c c
+ + ~
c c
c
+ + +
c
~
} } }
}
(2.5)
The last term is the pressure integral along the lateral surface. The lateral surface element,
L
dS may be related to the cross sectional surface element by using the figure below dA
n
dS
L
dA
From this figure we see that
x L
n dS dA = (2.6)
And the integral on the lateral surface becomes
L
x
dS
Pn dS PdA =
}
(2.7)
The momentum balance in the xdirection then becomes
( ) ( )
( )
x
CV CS CS
2
udV u v n dS Pn dS uA dx
t t
u A AP dx PdA
x
0
c c
+ + ~
c c
c
+ +
c
~
} } }
(2.8)
This may be evaluated in the limit dx to obtain the x component of the conservative
differential momentum equation
( ) ( )
2
A
uA u A AP P 0
t x
c c c
x
+ + =
c c c
(2.9)
or
( ) ( )
2
P
uA u A A 0
t x x
c c c
+ + =
c c c
(2.10)
Finally, the energy eqation is approximated as
CV CS CS
2 2
1 1
( e v v )dV ( e v v )v ndS Pv ndS
t 2 2
1 1
( e u )A dx ( e u )uA PuA dx 0
t 2 x 2
c
+ + + + ~
c
c c ( (
+ + + + ~
( (
c c
} } }
(2.11)
Following the same steps as were used previously we obtain the conservative differential
energy equation
2 2
1 1
( e u )A ( e u )uA PuA 0
t 2 x 2
c c (
+ + + +
(
c c
(
=
(
(2.12)
And noting that
P
h e
= + we arrive at
2 2
1 1
( e u )A ( h u )uA 0
t 2 x 2
c c (
+ + +
(
c c
(
=
(
(2.13)
Summarizing, the conservative differential balance equations for quasi onedimensional
flow are
( ) ( )
2
2 2
A uA
0
t x
P
uA u A A 0
t x x
1 1
( e u )A ( h u )uA 0
t 2 x 2
c c
+ =
c c
c c c
+ + =
c c c
c c (
+ + +
(
c c
(
=
(
(2.14)
In what follows we will derive simpler forms of these equations and we note that the
conservative form of these equations would be appropriate to use if we were considering
simulating flows with shocks as the conservative form is closely related to the control
volume form which is valid for flows containing shocks.
III. Other Forms of the Differential Balance Equations
We begin by factoring out a term proportional to the continuity equation in the
momentum equation
( ) ( )
0
u u P
u A uA A uA A
t x t x x
(
(
c c c c c
+ + + + (
c c c c c
(
(
0 = (3.1)
or
u u P
A u A
t x x
c c c  
0 + + =

c c c
\ .
(3.2)
The area may be divided out and the resulting simplified momentum equation is
u u P
u
t x x
c c c  
0 + + =

c c c
\ .
(3.3)
A similar operation on the energy equation may be performed
( ) ( )
2 2
2
0
1 1
( e u ) A uA A ( e u )
2 t x t 2
1 PuA
uA ( e u ) 0
x 2 x
(
(
c c c (
+ + + + (
(
c c c
(
(
c c (
+ + +
(
c c
=
(3.4)
with the result
2 2
1 1 PuA
A ( e u ) uA ( e u ) 0
t 2 x 2 x
c c c ( (
+ + + + =
( (
c c c
(3.5)
Now we multiply the momentum equation, equation (3.2), by the velocity to obtain
u u P
A u u uA
t x x
c c c  
0 + +

c c c
\ .
= (3.6)
or
2 2
u u
PuA uA
2 2
A u P
t x x x
 
c c
c c

0 + +

c c c c
\ .
= (3.7)
The represents the balance of mechanical energy and may be subtracted from the total
energy equation to obtain the thermal energy equation
e e uA
A uA P 0
t x x
c c c
+ + =
c c c
(3.8)
or
De uA
A P
Dt x
c
+ =
c
0 (3.9)
We make the local equilibrium assumption (this assumption must be made for us to use
equations of state derived by considering equilibrium processes) so that we may apply the
result from classical thermodynamics
2
P
de Td d 0 q
= + = (3.10)
or
2
De D P D
T
Dt Dt Dt
q
= + (3.11)
Substitution of this into equation (3.9) leaves us with
2
D P D uA
A T P
Dt Dt x
q
( c
+ +
(
c
0 = (3.12)
The total derivative of density is substituted into the second term
2
D P A uA
AT uA P
Dt t x x
q
( c c c  
+ + +
 (
c c c
\ .
0 = (3.13)
And the continuity equation is used to eliminate the time derivative of density to obtain.
2
D P uA uA
AT uA P
Dt x x x
q
c c c  
+ + + =

c c c
\ .
0
(
(
(3.14)
or
D P uA uA
AT P
Dt x x
q
( c c  
+
 (
c c
\ .
0 = (3.15)
This finally simplifies to
D
u
Dt t x
q q q c c
0 = + =
c c
(3.16)
and this indicates that the entropy of a fluid packet remains invariant. We would expect
this as all diffusion terms have been neglected. Further reductions may be implemented
by eliminating density derivatives using the equation of state for density.
( )
P, q = (3.17)
Note that entropy is chosen as one of the independent variables in the state equation for
density as we know the entropy is invariant. Total increments in density may be
calculated
( ) ( )
P
0
P, P,
d dP
P
q
q q
d q
q
( ( c c
= +
( (
c c
(3.18)
or
2
1
d
a
= dP (3.19)
where a is the sound speed defined as
( )
2
P, 1
a P
q
q ( c
=
(
c
(3.20)
We use equation (3.19) to replace derivatives of density with derivatives of pressure. The
area may be moved outside of the time derivative in the continuity equation and
derivatives of density may be isolated
uA
A uA 0
t x x
c c c
+ + =
c c c
(3.21)
The density derivatives are now replaced with pressure derivatives
2 2
A P uA P uA
0
a t a x x
c c c
+ + =
c c c
(3.22)
or
2
P P a uA
u
t x A x
c c c
0 + +
c c c
= (3.23)
Summarizing, the reduces differential balance equations for quasi onedimensional flow
are
2
P P a uA
u 0
t x A x
u u P
u
t x x
u 0
t x
q q
c c c
0
+ + =
c c c
c c c  
+ + =

c c c
\ .
c c
+ =
c c
(3.24)
Note that these equations are identical to the onedimensional Euler equation except for
the last term in the continuity equation involving the area.
IV. The AreaVelocity Relations for Quasi OneDimensional Flow
and the De Laval Nozzle
Consider the differential balance equations derived in the previous section for the case of
steady flow (note that the energy equation simply tells us that the entropy remains
invariant for a packet of fluid and need not be included here).
2
P a uA
u
x A x
c c
0 + =
c c
(4.1)
u P
u
x x
c c
0 + =
c c
(4.2)
We introduce the Mach number
( )
u
M
a
= (4.3)
And solve equations (4.1) and (4.2) for the spatial gradients of pressure and velocity
( )
2
2
P a A
1 M
x A
x
c c
=
c c
(4.4)
( )
2
u u A
M 1
x A x
c c
=
c c
(4.5)
In what follows we consider a rightward directed flow, u>0 , and explore conditions
where the area is either increasing or decreasing. Inspection of equations (4.4) and (4.5)
reveal the following cases
Diffusers (increasing pressure and decreasing velocity) occur when
u
0
M 1
x
A P
0 0
x x
c ( (
<
( (
<
c
( (
( (
( (
c c
( > ( >
c c
(4.6)
Or
u
0
M 1
x
A P
0 0
x x
c ( (
<
( (
>
c
( (
( (
( (
c c
( < ( >
c c
(4.7)
Nozzles (decreasing pressure and increasing velocity) occur when
u
0
M 1
x
A P
0 0
x x
c ( (
>
( (
<
c
( (
( (
( (
c c
( < ( <
c c
(4.8)
u
0
M 1
x
A P
0 0
x x
c ( (
>
( (
>
c
( (
( (
( (
c c
( > ( <
c c
(4.9)
Note that the cases given by equations (4.7) and (4.8) are counterintuitive given a
perspective based upon low speed flows. These cases indicate that for supersonic flows,
in order to increase the fluid speed we must increase the duct area and in order to
decrease the fluid speed we must decrease the duct area.
Next we have to consider the behavior of the Mach number for nozzles and diffusers we
consider the case given by equation (4.8). We know that the pressure is decreasing and
becase the process is isentropic
P
C
= (4.10)
which indicates that the density and hence the sound speed will decrease. With the
velocity increasing and the soundspeed decreasing the Mach number is increasing and we
may add to this case this condition
u
0
M 1
x
M
0
x
A P
0 0
x x
c ( (
>
( (
<
c
( ( c
( (
c
( (
c c
( < ( <
c c
> (4.11)
We will find that for the other three cases the behavior of the Mach number is the same,
i.e. the Mach number follows the velocity.
Inspection of equations (4.4) and (4.5) indicates that M = 1 only if
A
0
x
c
=
c
. This point in
the duct is known as the throat and will be denoted in the following discussion with a
subscript t. This result leads us to two conclusions
1. In a converging nozzle if
A
0
x
c
<
c
with M < 1 initially, M cannot reach 1
2. In a converging nozzle if
A
0
x
c
<
c
with M >1 initially, M cannot reach 1
The first conclusion indicates that if we wish to accelerate a fluid from subsonic to
supersonic velocity we need to use a duct that first converges to a throat with
A
0
x
c
=
c
and then diverges. This shape of duct is known as the De Laval nozzle and is
depicted below.
t
M = 1
t
M 1 =
t
A
0
x
c
=
c
M<1
M>1
In practice the expansion of the gas can only go so far due to flow (boundary layer)
separation and the attendant energy losses. The De Laval nozzle provides the means to
accelerate a subsonic flow to become a supersonic flow. The exit pressure of the nozzle is
how the flow characteristics are controlled. Consider the figure shown below. The two
exit pressures and correspond to the exit pressures for the subsonic exit
isentropic flow and the supersonic exit isentropic flow, respectively. In other words, if the
exit pressure is set to
i _ sub
P
i _ sup
P
i _ sub
P the gas will reach M =1 at the throat and will then decelerate
until the exit is reached and M<1 from the throat to the exit. If the exit pressure is set to
the gas will reach M =1 at the throat and will then accelerate to M>1 from the
throat to the exit. We will derive an analytic solution to each of these cases in the next
section.
i _ sup
P
P
The exit pressures correspond to the most interesting case. The only
way that the flow physics can be resolved is if a shock exists between the throat and the
exit. The location of the shock is such that the isentropic flow after the shock will arrive
at the correct exit pressure.
i _ sup exit i _ s ub
P P P < <
If the exit pressure is less than
i _ sup
P then the flow will be isentropic and supersonic after
the throat until the exit where an expansion must exist to bring the pressure to the low
exit pressure. Such a flow is termed under expanded. If the exit pressure is greater than
i _ sub
P but less than
r
P (the reservoir pressure) then the flow will be isentropic but will
not reach Mach 1 at the throat. We will discuss the text figure 5.18 in class.
t
x
i _ sub
P
i _ sup
P
shock 2
P
shock1
P
M 1 <
x
t
M 1 =
M 1 >
shock
r
P
The other interesting feature of the De Laval nozzle is the chocked flow condition. This
condition may be observed in the previous figure where the exit pressure range
results in M =1 at the throat. The term chocked refers to the fact
that the throat conditions do not feel the effect of the pressure being lowered from
i _ sup exit i _ s ub
P P P < <
i _ s ub
P .
This choked condition is a manifestation of the fact that for supersonic flow
information cannot be propagated upstream and natures solution is to create a shock
wave such that the pressure adjusts itself isentropically after the shock to meet the exit
pressure that is set. A more rigorous understanding of this phenomenon awaits the
development of the characteristic form of the differential balance equations.
V. Analytic Solution for a Calorically Perfect Gas in SteadyState
Quasi OneDimensional Flow
We start with the continuity equation in steady form
uA
0
x
c
=
c
(5.1)
This equation tells us that
uA C = (5.2)
We fix the constant by setting it equal to the throat conditions
(5.3)
* * *
uA u A =
where
*
A is the area of the throat and
*
u a
*
= as the throat is at Mach 1 thus
* * * *
o
*
o
A a a
A u u
= = (5.4)
Now since we have isotropic flow the density ratios are
1
1
2 o
1
1 M
2
 

\
  
= +

\ . \ .
.


(5.5)
and (recall the starred state is at Mach 1)
1 1
1 1
o
*
1 1
1
2 2
   
 
\ . \   +    
= + =
  
\ . \ . \ .
.
(5.6)
The energy equation may be used (in the text chapter 3 equation 3.37) to show that
2
*2
*
2
1
M
u
2
M
1 a
1 M
2
+
 
= =

 
\ .
+

\ .
(5.7)
Equations (5.5), (5.6), and (5.7) may be substituted into equation (5.4) and after some
manipulation we arrive at the AreaMach number relation
1
2
1
2
* 2
A 1 2 1
1 M
A M 1 2
(    
= +
  (
+
\ . \ .
(5.8)
This relation provides an interesting result in that
( ) *
A
M f
A
= (5.9)
Suppose we know A A( x ) = . The analytic solution for isentropic flow in the De Laval
nozzle may be found by first solving the AreaMach number relation for M and then the
isentropic flow relations may be used to calculate all other variables. The AreaMach
number relation provides two solutions for M, a subsonic and a supersonic solution. The
table A.1 also includes the AreaMach number relation as does the MATLAB file
isentrop.m. We will examine figures 5.13 and 5.14 in the text in class. Recall that the
isentropic flow relations are
2 o
T 1
1
T 2
 
= +

\ .
M (5.10)
1
2 o
P 1
1 M
P 2
 

\
   
= +

\ . \ .
.

(5.11)
1
1
2 o
1
1 M
2
 

\ .
   
= +

\ . \ .

(5.12)
This analytic solution and table A.1 (isentrop.m) will be the basis for problem solutions
for isentropic flow in nozzles. In the even a normal shock exists in the diverging section
of the nozzle, this solution applies to either side of the shock and the normal shock
conditions (table A.2 and shock.m) apply through the shock. Two additional MATLAB
files are provided. The first, A_from_M.m calculates the area ratio given the Mach
number. The second, M_from_A.m calculates the Mach number given the area ratio.
A_from_M.m
function arear = A_from_M(mach)
gamma = 1.4;
term = 1 + .5*(gamma1)*mach^2;
arear = 2/( gamma+1)*term;
arear = arear^((gamma+1)/(gamma1));
arear = arear/( mach^2);
arear = sqrt(arear);
return
M_from_A.m
function mach = M_from_A(arear, mguess)
% secant method to get mach # given area ratio
mo = mguess;
dm = 1/1000.;
delm = 1.0;
while abs(delm) > .0001,
mr = mo+dm;
ml = modm;
dadm = ( m_a(mr)  m_a(ml) )/(2*dm);
delm = (m_a(mo)arear)/dadm;
mo = mo + delm;
end
mach = mo;
VI. The Characteristic form of the Differential Balance Equations,
Boundary Conditions and Choking
The differential balance equations we start with are
2
P P a uA
u
t x A x
c c c
0 + +
c c c
= (6.1)
u u P
u
t x x
c c c  
0 + + =

c c c
\ .
(6.2)
u
t x
q q c c
0 + =
c c
(6.3)
We seek to form linear combinations of the continuity and momentum equations
,equations (6.1) and (6.2), respectively, that result in the characteristic form of the
equations. First we add the continuity equation to the momentum equation multiplied by
the sound speed. The result is the first characteristic form
( ) ( )
2
u u P P ua
a u a u a
t x t x A
c c c c ( (
+ + + + + =
( (
c c c c
A
x
c
c
(6.4)
Next we subtract the continuity equation from the momentum equation multiplied by the
sound speed. The result is the second characteristic form
( ) ( )
2
u u P P ua
a u a u a
t x t x A
c c c c ( (
+ + =
( (
c c c c
A
x
c
c
(6.5)
The energy equation, equation (6.3), is already in characteristic form. In order to interpret
these equations we must introduce the concept of a derivative along a characteristic
curve. Consider the total derivative of a function of x and t
f f
df dt dx
t x
c c
= +
c c
(6.6)
Suppose we constrain x and t to fall along the curve
dx
a
dt
= (6.7)
The total derivative along this curve is then
f f
df dt adt
t x
c c
= +
c c
(6.8)
or
f f
df a d
t x
c c 
= +
c c
\ .
t


(6.9)
Thus
f f
a
t x
c c
+
c c
represents
df
dt
along the curve
dx
a
dt
=
For our case the characteristic form of the equations is
( ) ( )
u u 1 P P u
u a u a
t x a t x
c c c c ( (
+ + + + + =
( (
c c c c
a A
A x
c
c
(6.10)
( ) ( )
u u 1 P P u
u a u a
t x a t x A
c c c c ( (
+ + =
( (
c c c c
a A
x
c
c
(6.11)
u
t x
q q c c
0 + =
c c
(6.12)
and this set of equations may be interpreted as
du 1 dp ua A dx
along u a
dt a dt A x dt
c
+ = =
c
+ (6.13)
du 1 dp ua A dx
along u a
dt a dt A x dt
c
= =
c
(6.14)
dx
u 0 along u
t x dt
q q c c
+ = =
c c
(6.15)
There are two important concepts associated with this characteristic from of the
equations:
1. The characteristic curves represent the directions along which information is
being propagated.
2. The characteristic equations tell us what information is propagated along the
characteristic curves.
These concepts will be useful to determine what the appropriate boundary conditions are
and will help us explain how the phenomena known as choking occurs. We consider the
De Laval nozzle introduced earlier where the throat is sonic and the diverging section is
supersonic at the exit.
t
M 1 =
M>1
t
A
0
x
c
At the left boundary we have two characteristic curves propagating information from the
outside. We replace the characteristic equations associated with these curves with
boundary conditions, say pressure and temperature are specified. We then must solve the
ua characteristic equation to obtain the third variable at the boundary. At the supersonic
exit all information is propagating from the interior and we cannot specify a boundary
condition. We must solve all three characteristic equations to find the three flow variables
at the exit.
Consider next the case shown above where the throat is choked and supersonic flow
exists in the diverging section until a shock develops in order to allow the exit pressure to
match the specified exit pressure. The characteristics are all directed downstream thus no
information is propagated upstream. This is a unique aspect of supersonic flow. The
throat will remain at Mach 1 as the direction of information propagation is downstream
and any change in the exit pressure will not be felt at the throat. Since the flow is
subsonic at the exit, we may replace the upstream directed characteristic equation with a
boundary condition specifying the exit pressure.
dx
u a
dt
=
dx
u
dt
=
dx
u a
dt
= +
dx
u a
dt
=
dx
u a
dt
= +
dx
u
dt
=
=
c
M<1
M 1 <
M 1 >
t
M 1 =
t
A
0
x
c
=
c
shock