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Femtocells: Network Aspects

IMA May 2008


Michael Vakulenko
Phone: +972.54.776.2269 email: michaelv@WaveCompass.com

No part may be reproduced except as authorized by written permission by Wave Compass. The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.

www.WaveCompass.com

About
Speaker: Michael Vakulenko
Consultant with over 15 years of R&D experience in wireless industry. cdma2000, UMTS, GSM/GPRS, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth. Multi-mode operation, multimedia over wireless, mobile terminals, J2ME. Clients: Established companies, start-ups and operators in Israel and abroad.

Wireless Landscape: Evolution Towards 4G


Roadmap to major wireless technologies. Wi-Fi, WiMAX, 3G, LTE. Up-to-date technical information with systematic and balanced comparison. For more information: www.Wireless-Landscape.com.

This Presentation
Femtocell technology is wider than just small and cheap base station. Understanding of big-picture is key for building future-proof products.

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Why Indoor Coverage is Important?


Indoor vs. Outdoor Usage
Large percentage of voice minutes are generated indoors. Home usage accounts for about 1/3 of total minutes. The trend accelerates with Fixed-to-Mobile Substitution. Absolute majority of data usage is indoors. Distribution of Mobile Phone Usage

Source: Wireless Broadband Analyst, 2005

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Indoor Coverage Example


Spectrum Characteristics
Many new spectrum opportunities are in high frequency bands. 2 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 2.6 GHz. Penetration loss increases in higher frequency bands.

High Data Rate Characteristics


High data rate requires good signal quality. Much better than voice services (12 Kbps). Better the quality, higher the achievable data rate.

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Femtocell Technology?
Femtocell Forum:
Femtocells are low-power wireless access points

that operate in licensed spectrum to connect standard mobile devices to a mobile operators network using residential DSL or cable broadband connections.

Why Wider Perspective is Important?


Femto is part of large public mobile wireless networks. Femtocells break some basic network architecture assumptions. Topology assumptions. Mobility assumptions. Femtocell technology is more than just low-power wireless access points.

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Femtocell Service Assumptions


Operator Provides Femtocells To Its Subscribers
Licensed spectrum. Must integrate with MNOs macro network. Different from Wi-Fi model.

Restricted Access
Femtocell provides service only to MS registered to it. Non-registered subscribers remain on macro network coverage. Multiple femtocells may coexist in the same area (neighbors).

Mobile Stations
Supports standard UMTS/GSM terminals. USIM/SIM is provided by the operator.

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Mobile Wireless Network


Some Architectural Assumptions
Network is hierarchical and its segmentation is based on physical topology. BTS covers certain physical area. BSC controls BTSs in a contiguous geographical area. MSC concentrates a number of BSC serving certain larger geographical area. MS can move freely in the service area. Can connect to any cell (BTS) of the serving network. Cell selection is primarily based on service quality.

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Femtocell Network
New Architectural Requirements
Femto connects to the Mobile Core Network over IP Network. Provides any-to-any connectivity Hides physical topology. Cells (BTS) are not equal any longer. Cell selection shall take into account service characteristics of the specific MS. Cell (BTS) is not aware of mobile identity.
Femto Gateway

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Mobility Aspects
Cell Selection (Idle)
F-MS shall search for its femtocell while registered on macro network. Macro network parameters? Impact on F-MS and M-MS battery life? F-MS shall trigger sell reselection to its femtocell regardless of signal quality. F-MS shall associate with the correct femtocell and keep away of others femtocells. Femtocell and Femto Gateway are not necessarily aware of the MS identity. Macro MS (M-MS) should be kept away of femtocells.

Handover (During the call)


Measurements while on macro network? M-MS Handover trigger for handover to femtocell? Measurements while on femto? Handover target for handover to macro network?
Femtocell F-MS Femtocell
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M-MS Macro BTS

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

Core Network Integration Approaches


Integration approach has major impact on femtocell functionality.

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

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Summary
The Problem
Femtocell can provide viable solution for challenges of indoor coverage.

Technology Status
Open issues remain: Changes in some basic network architectural assumptions. The scope is wider than just small and cheap base station. Understanding of big-picture is key to building future-proof products.

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

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Michael Vakulenko
Phone: +972.54.776.2269 email: michaelv@WaveCompass.com Web: www.WaveCompass.com

Femtocells: Network Aspects (IMA, May 2008) Wave Compass Ltd

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