Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

1

Dr. Mostafa Shazly


Faculty of Engineering, Room 211
Email: mostafa.shazly@bue.edu.eg
Design of Riveted
and Bolted Joints
Figure 16.1 Parameters used in
defining terminology of thread profile.
Thread Geometry
Figure 16.2 (a) Single-, (b) double-, and
(c) triple-threaded screws.
Pitch p : the distance from a point on one thread to the same point to the adjacent
thread.
|: The thread angle
h
t
: The largest possible thread height.
Number of threads per inch n = 1/p
Lead l : the distance that a screw would advance relative to the nut in 1 revolution
l = m*p, m: number of starts
Helix angle o=tan
-1
(l/td
p
)
2
Acme, UN, and M Threads
Thread profiles. (a) Acme; (b) UN.
Details of M and UN thread profiles.
The ACME threads are used for power screws and machine
tool threads. Its thread angle is 29
o
The unified UN thread (US system) and the M thread
(Metric system) are used extensively and have thread angle
of 60
o
. By defining the pitch (p), all other thread
parameters can be defined
Please refer to page 709 from textbook for more details
0.5
0.866
tan30
t o
p
h p = =
What is meant by UNF x 16
and M16x1.5?
Dimensions and tensile stress areas for UN coarse and fine threads. Root
diameter is calculated from Eq. (16.2) and Fig. 16.4.
UN Coarse and Fine Threads
3
Dimensions and tensile stress areas for M coarse and fine threads. Root
diameter is calculated from Eq. (16.2) and Fig. 16.4.
M Coarse and Fine Threads
Power Screws
Power Screws are used for:
To obtain mechanical advantage in order to lift weight, as
in a screw type of jack for cars.
To exert large forces, as in home compactor or press.
To obtain precise positioning of an axial movement, as in
a micrometer screw or the lead screw of a lathe
Details of Acme thread profile.
(All dimensions are in inches.)
| |
|
\ .
2
r p
t
p c
p c
The Tensile stress area
d +d

A =
4 2
The pitch diameter of an ACME
power thread is
d = d - 0.5p- 0.01 (in)
d = d - 0.5p- 0.254 (mm)
4
Crest diameters, threads
per inch, and stress areas
for Acme threads.
The shear area is given
for 1 long of thread
engagement
Acme Threads
Power Screws
Power Screws
Forces and Torque
5
Forces on Power Screw
Raising the Load
0
sin , cos
0 0
0 tan 2
sin cos cos
0
0
cos
n n
n n n
CD C
D D
CD A
A
C
u u
|
u u u
o
= =
= =
Forces on Power
Screw
forces acting on
tangential plane.
Raising the Load
The torque required to raise the load and overcome
the collar friction force is obtained by multiplying
the horizontal forces by appropriate radii.
forces acting on
axial section
Substitute for P
n
6
Forces on Power Screw
(c) forces acting on
tangential plane.
Lowering the Load
The torque required to lower the load and overcome
the collar friction force is obtained by multiplying the
horizontal forces by appropriate radii.
Power Screws
Power and Efficiency
The power, in horse power, can be given by
The power, in watts, can be given by
Torque applied when friction is zero
Effieciency=
Actual Torque Applied
7
Power Screws
Self Locking Screws
If the collar friction is eliminated by using rolling elements, then
to prevent the load from sliding down
If the screw thread has large lead angle, the friction force may
not be able to stop the tendency of the load to slide down, and
gravity will cause the load to fall.
Power Screws
Summary
8
Example
15
A single-threaded M323.5 power screw is used to raise a 12-kN
load at a speed of 25 mm/s. The coefficients of friction are 0.08 for
the thread and 0.12 for the collar. The collar mean diameter is 55
mm. Determine the power required. Also determine how much
power is needed for lowering the load at 40 mm/s.
Example
16
Since the lead is L = 3.5 mm, and the load is raised at 25 mm/s, the screw must be
rotating at a speed of e = 25/3.5 = 7.14 rev/s = 44.88 rad/s. Therefore the power is
the product of torque and angular velocity, or
The torque to lower the load is given by
9
Three types of threaded fastener. (a) Bolt and nut;
(b) cap screw; (c) stud.
Types of Threaded Fasteners
Strength of Steel Bolts
The terms proof load and proof strength are used in defining the bolt strength
The proof load of a bolt is the maximum load that a bolt can withstand without
acquiring a permanent deformation
Proof strength (S
p
) ~ 0.8 * Yield strength
Tensile stress area
Where n is the number of threads per inch
10
Tensile stress area
Strength of Steel Bolts
Failure Modes for Fasteners in Shear
Failure modes due to shear loading
of riveted fasteners. (a) Bending of
member; (b) shear of rivet
Bending of Members
( )
( )
( )
1 2
2
2
0.6
: section moment of area
j
y
j
t t
P t
S
I
I
o
+ | |
|
\ .
= s
Shear of Rivets
(Single or Double)
2
4
sy
P
S
d
t
t
= s
11
Failure Modes for Fasteners in Shear
Failure modes due to shear loading
of riveted fasteners. (c) tensile
failure of member; (d) bearing of
member on rivet.
Tensile Failure of Members
( )
min
min
. .
y
P
S
A
e g A b d t
o = s
=
Compressive Bearing Failure of
Members
. .
y
bearing
bearing
P
S
A
e g A dt
o = s
=
Eccentric loading of group of riveted fasteners (a)
Assembly of rivet group; (b) radii from centroid to
center of rivets; (c) resulting triangles; (d) direct
and torsional shear acting on each rivet; (e) side
view of member.
Eccentric Loading of Bolted Joints
(Shear Loading)
The eccentric loading will cause two
types of shear stresses; primary shear
and secondary shear
Set arbitrary axes and locate the
centroid of the group of bolts
Determine the distance from the
centroid to each bolt, r
j
Calculate the primary (direct) shear on
each bolt, direction same as external
load
Calculate the rotation torque
T=P e
e: distance from loading point to
bolt group centroid
, , bolt area
i i i i
i
i i
A y Ax
y x A
A A

= = =

d
i
P
A
t =

12
Eccentric loading of group of riveted fasteners (a)
Assembly of rivet group; (b) radii from centroid to
center of rivets; (c) resulting triangles; (d) direct
and torsional shear acting on each rivet; (e) side
view of member.
Eccentric Loading of Bolts
(Shear Loading)
Calculate the secondary shear on each
bolt, direction perpendicular to the
radius from the centroid to the bolt
under consideration and in the same
sense as the rotation torque
Add both the primary and secondary
shears (vectors addition)
(you may use graphical methods)
!!! Remember that the
member is under bending
loading
2
j
sj
j j
Tr
r A
t =

Example
24