcher™ Unlimited 2009 is supported on the following operating systems: Microsoft® Windows XP Professional. (SP2 or higher) 32-bit operating system Microsoft® Windows Vista® Business. Hardware Stitcher Unlimited 2009 requires a system with the following hardware: Intel® Pentium® 4 (or equivalent) processor. (SP1) 32-bit operating system Apple® Mac OS® X 10.2 (Intel version only) operating system NOTE Apple QuickTime® 7 is also required.4. Two-button mouse with mouse driver software DVD-ROM drive .5.11 and 10. 1GHz or faster Macintosh®: Intel®-based Macintosh® computers 512 RAM for Windows XP / 1 GIG RAM for Windows Vista (2GB recommended) 200 MB free hard drive space (for installation) – 2 GB recommended Ethernet adapter Qualified hardware-accelerated OpenGL® 1.2 professional graphics card with latest graphics driver available from vendor’s site.

shortcuts. The program removes the program files. Click OK. 5 When the files are removed. the Uninstall program indicates the completion of the process. 3 Click Change/Remove. . Uninstalling Stitcher Select Programs > Autodesk > Stitcher Unlimited> Uninstall Stitcher. Select Settings > Control Panel and do the following: 1 Double-click Add/Remove Programs. click Yes to confirm the removal of the application. 2 Follow the onscreen installation instructions. unless you are installing an upgrade. 4 At the prompt. select Stitcher. 1 Close all open applications.6 Chapter 1 Introduction Installing Stitcher Autodesk recommends that you uninstall previous or evaluation versions of Stitcher before installing Stitcher Unlimited 2009 (see “Uninstalling Stitcher” on page 6). folders. and registry entries. 2 From the list of programs.

you register your product. You can use Stitcher in trial mode for a given number of days from the first time you launch the product. you cannot run Stitcher until you register the product. you manually enter the activation code in the Product Activation wizard. When you register Stitcher. The Product Activation wizard is displayed every time you launch a product that has not been registered. If you reinstall Stitcher on the same workstation. You can register your license at any time before the trial period expires. you request an activation code from Autodesk. you receive an activation code. NOTE If you are installing and using Stitcher on both operating systems of a dual-boot operating system. . The number of days that a trial mode is active differs between Autodesk products. To obtain a license. After the trial period expires. If you register offline. If you register online. you must obtain a separate activation code for each operating system. You do not have to reactivate Stitcher. Upon receipt.7 Stitcher User Guide TM Autodesk Stand-Alone Licensing This guide provides information and instructions for managing an Autodesk standalone license on a single-user workstation. The license file stays on your workstation when you uninstall Stitcher. A stand-alone license allows you to run Stitcher on a single workstation. your activation code is automatically retrieved from Autodesk and Stitcher starts. the license information is still valid.

When the trial period expires. Student Portfolio A License for students who are using an Autodesk product as part of their curriculum. Permanent Allows permanent use of an Autodesk product. Educational (EDU)/Institution A license designed specifically for educational institutions. Term Extendable Allows access to an Autodesk product for a limited period of time. . License behaviors Trial A license that allows individuals to try the product in trial mode for a specified number of days. registering and activating Stitcher. Not for Resale A license for a product that is not sold commercially. License usage types Commercial A license for a product that was purchased commercially. The trial period starts the first time you launch your product.8 Chapter 1 Introduction Manage Your Stand-Alone License This section provides information about advanced stand-alone licensing tasks such as license types and behaviors. and moving a license. viewing product information. The term can be extended at any time. the product must be registered and activated in order to continue use. Check Product Information You can view detailed information about Stitcher and your license (such as the license usage type and the license behavior). updating your serial number. saving your license file as a text file.

2 From the Help menu. click OK. The term cannot be extended. click About Stitcher.9 Stitcher User Guide TM Term Non-Extendable Allows access to an Autodesk product for a limited period of time. view details about your product and product license. . 3 In the About Stitcher window. View Product Information You can view detailed information about Stitcher and your product license. To view product information 1 Launch Stitcher. 4 In the About Stitcher window. such as the license usage type and the license behavior.

4 Click Activate. Your valid serial number is located in the Autodesk Upgrade and Licensing Information email you received when you purchased or upgraded Stitcher online. For other products to display the serial number. right-click the product icon. 6 Exit Stitcher and restart for the updated activation to take effect. . To update your serial number 1 Launch Stitcher. contact the Autodesk Business Center (ABC) at 800-538-6401 for assistance. NOTE If you have lost your serial number. and click Run as an Administrator. you need to update them from the Help menu. you are asked for the product serial number. enter your product serial number.10 Chapter 1 Introduction Update Your Serial Number If you installed Stitcher with the trial serial number (000-00000000). only the first product you register and activate displays the updated serial number. 3 In the Stitcher Activation window. you should update that trial serial number with a valid serial number. which gets automatically updated upon completion of the activation process. exit the product. NOTE To see the updated serial number in Vista. you need to be logged into the system with Administrator rights. When you register and activate Stitcher. NOTE In order for the updated serial number to display. If you have a multi-product bundle of software that uses a single serial number. 2 Select Help > Activate. 5 Click Close.

Your registration data can be submitted by email. enter your user account information and click Next. or phone (Americas only). your activation code is sent back to you by email or fax. Once registered. You can register and activate Stitcher either when you start the program or while you are running Stitcher. To activate Stitcher 1 Launch Stitcher 2 Select Help > Activate 3 In the Stitcher Activation dialog box. the activation process is greatly simplified. This process allows you to create one or more password protected user accounts that can be accessed when activating any Autodesk product(s). There are two ways to register and activate Stitcher: Online and Offline. 5 Restart Stitcher for the activation to take effect. Online Registration and Activation Online registration and activation requires that you have Internet access.11 Stitcher User Guide TM Register and Activate Stitcher Before you can activate the license for Stitcher. you can still register and activate Stitcher offline. 4 Onscreen instructions will inform you of registration and activation status. you need to go through the registration process. Click Close. fax. Offline registration and activation is necessary under the following conditions: An online request has timed out . Within two business days. Offline Registration and Activation If online registration and activation is not possible.

Click Next. 5 If you want to print a copy of your registration information. If you choose Send My Request by Email. an email message will display for you to complete. . You will be sent your activation code by the method you specified on the Customer Information page.email. 4 Review your personalization data on the Customer Information page and choose the method you’ll use to submit your request. the Contact Autodesk page will display with pertinent contact information. When you are finished. If you choose to forward your request by fax or phone. fax. specify the following: Whether Stitcher will be registered to a company or individual. the Register Today’s Connect to the Internet page indicates the reason why online registration and activation failed.12 Chapter 1 Introduction A processing error occurred such as an invalid serial number To register Stitcher offline 1 If you are unable to register online. you also need the previous Stitcher serial number. Whether the product is an upgrade. select the Select Open Activation Request Form. 2 On the Product Registration page. fax or phone. The country or region where Stitcher will be used. Your request can be sent by email. Click the Use Another Method link. If it is. Click Next. click Close. 3 Enter your personalization data on the Customer Information page and choose how you’d like to receive your activation code . or postal mail.

2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects .

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Toolbar: The Toolbar contains a set of contextual toolbars for working through the Stitcher five-phase workflow. it is shown next to the functions in the Main Menu.15 Stitcher User Guide TM The Stitcher Interface The Stitcher interface is composed of the following elements: Toolbar Main Menu Stitching Window Main Menu: If a shortcut is available. . The size of the sphere is determined by the focal length of the camera used to shoot your images. Stitching Window: The Stitching Window is the 3D environment that you use to build your panoramic view.

16 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects The 5-phase Stitcher Workflow 1 Load your image files (see “Phase 1: Loading images” on page 17 for the complete 2 3 4 5 list of the supported file formats). Phase 4. see “The interface” on page 71). If there are inconsistencies in your shots for which you will need to compensate. Stitch your images using the automatic stitch function. Phase 3. Automatically stitch the images (see “Stitching images” on page 105). Phase 2. Render and export the final panorama (see “Rendering Your Project” on page 149). Equalize the lighting or brightness (see “Equalizing images” on page 139). Load images into the project (for detailed information. Align the viewing horizon. Stitcher can compensate for contrast in the lighting between the stitched images and automatically make the lighting in the panorama more uniform. depending on how your images were loaded before the auto-stitch command was executed). . or flip it upside down (or the right way up. Sticher can center the panorama automatically. Phase 1. Phase 5. Equalize the brightness of your panorama. you can manually stitch or forcestitch your images. Automatically align the viewing horizon (see “Setting the horizon in the Align Panorama mode” on page 133). Render your panorama into a variety of formats for external publication.

The Load Images browser opens. 2 Select one or more image files to load.17 Stitcher User Guide TM Phase 1: Loading images All images used in a panorama must be the same size in pixels (height and depth). Stitcher reads any EXIF data in the images and displays the information for you to keep or edit (the edited values are only used by Stitcher . and they must be shot with the same focal length. 3 Click Open to load the images in the Stitcher Thumbnail View.the EXIF data in the images remains the same). To load your images: 1 Click Load Images . .

Click No to open the EXIF data properties box and edit the settings. TIP Select Edit > Properties to change your data settings (such as the focal length) at any time after loading the images into your project.18 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects TIP Alternatively. drag the images directly from Explorer (Windows) or Finder (Mac) into the Stitching Window. . 4 Stitcher reads the EXIF information in the images and asks whether you want to keep the settings. Click Yes to keep the EXIF data settings.

the left TIP Click an image in the Thumbnail View and drag it to the left or right to scroll quickly your loaded images.19 Stitcher User Guide TM Working with thumbnails When you first load images into your project. not stitched. it changes to arrows and you can drag the view to the size you prefer.when you move the cursor over the top of the Thumbnail View. As you place and stitch more images in the Stitching Window. If you have a large number of images loaded into your project. By default. and view information about it. In the Thumbnail View you can select an image. a horizontal slider appears below the thumbnails to allow you to scroll through them. modify its rotation. drag each image from the Thumbnail View into the Stitching Window. Indicators in the thumbnails display the status of the corresponding image in the Stitching Window (showing whether the images are stitched. they appear in the Thumbnail View. or manually stitched). To begin stitching your images together. the first image you put into the Stitching Window is centered and stitched in place. colored markers and lines in the thumbnails show you the status of images and the relationship between them. You can zoom in and out of the thumbnails by moving the vertical slider at the top of the Thumbnail View . You can also click or right arrows to move to the right or left end of the thumbnail list. Working in the Stitching Window The Stitching Window is the sphere in which your panorama is created. .

Press Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac) to add images to the selection. . To select an image.20 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Using the navigation controls. you can view your panorama as you place images in the Stitching Window and stitch them together. The selected image is highlighted. click the image. You can also set the camera orientation precisely with numerical values.

Center the selected image by selecting View > Look At or pressing =. Rotate the selected image by pressing Shift+right-click (Windows) or Shift+Ctrl+click (Mac) in the Stitching Window to designate the pivot point. you can: Move the selected image to overlap and align it with another so that you can stitch them together.21 Stitcher User Guide TM Before stitching images. .

or (if you have no images selected) you can change a panorama’s whole exposure value. 1 Load your images (see Phase 1: Loading images) 2 To determine how your exposures are stacked. you can have stacks in which to hold however many exposures you have for each shot. . do one of the following: Select HDR > Stack exposure by and choose the number of exposures (brackets) you have for your shots.22 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Create and Organize Stacks To create an HDR panorama (32-bit image). You can also shuffle each stack to change the exposure that is displayed on top.

right-mouse-click it and select HDR menu. either right-mouse click directly on the current thumbnail and choose HDR > Unstack Selection or from the HDR menu. select the stack. . you will have 18 images loaded.23 Stitcher User Guide TM TIP For example. then right-mouse click one of the thumbnails and choose Stack exposure by > Selection from the context menu. then select one of the following: Exposure UP Exposure DOWN Exposure RESET TIP To unstack images. Choose Stack exposure by 3 and Stitcher will automatically create 6 stacks of 3 adjacent images. if you have shots in 6 positions for your panorama. Select all the exposures you want to stack together. select Unstack Selection. with three exposures for each position. 3 To change the display image for a stack.

24 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects TIP Stitcher can load 32-bit images (EXR and HDR format) generated by external software and it can render the panorama either as a 32-bit image or a tone-mapped image. . For more information about 32-bit or tone-mapped images. see “Displaying HDR images” on page 64.

choose Re-adjust and re-align your images. click Stitching Window. TIP Press Tab to toggle between adjacent images and to check the quality of the stitching. then only the corresponding images are stitched. Stitcher assembles all images in the Semi-automatic stitching 1 After you load images. then all images are stitched. Press Ctl + P to preview the panorama. If you get a “Cannot adjust images. you need to add images to the Stitching Window and then place them as you want them before stitching them. Do you want to re-adjust it yourself?” message. If you do not select any thumbnails. . and you can begin to stitch another image. ensure that 15% of each image is overlapping with the image next to it. you drag them into the Stitching Window. To automatically stitch your images. 2 Move and rotate images so that they are aoverlapping and aligned with each other. If you select thumbnails. or only selected images. 4 If a green (by default) border appears around the image. Automatic stitching You can use the automatic stitching option to stitch all of the loaded images. For best results. 3 When you are satisfied with the alignment of the images. the image is stitched.25 Stitcher User Guide TM Phase 2: Automatic and Semi-Automatic Stitching You use the Stitcher automatic stitching or semi-automatic options to stitch your images together. either click or press Enter. . If you use the semi-automatic option.

do one of the following: Select Tools > Auto-Align Panorama. Use the navigation controls in the Render Preview window to select a viewpoint for QVTR renders. you can align it based on what appears in the Stitching Window. You can view your panorama upside down or correct your panorama’s rotation by selecting Tools > Flip Panorama. Click .26 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Phase 3: Alignment Before equalizing and rendering your panorama. To automatically align the panorama. . The alignment command is best used on a single row of at least three or four images.

adjust the equalization level settings and run the command again. NOTE You can undo an equalization command.27 Stitcher User Guide TM Phase 4: Lighting equalization If your images vary in their brightness or contrast. To automatically equalize the brightness setting in the panorama. do one of the following: SelectRender > Equalize All Images. Click . See “Equalizing images” on page 139 for more detailed information. you can use the Stitcher equalization process tomake the image lighting more uniform for the panorama. .

28 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Modifying exposure To change the exposure of the panorama. then select one of the following: Exposure UP Exposure DOWN Exposure RESET Exposure example 1 . make sure no image is selected and select HDR menu.

after changing the panorama’s exposure value. . DOWN.29 Stitcher User Guide TM TIP You can also change the exposure of the panorama by right-mouse-clicking anywhere in the Stitching Window and selecting Exposure UP. Exposure example 2 . or RESET.

This type of render is useful for creating images for the Web and for print. select Snapshot Image from the Type list in the Render Parameters dialog box.30 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Phase 5: Projection Types and Rendering The type of projection you choose to render your panorama depends on how it will be used (for example. . To choose a snapshot projection. So. film production. without deforming it. or product packaging) and whether or not you will edit the stitched images in an external graphics application. You can select from the following types of projections. use the cylindrical projection. reposition the image view in the Stitching Window. Be aware that what you see in the Stitching Window is what is rendered. If you are rendering more than five images. the Web. to adjust the content of your snapshot render. Snapshot projections work best for a maximum of four to five images. making the panoram look similar to a photograph. Snapshot projection The snapshot projection renders a flat map.

. To choose a cylindrical projection.31 Stitcher User Guide TM Cylindrical projection The cylindrical projection creates a cylinder that accurately shows a row panorama without distorting the top and bottom of the original image. select Cylindrical Image from the Type list in the Render Parameters dialog box. Be sure to reposition your view in the Stitching Window if you want to adjust the center of the cylindrical panorama. This projection is ideal for print or for creating Internet banners. Zoom in or out to adjust the height of the images in the projection.

To choose a cubical projection. top. left. Using this type of projection. back. Cubical renderings are particularly good for rendering backgrounds in 3D scenes and for producing Cubic QTVR movies that you will edit in external graphics applications. .32 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Cubical projection The cubical projection creates six images that correspond to the six sides of a cube (front. your panorama will look as if it is being projected onto the inside surfaces of a cube. right. select Cubical Image from the Type list in the Render Parameters dialog box. and bottom).

spherical projection shows an entire 360°×180º panorama in a single image. . select Spherical Image from the Type list in the Render Parameters dialog box.33 Stitcher User Guide TM Spherical projection Like cubical projections. Choose spherical projection to create: printed panoramas environment maps for 3D packages JPG files to be used by Java spherical viewers on the Web cubic QTVR movies that need to be modified as one image To choose a spherical projection.

select Cylindrical QTVR or Cubical QTVR from the Type list in the Render Parameters dialog box. respectively. These projections are useful for publishing your panoramas on the Web or inclusion on a CD-ROM.34 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection Cylindrical QTVR and Cubic QTVR projection types render cylindrical and cubical movies. which can be viewed in QuickTime. To choose cylindrical QTVR or cubic QTVR projections. .

. 2 In the Render Parameters dialog box. “Cylindrical projection” on page 31. The Render Parameters dialog appears. a file type (see “Snapshot projection” on page 30. “Cubical projection” on page 32. “Spherical projection” on page 33. and “Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection” on page 34) Set the image resolution (in pixels) by adjusting Width and Height. select the projection type. do the following: Browse to the directory to which you want to save your rendered projection. a filename (avoid special characters). 3 Click Render.35 Stitcher User Guide TM Rendering your panorama To render a projection: 1 Select Render > Render from the menu or click . From the type list.

Select File > Revert. when naming rendered files. Saving your project To save a project: 1 Select File > Save As from the main menu. click to re-save it. select the destination directory for your project and click Save. .36 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects TIP Avoid special characters such as & # * % ! “ / < > \ | and accented letters and spaces. 2 Enter a file name. The Save As dialog box opens. NOTE To revert to the last saved version of your project. TIP After you have saved your project once.

37 Stitcher User Guide TM Stitcher Command shortcuts Stitcher provides the following types of shortcuts: Contextual (shortcut) menus The contextual (shortcut) menus contain commands for the image or thumbnail in the Stitching Window. See “The 5-phase Stitcher Workflow” on page 16 for details. Keyboard shortcuts The keyboard shortcuts are shown next to the main menu commands or actions. The following table lists Stitcher project actions and their keyboard shortcuts: Action Auto-align panorama Detach image Equalize All Images Go Back to Horizon Load Images Shortcut A Backspace Ctrl+E (Windows) Command+E (Mac) H (Windows) or Command+H (Mac) Ctrl+L (Windows) Command+L (Mac) . To access the contextual menus: Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) in either the Stitching Window or on the thumbnails to open the contextual menu. The Toolbar The Toolbar contains icons for working through the Stitcher five-phase workflow. Essential shortcuts There are several shortcuts to help when you are using Stitcher.

(Mac) Ctrl+P (Windows) Command+P (Mac) Alt+Enter (Windows) Command+I (Mac) Ctrl+R (Windows) Command+R (Mac) Shift+right-click (Windows) Shift+Ctrl+click (Mac) Ctrl+S (Windows) Command+Shift+S (Mac) Ctrl+Shift+S (Windows) Command+S (Mac) Enter Alt+Ctrl+click (Windows) or +/.keys Command+click (Mac) .38 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Action Look At Maximize/ Minimize Live Preview Pan Preferences Proof Preview Properties Render Rotate (image) Save Save As Stitch image Zoom Shortcut = Spacebar Alt+click P (Windows) Command+.

39 Stitcher User Guide TM General Stitcher Operational shortcuts Action Change exposure Delete Duplicate Exit StitcherTM Flip panorama Focal length decrease Focal length increase Full Screen Select Bookmark Help Contents Live Preview Manipulate New Project Open Project Shortcut Shift+Page Up. Shift+Page Down Delete Ctrl+D (Windows) or Command+D (Mac) Alt+F4 (Windows) Command+Q (Mac) F Shift+(-) Shift+(+) Ctrl+Shift+F (Windows) Command+Shift+F (Mac) B (Windows) or Command+B (Mac) F1 (Windows) Command+? (Mac) Shift+L Click Ctrl+N (Windows) Command+N (Mac) Ctrl+O (Windows) Command+O (Mac) .

40 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects Action Open Template Prev/Next Image in Stencil Mode Redo the last action Reset the exposure Related menu Roll (panorama) Select All Set Bookmark Show/Hide Display Grid Show/hide image information Undo the last action Unstitch image Shortcut Ctrl+T (Windows) Command+T (Mac) Page Up/Page Down Ctrl+Y (Windows) Command+Y (Mac) Shift+Home Right-click (Windows) Ctrl+click (Mac) Alt+right-click (Windows) Ctrl+Alt+click (Mac) Ctrl+A (Windows) Command+A (Mac) Ctrl+B (Windows) Shift+Command+B (Mac) G (Windows) or Command+G (Mac) Shift+I Ctrl+Z (Windows) Command+Z (Mac) Shift+Enter .

2 Select an action from the Functions list (you will see a short description of the function). Click Assign to activate. To create and edit keyboard shortcuts: 1 From the Preferences dialog box. 3 If you want to change the shortcut. 4 Click Delete to clear the text field. Onscreen instructions will inform you about whether your chosen shortcut is free to use or not. Click Assign to activate the shortcut. click in the text field and enter your shortcut. the key combination is shown in the Current information field (no shortcut will be displayed if the action has not yet had one assigned to it). You can now define a new key combination for the shortcut in the blank text field.41 Stitcher User Guide TM Customizing keyboard shortcuts You can create and edit custom Stitcher keyboard shortcuts from the Preferences dialog box. If a shortcut has already been assigned. select Shortcut Management. Select Edit > Preferences. 5 Click Get Default Shortcut to reset the shortcut back to the original system value. . Click Assign to activate.

42 Chapter 2 Quick Start to Stitcher Projects .

3 User Guide .

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a panorama might consist of three rows of images. Capture an image. This not only prevents parallax. use a tripod and panoramic pan head for capturing panoramas. Whenever possible. Recommended equipment You can use any high-resolution digital camera. Make sure the images are scanned at the same resolution and size in pixels. Each row of images consists of 12 shots. If you use a traditional camera. Bottom Row: Tilt the camera down by –45°. Continue capturing images at 30º increments until the row is complete.45 Stitcher User Guide TM Shooting photographs The following sections provide guidelines for photo shoots that will help achieve the best results in Stitcher. Here is an outline of the procedure: Top Row: Tilt the camera up +45° and capture an image. For example. you also need to capture rows of images with the camera tilted up and down. Middle Row: Level the camera to 0° pitch. in addition to capturing images in a 360° circle as you normally would to make a panorama. Rotate the pan head by 30° and capture another image. Capture an image. The images in each row are captured at 30° increments: . Continue until the row is complete. Rotate the pan head by 30° and capture another image. but also ensures sufficient overlap between images. Rotate by 30° and capture another image. either scan or have a photo lab digitize images to transfer them to your computer. Continue until the row is complete. Planning your shots To capture a full 360° × 180° view of the scene you need to capture your images in rows. That is.

Figure A (side view) shows three rows of images captured at –45°. 0°. The number of images. +45° pitch and figure B (top view) shows 12 images per row captured at 30° increments. This creates a total of 36 images.46 Chapter 3 User Guide The top row is captured with the camera tilted up at 45° pitch. . The middle row is captured with the camera leveled at 0° pitch. The bottom row is captured with the camera tilted down at –45° pitch. rows. and spacing needed to capture a panorama depends on the FOV of the lens being used.

six images every 60° at –30° pitch. eight images every 45° at 0° pitch.. eight images every 45° at +60° pitch. eight images every 45° at –60° pitch. one image at –90° pitch Focal length 17 mm Image FOV Images required 18 . six images every 60° at +30° pitch. one image at –90° pitch Focal length 20 mm Image FOV Images required 26 Image layout One image at +90° pitch. Focal length 15 mm Image FOV Images required 14 Image layout One image at +90° pitch. You can use this information as a guide when planning your shots.47 Stitcher User Guide TM The tables below show the approximate FOVs for some common lenses and the number of images needed to capture a full 360° × 180° view.

nine images every 40° at –50° pitch. one image at –90° pitch Focal length 28 mm Image FOV Images required 32 Image layout One image at +90° pitch. ten images every 36° at 0° pitch. one image at –90° pitch Focal length 24 mm Image FOV Images required 29 Image layout One image at +90° pitch.48 Chapter 3 User Guide Image layout One image at +90° pitch. ten images every 36° at –45° pitch. eight images every 45° at –30° pitch. nine images every 40° at +50° pitch. one image at –90° pitch . eight images every 45° at +30° pitch. nine images every 40° at 0° pitch. ten images every 36° at +45° pitch.

The number of images you need to take to achieve 30% overlap will depend on the FOV of the lens you are using. 12 images every 30° at +60° pitch. . Wide-angle lenses are usually preferred for capturing spherical panoramas because they reduce the total number of images required. 12 images every 30° at –20° pitch. 1 at –90° pitch Photograph overlap Stitcher requires an overlap of about 30% between adjacent images. one image at–90° pitch Focal length 8 or 10.5 mm (fisheye lens) Image FOV Images required 3-8 depending on the camera Image layout 3 or 6 images at 0 pitch.49 Stitcher User Guide TM Focal length 35 mm Image FOV Images required 50 Image layout One image at +90° pitch. 1 at +90° pitch. 12 images every 30° at –60°. 12 images every 30° at 20° pitch.

capture a shot straight up to make sure you get complete coverage of the scene. You may need to try capturing a panorama without using a tripod or pan head. you ensure that the upper region of the panorama blends well with the images that compose the topmost row. By taking a shot straight up. In figure A. If the tripod is visible in some of your shots. Keep the camera at the same height it was when mounted on the tripod. without the tripod. To guarantee good results from a handheld panorama. in most cases you will also want to capture one image straight up (+90°) and one straight down (–90°). you can remove it using the Stencil Tool (see “Stencils” on page 126). These images will be stitched together just like all the other images in your panorama.50 Chapter 3 User Guide Shooting the panorama In addition to your rows of images. take a handheld shot straight down without the tripod. you should be aware of the following points: Use a wide-angle lens to reduce the number of images required Capture sufficient overlap between images . in figure B. Figures A and B demonstrate the technique for capturing straight up and down images. you can eliminate the tripod from your scene. Taking a shot straight up will also guarantee that your panorama does not end up with a hole (black space) at the zenith. By capturing a handheld shot downward.

Reducing parallax will ensure that the images stitch properly. This is to ensure that the images blend together seamlessly in the final panorama. If you are scanning film. Set your camera to manual exposure and manual focus and make sure the white balance setting is not on automatic mode.51 Stitcher User Guide TM Avoid parallax. Do not pivot the camera around your body .this will cause parallax between images. all images in your panorama should be shot consistently. Figures A and B below demonstrate the handheld shots technique for reducing parallax: Figure A shows the incorrect position. Camera settings To achieve optimal results. try to pivot your body around the camera (as opposed to standing in the same spot and pivoting the camera around you) The goal is to photograph the scene while keeping the camera at the same point in space. Figure B shows the correct position. and pivot your body around the camera. Tips for taking shots Avoid the following when you take your shots: Trees with moving leaves Blue skies without clouds or with moving clouds . be sure to scan each image using the same settings. When you reposition the camera for each shot. Keep the camera in the same place.

if you have white walls and ceiling. Also. In this situation it is best to try to shoot HDR images (see “Loading HDR images” on page 80) . interior panoramas could have stark lighting natural lighting contrast between the backs of rooms and windows.52 Chapter 3 User Guide Zooming between your shots In interiors. incr ease the overlap to have he more textures in common.

2 Select the project that you want to open. Select File > Revert. To open a project: 1 Do one of the following: Select File > Open. Click 3 Click Open. . 2 Enter a file name. do one of the following: Select File > New. NOTE To revert to the last saved version of your project.rzs (Windows). To start a new project. Any Stitcher session can be a project and can be saved withSelect the file extension *. click to re-save it. TIP When you have saved your project once. Click . The Save As browser opens.53 Stitcher User Guide TM Stitcher projects A Stitcher project is any set of stitched images. To save a project: 1 Select File > Save As. NOTE Select File > Recent Files and choose from the four last saved files (Windows). . select the destination directory for your project and click Save.

color adjustment. . you can: Define Stencil regions for images that contain artifacts (see “Stencils” on page 126). Define hotspots (see “Hotspots” on page 141). During the workflow. For more information. including removal of artifacts. Align the panorama (see “Aligning the panorama” on page 133). see “The 5-phase Stitcher Workflow” on page 16. and the creation of hotspots for the Web. Close the panorama (see “Closing the first row of a panorama” on page 120).54 Chapter 3 User Guide The Stitcher workflow The Stitcher workflow takes you through the stages to create a panorama. Drag images and stitch them together using automatic stitching (see “Automatic stitching” on page 105). Render and export the final panorama (see “Rendering Your Project” on page 149). Run the luminosity correction tool (see “Equalizing images” on page 139). Adjust the camera regularly (see “Evaluating focal length” on page 117).

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Preferences
You can set various project and display preferences in the Preferences dialog. For example, in the Colors page, you can change the default colors of the interface and in the Display page, you can define the thumbnail and maximum texture size. To show the Preferences dialog, select Edit > Preferences or press P:

Changes in the Preferences settings are automatically saved in an initialization file in the local settings folder. If you are running Stitcher from a network drive and you do not have permission to write on that drive, you will be prompted for a location to save the preferences file.

56 Chapter 3 User Guide

Setting the temporary files directory
Stitcher needs to create temporary files to operate. By default, these files use the default system temporary directory, but you can change it and choose specifically where you want to put the temporary files. To set the temporary files directory: 1 Select Edit > Preferences and select External Links. 2 Click Temporary files ... to set the temporary files directory. 3 Browse to the directory and click OK. Stitcher will automatically add a “RzTempFiles” folder to your selected directory. 4 Select Default to return to the default temporary file directory.

NOTE When you render a PSD or multi tiff file and you do not specify a temporary file directory, Stitcher creates these files in the same directory as your rendered files. Otherwise, your files will be saved in the specified temporary directory. You can also delete the temporary directory each time you close Stitcher by checking the Clean Temporary Files on Exit option.

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Setting the blending application
You can use an external tool for blending your images. To set the external blending editor:
1 Select Edit > Preferences and select External Links.

2 Click Blending Software ... to set the blending software directory. 3 Browse to the external blending editor (only Enblend (XBlend) and Smartblend are

supported). 4 Click Open. The external application is set.

Editing in an external application
You can edit your images in an external application before rendering by following a similar process as for blending. To set the external image editor:
1 Select Edit > Preferences. 2 Click the External Links tab. 3 Click Image Editor ... to set the image editor directory. 4 Browse to the external image editor. 5 Click Open. The external application is set.

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Modifying the display of images
After you have loaded images into Stitcher (see “Loading images” on page 77), colored frames appear around the images as you select, move, and stitch them. These colors can be set in preferences. You can also have Stitcher move an image as a frame rather than redrawing the entire image. Or you can decrease the size of the texture, which reduces the amount of processing power required to redraw. You can also adjust the transparency of images to be able to see through them to better overlap and align them.
NOTE All of these modifications affect only the display of the images, not the images themselves.

Changing the frame color To change the frame color of a selected or stitched image:
1 Select Edit > Preferences:

2 In the Colors tab, select either: Stitched Frame, Selected Frame or Manual

Stitched Frame.
3 Pick a new color, then click OK to close the Color dialog. 4 Click OK to close the Preferences dialog.

or roll your view. but reduce the drain on processor performance. NOTE To retain the content of images. . zoom.59 Stitcher User Guide TM Moving images as a frame Moving images as a frame temporarily removes the content of the images to speed up the redrawing process as you move images or pan. change the texture size (see “Changing the texture size” on page 61).

60 Chapter 3 User Guide To move images as a frame: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. click Move As Frame: 3 Click OK. 2 In the Display tab. .

NOTE Reducing the texture size affects only the display and not the quality of the stitching or the rendered panorama. A low value gives better movement but lower definition. but performance suffers since large amounts of video memory are required to redraw the image. To change the texture size: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. 2 In the Display tab. Texture Size defines the image definition display quality as stored in the buffer of your video card. 3 Click OK. The default value is 512. select an option from the Max.61 Stitcher User Guide TM Changing the texture size The quality of display depends on the resolution of your images and the quality of your graphics card. Texture Size drop-down list: NOTE Max. The higher the resolution. . the better the display quality.

62 Chapter 3 User Guide Changing the Stitching Window background color The background appears gray by default. . The Preferences dialog appears. NOTE If you want to change the color of the Stitching Window in either the Hotspot. To change the Stitching Window background color: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. 4 Pick a new color. Close Panorama. then click OK. 3 Click the Stitching Window box to show the Color dialog. click the Interactive Modes box. 5 Click OK to close the Preferences dialog. or Align Panorama modes. 2 Select Colors.

reduce the value in this field. A value of 1 gives an opaque image. 2 Select Display. To adjust the transparency of images: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. and then enter a value between 0 and 1 in the Blending field.63 Stitcher User Guide TM Adjusting the transparency of images Adjust the transparency of images to be able to see through them. To reduce the opacity of the image. 3 Click OK. .

Another way to display HDR images is to use a tone mapping algorithm. press Shift+HOME.e. an 8-bit image. Select at least one image and do a test to see if the calculating time is acceptable. i. If you want to go back to the initial. NOTE Regenerating a large number of HDR image textures can take a long time. You will only see a subset of the image dynamics at one time. To be able to visualize this kind of image.64 Chapter 3 User Guide Displaying HDR images An HDR image cannot be displayed correctly on modern monitors because the image dynamics are too large. Changing the exposure You can change the exposure of one or several selected HDR images or all HDR images if none are selected by pressing Shift+Page Up to increase the exposure and Shift+Page Down to decrease the exposure. . the entire dynamics need to be reduced to display only a part of them. You can set the exposure step in Preferences > HDR. which maps the entire HDR dynamics on a low dynamic image. WARNING If you want to display a 32-bit image. Stitcher uses a special feature of a computer’s video graphics card that is able to display 32-bit (HDR) images. which can be displayed on any monitor. You need at least 128 Mb of video memory. but you can change this subset. make sure that your video card is able to do so. You can change the display type in Preferences > HDR with the Display 32-bit images option..

snapshot) by right clicking in the Live Preview and choosing the mode. spherical. You can switch on the different modes (cubical. normal. You can resize the Live Preview by dragging the small arrows at the bottom left of the Live Preview. Another double-click takes it back to its original size. A double-click on the small arrows displays the Live Preview in full screen. or spherical panorama and the size of the preview window as small. Settings in the Preview page of the Preferences dialog determine the display of the Live Preview as either a flat cubic. . or large.65 Stitcher User Guide TM Displaying the Live Preview The Display Live Preview option in the Preview page of the Preferences dialog toggles the display of the Live Preview in the Stitching Window (press Spacebar as a shortcut). cylindrical. cylindrical.

you should set the Stitcher memory management preferences. Settings in the Memory page of the Preferences dialog determine the memory management.66 Chapter 3 User Guide Managing memory After installing Stitcher. .

The Undo Buffer holds data required to undo/redo actions. However. it will be helpful to decrease its value toward 0% to leave more memory for the render. Stitcher reserves some memory for its own internal use. This memory cache contains the input images. This slider takes this internal memory into account. The default setting should be sufficient for your projects. the number of actions is unlimited and the Undo Buffer can take up a large proportion of your system’s memory. To reduce the demand that the Undo Buffer makes on the memory cache. Select Edit > Undo or Edit > Redo to undo or redo the last action performed. but it is not recommended that you change this setting unless you are an advanced user. Managing the Undo Buffer In Stitcher. the Clear Undo Buffer on Save option in the Memory page of the Preferences dialog is checked by default.67 Stitcher User Guide TM Setting the Cache Size Use the Image Cache Size sliding scale in the Memory page of the Preferences dialog to set the maximum usage of your RAM by Stitcher. Sometimes before rendering. . This option flushes the Undo Buffer every time you save your project to disk.

To unselect all the images. NOTE To see the real time blending. The Render GPU Tile Size option allows you to define the size of the tiles you want processed by your GPU. The GPU can do real time blending of the stitched images in the Stitching Window and in the Live Preview if the Real Time Linear Blending is checked. press Shift+D. using the memory more efficiently. you can set the zoom and the size of the Magnifier display when you do a manual stitch: Setting the GPU preferences The GPU (Graphic Processor Unit) is the processor of the graphics card.68 Chapter 3 User Guide Setting the Manual Stitch Magnifier In the Other tab of the Preferences dialog. . no image should be selected. Images will be broken down into tiles so that the processor can render images in smaller pieces.

69 Stitcher User Guide TM The following image shows stitched images in the Stitching Window without GPU Real Time Linear Blending: .

The icon appears crossed ( ) if: the GPU Real Time Linear Blending option is disabled (Preferences > GPU) your graphics card’s GPU is not powerful enough also if you have one or more images selected .70 Chapter 3 User Guide The following image shows stitched images in the Stitching Window with GPU Real Time Linear Blending A appears at the bottom right of the Stitching window if your graphics card includes a powerful enough GPU.

.71 Stitcher User Guide TM The interface The Stitcher interface is composed of the following elements: Toolbar Main Menu Live Preview General Information Status Indicators Thumbnails Stitching Window NOTE Toggle Full Screen mode by going to Windows > Full Screen or press CTRL + Shift + F.

The size of the sphere is determined by the focal length of the camera you used to shoot your images. See “Stitcher Command shortcuts” on page 37 for more information about shortcuts.72 Chapter 3 User Guide The Main Menu The main menu contains all of Stitchers commands. The Toolbar The Toolbar contains a set of contextual toolbars for working through the Stitcher fivephase workflow (see “The Stitcher workflow” on page 54): The Stitching Window The Stitching Window comprises the entire Stitcher interface. The Stitching Window is the environment that you use to build your panoramic view. . Shortcuts available to main menu options are shown next to the function. NOTE Some main menu functions are available directly through toolbar icons.

. You can drag thumbnails to the Stitching Window to stitch them. the image thumbnails appear in the bottom half of the Stitcher interface. Status Indicators The and the symbols to the right of the Thumbnail View indicate the status of how you’re working with your image files and your panorama (the symbols are not shows whether displayed at all unless they’re relevant to what you’re doing). See “Phase 1: Loading images” on page 17 for more information. The you’re using your computer’s GPU for processing (see “Setting the GPU preferences” on page 68 for more information). and the shows whether you’ve aligned your panorama and locked your vertical and horizontal panning option (see “Setting the horizon in the Align Panorama mode” on page 133 for more information).73 Stitcher User Guide TM Thumbnail View When you load images.

To display or hide the general information box. do one of the following: Select View > Display > General Info From the Live Preview. . or click the white cross symbol to hide General Info. click the white plus symbol to display General Info.74 Chapter 3 User Guide General Information The General Information box provides useful image information right in the 3D working area (Stitching Window).

75 Stitcher User Guide TM The Live Preview The Live Preview window displays a cubic. or snapshot preview of your panorama in the top right corner of the Stitching Window: As you stitch and manipulate your images in the Stitching Window. Press the spacebar to toggle between full screen Live Preview and its original size. The Live Preview is a real time visualization of your working area according to the projection chosen. You can switch on the different modes (cubical. spherical. . Use the shortcut Shift+L to switch on/switch off the Live Preview. cylindrical. giving you an idea of your final panorama in real time. cylindrical. snapshot) by right-clicking in the Live Preview and choosing the right mode. spherical. the Live Preview also updates. You can resize the Live Preview by dragging the small arrows at the bottom left of the preview.

the Image Strip appears in the bottom half of the Stitcher interface when you select Window > Image Strip. Toggle the Image Strip display by selecting Window > Image Strip from the menu. To rearrange thumbnails in the Image Strip. To close the Image Strip. 4 Click OK to select it and close the Color dialog. To change the background color of the Image Strip: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. click Close in the left corner of the Image Strip (Windows) or the right corner (Mac). The Image Strip is also used with the smart blending function to find automatically the image containing the most information in the overlap area between the images. Double-click the left side bar of the Image Strip to undock it. 2 Click the Colors tab. 5 Click OK to close the Preferences dialog. . 3 Click on the Image Strip color box and select a new color.76 Chapter 3 User Guide The Image Strip As in previous versions of Stitcher. see “Modifying the display of thumbnails” on page 94. You can drag images from the Thumbnail View or the Image Strip to the Stitching Window and stitch them and undock the Image Strip to place it in the Stitching Window.

pic *.pgm.psd *. *. *.jpg. not applicable . *.jpeg *. *. *.ppm.cin *. n/a.exr *.tiff.tif *.iff.hdr *. Import formats Cineon# JPEG Maya® Image Files# OpenEXR Photoshop® Portable Network Graphics# Portable Pixelmap Radiance SGITM Image Files# Softimage® Picture Files Tagged Image File Format# Truevision Targa Windows Bitmap # Extension *.77 Stitcher User Guide TM Preparing images for stitching Loading images The first step when using Stitcher is to load the image files that Stitcher supports.pnm *.sgi.png *.tdi *.bmp 8-bit and 16-bit images.tga *.rgb *. *.

78 Chapter 3 User Guide Images must be the same size in pixels and the same pixel depth. The image files are highlighted. To load your images: 1 Do one of the following: Select File > Load Images. . They must have been shot with the same focal length. The Load Images browser opens: 2 Use the drop-down list of the Files of type (Windows) or Show (Mac) field to show only the image files of the type that you want to load. click one image file you want to load. or select All Files to view all the files in the folder. Click . then Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac) the other image files you want to load. 3 Select an image to load it or select more than one image file to load by doing one of the following: To load more than one image.

If Stitcher can read the EXIF data. Stitcher displays the images in the Thumbnail View and in the Image Strip. drag the images directly from Explorer (Windows) or Finder (Mac) directly into the Stitching Window. a popup appears asking you if the automatic choice is satisfactory. click No to edit the settings. If you want to stop loading images. When loading finishes. If not. NOTE The time taken to load images depends on the size of the images. TIP Alternatively. 4 Click Open to load the images into the Thumbnail View. press Ctrl+A (Windows) or Command+A (Mac). click Cancel in the Loading Images dialog. .79 Stitcher User Guide TM To load all images in the Load Images list. All images files are highlighted.

80 Chapter 3 User Guide Loading HDR images Stitcher can load high-dynamic range (HDR) images in the OpenEXR (.exr) is the same as for another format image. one with medium light intensity. the images are displayed as a tone-mapped version (8 bits) or a full 32-bit image. NOTE An icon images.exr) and Radiance (. The image displayed is at an intermediate exposure. You can then import the image into Stitcher.hdr) file formats. for example. The step is defined in the Preferences > HDR page. if you have checked in the preferences Read focal from EXIF data. Loading fisheye images When you load fisheye images. Depending on the display mode (see Preferences > HDR). one shot with dark light intensity. and another with high light intensity. The Properties dialog opens and you can then calibrate the fisheye image with the red circle (see “Fisheye images” on page 101). HDR images are created in a software such as Photomatix® from several photographs with various exposures. . appears in the bottom right corner indicating that the images are HDR Loading HDR image (.hdr or . The thumbnails are always displayed as a tone-mapped image. You can increase or decrease the exposure with Shift+PageUp or PageDown. the software tries automatically to calibrate the images and asks if you want to keep the setting or not.

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Setting the camera parameters
The camera parameters are modified using the Properties dialog. To open the Properties dialog, Select Edit > Properties. The Properties dialog opens in the Camera tab.

The Camera page represents the properties relevant to the camera with which you took your images. You need to choose the lens type that you used to take the shots: rectilinear, or fisheye circular or fisheye full-frame or sunex. Rectilinear is the default value (see “Fisheye images” on page 101 for information on full-frame and circular images). The Viewing Camera page allows you to modify your on-screen display. You can rotate and magnify your images. The Hotspot page allows you to link hotspots to any URL and define pan, tilt, and zoom parameters for a target panorama.

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Image resolution
The Properties dialog shows three read-only fields: Width, Height, and Ratio that describe the size of the loaded image. Ratio is the value of the width divided by the height. When an image is displayed on different screens, the aspect ratio must be kept the same to avoid stretching in either the vertical or the horizontal plane.

Relationship between image property values
Field of view (FOV) is determined by the focal length of the lens and the size of the film back. For instance, a 25 mm lens for a 24 × 36 camera would be exactly equivalent to a 50 mm for a 48 × 72 camera. The same lens produces a different FOV for different film back values. For example, the figure below shows the default film back and focal length values:

In the next figure, increasing the film back value decreases the focal length and increases the FOV. If you increase the focal length, but keep the same film back value, the FOV decreases:

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Rectilinear lens properties
If you choose rectilinear in the drop-down menu of the Camera Properties box, the following parameters can be set. Film back values The film back value is the size of your film. For instance, a Reflex camera has a film back height of 24 mm and a film back width of 36 mm. Digital cameras do not have film, but they have a CCD sensor that plays the same role. However, to be able to compare the focal length of the lenses, this value is converted to an equivalent film back size. The default settings for Stitcher film back height and width values are 24 mm and 36 mm, respectively. You can change these values according to your project.
NOTE Modifing these values is not recommended unless you are an advanced user.

Focal length The focal length is the distance from the lens to the film back. When you load an image, Stitcher assigns the focal length defined in the Preferences dialog. The focal length value has a direct effect on the angle and the size of the sphere in the Stitching Window: a larger focal length gives a larger sphere size. You may want to change the focal length if you have an idea of its value, but in most cases, you can run Adjust Camera Parameters and Stitcher will calculate it for you (see “Evaluating focal length” on page 117). To change the focal length:

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1 In the Properties dialog, set the Focal Length parameter type to Fixed if you know

the exact value. If you do not know the exact value, select Initialized and Stitcher will estimate the parameter value. 2 Enter a value in the Focal Length field and press the Tab key on the keyboard. As the focal length and the angle are proportional, Stitcher automatically computes the values in the text field degrees and adjusts your images.
NOTE If you prefer to work with the Viewing Angle, you can modify this value directly. The focal length in millimeter will be calculated automatically by Stitcher.

The default focal length is set in the Preferences dialog. If camera information is available for the images, you can select the Read Focal from EXIF data checkbox and Stitcher will initialize the focal length value for each new project:

The parameters can change from one panorama to another. select Initialized. taking distortion into account improves the accuracy of the camera calibration. However. the sensor is not usually exactly centered with the camera axis. NOTE The parameters are calculated automatically when the camera is adjusted. Zoom lenses may typically exhibit a positive linear distortion at their shortest focal length and a negative one at the longest focal length. the adjustment is specific to each project. . In modern digital cameras. To change the sensor shift values: 1 If you know the exact value for the Sensor Shift select the parameter type Fixed from the drop-down list.85 Stitcher User Guide TM Sensor shift values The sensor shift value helps to compensate the displacement of the sensor with regard to the optical center of the lens. the edges of the box are rarely perfectly straight and the center of each side of the image will bow slightly inward or outward. calibrate them first (see “Stitching highly distorted images” on page 116). Otherwise. The default value is set to no distortion. In this case. Distortion values Lens distortion causes straight lines in images to appear curved. TIP If your images are too distorted. If a picture is taken of a square that almost fills the film area. the distortion edit field shows the residual distortion that calibration failed to correct. 2 Enter a value in the x and y fields to set the displacement and press the Tab key on the keyboard.

2 Uncheck the View Distorted Images option to display images without distortion: NOTE If you choose fisheye lens in the drop-down menu of the Camera Properties box. 2 Enter a value in the Distortion field and press the Tab key on the keyboard. The Preferences dialog appears with the Display tab shown. select Initialized. and the values are shown in the Properties dialog. To toggle distortion display: By default. . the images are displayed with their own distortion. you can display the images without any distortion. Otherwise. Even without changing these values.86 Chapter 3 User Guide To change the distortion value: 1 If you know the exact value for the Distortion select the parameter type Fixed from the drop-down list. 1 Select Edit > Preferences. see “Fisheye images” on page 101 for information on full-frame and circular images.

87 Stitcher User Guide TM Fisheye lens properties Before stitching fisheye images. and the circle center. you need to define the camera lens type and the associated properties: the radius. Fisheye Circular or Sunex. the distortion. Radius. and Distortion values are updated accordingly. NOTE An appears in the Stitching Window signifying that you are in Fisheye Mode. The Circular. The camera parameters are modified using the Properties dialog. the angle. Change the option to either Fisheye Full Frame. 1 Click on an image and Select Edit > Properties to open the Properties dialog: The Camera page represents the properties relevant to the camera with which you took your images. Angle. . 2 The default setting in the Camera Lens Type drop-down list is Rectilinear.

The Adjust Camera Parameters. To set the focal length: 1 Select Edit > Properties. for example. A flat stitch is a series of images.88 Chapter 3 User Guide Flat stitch properties The Stitcher engine works best on images taken in the same plane. Align Panorama. you should set the Focal Length status in the Properties dialog to Flat Stitch. . before stitching any images. scanned images. and Hotspot Creation Mode options are disabled. This option is not available for fisheye lens. where the camera moves in parallel to the plane of the object being captured. NOTE You can only render flat images as a snapshot projection. This type of stitch can be simulated using images that have a very high focal length. However. 2 In the Camera page. select Flat Stitch from the Focal Length drop-down list: 3 Continue the stitch as usual. The stitching workflow is the same as for stitching images not taken on the same plane. Close Panorama.

89 Stitcher User Guide TM Manipulating images The Stitching Window is a sphere and as you place and stitch images. lines. You can also set the camera orientation precisely with numerical values. stitched. you can look around in it by using navigation controls. colored frames. Indicator markers Indicator markers in the thumbnails display the status of the corresponding image in the Stitching Window: 16-bit image unstitched. About thumbnail lines and markers As you work with images. and markers show the status of images and the relationship between them. or manual stitched image with psd stencil image with stencil polygon .

Force-stitched images . Manually stitched images .Force-stitched images have an orange indicator marker in the corresponding thumbnails (see “Manual stitching” on page 110).A green indicator marker indicates that the image in the Stitching Window is stitched (see “Changing the frame color” on page 58). . then the marker changes to green.Thumbnails that you select in the Stitching Window have a red indicator marker until you stitch the image. Unstitched images .Manually stitched images have a yellow indicator marker in the corresponding thumbnails (see “Manual stitching” on page 110).90 Chapter 3 User Guide Stitched images .

Images containing a stencil in the .91 Stitcher User Guide TM Stencils .psd file format have an indicator marker (see “Stencils” on page 126).A white indicator marker appears in the top right corner of the thumbnails of images containing stencil removal polygons (see “Stencils” on page 126). . psd masks .

92 Chapter 3 User Guide 16-bit images .When you load a 16-bit image. an indicator marker appears in the top right corner of the corresponding thumbnail. . indicator lines appear between the images in the Thumbnail View and in the Image Strip indicating that the images are stitched .the color of the line between images corresponds to the way the images have been stitched. Indicator lines As you stitch images in the Stitching Window.

2 To add other thumbnail(s) to the selection. Hold the Ctrl (Windows) or Shift (Mac) key and click to select multiple images. Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac) the selected image(s) you want to deselect.93 Stitcher User Guide TM Filtering thumbnails Right-click on an image in the Thumbnail View and select Show > All Unstitched. 3 To remove a thumbnails from the selection. 2 Do one of the following: Select Edit > Delete. Select Edit > Select All. then select Select All from the contextual menu. To delete one or more thumbnails: 1 Select the image(s) you want to delete (see “To select thumbnail(s):” on page 93). Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) in the Thumbnail View or the Image Strip. To select thumbnail(s): 1 Click a thumbnail to select it. Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) and select Delete Image from the contextual menu. To select all thumbnails. Stitched or Manual Stitched to filter the thumbnails to display only the images corresponding to the selected option in the Thumbnail View. Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac) another image. do one of the following: Press Ctrl+A (Windows) or Command+A (Mac). . Deleting thumbnails You can remove a thumbnail from a project by deleting it.

you can rotate images to change the orientation from landscape to portrait. That is. the original image as you shot it has a rotation of 0°. 2 Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) then select Rotate and choose the degree by which you want to rotate the thumbnail(s). . For example. To rotate thumbnails: 1 Select the image(s) you want to rotate (see “To select thumbnail(s):” on page 93).94 Chapter 3 User Guide Modifying the display of thumbnails You can rotate thumbnails to help visualize images and decrease the amount of time and effort you spend moving and aligning them in the Stitching Window. Images are rotated in relation to the original image.

colored markers and lines in the thumbnails show you the status of images and the relationship between them. As you place and stitch more images in the Stitching Window. By default.95 Stitcher User Guide TM Displaying thumbnail information Checking the Permanent Image Info option in the Thumbnail tab of the Preferences dialog (or pressing Shift+I) displays the image information as you move the pointer over the images in the Thumbnail View: Moving images to the Stitching Window To move images to the Stitching Window so that you can stitch them. the first image you put into the Stitching Window is centered and stitched in place. drag the corresponding thumbnails one at time into the Stitching Window. .

Selecting images in the Stitching Window Select one. click the image and it will become highlighted. you can adjust the transparency level or color of frames to make your work easier. click Edit > Select All or press Ctrl+A (Windows) or Command+A (Mac). You can navigate around the Stitching Window to see your images from different angles. To remove an image from the selection. You can also modify the display of the images. do the following: 1 Select one image. and you can select multiple images. images may take some time to redraw as you navigate in the Stitching Window. or all images in the Stitching Window. Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac) the selected image you want to add. Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac) the unselected image you want to add. Do the following to improve performance: Decrease the maximum texture size (see “Changing the texture size” on page 61). Improving redraw performance Depending on the number and complexity of your images and the type and quality of your graphics card. 2 To add an image to the selection. some. The image is highlighted. . To select an image. for example. To select more than one image. To select all images. Set Stitcher to show only the frame of images as you navigate to significantly speed up the display (see “Moving images as a frame” on page 59).96 Chapter 3 User Guide Working in the Stitching Window The Stitching Window is where you move and rotate images so that you can align them then stitch them together.

. 2 Drag the image to the position you want. you can move them to overlap and align them so that you can stitch them together. To move an image: 1 Select the image (see “Selecting images in the Stitching Window” on page 96).97 Stitcher User Guide TM Aligning images in the Stitching Window Before stitching images. You can also adjust the position of the image with the keyboard arrows and Shift+arrows to rotate it.

3 Drag to rotate the image around that point. When you rotate an image. NOTE If you have not defined a pivot point. You can also adjust the position of the image with the keyboard arrows and Shift+arrows to rotate it. 2 Press Shift+right-click (Windows) or Shift+Ctrl+click (Mac) in the Stitching Window to designate the pivot point. . the image rotates around the center of the image. moving the image to match one detail or another. you move it around a pivot point.98 Chapter 3 User Guide Rotating images in the Stitching Window Before stitching images. you can rotate them to overlap and align them so that you can stitch them together. A pivot point is the exact point around which something rotates or swings. To rotate an image: 1 Select the image (see “Selecting images in the Stitching Window” on page 96).

To display the pivot point: Select View > Display > Pivot Points. Centering images in the Stitching Window The first image you place in the Stitching Window is centered.99 Stitcher User Guide TM TIP To have better control. . 2 Do one of the following: Select View > Look At. To center a selected image: 1 Select the image (see “Selecting images in the Stitching Window” on page 96). Stitcher automatically centers an image immediately after it is stitched. To change the pivot point: Press Shift+right-click (Windows) or Shift+Ctrl+click (Mac) in the Stitching Window to designate the new pivot point. Press =. To disable this option: 1 Click Edit > Preferences. This saves you from having to pan after stitching an image. and you can set Stitcher so that it automatically centers an image. You can quickly center any selected image. move the pointer horizontally first away from the pivot point.

select View > Set Bookmark from the main menu. select View > Select Bookmark. 3 Click OK. To bookmark the current viewpoint. modify the viewpoint. 3 If needed. Bookmarking the current viewpoint You can bookmark a viewpoint.100 Chapter 3 User Guide 2 In the Display tab. and revert back to the bookmarked viewpoint. Setting the camera orientation To set the camera orientation: 1 Click Edit > Properties. and Z-axes. . Type a number between 1 and 179. To Select the bookmarked viewpoint. enter numerical values for the X-. Y-. 2 Click the Stitching Camera tab and in the Rotation fields. uncheck the “Look At” After Stitch option. set the Viewing angle in degrees.

allowing you to shoot a panorama faster and easier. and have considerable barrel distortion. as much as 180 degrees. A wide field of view reduces the total number of images you must take to complete the panorama.101 Stitcher User Guide TM Fisheye images Stitcher is designed to stitch images captured with both rectilinear camera lenses and fisheye lenses. vertical and diagonal FOV of 180 degrees that are projected as a circle within the film frame. Types of fisheye images Stitcher supports both circular (including sunex) and full-frame fisheye images: Circular: images with a horizontal. . Fisheye lenses are designed to capture a very wide field of view. The straight lines at the edges of a panorama appear to curve around the center of the image. The fisheye image contains black borders. Fisheye images are shots taken with an extremely wide-angle lens. Why use a fisheye lens? Fisheye lenses are used to create wide-angle perspectively corrected image.

distorted image. when the EXIF data are missing or when the images do not contain enough information.102 Chapter 3 User Guide Full frame: images with a FOV of 180 degrees from corner to corner diagonally that fill entire rectangular image with a curvy. Stitcher will try to automatically calibrate your fisheye lens. The fisheye image does not contain black borders. you will need to calibrate your fisheye lens manually. 1 Click Calibrate Fisheye Lens in the Properties dialog. . for example. But in some cases. Calibrating fisheye images Normally if you have selected Read EXIF data in the Preferences dialog.

Drag the border of the circle to increase or decrease the diameter of the circle. The two crosses are not necessarily in the same position: 2 Adjust the circle as required: Zoom in and out of the image. two crosses define the center of the circle (red) and the center of the image (blue). You must zoom in before you can pan. . Pan in the image. For full-frame fisheye images. the circle should pass through each corner of the image. Holding down the Shift key while you drag will constrain the center of the circle.103 Stitcher User Guide TM A window opens where you can calibrate the image: The circle allows you to crop the image in to delete unnecessary information. To guide you when placing the circle in the center.

you can stitch your images in the same manner as for rectilinear images (see “Automatic stitching” on page 105). You do not need to calibrate each image separately. you should adjust the circle to further crop the image. 3 Click OK to validate the settings. Now. NOTE Each time you modify the calibration by adjusting the circle. Click Cancel to revert to the default settings. You should calibrate your lens before stitching your images or any other operation. . A pop-up dialog asks you to confirm that you want to re-initialize the working area. If a black border appears in the 3D view or the rendered image. all images are calibrated automatically. Stitcher re-initialize the entire project and clear your working area.104 Chapter 3 User Guide NOTE When you calibrate one image.

If you have a wideangle lens. . If necessary.105 Stitcher User Guide TM Stitching images After you have loaded images. You can also calibrate your lens and save the lens parameters (see “Saving a camera profile” on page 123) and then automatically load the camera profile into the current or new project (see “Loading a camera profile” on page 123). Stitcher allows three types of stitching: Automatic stitching: Stitcher allows automatic stitching of all or a selection of images (see “Automatic stitching” on page 105). Manual stitching: By placing points on images. select the thumbnails (see “To select thumbnail(s):” on page 93) and click . Automatic stitching Stitcher allows automatic stitching of all or a selection of images. Stitcher assembles all images in the Stitching Window. Semi-automatic stitching: when you have loaded images. Stitcher assembles and stitches the selected images in the Stitching Window. you should calibrate your project before starting the auto-stitch (see “Stitching highly distorted images” on page 116 and the High Distortion tutorial). calibrate the high distortion before stitching. place them into the Stitching Window and stitch them together. place them into the Stitching Window and stitch them together (see “Semi-automatic stitching” on page 106). Stitcher matches these points when stitching the images (see “Manual stitching” on page 110). NOTE Automatic stitching does not calibrate high-distortion images. click . To automatically stitch all loaded images. To automatically stitch a selection of images.

2 Move and rotate the images to overlap and align points in the images. 6 Close the panorama. you can stitch them together. 4 When you have created the first row of images. and zooming.106 Chapter 3 User Guide Semi-automatic stitching Here is an overview of the semi-automatic stitching workflow: 1 Drag images one at a time to the Stitching Window from the Thumbnail View or the Image Strip. stitch a complete row (360°) of images together first. In the following example. stitch them together. When you have placed at least two images in the Stitching Window and moved and rotated them so that features are aligned. rolling. you render the panorama (see “Rendering Your Project” on page 149). Then stitch subsequent rows. After you have stitched images together. 1 Move and rotate an image to overlap and align it approximately with another image by at least 15% (see “Aligning images in the Stitching Window” and “Rotating images in the Stitching Window” on page 98). Adjust your view of the inside of the sphere as you work by panning. For better results. 3 When images are aligned. the images overlap but do not match exactly: . 5 Repeat the steps above to stitch all images together. adjust the focal length of the images.

If you get a message. the image is stitched. or click the Stitch icon . Select the next step. Press Enter. . The images shown below show better approximate alignment: NOTE To gain a better understanding overlapping and the reasons for it. 2 When the images are aligned approximately. If a green (by default) border appears around the image. you need to match them reasonably closely in to stitch them. and you can begin to stitch another image. do one of the following: Click Stitch > Stitch Image. see “Overlapping and aligning images” on page 115.107 Stitcher User Guide TM Although you do not need to align images accurately. Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) the selected image then select SemiAutomatic Stitch.

TIP After stitching two images. This toggles the selection of the image and the adjacent image and shows the differences between the stitched images. Examples of when you might want to re-adjust a stitch are when images lack areas of overlap: . choose Re-adjust if you think you can better place the current photo or if you want to stitch the image manually. you can select one of the images and press the Tab button. to see if they are well stitched.108 Chapter 3 User Guide 3 If you get a message that says “Cannot adjust images. Do you want to re-adjust it yourself?”.

TIP You can try to improve the quality of the stitch by unstitching and restitching the images.109 Stitcher User Guide TM or slightly moving objects. such as a blue sky: You must place the image precisely. like the leaves in the trees: This method can also be used for featureless areas. you can do the following: Nudge pixel by pixel using the arrow keys. . denoted by a marker in the top right corner of the thumbnail in the Stitching Window. Rotate pixel by pixel around the pivot point by pressing Shift+arrow keys. To do so.

The Magnifier opens: . 1 Select two images with at least one already stitched in the Stitching Window. you might prefer to manually stitch the images. the first image in the Stitching Window is always stitched.110 Chapter 3 User Guide Manual stitching Although Stitcher can automatically or semi-automatically precisely stitch your photos. For information. 2 Click (Manual Stitch icon) or right-click and select Manual Stitch from the contextual menu to open the Manual Stitch window. In some cases. the other stitching methods could fail and you will need to manually tell Stitcher how to stitch images. 3 Click to add a marker in the first image.

You can configure the Magnifier in the Miscellaneous tab of the Preferences dialog (see “Setting the Manual Stitch Magnifier” on page 68). you can change the zoom ratio with the scroll wheel.111 Stitcher User Guide TM 4 Place a corresponding marker in the second image. pressing and holding Ctrl (Windows) or Command (Mac) while moving the cursor hides the Magnifier in the other image. . If you click Shift at the same time you can change the Magnifier window size. When clicking a point and holding the mouse button down. The Magnifier opens in both images: When placing markers on one image.

you can reopen the manual stitch dialog by selecting both images and repeating steps 3 to 7. To move marker. . 6 When enough points have been placed. The color is yellow by default. but it can be defined in the Colors tab of the Preferences dialog (see “Changing the frame color” on page 58). The points you placed already are preserved. click Stitch to stitch the images or Cancel to clear all markers and exit Manual Stitch mode. 7 If you are not satisfied with the stitch.112 Chapter 3 User Guide 5 Place at least three corresponding points in the two images: To delete a marker. select it by clicking on it and press Del. The stitched image is defined in the Thumbnail View and Image Strip by a colored thumbnail marker linked by a colored indicator line (see “Indicator lines” on page 92). select it and drag the pointer to a new location.

. you need to stitch sky images – blue on blue). NOTE To align images. This will stitch the images precisely as you have placed them and does not require any matching points to be set. nudge them pixel by pixel by pressing the arrow keys or rotate them pixel by pixel around the pivot point by pressing Shift+arrow keys. The stitched image is defined in the thumbnails and in the Image Strip by a colored border and a small colored square. 2 Do one of the following: Select Stitch > Force Stitch Image. or the images contain similar patterns. Right-click in the Stitching Window and select Force Stitch Image from the contextual menu. Force-stitching Images If you don’t have any matching points in your images (for example. TIP When you have finished stitching a panorama. To force a stitch: 1 Select the images to be stitched and place them in the Stitching Window precisely as you want them to be stitched together. you can still stitch the images using semiautomatic stitching (see “Semi-automatic stitching” on page 106) or manual stitching (see “Manual stitching” on page 110). which are indicated by an orange marker in the top right corner of the image in the Thumbnail View and the Image Strip.113 Stitcher User Guide TM If the automatic stitch fails because your project does not contain enough detail or light. you can overlap images and choose the force-stitch option. you can try to improve the quality of the stitch by unstitching and restitching the force-stitched images. Press Ctrl+Enter. You can edit the colors in Preferences.

you can modify it by choosing to unstitch some of the images. Unstitching images After an image is unstitched. or the Image Strip.114 Chapter 3 User Guide Unstitching. Press Backspace. it remains in the Stitching Window and you can move and rotate in and re-stitch it (see “Aligning images in the Stitching Window” on page 97). 2 Do one of the following: Select Stitch > Detach Image. 2 Do one of the following: Select Stitch > Unstitch Image. . and deleting images After stitching your panorama. the Thumbnail View. detaching and deleting images. 1 Select the image you want to unstitch (see “Selecting images in the Stitching Window” on page 96). 1 Select the image(s) you want to detach (see “Selecting images in the Stitching Window” on page 96). Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) anywhere in the Stitching Window and select Detach Image from the contextual menu. Click . Detaching images Detaching images removes them from the stitch but the thumbnails remain in the Stitching Window. Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) anywhere in the Stitching Window and select Unstitch Image from the contextual menu. Click . detaching.

Overlapping and aligning images Before you can stitch two images together you must move and rotate them so that they overlap by approximately 15% and have enough texture information to be stitched. For example. an image with a bare blue sky cannot be stitched to another image with a bare blue sky because of a lack of substantial texture data. so you cannot stitch it: Though the two images in the middle do overlap each other. . Tips for stitching images You can stitch and unstitch images in the Stitching Window. In the following example the image on the left has at least a 15% overlap with both the images in the middle. Press Delete on the keyboard. select it and do one of the following: Select Edit > Delete. You can stitch these images together. Detach an image to remove it from the Stitching Window.115 Stitcher User Guide TM Deleting images To delete an image from the current project. The image on the right does not have at least a 15% overlap with any of the other images. the texture information is not sufficient to stitch the images.

allowing you to create panoramas from them. After the calibration is done.116 Chapter 3 User Guide NOTE To reposition an image. align it approximately with the first image but do not stitch it. . Stitching highly distorted images With rectilinear images. Stitcher can undistort highly distorted images. 3 Select Tools > High Distortion > Calibrate to calibrate the highly-distorted lens. for example. see “Aligning images in the Stitching Window” and “Rotating images in the Stitching Window” on page 98. high distortion often appears in images with a low focal length. To calibrate highly distorted images: 1 Place the first image in the Stitching Window. all the images. both in the Stitching Window and in the Thumbnail View or the Image Strip are undistorted and updated automatically. images with a focal length of 24 mm or less. 2 Place the second image in the Stitching Window.

sensor shift. Click . . This option is not used for fisheye lenses. set the Focal Length. 3 Do one of the following: Select Stitch > Adjust Camera. Evaluating focal length Unlike most stitching software. Recalculating the focal length. Selecting a Fixed focal length and distortion disables the Adjust Camera function. and distortion for each image reduces the possibility of stitching errors. To adjust images: 1 Click Adjust Camera Parameters. When four images are stitched. Stitcher calculates both focal length and lens distortion. and recalculate again before rendering. Recalculate the focal length regularly (every five shots). 2 From the drop-down lists. and/or Distortion to Initialized in the drop-down list. the sensor shift is calculated automatically. To cancel the high-distortion calibration: Select Tools > High Distortion > Reset. you should recalculate the focal length. All the images are restored to their original state. NOTE The Reset option is only available if no more than one image is stitched. After stitching three or four image in your first row. Sensor Shift.117 Stitcher User Guide TM NOTE Stitcher cannot calibrate the highly-distorted lens if both images in the Stitching Window are stitched.

right-click an image and select Add EXIF info . Stitcher calculates the focal length. Stitcher doesn’t need a camera response curve. the radius. not an HDR. NOTE To render an image in a single exposure (no stacks. For fisheye images. tone-mapped image).118 Chapter 3 User Guide Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) anywhere in the Stitching Window and select Adjust Camera from the contextual menu. Calibrating the Camera Response Curve To render HDR images (32-bit images or tone-mapped images) from a bracketed set of images (a stack of exposures). Stitcher must be able to calibrate a camera response curve over the largest stack (the stack being used for calibration of the curve must contain at least 3 images). To calibrate your camera response curve: 1 Make sure you have at least one stack with three or more images in it If you need to add EXIF info. and distortion values are calculated. and/or distortion Initialized parameter values and adjusts all images in the Stitching Window in accordance with the new calculated values. angle. sensor shift.

Click OK 2 Select HDR > Camera Response > Calibrate Camera Response Curve .119 Stitcher User Guide TM TIP If you know the Exposure Value. Otherwise. Aperture and Speed values you used during your photo shoot. check EV and enter the value. enter the ISO.

it is preferable that the first image does not overlap it. Click . 2 Do one of the following: Select Stitch > Close Panorama.120 Chapter 3 User Guide Closing the first row of a panorama After you have stitched the last image. . you should increase the camera focal length in the Camera page of the Preferences dialog to increase the space between the first and last images. increase the focal length. In this case. You may find that while you are stitching the first row. you must close the 360° panorama. TIP Press Shift+(+) to quickly increase the focal length and Shift+(-) to quickly decrease it. you may not have enough space to place all the images. To close a panorama: 1 Stitch the last image in the first row of your panorama. in the Stitching Window. NOTE When stitching the last image in the row of your panorama. If so.

Click . . 4 Do one of the following: Select Stitch > Semi-Automatic Stitch. 3 Drag the last stitched image and roughly align it with the first image.121 Stitcher User Guide TM The Stitching Window background changes.

Stitcher closes the first row of the panorama. . NOTE To change the color of the Stitching Window background. see “Changing the Stitching Window background color” on page 62.122 Chapter 3 User Guide Press Enter to stitch the image.

For fisheye images.lens). the camera profile contains the focal length. Saving a camera profile Select Tools > High-Distortion > Save Camera Profile to save the camera profile as an XML file (*. NOTE You cannot load a camera profile if more than one image is stitched. you can select the Automatic Load Camera Profile checkbox in the Preferences > Camera dialog and Stitcher will use the camera data for the calculations. camera response curve and sensor shift parameters found by Stitcher. . you can save a camera profile and re-use the calibration result in another project. Loading a camera profile Select Tools > High-Distortion > Load Camera Profile to load the XML camera profile. When you save a camera profile.123 Stitcher User Guide TM Camera Profiles As the calibration process can take some time. and distortion values are saved. When you start a new project. NOTE As well as the camera distortion. the radius. you save the focal length and distortion of a highly-distorted lens. angle.

the Live Preview also updates. the Preview window opens showing a preview of the panorama. The Render Progress dialog opens allowing you to follow the progress of the proof render. The Live Preview The Live Preview window displays a flat cubic. then you may need to unstitch and restitch the image. you can quickly check the final quality with the Quick Preview or the Live Preview (see “The Live Preview” on page 75). NOTE When making a Quick Preview with an HDR project. defined in the Preferences dialog. NOTE If the results are unsatisfactory in the Quick Preview. do one of the following: Select Render > Quick Preview. .124 Chapter 3 User Guide Render preview If you have any doubts about the quality of the last stitch you performed. The current image properties are used for the render: To view a proof of your panorama. giving you an idea of your final panorama in real time (see “The Live Preview” on page 75). cylindrical. or spherical panorama of your project in the top right corner of the Stitching Window. Once the process has finished. try adjusting the images and proof preview it again. of the current viewpoint without setting any of the render setup parameters. Stitcher will create a 8-bit tonemap image of your preview. cylindrical. If the results are still not as you want. Press Ctrl+P (Windows) or Command+P (Mac). The Quick Preview The Quick Preview option allows you to run a snapshot. As you stitch and manipulate your images in the Stitching Window. or spherical render.

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The Stitching Window background changes color. For example. . The Stencil function can be used to remove such moving objects from a panorama. You can create: A stencil polygon in the Stitching Window (see “Creating a stencil polygon” on page 126). Creating a stencil polygon To create a stencil polygon: 1 Select an image in the Stitching Window by clicking on it and fit the selected image to the viewport.126 Chapter 3 User Guide Stencils Stencils let you isolate areas of an image as you apply effects to the rest of the image. and import it into Stitcher. 2 Click (Stencil icon) or select Tools > Stencil to enter the Stencil mode. if objects have moved between camera shots in the panorama. A polygon stencil in an external image editor. such as Photoshop® or Paintshop Pro® (see “Creating a PSD stencil” on page 130). You can create both PSD masks and stencil polygons in the same image. these objects will appear faded in the rendered panorama.

4 Click to add vertices.127 Stitcher User Guide TM The currently selected image is highlighted and the other images in the Stitching Window are transparent: 3 Double-click in the viewport to define the starting point of the polygon. The stencil follows the distortion of the image: polygon vertices .

Notice that a white indicator marker appears in the top right corner of the image in the Thumbnail View and the Image Strip. Remove Outside: only includes the part of the currently selected image inside the polygon in the final render. Preserve Inside: the part of the image inside the polygon of the currently selected image is preserved for the final render. click or select Tools > Stencil to exit the Stencil mode. stencil indicator marker 6 Right-click in the polygon to choose from the four types of polygon available in Stitcher that define the part of the panorama which is rendered: Remove Inside: excludes the part of the currently selected image inside the polygon from the final render. Preserve Outside: the parts of the image exterior of the polygon of the currently selected image is preserved for the final render. For more details. 7 Press Esc. see “About thumbnail lines and markers” on page 89.128 Chapter 3 User Guide 5 Double-click to finish the current polygon. Stitcher closes the polygon. TIP You can quickly delete a tripod from your final panorama by drawing a stencil polygon on an entire bottom image that does not contain the tripod and selecting Preserve Inside. NOTE Press S to hide the display of stencils that are not in the current image. . You can hide stencils to better view the overlapping areas between images. creating the stencil polygon.

enter the Stencil mode. Doubleclick to add a new vertex and drag it to a new location. Deleting stencil polygons To delete a stencil polygon(s) or a vertex or vertices of an stencil polygon. right-click again and select Paste from the contextual menu or press Ctrl+V (Windows) or Command+V (Mac). Moving stencil polygons Select a polygon(s) by clicking on it and drag it to a new location in the Stencil mode. The pointer changes shape. Press Delete on the keyboard. select it and do one of the following: Select Edit > Delete. Select another image. Press Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac). right-click in the polygon and select Copy from the contextual menu or press Ctrl+C (Windows) or Command+C (Mac). . do one of the following in the Stencil mode: Select a vertex or vertices of the polygon and drag it or them to a new location. and moving stencil polygons Selecting stencil polygons You can select a polygon or a vertex of a polygon simply by clicking on it in the Stencil mode. To select multiple polygons or multiple vertices of a polygon.129 Stitcher User Guide TM Selecting. Move the pointer over the edge of a polygon. Copying stencil polygons To copy a stencil polygon. duplicating. Changing the shape of stencil polygons To change the shape of a polygon. do one of the following: Select Edit > Select All to select all stencils.

the area that is not selected is “masked” or protected from editing. When you select part of an image. you can specify the number of pixels of the project’s polygons that you want to combine with the background image. you can create stencils. Creating a PSD stencil In an external image editor. . stored as grayscale channels. Stitcher ensures that at least three vertices remain. Blending polygons In the Rendering tab of the Preferences dialog. Enter a value in pixels in the Stencil Blending text field. that let you isolate areas of an image as you apply effects to the rest of the image.130 Chapter 3 User Guide NOTE When you delete several vertices of a polygon.

131 Stitcher User Guide TM NOTE The PSD stencil option is only available if the external editor is defined in the Preferences dialog: To create a stencil: 1 Right-click on a image in the Stitching Window and select Stencil from PSD from the contextual menu. Stitcher creates a copy of the image in the PSD format and automatically adds a stencil. The image opens in the external image editor: 2 Modify the stencil using the image editor’s tools. . you can use the lasso tool to create non-linear shapes or the opacity tool to adjust the transparency of an area of your image. For example.

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3 Save the image. Stitcher automatically detects the changes and proposes that you re-

reads the image on the disk. Click Yes to reload the image as a PSD file:

The thumbnail now contains a marker defining the image as containing a PSD stencil. Now then you move the image over another image in the Stitching Window, the area where you added a stencil is transparent.

Viewing stencils
When you come out of the Stencil mode, select View > Display > Stencils to display the both stencils and PSD masks in the Stitching Window.
NOTE You cannot edit stencils unless you enter the Stencil mode.

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Aligning the panorama
Before rendering the panorama, you can align the panorama to determine what you see in the final panorama. Stitcher aligns the panorama based on what is visible in the Stitching Window at the time you render the panorama. You can align the panorama by: Selecting Tools > Auto-Align Panorama to instruct Stitcher to automatically align the panorama. The alignment is best on a single row of three or four images. If the function aligns the images upside down, select Tools > Flip Panorama to right the panorama. Selecting Tools > Align Panorama and drawing horizontal and vertical lines that define the horizon. Note that the Align Panorama mode is not available when stitching images taken on the same plane (see “Setting the horizon in the Align Panorama mode” on page 133). Centering the panorama in the Stitching Window by pressing = (see “Centering a panorama” on page 135). Using the grid (see “Aligning the panorama using the Display Grid” on page 136). Using the Live Preview to adjust the position of the panorama in the Stitching Window (see “The Live Preview” on page 75). Using the navigation controls in the Render Preview window to select a viewpoint for QVTR renders.

Setting the horizon in the Align Panorama mode
To align the panorama:
1 To toggle the Align Panorama mode, select Tools > Align Panorama or click

.

A checkmark appears next to the option.

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2 Draw horizontal and vertical lines in the Stitching Window by clicking and

dragging the pointer.

These lines indicate horizontals and verticals in the panorama that will be used to calculate the horizon. A dotted line represents a horizontal. Verticals are drawn as solid lines. If you choose to align the panorama in the vertical plane, then you can draw as many vertical lines as you want. When you release the mouse pointer, the stitched images align according to the horizontals and verticals in the panorama. 3 If the results are unsatisfactory, re-adjust the line(s) by clicking and dragging the small squares at its ends. 4 Exit by selecting Tools > Align Panorama or pressing Esc or Enter to toggle off the mode. Once the horizon is set, Stitcher automatically checks the Constraint Pan option of the Properties > Viewing Camera dialog. The Align Panorama icon Window. appears in the bottom right corner of the Stitching

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NOTE To change the background color of the Stitching Window in the Align Panorama mode, see “Changing the Stitching Window background color” on page 62.

Panning relative to the horizon After you have set the horizon by aligning the panorama, the Constraint Pan option allows you to pan horizontally and vertically in the panorama relative to the horizon. To remove the constraint, either rotate the panorama or click .

Re-aligning the panorama with the horizon If you broke the alignment with a free pan or roll, you can re-align the panorama to the previous horizon by doing one of the following: Select Tools > Go Back to Defined Horizon. Press the H key (Windows) or Command+H (Mac). Stitcher re-aligns the current viewpoint to the last calculated alignment. If the horizon was not calculated previously, Stitcher takes the equator.

Centering a panorama
You can also set the horizon in relation to any image in the panorama. Select any image you want to center in the panorama and do one of the following: Select View > Look At. Press = to center it in the Stitching Window. Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) in the Stitching Window or the Thumbnail View and select Look At from the contextual menu. The view is repositioned to look directly at the selected image. When you render the panorama, this view is rendered.

2 Select Display. the display grid has a center point that you can position over a feature in the image.136 Chapter 3 User Guide Aligning the panorama using the Display Grid To ease manual alignment. . To show the Display Grid in the Stitching Window: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. 3 Check the Display Grid box to show the grid: 4 Click OK. The Display Grid appears in the Stitching Window to help you align the panorama along the grid’s horizontal and vertical lines.

137 Stitcher User Guide TM TIP Press G (Windows) or Command+G (Mac) to toggle the grid. .

then click OK to close the Color dialog. A greater value gives a finer grid: 3 Click Apply. 2 Select Colors. 5 Click OK to close the Preferences dialog. 2 Type a new value in the Grid Step text field. To change the color of the Display Grid: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. 3 Click the Grid / Tools color box and change the color. .138 Chapter 3 User Guide To change the Display Grid 1 Select Edit > Preferences. 4 Pick a new color.

139 Stitcher User Guide TM Equalizing images Equalization is the process of balancing the level of brightness among images. Equalize images if your shots vary significantly in brightness. To equalize images: 1 Select Edit > Preferences. Re-applying equalization with the same parameters does not change results. Typically this happens with exterior shots taken through 360° with different exposure settings as a result of differing levels of light around the scene. NOTE Equalization is a global process. Stitcher blends the different images to give a smooth progression from one image to the next. For example. if a cloud moves across the sky and into your scene just as you shoot. The Preferences dialog appears with the Display tab shown. If the brightness is perfectly balanced.equalization is not available when working with 32-bit images. You cannot equalize images in an HDR project . . you don’t need to equalize. the photographs will have different levels of light. Equalization does not have to look perfect in the Stitching Window to achieve good results.

3 Enter an Equalization Factor value between 0 and 1. Achieving the level you would like is a matter of preference. the closer the brightness is to the original level. the more equalized the images. blurry zones that appear in the images in the Stitching Window will be corrected during the rendering process. or click . 4 Click OK. and you may need to readjust the number later in this process. 5 Select Render > Equalize All Images from the main menu. The larger the number. . 6 If you are satisfied with the effect of the equalization.140 Chapter 3 User Guide 2 Select Rendering. If equalization has produced little effect or if images are too bright or too dark. you can render the project. click Render > Reset equalization to reset the images to the original level of brightness. NOTE Any small. The smaller the number. but the images may look overexposed when you apply the equalization in the next steps.

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Hotspots
Hotspots are clickable areas of a panorama used to launch some actions, such as opening a URL or linking your project to another panorama to create a virtual tour made of several panoramas. You can walk around a virtual tour and go from one panorama to the other with the help of hotspots. Hotspots are drawn directly in the Stitching Window in the Hotspot mode. You can link hotspots to any URL and define pan, tilt, and zoom parameters for a target panorama.
NOTE You can only export hotspots to QuickTime VR. Virtual tours produced by Stitcher are not suitable for viewing directly in the QuickTime player and can only be viewed on the Web through the QuickTime plug-in.

You cannot use hotspots in an HDR project.

Creating hotspots
You can create hotspots as polygons in the Hotspot Creation Mode. To create a hotspot:
1 Enter the Hotspot mode, do one of the following:

Select Tools > Hotspots to check the option. Click (Hotspot icon).

2 Pan and zoom in the panorama in the Stitching Window to locate an area where

you want to add a hotspot (see “Hotspots” on page 141). 3 Double-click to add the first vertex to the polygon. 4 Click to add more vertices. 5 Double-click to finish the current polygon.

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NOTE Three vertices are required to create the polygon, otherwise, it is discarded.

Stitcher closes the polygon, creating the hotspot:

hotspot vertices

NOTE To change the background color of the Stitching Window while in the Hotspot mode, see “Changing the Stitching Window background color” on page 62.

Selecting, duplicating, and moving hotspots
Selecting hotspots You can select a hotspot or a vertex of a hotspot by clicking it. To select multiple hotspots or multiple vertices of a hotspots, do one of the following: Select Edit > Select All to select all hotspots. Press Ctrl+click (Windows) or Shift+click (Mac).

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Duplicating hotspots To duplicate a hotspot, select it and do one of the following: Select Edit > Duplicate. Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) and select Duplicate from the contextual menu. Moving hotspots Select a hotspot by clicking on it and drag it to a new location. Changing the shape of hotspots To change the shape of a hotspot, do one of the following: Select a vertex or vertices of the hotspot and drag it or them to a new location. Move the pointer over the edge of a hotspot. The pointer changes shape. Double-click to add a new vertex and drag it to a new location.

Deleting hotspots
To delete a hotspot or a vertex or vertices of a hotspot, select it and do one of the following: Select Edit > Delete. Press Delete.
NOTE When you delete several vertices of a polygon, Stitcher ensures that at least three vertices remain.

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Linking hotspots
You can link hotspots to any URL and define pan, tilt, and zoom parameters for a target panorama in the Properties dialog.
1 Select a hotspot (see “Selecting, duplicating, and moving hotspots” on page 142). 2 Select Edit > Properties and select Hotspot.

3 From the URL Link drop-down list, select a URL type from the following options:

http://, ftp://, mailto:, (local). Select http:// if you want to link your panorama to a URL. If the target panorama is on the same Web server as your panorama, select (local) and type the relative path. Remember to put the panoramas in the same directory or type the relative path ../ or ..\. 4 Enter an address (URL or email) in the URL Link text field. 5 Name the hotspot in the Description text field. The hotspot’s name will be displayed by the controller bar QuickTime® plug-in when you drag the pointer over the hotspot. 6 From the in drop-down list, select either: Same Window to open the target URL in the same window in your Web browser. New Window to open the target URL in a new window in your Web browser. Named Frame to open the target URL in a specified frame of your Web browser. Specify a frame name in the adjacent text field.

FOV. 4 Set the Pan value to a number between -180 and 180 to define the default pan setting when you open the QuickTime® movie. Viewing hotspots Hotspots are visible only in the Hotspot mode. 2 Click the Show Controller checkbox to select the option and show the controller bar at the bottom of the QuickTime® plug-in area. but not edit them. 3 Set the following additional options: Same QT Plug-in to open the target movie in the same QuickTime® plug-in area. This is the default setting for QuickTime® movies and the most suitable option for virtual tours. by doing one of the following: Select View > Display > Hotspots to toggle the display of hotspots in the Stitching Window. Use 0 to keep the FOV of the target panorama. value to a number between 5 and 180. 5 Set the Tilt value to a number between -90 and 90 to define the default tilt setting when you open the QuickTime® movie. you can view them. When you are not in the Hotspot mode. Set the field of view. New QT Player to open the target movie in a new player window. .145 Stitcher User Guide TM Setting QuickTime movie options If the target of the hotspot is another QuickTime panorama: 1 Click on the QTVR checkbox to select the option.

146 Chapter 3 User Guide Right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) on the Stitching Window and select Display > Hotspots from the contextual menu. . you can add hotspots in the same way as for images (see “Creating hotspots” on page 141). Hotspots and panorama conversion When you load a panorama. NOTE You cannot edit hotspots unless you are in the Hotspot Creation Mode (see “Creating hotspots” on page 141). You can also save the hotspots by right-clicking and selecting Save hotspots from the contextual menu and load them later.

Select Render > Render Area > Set Render Area 2 Draw a rectangle around the area you want to render and press ESC to set the area you have selected. . do one of the following: Right-click in the Live Preview and select Live Preview > Set Render Area.147 Stitcher User Guide TM Render Area The render area can now be defined directly in the Live Preview. 3 Check Use Defined Viewport in the File section of the Render Dialog and Stitcher will render the panorama using the selected viewpoint. 1 To set the render area.

148 Chapter 3 User Guide For a cubical render. If you do not select any faces. but by clicking each of the faces. all faces are rendered. all faces are rendered by default. you choose which ones you want to render. .

mov *.sgi *.149 Stitcher User Guide TM Rendering Your Project After you have finished stitching your images.jpg *.ppm *. you can render the project to create a high-resolution panorama. Using Stitcher you can render directly to different projection types.psd *.iff *.png *.tiff Extension *.pic *. You can render the Stitcher project in the following file formats: Rendering formats JPEG QuickTime Tagged Image File Format Rendering formats Maya Image Files Adobe Photoshop Portable Network Graphics Portable Pixelmap SGI Image Files Softimage Pictures Files Truevision Targa Extension *.tga .

6 Set options that are specific to the type and format you have chosen. Here is an overview of the rendering workflow: 1 Ensure your project is completely stitched and that you have adjusted the focal length (see “Semi-automatic stitching” on page 106).exr *. 2 Align the panorama. For example. 3 Equalize the images (if you need to balance the level of brightness across the panorama). you cannot render to Quicktime® VR.150 Chapter 3 User Guide Rendering formats OpenEXR Radiance # Extension *. 7 Render the panorama. .hdr 8-bit and 16-bit images NOTE Only some projection and render format are available for HDR projects. 4 Set the render area and the viewpoint. 5 Determine which format you want to use.

Snapshot projection The snapshot projection renders a flat map. right.) . Cubical renderings are particularly good for rendering backgrounds in 3D scenes or for producing Cubic QTVR movies that you need to edit in external graphics applications. top. What you see in the Stitching Window is what is rendered. back. similar to a basic photograph. and bottom). so reposition your view in the Stitching Window to adjust the content of your snapshot render (see “Aligning images in the Stitching Window” on page 97). Use the following descriptions of projection types available in Stitcher to determine which projection and file format to use. Cubical projection Cubical projection creates six images that correspond to the six sides of a cube (front. for example) and whether or not you need to edit the stitched images in an external graphics application. film production. or product packaging. (See “Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection” on page 154.151 Stitcher User Guide TM Choosing projection types The type of projection you choose depends on the purpose for which you are creating your panorama (for the Web. left. It is as if your panorama is being projected onto the inside surfaces of a cube.

152 Chapter 3 User Guide snapshot cylindrical spherical cubical .

File names look similar to this: Letter: myPanorama_a. required either numbered or lettered suffixes.either a letter or number. for example QuickTime®. Cube Face Front Right Back Left Top (up) Bottom (down) Letter _f _r _b _l _u _d Suffix number 1 2 3 4 5 6 . left. top. myPanorama2. myPanorama_b.jpg. Understanding the naming of cubical images The of the six images determines which image will appear on which cube surface.jpg.ivp) or Spi-V exports.jpg. myPanorama3. The images are superimposed as follows: front. depending on your choice .jpg. right. ensure you know which option it requires. When you render with cubical projection.153 Stitcher User Guide TM For Pure Player (*. the cubic format consists of a single image representing the six faces of the cube. Some applications. a suffix is added to the filename .to differentiate the images. so if you know you need to output images for a specific package. bottom. back.jpg Numbered: myPanorama1.

Environment maps for 3D packages. . Choose cylindrical projection for row panoramas or for cylindrical QTVR movies that require modifications (see “Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection” on page 154). Cubic QTVR movies that need to be modified (as one image) in external graphics applications (see “Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection” on page 154). Choose spherical projection to create: Printed panoramas. so reposition your view (see “Aligning images in the Stitching Window” on page 97) of the Stitching Window if you want to adjust the center of the cylindrical panorama. spherical projection shows an entire 360° × 180º panorama. JPG files to be used by Java spherical viewers on the Web. but spherical projection shows it in a single image. Choose Cylindrical QTVR or Cubic QTVR when you need to produce QuickTime movies with no modifications. Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection Cylindrical QTVR and Cubic QTVR projection types render cylindrical and cubical movies. How a cylindrical projection is centered is determined by its orientation in the Stitching Window. respectively. Zoom in to adjust the height. which can be viewed in QuickTime®.154 Chapter 3 User Guide Cylindrical projection Cylindrical projection creates a cylinder that accurately shows a row panorama without distorting the top and bottom from the original image. Reposition your view (see “Aligning images in the Stitching Window” on page 97) in the Stitching Window if you want to adjust the center of the spherical panorama. Spherical projection Like cubical projection. How a spherical projection is centered is determined by its orientation in the Stitching Window.

155 Stitcher User Guide TM If you need to edit the images. convert the panorama (see “Panorama conversion” on page 184). For a description of cubical projection. NOTE You cannot modify a QTVR movie in a graphics application (see “Cubical projection” on page 151. “Spherical projection” on page 154. see “QuickTime output setup” on page 167. To render the panorama after the modifications have been made. you must do a basic cubical or spherical render because you cannot modify a VRML movie in a graphics application. you may instead export your stitched images with the basic cubical. If you need to make edits to a panorama that you intend to export with VRML projection. Setting QTVR output options When you output to cylindrical or cubic QTVR. VRML projection The VRML export format renders a cubical projection. see “Cubical projection” on page 151. For a guidelines on setting these options. you must convert the panorama (see “Panorama conversion” on page 184). . To render the panorama after the modifications have been made. or “Cylindrical projection” on page 154). or cylindrical projection type. you can set additional options that further define how the movie is processed and how it will appear once rendered. that can be viewed in the VRML viewer. spherical.

NOTE to render an image in a single exposure (not an HDR. . 1 To select the images to which you want to add EXIF data. tone-mapped image). Stitcher must be able to calibrate a camera response curve over the largest stack (the stack being used for calibration must contain at least 3 images). do one of the following: Select one or more stacks to which you want to add EXIF data Select no stacks and the EXIF data you enter will be added to all images 2 Select HDR > Add EXIF Info or right-click a thumbnail and choose Add EXIF Info. you can add this information (which Stitcher must have in order to be able to calibrate a camera response curve) manually. Add EXIF Data If your images did not have EXIF information in them when you loaded them in Stitcher.156 Chapter 3 User Guide HDR and Tone Mapping To render HDR images (32-bit images or tone-mapped images) from a bracketed set of images (a stack of exposures). Stitcher reads the EXIF data of the stack of images to know how the shots have been taken. Stitcher doesn’t need a camera response curve.

from these). Check “Use same values for all stacks” if you want to apply the same EV to all shots in the selected stacks. . Use the double right arrows to switch between selected stacks. Calibrating the Camera Response Curve 1 Make sure you have at least one stack with three or more images loaded. do one of the following: Enter the ISO. 5 Click OK. 4 If you selected more than one image and need to enter different EXIF data for each image. or Enter the relative EV.157 Stitcher User Guide TM The Add EXIF Information dialog is displayed. Aperture and Speed values (Stitcher will calculate the relative exposure value. navigate between images by: Use the double left arrows to switch between images in the same stack. EV. 2 Select HDR > Camera Response > Compute Camera Response Curve. 3 To add the EXIF data.

or VRML. choose either spherical or cubical.158 Chapter 3 User Guide Render options 1 Do one of the following: Select Render > Render. If you select snapshot. Click . From the Type drop-down list. and select a destination directory and name for your files and click OK (Windows) or Choose (Mac). select a projection type. 2 Click the box beside the Filename field. select a file format from the Format drop-down menu. spherical. . If you plan to eventually create a QTVR or VRML movie. then choose a lossless format. such as TIF (see “Cylindrical and Cubic QTVR projection” on page 154 for details). cylindrical. The Render Setup dialog opens. cubical. but need to make modifications first.

For details on width and height constraints. If you want to use the viewport defined by the Render Area definition. spheric. cylindric and snapshot to create an HDR image or preview the project as a JPG. The default render size is 100%.000. tone-mapped HDR image. TIFF. For more information about changing the exposure value.159 Stitcher User Guide TM In Stitcher HDR. type the value in the text field. To increase the width up to 1. The ratio is calculated according to the image size and the size of the stitching window. you can render as a cubic. or enter a value in the Width text field. see “Understanding width and height value constraints” on page 165. check Use defined viewport. or PNG image. Check the Use GPU for rendering option to use the Graphical Processor Unit to generate the rendered image. select a percentage in the Best Size Ratio list to instruct Stitcher to calculate the appropriate ratio for a 1:1 render. To maximize the render resolution without degrading the result. 3 Set the rendering options by clicking on the corresponding tab at the top of the window or leave the default settings: . Check the Use Current Expo to render using the exposure that is displayed in the Stitching Window. The slider lets you choose a maximum width of 10.000. see “Changing the exposure” on page 64 NOTE If you’re rendering a 32-bit. uncheck the Use GPU for rendering option and uncheck the Use current expo option. which signifies an optimal render quality. move the sliding bar to the right or the left. taking into account the area surrounding the rendered image.000. To increase or decrease the resolution of the rendered image. NOTE You cannot create or publish a movie in an HDR project.

Morph. Linear does not fix problematic geometry but instead makes it easier to fix the image in an external graphics application. check Save Cameras to save your cameras’ parameters in an XML-based file format. From the Blending Type drop-down box. Morph: Wraps the images and try to match corresponding points in the overlap between two images.160 Chapter 3 User Guide If the rendered images are to be imported into Autodesk ImageModeler®. there is parallax) and you know the geometry of objects in your panorama has been altered. . Linear: Do not use Linear unless the stitching didn’t work and you know the geometry of the shots that were taken is wrong (for example. Linear. The mixing method determines the method Stitcher uses to blend the seams of stitched images: Smart: Uses the smart blending function to automatically find the image containing the most information in the overlap area between the images. select either Smart. or External.

Nearest gives the fastest render time but the poorest quality image and Lanczos5 gives the slowest render time but the highest quality image. To change the filter. Lanczos3. spherical.161 Stitcher User Guide TM External: Launches an external software defined the Preferences dialog to blend the images. or Maximum from the Sharpen drop-down box. Otherwise. Choose either letters or numbers for the cubic render filename suffix (see “Understanding the naming of cubical images” on page 153). The default sharpening filter is set to Normal. Lanczos4 and Lanczos5. starting from left to right and top to bottom. For more information on interpolation. Select an interpolation option from Nearest. select either More. and snapshot renders. The option Use Image Strip to order shots during rendering sets the order of the images. NOTE The Smart and External options apply only to cylindrical. . Bicubic. Mitchell. see “Understanding interpolation” on page 165. Bilinear. set the option to None. This the way the blending (smart or external) is made by giving different weights to the images.

Click Save Current Settings to save the current project as a Stitcher *. and Pack Bits. Select Multi TIFF to create a TIFF file for each input image.. If you choose a TIF file format. All the render parameters of the project are used for the current render. except the name of the project and the render area.. Stitcher creates an alpha layer that corresponds to the image. choose from None. you can select the Use Strip option to decrease the amount of memory used at the expense of a longer rendering time. LZW. Click Set Settings Directory to choose a folder to save your settings.rzs file. For TIFF file formats. click a Stitcher project in the left pane and click Load Selection. To use the render parameters from a previous project.162 Chapter 3 User Guide 4 Modify the default Image Options by clicking on the corresponding tab at the top of the window or leave the default settings. . Previously saved render sets appear in the left pane. 5 Save your settings in Settings Management by clicking on the corresponding tab at the top of the window or leave the default settings.

do one of the following: To preview your rendered panorama. If you do not unselect any faces. Click Cancel to cancel your settings and close the Render dialog.163 Stitcher User Guide TM 6 When you are satisfied with your parameters. click Render. you choose which ones you want to render. . click Preview. but by clicking each of the faces. To render the current project. all faces are rendered by default. The Render Preview window opens. Click Close to exit the Render dialog. all faces are rendered. Navigate using the same controls you use to navigate the Stitching Window. The Rendering dialog opens and indicates the progress of the rendering process. For a cubical render.

Choose cubical if you want to make edits to six different files that correspond to the sides of a cube. Choose cylindrical if you want to eventually produce a Cylindrical QTVR movie. Choose spherical if you want to make edit to only one image. NOTE A cubical projection has the disadvantage of being composed of six different images. A spherical projection may be easier to work with. with the following in mind: 1 You must render your stitched images with cubical. For local retouching a cubical projection might be easier. . but these images are not warped. for example. you may need to modify them before rendering.164 Chapter 3 User Guide Tips for rendering Because QTVR and VRML files cannot be modified in external graphics applications. to add a special effect. Follow the rendering procedure. or cylindrical projection so that you can open the file in the external graphics application. spherical.

Cylindrical: Width is a multiple of 2. Cubical: The width and the height of the rendered image have the same value. TIP You can change the color of the rendered background in the Preferences dialog. Cylindrical: The width/height = 360º/ viewing angle in degrees. Understanding interpolation Interpolation is the process of estimating the values of missing pixels in one image by taking an average of the pixel values in the neighboring images. If you choose a lossy file format. depending on the export type: Snapshot: The width and the height of the rendered image is the same as the width and height of the image in the Stitching Window. convert the file to a panorama (see “Panorama conversion” on page 184). Width and height in the Render File window are driven by the following constraints: Cylindrical QTVR: Height is a multiple of 4 and width a multiple of 24. When you change one of the value (width or height). Spherical: The height of the rendered image is twice that of the width. Spherical: Height is a multiple of 2 and width is a multiple of 4. your image will be degraded by the time you finish your panorama because of multiple compression. 3 When you have finished making edits. the other one is calculated following these rules. when you . For example.165 Stitcher User Guide TM 2 Ensure you choose lossless file format (such as TIFF or PNG). Cubic QTVR: Height and width is a multiple of 2. Understanding width and height value constraints The ratio between width and height in the Render File window is driven by the following constraints.

When reducing the size of an image. the contrast is reduced because of averaging neighboring values together. So it is a good idea to apply some sharpening to the image to reduce the softness. that is. As with bilinear resampling. right. these techniques duplicate pixels. This is the fastest method. Bilinear: This method uses the values from the four surrounding pixels.166 Chapter 3 User Guide scale an image. these methods tend to make an image softer. they delete pixels. these methods determine the values of new pixels by calculating the weighted average of the closest 16 pixels (4 × 4 array) based on distance. above. You can set the interpolation type in the Preferences dialog: The different algorithms that Stitcher uses are described as follows: Nearest: The value of the new pixel is the same as that of the closest existing pixel. Stitcher estimates the pixel values in the final image by interpolating the values from the original image. that is. . and left of the spot where the new pixel is to be created. The new pixel value is determined by calculating a weighted average of the four closest pixels (a 2 × 2 array) based on distance. below. This method tends to make an image softer. Bicubic and Michell: As with bilinear sampling. When enlarging an image.

8 × 8 (lanczos4). These methods produce slightly more accurate results than the bicubic method. or 10 × 10 (lanczos5) cell of pixels surrounding each new pixel location. you can set the following options in the QuickTime Output Setup tab. the longer the method will be.167 Stitcher User Guide TM Lanczos: These methods use a 6 × 6 (lanczos3). you may set some of the additional output options. QuickTime output setup During the rendering process (see “Render options” on page 158). . If you choose to output to Cylindrical QTVR or Cubic QTVR. but takes a little longer to compute. The larger the matrix size.

Auto-tiling: Check the autotiling box. set additional options. Static: When you do not navigate in QuickTime®. Options: Depending on the type of compression you choose. NOTE The more tiles you specify. so they are very good for large images. Motion: When you navigate in QuickTime®. It should be installed by default with QuickTime. then set the number of pixels you want each tile to be. This is what your users see as they wait for the movie to load completely. Codec: Choose the type of compression you want to use. Stitcher calculates the number of tiles based on this number and the size of each cube face. Tiling (for Cubic QTVR only) These settings define the tiling method that is used to show the QTVR movie in stages as it streams into the plug-in. such as streaming optimization. rows in the second. Quality: Choose the level of compression by adjusting the slide bar.168 Chapter 3 User Guide Compression Settings These settings define the type of compression to use when creating the QTVR movie. Preview These settings let you preview the movie and define whether or not the preview is generated directly from your panorama (and how it appears) or from another image you specify. Tile Size: Select the number of square tiles you want. Photo-JPEG is the most suitable for panoramas. . You can also set the compression settings. the less efficient compression is. Tiles will load as they download. columns in the first field. Rendering Quality These settings define the quality of the displayed movie in static and motion mode. Each cube face is split into tiles that appear one at a time onscreen.

These settings let you attach various types of comments to a QTVR movie that your users watch in the QuickTime Player (not the plug in on a website). Stitcher assumes that the file you specified is a spherical export and converts it to cube faces. Import Preview: Check to import a preview image. Generate Preview: Check to generate a preview image from your panorama. Choose a type of annotation. check the Gray box. . (For more information on these options.. check the Blur box. If it cannot. Annotations. a preview is more compressed that a movie. see “Compression Settings” on page 168.169 Stitcher User Guide TM Fast Start Preview: Check to let your users to see a preview of the movie. Stitcher tries to find the six cube faces that match the name of the file you provide. If you want the preview to appear gray. For example. Set the width of each cube face in the Width field. then type the comment in the text field.. Compression Settings: Define the compression used to create the preview.) Generally. if you create an image from a panorama with edits that you want to display as a preview image. If you want the preview to appear blurred. When you specify a file to import.

3 To lock this position. click the radio boxes in the Authoring section of the General Information box. . 2 In the Stitching Window.170 Chapter 3 User Guide Authoring Tool Stitcher has a real-time authoring tool that you can use to define constraints interactively in the Stitcher window. PurePlayer and Spi-V renders. 1 Select Tool > Authoring Controls to toggle the view over to the movie settings control and preview mode. These constraints can be used for QTVR. navigate to the position you want.

171 Stitcher User Guide TM 4 To manually change your movie settings. it prevents your users from seeing black space. Tilt: Set how far your user can tilt their view in the movie. Window: Type the dimensions of the window in pixels. FOV: Set the field of view. . This type of constraint is particularly useful if you do not provide a full 360° view. Pan: Set how far your user can pan back and forth in the movie. This type of constraint is particularly useful if you do not provide a full 360° view. it prevents your users from seeing black space. click Edit in the General Information box. NOTE You can only make manual changes to the width and height settings.

you can add extra functions such as auto-pan or a transparent logo. the QTVR will display a blank page displaying the End Message text.172 Chapter 3 User Guide QuickTime scripting To export your panorama as a QuickTime VR movie. After the specified date. Select the QTVR Scripting tab: Select a script from the Automatic list and check Use Script: AutoPan automatically pans in the panorama when the movie starts Autopan+Reset resets the automatic pan when you click the mouse button Autopan+click stops the automatic pan when you click the mouse button. NOTE The time limit is dependent on the local time. Set the End Date to disable the film at a specified time and enter an End Message to appear once the film is disabled. . Add a transparent GIF or PNG LoSelect the bottom right of the interface.

173 Stitcher User Guide TM Movies Stitcher enables the production of videos (AVI or QuickTime® MOV files) of the panorama. and focal length. Click (Render Movie). orientation. The Movie Navigation Bar opens at the bottom of the interface: Play button Time pointer Current time Total time . As soon as you have at least one image in the Stitching Window. you place key frames.. for example to create an animation or a presentation of your panorama. the camera position. Stitcher allows you to make a movie of your panorama.e. The final movie path will be a spline interpolation of the key frames. i. Launching the animation tool To define a camera path.

change the viewpoint. rotate. set a key. you must define keys that represent the camera viewpoints. and move the scene as you require: . You can zoom.174 Chapter 3 User Guide Defining the camera path To create animation. then place a key. and move the scene as you require to find the camera viewpoint that you require for the animation. 1 Position the panorama in the Stitching Window using the navigation tools. You can zoom. etc. The basic workflow when defining a camera path is to set a viewpoint. rotate.

4 Repeat step 3 to construct the complete animation. select Stop Movie from the contextual menu. Checking the animation To play the movie and check the animation. To stop the movie. or click Movie Navigation Bar. The movie loops according to the position of the panorama at the designated key points. Stitcher adds a key at the end of the Movie Navigation Bar. in the Editing key frames If necessary. and move the panorama as you require to reposition it and either: Continue to add keys to the end of the Movie Navigation Bar by selecting Add Key from the contextual menu. The gap between the start and end key frames is displayed at the end of the Movie Navigation Bar: . select Play from the contextual menu. The default gap between two key-frames is two seconds. rotate. and move the panorama as you require to reposition it and right-click again to open the contextual menu and select Add Key.175 Stitcher User Guide TM 2 Right-click to open the contextual menu and select Add Key Stitcher adds a key at the start of the Movie Navigation Bar and the Time Pointer moves to the end: 3 Zoom. Zoom. edit and refine the animation by clicking and dragging the keys in the Movie Navigation Bar. or click in the Movie Navigation Bar. rotate.

place the Time Pointer on a key in the Movie Navigation Bar. place the Time Pointer on the Movie Navigation Bar between keys K1 and K2. To delete a key. click and drag it to a new position on the Movie Navigation Bar.176 Chapter 3 User Guide To add a keyframe between existing keys. To reset the position of a key. click on it and select Delete Key from the contextual menu. and select Insert Key from the contextual menu to add a new key frame between K1 and K2: K1 K2 To replace a key. change the viewpoint slightly. . select Reset Keys from the contextual menu to remove all key positions. change the viewpoint slightly. To change the position of a key. NOTE You cannot render a movie in an HDR project. and select Insert Key from the contextual menu to replace key K with the new viewpoint.

177 Stitcher User Guide TM Setting the frame gap The frame gap corresponds to a default value greater than 0. The total time changes according to the Key Frame Gap defined the Preferences > Movie dialog: .1 seconds when you add a key.

ivp .html file. Stitcher allows you to create either: An *. which comprises maps and satellite images for complex or pinpointed regional searches.google.com). you can publish the project for sharing on the Web.kml file for adding your panorama to GoogleEarth (http://earth. based on a predefined template.jpg *. and/or A *. Publishing your panorama You can publish your panorama in the following formats: Publishing Formats JPEG QuickTime Pure Player Java Extension *.mov *. You can map your panorama to a specific geographical location.178 Chapter 3 User Guide Publishing HTML/KML After you have finished rendering your panorama. for Web generation.

click Browse in the Panorama name field and select a panorama to publish (see “Publishing your panorama” on page 178 for the panorama file formats). Setting the html options If you select Export *.html output: (HTML Options) to open the setting page for . 4 Check either or both the Export *. 3 Select an output destination by clicking on the browse button in the Export to field and browsing to your directory.html. click the *.kml file.179 Stitcher User Guide TM To publish your panorama: 1 Click (Publish icon) to open the Publishing dialog: 2 In the File page. depending on the publishing option that you select.html and Export *.html file for Web generation and/or a *.kml checkboxes to export the project as an *.html file or a *.kml file for adding your panorama to GoogleEarth. The output file will either be an *.

html templates to create your panorama gallery quickly and easily.html page. The template are found by default in the Stitcher installation directory. The description will be used as the description for the *. You can set the template directory by clicking Set Template Folder. 3 Autodesk supplies several *.180 Chapter 3 User Guide 1 Enter a Title for the *. 2 Enter a project Description.html page. . Click Change Description to enter a new description.

the associated thumbnail appears displaying a representation of your *. Stitcher generates an *. Setting the kml options If you select Export *. Stitcher creates a *.html file and a folder containing the selected template. which is the Spi-V viewer.kml output: (KML Options) to open the setting page for the .dcr file in a dswmedia folder.181 Stitcher User Guide TM When you have chosen a template in the list.ivp) panorama. click *. Stitcher creates a *.html file. If you publish a Pure Player Java (*.jar file that contains the ImmerVision® Pure Player viewer. 4 Click Publish to publish your panorama as an *.html page once published.kml. If you publish a Spi-V panorama.

and share the *.html file A folder containing the associated template Your panorama If required. Sharing your panorama If you want to publish your panorama as a Web page. Stitcher generates a *. If you want to reference your panorama on GoogleEarth. Click Publish to publish your panorama as a *. you should have: An *. you should have: A *.kml file Your panorama. .kml file either by email or by uploading it to your Website.kml file.182 Chapter 3 User Guide 1 Set the GPS location by entering the latitude and longitude coordinates of your 2 3 4 5 panorama location.jar file or a dswmedia folder if you want to publish your panorama using a Pure Player or Spi-V viewer. Your correspondent can double-click on the file to open the panorama in GoogleEarth. Use the Change Description button to enter a new description.kml file. Enter a Title for the project. Upload your panorama to your personal Internet site. Upload all the files to your personal Internet site and share the URL of the *. Enter a project Description.kml options. Enter the URL corresponding to where you can download the final panorama. a *.html file. designated when you set the *.

html template Autodesk supplies several *.html file and put it in the Autodesk templates folder. However.ST_EMBED tag -->: replaces your panorama and uses the width and height parameters that you specify.ST_TITLE tag -->: replaces the title of the project by a title that you specify <!-.html template to be used when publishing your panorama.ST_DESC_TXT tag -->: replaces the description of the project by a description that you specify <!-. You can base your template in an existing Stitcher template and edit the different tags. . you can create an *.html templates to create your panorama gallery quickly and easily.183 Stitcher User Guide TM Creating an *. save the file as an *. otherwise Stitcher will be unable to replace correctly the values. The template are found by default in the Stitcher installation directory. Finally. Choose this format to publish your panorama in this format.html page required by Stitcher using a text editor: <!-. NOTE Specific templates exist for publishing an IVP panorama in Flash. Be careful to use the correct notations. You need to define three tags in the *.

To do so. and roll options. In addition to the supported image file formats. Hotspots must also be imported and converted to a panorama to render the project as a Quicktime® file with hotspots.184 Chapter 3 User Guide Panorama conversion Typically. After you have modified the images in another application. Choose a new point of view. you can select a new viewpoint when converting a panorama to image files. or cylindrical projection. Transform a PSD panorama. after you have stitched your images. Stitcher also supports the formats: Import formats Photoshop® Files Extension *. Loading a panorama Panoramas are loaded in the same manner as image files (see “Loading images” on page 77) after selecting File > Load Panorama or clicking . Add hotspots to an already created panorama that launch some actions. cubical. For example. tilt. Using the pan.psd . you must import it and convert the file to the final required format. you must export it as spherical. edit it in your external editing software and then load it back into Stitcher before convert it to the desired format. For example. such as opening a URL or linking your project to another panorama to create a virtual tour made of several panoramas. but in some cases you will need to edit your panorama in an external image editor and therefore change the file format. The Panorama Conversion is used to: Convert a panorama into another format. you might want to create a QTVR or VRML panorama that you need to modify in an external graphics application. transforming a Photoshop panorama to a cubic panorama produces image files that allow you to work with the different faces of the panorama while keeping the layer information of the PSD panorama. you render it to produce a panorama.

Stitcher loads automatically the other faces if the file naming convention of the files is the same (letters _f. Stitcher does not create this composite image when creating a PSD file. _l. NOTE When you import PSD panoramas. _r. (see “Movies” on Also.mov Once the panorama is loaded. A composite image is a preview of your flattened layers inserted at the end of the file.185 Stitcher User Guide TM Import formats QuickTime® Movies Extension *. If you need one. You can only convert an HDR spherical image to an HDR cubical image and vice versa. . _b. _d or numbers).Depending on your output format you will need a composite image in your PSD file. Stitcher enters the panorama conversion mode (see “Panorama conversion” on page 184). This will ensure that you have a viable composite image.All layers must have one mask .Layers with filters or effects are not accepted . open your file in any external editor that can load PSD and resave your file. the file must follow some rules: . _u. you only need to choose a single face. NOTE You can render a movie from a panorama by clicking page 173). NOTE For a cubic panorama.

QTVR Cubical QTVR x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x . shown in the table below by an “x”.186 Chapter 3 User Guide Conversion possibilities Stitcher determines automatically the loaded panorama file format and the possible conversions. image Spherical PSD Cubical PSD x Cylind. Import Export Spherical image Cubical image Cylind. QTVR Cubical QTVR VRML Movies (Quicktime MOV or AVI files) Ivp/Spi-V x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Spherical image Cubical image x x x Cylind. image Spherical PSD Cubical PSD Cylind.

You can align the panorama by: Using the grid (see “Aligning the panorama using the Display Grid” on page 136). Selecting Tools > Align Panorama and drawing horizontal and vertical lines that define the horizon (see “Aligning the panorama” on page 133). . Stitcher aligns the panorama based on what is visible in the Stitching Window at the time you render the panorama. Using the navigation controls in the Stitching window to select a viewpoint for QVTR renders.187 Stitcher User Guide TM Aligning the panorama You can change the viewpoint to determine what you see in the final panorama.

. QuickTime® virtual tours are more specifically designed to be viewed on the Internet through any Web browser that supports the QuickTime® plug-in.188 Chapter 3 User Guide Creating hotspots during a conversion Hotspots can be drawn directly in panoramas to open a URL or link your project to another panorama to create a virtual tour through several panoramas. you can create hotspots in panoramas that were made in another application. and zoom parameters for a target panorama. you can save the hotspots and reload them from a previously saved file. Using the right mouse button. tilt. such as 3ds Max® or you can import old QTVR movies to re-edit them and add hotspots. Hotspots are drawn directly in the Stitching Window in the Hotspot mode. See “Hotspots” on page 141 for complete details on creating hotspots. NOTE You can only export hotspots to QuickTime® VR movies. You can link hotspots to any URL and define pan. For example.

see “Authoring Tool” on page 170. The procedure is described in detail in “Render options” on page 158. right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) and select Load Hotspots from file from the contextual menu. Rendering a converted panorama When all the adjustments have been made. To load a hotspot(s). The hotspot(s) is saved and you can load it as described below. Choosing a Quicktime panorama viewpoint For more information about choosing a Quicktime panorama viewpoint.189 Stitcher User Guide TM Saving and loading hotspots To save a hotspot(s). select Render > Render from the main menu or click . . right-click (Windows) or Ctrl+click (Mac) and select Save Hotspots from the contextual menu.

To save a project as a template. depending on your working style and any changes you need to make along the way. Templates let you reuse identical shot parameters and row setups from one project to create another project with perfectly stitched images instantly. open that template later to create another perfectly stitched project with a different series of shots. In this case. Make sure only the images you will use for the template are loaded into the project. you may have duplicate images. then save the project as a template. Then. If you have more than one set of images with identical shot parameters and row setup. create a stitched panorama in the usual way (see “Stitching images” on page 105). . Saving a project as a template Saving a project as a template is the only way to create a template. Note: If your created project includes duplicate images or images not required. To save a project as a template: 1 Do one of the following: If you already have a project created with the required row set up and focal length. NOTE When you create and work with projects without a template. NOTE You cannot use templates for projects that have differing shot parameters and row setups. at least one stitched image must exist in the project. you must load and stitch images the usual way.190 Chapter 3 User Guide Templates Templates significantly decrease the amount of time and effort you spend stitching images if you consistently shoot panoramas with identical shot parameters and the same number of rows and with a tripod. remove them first. open the project. or images not required in the Thumbnail View or the Image Strip.

or if an image is missing from the list. The Save As Template dialog appears. Opening a template When you open a template. the of the images determines where they are placed in the panorama. to apply a template to a project you must know name and location of the first image in a complete list of ordered images. 5 Click Save. Stitcher cannot stitch the images together. load and stitch images the usual way. 4 From the Save In drop-down list.191 Stitcher User Guide TM If you don’t have a project created with the required row set up and focal length. . browse to where you want to save the template file. a new project with a perfectly stitched image is created. If you select the wrong image as the first in the list. 2 Click File > Save As Template. When a template is created. type the name of the template. So. 3 In the File name filed.

If you want to render the file as soon as the images are stitched. you can uncheck the Stitch box to render images as is. beside the Template field to browse to the template file. then click Open. check the Open Render Dialog box. beside the Project field to browse to where you want to place the project that will be created. 3 Click .. then click Open.192 Chapter 3 User Guide To open a template: 1 Click File > Open Template.. The Template dialog appears: 2 Click .. check the equalize box.. then click Save. beside the Image field to browse to the first image in the incremental list of 4 5 6 7 images. If you want to balance the level of brightness between all the images. .. Click .. If you are sure of the placement of your images.

Make sure that your project file name and path do not contain special characters. Reverting to empty document”. 2. much like a Web page. Problem: When a QTVR is rendered. or accented letters. an error message is displayed “failed to create empty document”. Problem: While loading a Stitcher project. SOLUTION The possible reasons are: 1. such as # * % ! “ / < > \ |. SOLUTION The problem concerns the OpenGL environment creation. Try changing the codec or reinstalling QTVR from the Apple® website to get the latest codecs. . Your disk is too fragmented . an error message is displayed “Error during file load. You can try changing the graphic board driver that you can download from the manufacturer’s website. SOLUTION This can be caused by non-standard or special characters in the file path of the project file.run the Disk Defragmenter system tool. The default codec in the render box is not installed. The accepted Stitcher file format is designed for cross-platform sharing. You can either move the files back to the original location or edit the project file with a text editor and specify the correct directory. The same QTVR panorama is currently open or the Preview Quicktime is active (the mouse is on the file. Check that QT is not open”. so that you can share your Stitcher files with users on any platform.193 Stitcher User Guide TM Troubleshooting Problem: While running Stitcher. 3. so close it.mov). an error message is displayed “Error during file save. Another possibility is that you have moved the files after creating a new project.

Problem: In Mac. you should check the Use strip option in the TIFF options tab of the Render window. If you use a TIFF render. 5. SOLUTION You should reduce the size of the textures in the Preferences so that the graphic board will be less loaded. try rebooting your computer and only run Stitcher before making the render. SOLUTION You have to resize the Stitching Window to refresh it. Problem: While panning in the Stitching Window. The project file or path contains non-standard or special characters. . Make sure that your project file name and path do not contain special characters. If the live preview is displayed into the stitching window you should remove it by selecting Preferences > Preview and uncheck the Display Live preview option. Try reducing the resolution of the panorama in pixels. Try setting the memory cache of the input images to 0% in the Preferences > Memory before rendering your project.194 Chapter 3 User Guide 4. Problem: The render quits before the end of the process. You may lack memory. Also. the Stitching Window is completely white. the hotspots do not have the right geometry. You should try also to reduce the size of the image cache (10%) in Preferences > Memory to leave more RAM for the render. Stitcher slows down. Also avoid accented letters and spaces. SOLUTION You should resize the polygons a little to remove the problem. Problem: In the QTVR player. such as # * % ! “ / < > \ |. SOLUTION It could be a memory problem if the render resolution is too high.

there is only the Screen render available. Problem: I can't render PSD Files on Mac OSX. You have to set it to Initialized to have the other types of render. Problem: In the Render window. it creates a black picture. The external editor will create the composite image and insert it in the saved file. Try recalibrating the images. a flattened image of your PSD file) inserted in the PSD file. Problem: I am trying to load a PSD file.195 Stitcher User Guide TM Problem: The cylindrical QTVR stops before the 3600 when I do a full tour. SOLUTION The focal length is set to Flat stitch in the Properties window. be careful to pull the handles at each extremity. . I can't read rendered PSD Files on MacOSX. but I can only see a black image. Stitcher uses the composite image and if it does not find one. SOLUTION If you set a Render Area (white rectangle). Problem: Ghosts and blurred area artefacts appear in the render. The PSD file should also have a composite image (i. SOLUTION You have probably a bad nodal point setting (position of the camera on the tripod or the panoramic head) or some distortion in your images.e. or I render a PSD file and have a _DIR temporary folder in my output directory. You should open your picture in any external editor that can read PSD files and resave the file. SOLUTION A PSD file contains several layers information and only the creator can understand all of it..

Once enough images have been stitched. Make a basic PSD render. increase the focal length by pressing Shift+(+). This widens the gap so that you have room to move and rotate the image to stitch it to the other images. Here is a workaround: Run Stitcher preferences (press the P key in Stitcher) and choose the External links tab. select Stitch > Adjust Camera in order to allow Stitcher to evaluate the focal length.196 Chapter 3 User Guide SOLUTION This is due to the Spotlight tool from Mac OSX and its index function. Open the Preferences in Mac OSX by selecting Apple > System Preferences and click on the Spotlight button in the first line. Quit Stitcher. Click on the “+” sign (lower left) and add the “RzTempFiles” folder. Now Spotlight will work on your entire disk except on this Stitcher temporary folder and the PSD render will work. Choose a folder where you will put your temporary files (third link). Stitching problems Problem: I cannot stitch the final image into the cylindrical panorama SOLUTION If you cannot stitch one of the final images into a panorama cylinder to stitch it to the other images. Stitcher should create a subfolder named “RzTempFiles” in the directory that you set in the Preferences. Choose the Privacy tab. Problem: The auto-stitch fails . Problem: Stitching quality is poor SOLUTION The first images may have been stitched with a focal length that is very different from the real focal length used.

images may take some time to redraw as you navigate in the Stitching Window and move and rotate images. thus introducing image parallax. which are useless in fisheye images. see “Improving redraw performance” on page 96. Problem: I have black borders around my images SOLUTION Black borders appear in your images when you try to stitch your images taken with a lens that is not calibrated correctly. you may have blurred images in the Stitching Window. If so. Problem: Images are blurred SOLUTION When you have images that have not been exactly shot from the same location. verify that your images are not too distorted. To improve redraw performance. This blur will be minimized in the rendered images using smart blend as the blending option. A window opens that allows you to define an area of interest in your image (see “Fisheye images” on page 101 for more information). Don’t hesitate to crop in the image if the area of interest is covered sufficiently in your images. right-click on an image and select Calibrate > Fisheye Lens. run the high distortion calibration before stitching your image (see “Fisheye images” on page 101). . you improve the quality of the render and eliminate the black borders of each image. Problem: Images take too long to redraw SOLUTION Depending on the number and complexity of your images and the type and quality of your graphics card. In Stitcher.197 Stitcher User Guide TM SOLUTION If the auto-stitch function fails. In doing so.

Focal lengths greater than 50mm create a more narrow angle of view. increase the frame rate without increasing the needed bandwidth. focal lengths less than 50mm create a wider angle of view.webopedia. Film Back – Value that represents the size of your film..The distance between the front of the lens and the film back.html#> located in your graphic board that frees the CPU from mathematicallyintensive tasks.198 Chapter 3 User Guide Glossary Blending – Combination of two or more images by adding them on a pixel-by-pixel basis. usually consisting of red. and bottom of the cube. Pixels – Array of picture elements. Cylindrical – Projection that creates a cylinder. Cubic – Projection that produces six images corresponding to the front. JPG – JPEG image file format. the plate where the film is exposed. . GPU – Graphics processing unit is a processor <http://www. the generation of the rendered image and allows real-time blending. that is.The lens effect that causes straight lines close to the edge of a photograph appear curved. Focal length .com/TERM/ G/GPU. FOV – Field of view. It accelerates the redraw of the stitching windows. or fields. Pan – Rotates the camera along vertical axis. Distortion . Interlace – Division of video frames into halves (odd and even). Parallax – Changes the perspective between two adjacent pictures caused by the camera position changing between shots. top. PIC – Softimage Pictures file format. HDR – High-dynamic range. moving camera target sideways. which accurately represents a single row panorama without distorting the top and bottom from the original image. left. Fisheye – Shots taken with an extremely wide-angle lens. right. green. and blue color values. back. Equalizing – Process of balancing the level of brightness between all the images. IFF – Maya image file format.

.199 Stitcher User Guide TM PNG – Portable Network Graphics image file format. Rendering – The process of creating a high-resolution panorama from the photos you have stitched. Snapshot – Projection that creates a flat map. perpendicular to the center image. SGI – Image file format. QuickTime – Export format that renders a Cylindrical or Cubic QTVR projection. ready to be viewed in the QuickTime Player. VRML – Export format that renders a cubic projection. TGA – Truevision Targa image file format. It is the mapping of the visible part of a three-dimensional object onto a two-dimensional screen. respectively. Roll – Rotates the camera along the line of sight. Zoom – Changes the field of view. Projection – Process of reducing three dimensions to two dimensions for display. Spherical – Projection that creates a sphere and represents an entire 360° × 180º panorama in a single image. ready to be viewed in the VRML viewer. PPM – Portable Pixelmap image file format. TIFF – Tagged Image image file format. PSD – Adobe Photoshop file format.

200 Chapter 3 User Guide .

...................... ....................................................62 the focal length.................... 97 the panorama............................ ... defining ...........58 the color of the Display Grid ...............................................123 Camera Response Curve ................................................................... 133 aligning go back to defined horizon .. 130 blending application ................... 63 Align Panorama mode......116 camera importing data .............................. setting .............136 change panorama exposure .....123 camera path.................................................. 139 the focal length of images ....................................................140 bookmarking go to viewpoint ...... 173 artifact polygons changing the shape of..................................................................................76 the color of the Stitching Window ................................. .........................160 the shape of polygons.................... 25 100 the current viewpoint..................................... 63 polygons .............50 profiles..........................................................................................................99 the panorama to set the horizon.......................................... .......... 173 checking .....................................................................174 camera profile........138 the color of the Image Strip.......... 26 animation......... 117 the transparency of images .....29 changing the color of frames.................... 4 Adjust Camera ..........100 parameters.................. 176 editing keys ............ 129 moving one or multiple.123 cancelling a high-distortion calibration.. 129 selecting one or multiple................... 25 100 C calibrating highly-distorted images.......... 57 . 117 adjusting the brightness among images ............................................................................... setting ........ 129 using to delete parts of images .......................................... during equalization............................................ 175 deleting keys ............................................................................................ 133 images in the Stitching Window. loading and saving.................................................81 position when shooting the panorama.........StitcherTM User Guide 201 Index A about this guide............................................84 orientation................175 176 animation tool.....117 centering images in the Stitching Window ................133 187 Alignment................................174 camera path..................................................... 129 143 ............. ...................................... ............................................. B blending ......................... 160 images ...... 129 deleting ...83 the mixing method ..................................118 camera response curve ........................................................................................................ 129 Auto-Align Panorama ..........................16 26 133 blurred images.......................

.....................61 clearing the Undo Buffer.......................................................................37 to adjust all images ....... 84 exit StitcherTM ......67 Close Panorama ............ F field of view description ....... ............................................................................. 136 showing .............................. 145 pivot points .........................114 display HDR images .................... 143 E editing panoramas in an external application184 equalizing blurred images ................................. 117 of lenses .......................................................................................143 thumbnails from the Image Strip ..................................................................................16 77 panorama ........118 to center a panorama ...................................................................................................................107 to unstitch an image..................................................................93 to detach an image.. . 32 151 QTVR projection.................... ................................... 153 .................... 138 displaying artifact polygons............................................... 132 hotspots ............... 31 154 QTVR projection............................................................................... 34 154 setting the color of ................. 140 EXIF data .........................................................134 context menus description............................ 138 setting the step...........................................................94 to select all images .......... 184 rendering ...............120 constraint panning......................................................................................................................184 creating a new project.......202 Index the texture size .................................................... 119 D deleting artifacts..............................................................................53 cubic projection................ 46 file formats camera profiles ......135 to delete an image..120 closing a panorama ........................93 detaching images................................................................129 hotspots.......................................... 140 images ................................................ 116 duplicating hotspots .......................................................................93 to show hotspots ...143 to rotate the thumbnails .......... .......................... 99 distortion cancelling a high-distortion calibration.................................................................................146 to stitch an image............................................................................................................. 123 loading .. 85 stitching images with ..................................... 34 154 cylindrical projection.................................................. 139 resetting the values..................................................114 to duplicate polygons ..........................................................................................114 converting panoramas..........................................................................................................64 Display Grid ............................. 82 taking photographs and ............ 143 polygons ...... 39 Exposure Value ................... 149 filename suffix requirements ....................

......144 K key frames.............. 114 moving as frames .............................. changing colors of .................................203 Index film back description............................. 25 108 196 unstitching ....................................... 142 I image information............................. 189 selecting one or multiple.........................88 Flip Panorama .177 frames................................................................................................................. 76 images adjusting the focal length of ...........26 focal length changing........................64 high distortion calibration................................................................... 92 installing StitcherTM ....................................................................... 96 indicator lines between thumbnails...181 GPU .68 159 198 grid ................................................15 72 ............. ......................... .................. 115 detaching ..............................143 linking .......................... 189 saving ...................136 H HDR ...............................117 saving a camera profile .................................. ..................................................................................123 resetting ................................................................................................................................................................. 115 problems stitching ......145 duplicating one or multiple.................................................... 59 overlapping ........................................22 HDR images.............................................................................. 63 deleting ....116 loading a camera profile ............................58 loading ................................ description........143 deleting.....................................123 horizon ................................................................................................................................................83 flat setting the properties of a stitch ........................................................... 95 resolution ............... 114 improving stitching performance ........................ 82 Image Strip changing the color of ..........83 description........................... 175 keyboard shortcuts description in the main menu ....................................... 143 panorama conversion .................................................................................83 relationship with focal length ...83 Force-stitching Images .................... 146 rendering ...........................................83 relationship with film back ............. .... 117 adjusting transparency .............................................. ................... 6 interface.........................................133 hotspots changing the shape of ........... 189 moving one or multiple....................................................................................113 frame gap...................................................................................................................................................143 displaying...........................83 default assignment............................................................... 76 description ........................... 71 G GoogleTMEarth ...................

............................. 186 panoramas centering...................................................................................................................... 149 shooting ................................ See transparency.................................. 45 taking handheld shots................... 16 77 panorama.........134 panorama conversion hotspots ............ 98 planar projection ... description .......................191 overlapping images in the Stitching Window ........................................... 99 displaying ....123 images......... 146 panorama conversion possibilities..... 99 rotating images around ....... 50 pivot point changing the position of... 63 centering an image automatically.............. ............................ 49 planning shots ......................................................................................109 O opacity.. preventing......................................................................53 a template.....................................................................................................................30 151 planning your shots.................. 136 closing........................................ 129 143 ............129 142 preferences adjusting the transparency of images.............58 movie rendering .............................................................................110 modifying the display of images ........ 198 parallax.. 99 changing the color of the Display Grid136 138 changing the color of the Image Strip ..........................204 Index L lenses................. 184 problems stitching cylindrical.....124 loading a camera profile ...............................................59 one or multiple polygons..............184 looking at current image . duplicating................................ 45 recommended equipment........... opening a new project ................................................................................................... 95 photographs overlapping ................ 120 converting ........................... 45 polygons selecting.. ......................................................................................................................... and moving ....... 50 Parallax............ 51 permanent image info.........................................................115 photographs when taking shots............................. 61 . 135 rendering ................ ............................. 196 realigning with the horizon ........................................................................................................... changing distortion of.......................................... 15 72 manual stitching....................................85 Lighting equalization... ............................99 M main menu....... 76 changing the color of the Stitching Window62 changing the texture size............. N nudging images pixel by pixel ...........................27 Live Preview......49 P panning constraint............................ .....173 moving images as frames ...........................................

85 constraint panning ..............................35 158 workflow overview............................................. ............. 173 previewing a panorama . 189 movie .......139 viewing distorted images .................. Q QTVR movie options............... ............................................................................................. 34 154 cubical ................................................................................................................ 31 154 cylindrical QTVR .82 changing the lens distortion values........... 76 136 setting the equalization value..................60 setting the cache size ............................................ viewpoint............................. ...........172 QuickTime® filename suffix requirements.................................................................. 109 thumbnails in the Image Strip.................................. 34 154 planar .................163 projections cubic QTVR..................... 190 selecting all images ...............145 output options............................. ......155 projects creating a new .............................................. 67 Render .................................................................. 53 redoing the last action........................................................ 124 QuickTime scripting ....................36 53 a project as a template ............................. 189 Quick Preview .............................................. opening ........................................... .......................................81 setting the focal length................................ 140 revert to the last saved project .......... 33 154 VRML................... .................. 30 151 spherical ................................................................................ ...... 149 hotspots ................. 153 181 182 186 ..... clearing the Undo Buffer .........................................83 publishing a panorama.......36 53 rotating images in the Stitching Window.............................................. ................................................................................................................... 93 ...................................................178 Pure Player exports ......................................83 changing the image resolution values..............................86 previewing a render projection .................................... 123 a project .................................................................. 26 rendering changing the mixing method ............................53 saving.............................205 Index S saving a camera profile ... 153 output setup ...... 36 53 properties changing the film back values...................................................... 163 sets .......................................... 150 resetting equalization.....................100 setting the camera parameters ..................155 ............53 opening a new ... 98 images pixel by pixel............ 94 .................. 167 R recent files......... .........................67 setting the Display Grid step...........................134 setting the camera orientation .... 32 151 cylindrical .................... .. 160 file formats ................................................................... .................................................. 158 Render Preview ........67 moving images as a frame ............

....................133 the horizon by centering a panorama................................ 98 selecting images in ......................... 173 Load Images ................................ .............................................. images in the Stitching Window .......... 153 181 182 186 Stack exposure ......................................................................144 shooting the panorama ................ ................................. 17 Redo .............................................................................................. 93 displayed in the Image Strip .................................................................................................. 86 the Image Strip ...19 aligning images in....................................................................................................................................................................115 improving performance during..... changing color of......50 spherical projection............... changing.................................................................................. 67 Save ........................................ 137 the distortion display...................118 tools animation ...............130 creating.....110 performance......................... 183 templates opening.............................100 the camera parameters......................................206 Index .....136 the hotspot properties................................................... 95 view .97 centering images in ........... 76 tone-mapped images ....... 33 154 Spi-V exports ................... 73 Thumbnail Viewer ....... 190 texture size..........................................129 stitching highly-distorted images ............................................................. 83 rotating images in ..........................................................85 setting QTVR output options................................................22 stencils blending ......................................................................96 one or multiple polygons..............................129 moving ......................................................129 duplicating............ 72 focal length and ...................................................155 the cache size.................. 133 the Display Grid ..... improving.............. .... 61 thumbnail image information .........................................................................126 deleting....................................... 89 toggling hotspots ..............136 the equalization value ......99 ......... ..................................................................... 19 deleting from the Image Strip ......................................... 94 understanding colored lines and markers ..............67 the camera orientation..................................................................................................81 the Display Grid step.................... 145 the Align Panorama mode............129 selecting ...................96 manual ............................................................... 62 description .......... 79 rotating ....................22 Stacks ............................................... 96 working in .... 96 T template creating html......... 129 142 sensor shift ......................................................... 53 ..............139 the horizon ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 19 thumbnails...... 191 saving a project as ..................................................................................................116 images in the Stitching Window ........................61 Stitching Window .........................................

..........................................................................197 closing a panorama ............................................................................. preventing hole at ..............................................................86 VRML projection ....197 stitching images ................................................................................................................................155 W workflow overview..................................67 undoing the last action.....................196 redrawing images.................................67 unstack images .......................................................................................................67 transparency of images...117 poor quality stitching .................. adjusting ................................................123 Z zenith.........121 fixing stitching problems............................................................207 Index Stitch........................196 U Undo Buffer .63 troubleshooting blurred images .................................................107 Undo.................150 X XML .............................................50 ......54 rendering ............23 V viewing distorted images.