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JULY 20-22, 2003 ~ RESIDENTIAL TRAINING Harpers Ferry, WV

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July 20, 2003 Greetings! What a world where working in right now. Budget cuts. Privatization. War. Strife. Much of what we have come to think of as advances in policy seem to be eroding before our eyes. Of course, all is not lost. All over, folk like you -- and including you -- are making a difference by making policy that matters. This session, the very first of Praxis' Learning Circle series, is designed to help you build skills and develop strategies for policy advocacy. The goals of these sessions are pretty straightforward. We want to help you develop and pass better policies, policies that meet community needs and expand our notion of what's possible. We also want to contribute to expanding the network of organizers and advocates committed to health justice. As a result, this session attempts to balance popular education to enhance skills (learning by doing, really) with alliance building to support network development. It's our way of ensuring that each of us has opportunities both to learn and to teach because we truly value what you bring to this. It also means that our sessions are extraordinarily packed in order to allow extensive interaction and participation. And, as with all maiden voyages, we ask your patience with the kinks -- and your input as we make our way together. Welcome! We are very glad you're here. In fellowship,


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Table of Contents
Welcome..2 Agenda.5 Policy Planning Templates....8 Developing a Policy Initiative...9 Choosing an Issue: Reality Checklist.26 Capability Index..27 Ally Matrix29 Base and Coalition Building..30 Tips on Base Building31 Sample Rap and Tally Sheets.....34 Building Diverse Community-Base Coalitions...40 Media Advocacy.....46 Media Planning template...47 Key Related Beliefs51 A Good Framing Strategy.....52 Framing for Access53 Rats 1,2,3: A Framing Exercise54 Principles for Talking About Race to the Media....57 Policy Advocacy Resources..58 Options for Policy Action...59 Policy Options Beyond Legislation......67 Developing an Equity Impact Template......69 Participant Roster....81 About The Praxis Project88

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About the Organization..89 Praxis staff...91 Upcoming Training Events....94 This Session's Trainers and Presenters.....95 Other Resources.....96 About Harpers Ferry100

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Effective Policy Advocacy July 20-July 22, 2003 Hilltop House Hotel Harpers Ferry, WV
DAY ONE Sunday, July 20, 2003 Arrival to Hilltop House by 11:30 PM 12:00 pm Lunch Gathering Welcome Introductions & Logistics Convene to Gathering Room (Annex)


12:30 pm

12:45 pm Conocimiento Presentations Participants reconvene into four thematic groups and develop a presentation (e.g., role-play, dance, song, drawing, human sculptures, etc.) to illustrate common ground discovered re: challenges and hopes in policy work. 1:30 pm 2:00 pm 2:45 pm 4:00 pm 5:10 pm 5:45 pm 6:00 pm 7:00 pm Introduction & Overview Policy as Vision Exercise Building Whole Coalitions Cutting the Issue Developing Policy Goals Issue Groups Housekeeping/Evaluation/Adjourn Dinner FREE TIME (optional learning circles organized by participants)

DAY TWO Monday, July 21, 2003 8:00 am Breakfast

8:45 am Issue Groups Reconvene Develop Large-Group Report 9:00 am Welcome Back/Housekeeping/Agenda Review

9:15 am Issue Groups Report Back and Cross Talk Presentations, Debriefing & Discussion

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9:45 am 10:15 am 10:30 am 12:30 pm 1:30 pm 2:15 pm 3:00 pm 3:20 pm 4:45 pm 5:00 pm 5:15 pm 6:00 pm 7:00 pm 8:00 pm

Identifying Targets BREAK Power/Organizing/Mobilizing Tactics LUNCH Identifying and Mobilizing Support Dealing with Opposition BREAK Media Advocacy: Framing, Message development and Planning Identifying Target Audiences Evaluation/Housekeeping/Adjourn Dinner Break Dinner FREE TIME (optional learning circles organized by participants) Social Time

DAY THREE Tuesday, July 22, 2003 8:00 am 8:45 am 9:00 am Breakfast Welcome Back/Housekeeping/Agenda Review Taking It Back to Your Community

10:00 am Lobbying: What Nonprofits Need to Know Guest Speaker: Liz Towne, Alliance for Justice 11:15 am 12:00 pm 1:00 pm Evaluation, Housekeeping and Closing Bagged Lunch Shuttles Back to the Airports

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Policy Planning Templates

Developing a Policy Initiative Choosing An Issue: Reality Checklist Capability Index Ally Matrix

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This form was inspired by materials by the Midwest Academy, Doris Marshall Institute, The Marin Institute, and Berkley Media Studies Group

Developing A Policy Initiative

Its not enough to simply react to issues with demands and counter demands. At some point, if we are serious about building community power, we must shape and initiate public policy. Below are basic steps in shaping proactive, community-generated policies. Of course, this worksheet is not a recipe but a guide from which to begin your strategy. 1. Clearly Define The Problem This requires gathering as many reports, surveys, personal observations and other resources that accurately describe the problem you wish to address. It is difficult to effectively address problems in the environment with simply an intuitive, "we see a number of youths without much to do." Know, among other things, the number of youth arrests, injuries and other incidents; what options (if any) do they have; what young people actually think about the situation; local funding issues; and the impact of corporate institutions. Another reason to have detailed information to substantiate your policy recommendation is that all legislation must be based on a finding or set of facts that provide the rationale for enacting the law. If you are interested in seeing your policy recommendations codified, then you must be prepared with the facts. Above all, be able to describe the problem clearly in ways that help your community grasp the seriousness of the problem and hold the right players accountable. 2. Develop Policy Goals All policy must be developed within the framework of your organization's purpose and long range goals. It's important to compare your organization's goals with the goal for your issue. In your assessment you should ask yourself: what constitutes victory? How will this policy address the problem/have an impact on the quality of life of your constituents/members and/or community? Take time to assess each of the objectives you must achieve to meet your campaign goal. Examples of short-term objectives are the support of local politicians, other gatekeepers, or regulatory agencies before winning changes in local or state institutional policy. This assessment requires developing a scrupulous list of all the steps necessary to accomplish each short term objective. 3. Assess Your Ability To Undertake A Campaign To Implement These Goals Another important consideration is your organizational health and survival. Can you win? Or perhaps more importantly, can your organization afford to lose? Advocacy campaigns can strengthen organizations by building a sense of team spirit, expanding the leadership base, deepening the leadership's level of experience and expanding an organization's membership and contact base. Of course, your organization must bring something to the
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campaign in the first place (i.e., membership, staff, money, reputation, facilities, press contacts, allies, etc.). Make a careful assessment of your assets as well as any liabilities you bring to the effort. 4. Assess Community Resources As stated above, the best kind of campaigns build a sense of community and build community power. Building broad, cohesive coalitions is critical to these efforts. One way to think about coalition building is by developing a list of groups and individuals who share the different parts of the problem you'd like to address and what would each party gain from supporting the effort. Of course, these issues are not black and white. Assess each parties depth of support, what they - and you - risk by coming together, what they bring to the effort and how much effort will it take to reach them and maintain their presence in the coalition. 5. Assess Who Has the Power To Enact the Policy Any discussion on doing advocacy would be incomplete without taking a look at who you may have to target to achieve your goal. Once you've decided what institutions or individuals have power or influence to enact your policy, then you must (through research) determine all the ways you can access and influence the process (personal contacts, media, as voters or taxpayers, freedom of information requests, etc.). 6. Develop An Action Plan Once you've assessed your organizational and community capacity, your allies and opponents as well as the gatekeepers who have the power to enact your policy, you are ready to develop an action plan for your campaign. The actions you take should be flexible and engage your community. Make sure that your target is clear and that the policy recommendation(s) are: within its/their power; specific; and can be articulated in a way that is easily understood. Set time limits for certain tactics and develop an alternate plan if your original tactics are not yielding results. Also, make sure you include a plan for monitoring your target institutions and the policies once they are implemented. Above all, be tenacious and remember that changing policy means changing minds - and that takes time. Media Action Planning Effective use of media is also a critical tool in any advocacy campaign. Media enables public health advocates who gain access to capture public attention on behalf of a particular issue or policy change. Media has often turned the tide by informing the public (and policy makers in particular) of a particular problem; providing ideas and opportunities for public action; and facilitating a shift in the focus from policy that holds individuals accountable to policies that seek to effectively regulate institutional actors as well. Your action plan should also include how you plan to use the media.
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7. Evaluate Your Success Evaluation, if done well, informs your work on an ongoing basis. Your organization should periodically review each step of your action plan to assess if it's working. Some questions to ask yourself: Did we do what we said we would do? What have we gained (people, resources, exposure - related and not related to your goals)? What have we changed (policy, community or press relations, etc.)? What still makes sense to continue? What isn't working? Use your evaluation information and make any necessary changes to your action plan. Also, make sure that you just don't focus on your shortcomings. This is hard work. Take time to celebrate your achievements no matter how small they may seem. You deserve it! Defining the Problem You have now identified a variety of issues in your community, and policy options to be used in reducing those risks. To begin the process of planning, work with your group to choose an issue that you would like to use the tool of policy change to address. Make sure that the problem is immediate (within your sphere of influence), specific (can you measure it?), and winnable (will taking this on strengthen your organization, as well as increase agency in your community?). The Problem is (25 words or less):

List as much information that you, as a group, can about the problem:

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List five sources outside of your organization for further information:

Developing Policy Goals Write a brief summary of the purpose and long range goals of your organization.

Using no more than 30 words, state the policy goal for this issue:

Name three concrete improvements that would be won by achieving this goal:

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How will achieving this goal contribute to building the community's sense of their own power?

What is the relationship between organizational goals and the policy goal?

Name three non-policy goals (i.e., expanding membership, etc.) that can be aided by this effort:

Setting Objectives Brainstorm with your group a "laundry list" of steps necessary to accomplish your goal. Don't take longer than 5 minutes on each part of this step for now. Revisit them after you've gone through the exercises entirely. What short-term victories must you first win (i.e., support of regulatory agencies, minimum signatures to place issue on the ballot or before council, etc.) to achieve your policy goal?

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List steps necessary to accomplish each short-term goal listed above:

Assessing Your Organizational Capacity Review your policy goal. With that goal in mind, list three specific ways in which your organization needs to be strengthened in order to achieve your goal:

List the resources your organization brings to this campaign (i.e., membership, staff, money, reputation, facilities, press contacts, allies, etc.).

List three internal problems that have to be considered or overcome.

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How will the campaign strengthen the organization, if you win?

If you lose?

How can the campaign weaken the organization?

Assessing Your Targets List who/what institution has/have the power to solve the problem and grant your demands? When possible, list specific names. Identify which is the most important target for achieving your policy goal.

Who must you get to first before those listed above? Be specific:

List strengths and weaknesses of each target: Opponent Strengths


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Assessing Your Targets (Continued) Which targets are appointed? Elected?

How do you have power/influence with them (as voters, consumers, taxpayers, etc.)?

What is the self-interest of each?

Who would have jurisdiction if you redefined the issue (e.g. turned a tobacco advertising issue into a fair business practices issue)? Does this help you?

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Assessing Your Opposition List people and institutions who may oppose you. When possible, list specific names. Identify which are likely to do the most damage.

List strengths and weaknesses of each opponent: Opponent Strengths


Assessing Your Opponents Which are appointed? Elected?

How do you have power/influence with them (as voters, consumers, taxpayers, etc.)?

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Assessing Community Resources List who shares this What would they get problem? out of joining you?

Who else would they bring in?

Who would their presence alienate?

Rank each group named above from 1 to 5 (with 5 being the highest) with regard to your issues taking into account the following factors: self-interest, depth of concern, risk in joining you, and level of difficulty to reach/organize. Self-interest Depth of concern Risk in joining you Difficult to reach/ organize


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Assessing Community Resources (Continued) For each group named above, list the specific power they have over your targets: Group Target Power


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MEDIA PLANNING FOR POLICY CHANGE Write here your policy goal:

List three goals for your work with the media. At least one should be related to your policy goal:

Whom do you want to reach? Remember the allies and targets you identified in your policy exercises. Allies you must reach using media:

Targets you will influence using media:

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Distill your policy message into a 15-word (maximum) statement that will get the point across. Remember: a message is not the same as a soundbite. It is the overall theme of your initiative that you are trying to communicate.

What are good images for conveying the message?

Who are good spokespeople for conveying the message?

List arguments of the opposition:

Develop two soundbites that convey your message and address important issues raised by the opposition. (Remember: you are not debating them. You are delivering the message.)

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Monitoring and Evaluating Your Campaign Who will be responsible for monitoring activity?

What activities are necessary to insure the effort is monitored properly?

What will constitute success? (Be specific. Refer back to your goals and objectives)

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Developing Your Action Plan Now you have what you need to develop an action plan. Dont forget give yourself time to review your answers. Be sure to set dates for the completion of each step. Policy GoalMain TargetOur Opposition-

What Information We Need

Where to Go For It

By When

Short Term Objectives/Victories (in chronological order) Be sure to include any tasks concerning your target(s). Attach an extra paper if necessary.

Victories we need to accomplish our policy goal:

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Developing Your Action Plan (Continued) Tasks we need to accomplish to gain each victory:

We want to work in coalition with the following groups/individuals:

Tasks we need to accomplish to make this happen for each listed above:

We have identified the following secondary targets as critical to our goal:

What we want from each target:

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Developing Your Action Plan Actions we need to undertake to make this happen:

Tasks we need to accomplish for each action Action #1:

Action #2:

Action #3:

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*Based on action kits developed by the Midwest Academy, the Praxis Project and other community organizing groups

Because an issue is important, it does not mean its the right time to tackle it. Use the reality checklist below to evaluate the issue chosen in the previous worksheet, and to help you think through the strengths and weaknesses of your advocacy initiative/campaign. Ideally, the whole yes column would be checked to increase the likelihood of success. But given the sudden battles brewing over budget deficits and cuts, and the unexpected need to advocate and organize, if nos are checked evaluate why and move forward only if the reasons are compelling and sustainable.

CRITERIA Results in real improvement in peoples lives Gives people a sense of their own power Affects the organization and people in a tangible way Is widely felt Is deeply felt Offers opportunities to build the organization Builds lasting organization and alliances Creates opportunities/builds capacity for traditional disfranchised people to be involved in leadership positions Develops new leaders Promotes awareness and respect for rights/human rights Has a clear political and policy solution Has a clear target and timeframe Links local concerns to global issues Provides opportunities to raise funds Forces the organization to do things it hasnt done before / Enables the organization to further its vision and mission Challenges institutional racism, classism and other forms of oppression within the organization and its work Gives the organization and constituents experience for the next campaign Can be supported, funded, and managed by the organization Its easy to understand Its specific and winnable
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Capability Index

-I have recruited volunteers and/or conducted training for them (say which one you've done after your name) -I have and manage a database or list of volunteers -I have or work with a phone bank or other system to contact volunteers by phone: -I have or work on a system for rewarding/acknowledging volunteers:

-I know the following software (name and software) -I have access to a computer and have an e-mail address (name & e-mail address) -I have done desktop publishing: -I have installed hardware and/or software:

-I have called an elected official on a specific issue -I have helped draft legislation -I have testified at a public hearing -I have organized a community hearing on an issue

-I have held a press conference -I have called a reporter -I have been interviewed by a reporter -I have written a letter to the editor or op-ed piece that was published

-I have organized a fundraising dinner or other special event -I have written a proposal that got funded -I have run a direct appeal campaign (asked for money by mail or over the phone):
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-I have run a membership drive


-I have done door-to-door canvassing I have organized a house meeting -I have worked on or coordinated a rally -I have worked on or coordinated an electoral campaign

-I have run a phone tree or fax tree -I have produced or worked on a newsletter -I have produced or worked on a video -I have worked to generate letters from others on an issue

I can cook meals for events I can do child care I can help with interpreting for others (Name and Language(s) including sign language) I can do outreach to get people to the event

I can speak another language other than English (Name and Language(s)) I can write in another language other than English (Name and Language(s)) I can translate documents from English to another language (Name and Language(s))

I belong to a religious organization in my community (Name and faith institution or organization) I belong to my home alert or other neighborhood group (Name and group name) I am active in local community organizations (Name and no more than two main groups you work with)

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Ally Matrix

Brainstorm a list of potential allies who care about your issue and might be willing to take some action. Allies can be formal organizations with staff (e.g. non-profits), volunteer organizations (e.g. tenant associations, block associations), church groups, non-profits, community organizing groups that work with diverse communities of color, or individuals. However, do not identify a category of people (e.g. welfare recipients) unless there is a viable way of developing a relationship with them (e.g. through a welfare rights group).

After you have developed your initial list of allies, place their name in the first column of the table below. Then check off each appropriate box to the right that describes this ally. The more checks that follow a particular ally, the more valuable they are and the more emphasis you should place on involving them in your budget advocacy. In addition, you should also look for partners who complement your own abilities. For example if you have strong influence with legislators, you might lower the priority of this attribute when evaluating potential partners.

In the example below, the tenant association is identified as a potential ally who sees their issue as tied to yours and can bring other constituents to the table. Organizations/individuals with more checks would be better potential allies, unless the tenant association attributes are particularly weak areas of your developing coalition.

Potential Ally

Do you have an existing relationship?

Do they see their issue tied to yours?

Do they have influence w/ legislators or decisionmakers ?

Can they bring other constitue nts to the table?

Do they have strong media contacts?

Do you have other reasons to build a relationship with them?

Will you build a relationship with a new racial/ethnic group?

OTHER consideration s unique to your organization/ program

OTHER considerations unique to your organization/ program

e.g. Tenant Assn

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Base and Coalition Building

Tips on Base Building Sample Rap and Tally Sheet Building Diverse Community-Base Coalitions

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Tips on Base Building: there are no short cuts!

Developed by Greg Akili


Why have an identifiable base? 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 People make a difference if you go to them; it is not enough to have a good idea or a good issue. An organization must have a base of people that can be counted on to achieve the goals. More can be accomplished with people who feel part of an organized group. The level of comfort is increased and people will participate and be involved in public actions when there is an identifiable base.


Why should people get involved? What do they get for it? 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 People get involved based on their personal interest or because of a crisis. America does not encourage involvement. Many people believe that their vote or voice will not count. Many people in America are made to feel powerless, especially people of color and women because of racism, white supremacy and sexism. The people are not to blame. They are not obligated to participate or work on an issue.


Appreciate the total, don't just focus on the core. 3.1 Too often people complain because there are not more people involved. The outer circle of support is dismissed because involvement is measured by how many people come to the monthly meeting. A. Level of supporters 1. 2. 3. 4. 3.2 Core supporters of (5-7) key volunteers can always be counted on. Active supporters (20-25) will support most of the activities and will attend some meetings. General supporters (50-70) will do one thing, one time, rarely come to meetings. The public.

The key is working to get each level of supporter to move to the core by asking more from people at each level and showing appreciation for the core while displaying gratitude at each level.


The Science of Numbers 6.1 The essence of base building is numbers and volume. A. B. C. D. In order to get 50 people to show up when the issue is not hot, 150-200 names are needed. If the names are cold and the people are not familiar with the group or issue, more names will be needed. Thirty percent or more of the people called will not be at home; 15-20% of the numbers will not be good numbers; 25-30% will be no's; 25-30% will say yes. Of those who say yes, only a small percent will actually show. Out of the 20 people talked to, 9 will say yes and 3-4 will show.

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Methods for Mobilizing 7.1 House meeting: A key volunteer/staff/supporter visits new people and gives them the rap, asks them to invite 8-10 of their friends over so key volunteers can talk with them to get them involved. A. The host is asked to make up a list and call their friends right then. This approach is the hardest and takes the most time, but offers the best results. Time is spent with the individual and a relationship is developed. Keys: 1. 2. 3. 4. B. Strong rap; tracking system Getting the person to make a list and call their friends Consistent follow-up calling, regular check-ins and reinforcement Getting the host to call their friends the day of the house meeting

Phone banks recruitment: 4-5 phoners calling at least 4 nights a week. Keys: 1. 2. 3. 4. Strong rap and tally Dedicated phoning for at least 2-1/2 hours a night Large pool of names to call, at least 3 times the number of names for the number of people expected to turn out Volunteer phone bank to recruit phoners to staff the phone banks


The need to build and rebuild 4.1 4.2 Every 3-4 months there will be a need to rebuild with a new group of people. People will move on to another level involved in something else or become inactive. Develop ways to assist people to move from level to level. Core supporters need to work with new people; conduct orientation, plan parties for new supporters


The importance of knowing what to say, tracking, follow-up and accountability. Raps, tallies, reminder calls and no-show call. Supporters will be successful: 5.1 The rap is like a map. All rap/scripts should have the same elements. A. B. C. D. E. 5.2 Introduction: who you are and identify the group Statement of conditions and the need to take immediate action There is hope because people can make a difference and we need people's help because we can't do it alone. What you can do: Come to the meeting.... Get a commitment: Will you join us, yes or no; maybes cannot be counted or measured. Tell the person, we are counting on you.

How to know how many people are expected A. Tallies: 1. 2. 3. 4. Number of yes's Number of no's Total number of people talked with (add yes's and no's) Total number of attempts


People will forget; they must be reinforced and reminded often and regularly.
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A. 5.4

Reminder calls should be made at least three times before the event and twice the day of the event.

No-show calls A. B. If people say yes and they do not show, they must be called to find out why. If the person keeps saying yes but never shows, they should be written off. Agenda for Volunteer Orientation

1. 2.

Introductions What we are doing and why it is important Each of you is important and valuable and we thank you. We want you to feel comfortable, capable and confident. We are going door-to-door and telling people about (Our action...) Asking the people in this neighborhood to get involved and to join us. Because we know that when people like you get involved and take action, that is how we improve our community.


Don't's and Do's DON'T'S Don't be judgmental and make assumptions. Don't argue with people and preach to them. Don't spend too much time with one person. DO'S Do smile and sound urgent. Do look people in the eyes, make eye contact. Do be polite.


Review what to say, the "Rap," and what is in the packet. Read rap aloud; ask people to read with you. Introduction Statement of conditions Get an agreement. Believe that people want to get involved and take action. Get a commitment, will you join us? (then PAUSE) yes or no.


Role play Divide into pairs, each person take turns demonstrating the rap


Wrap-up Volunteers return and fill out tally sheet. Review what happen, what were the comments the low's and high points Ask everyone to come back for the next action.

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What to Say: "The RAP"


Hello is Ms/Mr _____________ home? My name is ________________ and this is ______. We're volunteers from ______________ school. The schools are starting a very exciting program for our children and parents next week. You know, our children are falling behind other children. We're falling behind in reading, we're behind in math, we're behind in everything except dropping out. That is going to hurt your child and the other children when they get older. [pause] Don't you think we need to start now to turn this condition around? [pause] (If yes) Great! We know that our children do better when we as parents get directly involved. The Center for Parent Involvement and Education and __________ school have started parent education sessions to help you and other parents understand how you can assist your child and improve education... We're getting together for our first session ________. We meet at ___AM and ___ PM. Which one can I sign you up for? (If yes) Great! There are a couple of questions I need to ask you Is your phone number still __________________? Yes Is there a need for childcare? Yes How many adults will be attending? (If no or don't know) We can't overemphasize the value of family participation. You sure you can't make one session? (If no) Is there another adult who can join us, an aunt, uncle, older brother/sister, friend? [Ask the person for the other adult's name and phone number.] Thank you very much for your time. We look forward to working with you. No # of children No New #

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SAMPLE Recruitment Script

Hello, is Ms/Mr ___________ home? My name is _______________________. I'm calling from Campaign to Ban Handguns. We have come together with other groups to help make Milwaukee safe. Don't you think there have been too many killings in the city? [pause] We are collecting signatures to ban the possession of handguns in Milwaukee. We have to collect 30,000 signatures in the next 10 days, and we need your help. We're calling all our supporters and asking them to join us this Saturday for our weekly mobilization. We meet for a few minutes at the Jobs with Peace office; then we go out in teams for a couple of hours and collect signatures. Will you join us? [pause] (If yes) Great! We meet at 9:30 AM at the Jobs with Peace office at 750 North 18th Street, between Wells and Wisconsin. (If no, can't come Saturday) Will you come by our office and pick up some petitions, get them signed and return them? [We would rather not mail the petitions: it takes too much time; we have less than 15 days.] Will you stop by the office? [pause] What's a good time for you to stop by the Jobs with Peace office at 750 North 18th Street, between Wells and Wisconsin? We look forward to seeing you [write down the day & date & time].

PHONING INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Don't put down the receiver. Don't leave messages. Only mark YES, NO or DISCONNECTED [DISC] and the DAY & DATE & TIME. [Please do not mark anything else.] Fill out a tally sheet after calling.

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SAMPLE Follow-up with Petitioners


Hello, is _______ home? My name is ________. I'm a volunteer with Neighbor to Neighbor. Thank you for helping put a single payer health care plan on the ballot. We have kicked off our campaign and we collected over _____ signatures. I'm calling to follow up with you; we have to report to the state operation daily. How many signatures have you collected? (If they have not started yet) We have to collect 677 signatures a day to make our goal of 50,000 signatures in San Diego. When will you start? [Make sure to get a date.] Will you bring in your completed petitions this Saturday, and will you join us this Saturday and Sunday for one shift? The shifts are on Saturday at 10 AM and 12 noon; and Sunday at 12 noon and 2 PM. Which shift is good for you? [Write down day and shift.] (If no) Is there a Saturday or Sunday shift that you will join us? We need your help!

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Date: ________________________ Team Names ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ School ______________________________________________ Number of Yes's for AM Number of No's ________ PM ________

______________ ____________

Total number of people talked with (add yes's and no's) Comments: What was good:

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ What could be better: ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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DAILY PHONE TALLY Please fill out tally sheet after calling.
Date: _________________________

Name: ___________________________________________________ ONLY COUNT THE PEOPLE YOU TALK WITH. DO NOT LEAVE A MESSAGE. Number of Yes's will pick up _______________________ Number of Yes's for Saturday _______________________ Number of No's Total number of contacts (add yes's and no's) Comments: _______________________ _______________________

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

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Volunteers Recruitment Tally




Number of Yes's for Phone Bank Number of No's Number of Captains Total number of contacts (Add yes's and no's)

_______________ _______________

_______________ _______________

Write in the space below name, phone number, day and date of the Yes's Volunteer Name Phone # Day/Date

1._________________________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________________________ 4._________________________________________________________________________ 5._________________________________________________________________________ 6.________________________________________________________________________

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Building Diverse Community Based Coalitions "The world is changing and anyone who thinks they can get anything meaningful done without the input of all a community's leadership is simply not paying attention. Inclusion is more than a buzzword. It's a necessity."
-- Dr. Jewelle Taylor Gibbs, internationally recognized sociologist and author

ost activists have figured out that engaging a broad cross-section of people in support of an issue is a good thing. They can recite the litany of rationale: There's power in numbers; richness in variety of perspectives; value in diversity, etc. Yet, even with the intellectual understanding of how critical diversity is to collaborative leadership, many groups can't seem to "make it so." Many cite lack of contacts in professional, religious and/or racial and ethnic communities that are different from their own. Another barrier is fear of conflicts that may arise as various groups learn to work together. In most cases, groups who aren't working together today have reasons deeply rooted in the past. Diversity, or lack of it, in a group only mirrors relationships in the "larger" community. Moving beyond the way things "are" to what they "could be" requires an understanding of past tensions that helped forge the current reality. The first step is to conduct a bit of research either through personal interviews, old newsclippings and documents, or both. Try to map potential allies using the guiding questions below.
YOU ARE HERE: MAPPING POTENTIAL ALLIES 1) How are resources allocated to support the various groups and/or communities with which I want to work? Have there been tensions over resources? How did these tensions evolve and who were the key players? 2) What is the group's experience with previous collaborations? Were they satisfying/did they meet their needs? Was it a positive or negative experience overall? Why? 3) What are the prevailing attitudes about collaboration? Are there issues (i.e., in professional training or culture, mistrust, etc.) that make collaboration difficult? Easier? What concerns the group most about getting involved with a collaborative project? How can those concerns be allayed? 5) Who are the key opinion leaders in the group? Who is most open to collaborating? Who is least open? Do we or someone we know have a relationship with any of them? List names. 6) What would the group need to get out of collaborating with others? What can we offer? What would the group be willing to contribute? What do they risk in joining us? 7) What interests do we both share? Will this collaboration offer a vehicle for mutual benefit?

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Make A Plan Once you have the answers to these questions, you are ready to frame an initial recruitment plan. A recruitment plan identifies prospective partners, their probable interests, and background information to help you begin the work of building relationships. It's important to choose candidates carefully because the first groups to accept your invitation will signal volumes to the rest of the community. Candidates need not be the most prominent community members, only that they are trusted in their community, you share common ground, and they are concerned enough about the core issues to make a solid commitment. Big name affiliation without any commitment will not build working relationships. They just breed resentment and reinforce the status quo. Additionally, a big name usually means the candidate has more to risk when they do get involved. Collaborations require partners who are deeply concerned and have a strong self-interest in the initiative and low enough risk in getting involved to truly be "there" for other partners. Use the form attached to identify potential partners in your community. Making the Pitch Often, any candidate has at least one friend or colleague that you know as well. These "go-betweens" are excellent resources for information and may even consent to initiate contact with the candidate. If possible, discuss your pitch with a colleague who knows the candidate well. Try role-playing certain approaches and discussing the candidate's potential responses. A good recruitment pitch comes from detailed background information and plenty of practice. The Comfort Zone Once you've gotten a candidate to agree to join you, the hard work begins. Review your organizational structure. How are decisions made? Who holds the information and resources? Will there be room for your new partner to make a meaningful contribution to the initiative's direction? What steps do you have in place to make new partners feel at home with the group? What language, or level of language, is spoken at meetings and gatherings? Will it alienate or welcome new partners? In short, retaining new partners for the long haul means really integrating them into the team. Of course, this is not a blending process where everyone ends up acting and talking the same. It's more of a salad approach where every partner is tossed lightly until the new partner is "in." Some organizations develop new partner orientations and assign a partner to the new member to help with the transition. That partner makes the introductions, brings the new members up to speed and works with them to identify potential areas for participation. When possible, it really helps to recruit at least two people from a community to help minimize feelings of isolation. "If you've done a good job of selecting people to participate, you're going to have -- in our traditional way of thinking about power -- dramatically different levels of power that people hold," observes John Parr, former head of the National Civic League and
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seasoned veteran in creating public-private partnerships. "How do you create a situation where there is, in effect, a level playing field? In many ways it's a challenge to the facilitator to, frankly, spend some of their time coaching people -- both those with power and those without power -- about how to be a more effective participant." Confronting Conflict Conflict happens even in homogeneous groups. It is an inevitable fact of life. Yet, when conflict happens along group lines in diverse collaborations, partners are more likely to give up and walk away. The key to moving through the tough times is keeping the focus on the concrete, work related issues. What structural problems are exacerbating conflict? Are mechanisms for gathering input and making decisions clear? Are there contextual issues (i.e., group histories, resource sharing, external political forces, etc.) that are shaping organizational dynamics? Facing conflict within a group requires a skilled facilitator and enough safe space in a discussion setting to identify concrete issues and outcomes. For example, a general discussion about perceptions and attitudes among partners will not be as useful as identifying barriers (including misperceptions) to working together toward the common goal, and strategies to address those barriers. Remember, not everyone is a skilled negotiator. Leave room for different styles of expression and try not to take it personally.

Good Ideas To Try At Home

Power Analysis A long time community organizing tool, power analyses chart a community's power structures and identify places of influence and power. Start with identifying government, business and nonprofit organizations and their leadership. More informal channels of power will emerge in personal interviews. Identify self-interests, constituencies and connections between institutions as much as possible. By mapping the power "sources" in a wide range of communities, you also map potential venues for collaboration. Move the Meeting One way to build commitment and comfort is to rotate meeting locations and responsibility for meeting planning among the various partners. Encourage partners to be creative, and open and close meetings in ways that reflect their group customs, "culture," or identity. It also helps to attend each partner's own group meetings to get ideas for building a combined, "team" meeting culture.
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Building Skills and Capacities Training and professional development can be an effective tool for forging shared language and approaches to advancing shared work. It's a good idea to focus on best practices as there's no need to reinvent the wheel. Internet searches using keywords on the specific issue or more general terms like "capacity building," "community development," and/or "building diversity" can lead you to a treasure trove of resources. It's also important to note that capacity building should not just focus on getting new partners to "understand" how to work with more established partners. Existing collaborations should regularly evaluate their form, structure and group process to ensure they are accessible to newcomers. Review issues like access for those with disabilities (i.e., offering sign language interpretation, or access for those using wheelchairs); the need for language translation (are there communities who can not participate because there is not translation capacity?); and the meeting times or settings. For example, are meetings during the day so only those with flexible work situations can attend? Are meetings late at night preventing senior participation? Is the meeting located near public transportation? Are youth and children welcome? Are there emerging groups in our community for whom we should be preparing to make room? How might their participation have an impact on the group? Make It Policy The best way to guarantee inclusion is to write it directly into a group's policy. By identifying "seats" for key constituencies -- like youth representatives, faith groups, etc. -- a certain degree of representation is assured.

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Assessing Community Resources List who shares this problem? What would they get out of joining you? Who else would they bring in? Who would their presence alienate?

Rank each group named above from 1 to 5 (with 5 being the highest) with regard to your issues taking into account the following factors: self-interest, depth of concern, risk in joining you, and level of difficulty to reach/organize.



Depth of concern

Risk in joining you

Difficult to reach/organize

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Media Advocacy
Media Planning template Key Related Beliefs A Good Framing Strategy Framing for Access Rats 1,2,3: A Framing Exercise Principles for Talking About Race to the Media

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Write here your main three program goals:

List three goals for your work with the media. At least one should be related to your program goals:

Whom do you want to reach? Remember any targets you identified. What do we want them to do? What do they care about? (values, vulnerabilities) What/whom do they read, watch, listen to?

Organization/ Constituency

Why do we want them?

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What are you trying to communicate? Try to distill your message into a 25-word (maximum) statement that will get the point across. Remember: a message is not the same as a soundbite. It is the overall theme you are trying to communicate.

What are good images for conveying this message?

Who are good spokespeople for conveying the message?

What are the best media for conveying this message for each target? (List targets and choose one or more that fit. Try to focus on not more than three) Large Academic Publications Professional development or journal articles News media: ___ print ___ radio ___ television __ on-line __ opinion Entertainment media Other on-line media Personal networks Other ________________________________________________

List arguments of the opposition:

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Develop two soundbites that convey your message and address important issues raised by the opposition. (Remember: you are not debating them. You are delivering the message.)


List upcoming events and products, date they are scheduled to be completed and whether they have any piggybacking opportunities:


Date to be done

Media opportunities

List other events and products you know about (annual conferences, anniversaries, etc., that provide opportunities to communicate with others and advance your goals:

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Organize these events in chronological order and prioritize which are the communications opportunities youd like to follow up on.

Identify what tasks need to be done and by whom in order to complete the follow up:

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Key Related Beliefs

We say
ITS THE SYSTEM - Poverty and other economic problems are systemic, not natural. WE ALL DESERVE GOOD - All human beings are basically connected and deserve the same things

They say
ITS SOME PEOPLE - Poverty is the result of lack of initiative; individual failing THOSE OTHER FOLK CANT HANDLE GOOD And trying to do them good will only hurt your good. Negative perceptions of the other. Only a few people are worthy. ONLY LEADERS CAN GOVERN Government is ineffective, it should be run like a business or individuals should handle. One leader (preferably a white guy) not a collective. Collaboration is messy

GOVERN TOGETHER - Public/government a good place to handle social issues (public common good public/institutional accountability). People can and should govern collectively.

Building a Majority -- You Know You Have One When:

1. 2. 3. 4. Organizing sector has passion, strategy, common vision(s). Large numbers of people that comprehend whats at stake. People associate support with key values. It will cost if you break agreements with us related to the issue.

Telling the Big Story

Landscape vs. Portrait

Role of institutions Impact and nature of systems Stories match/reinforce solutions

Taking on the Undercurrent Relate our stories of injustice as patterns Confront unfairness directly (research that compares, exposes)

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A Good Framing Strategy Should:

Translate individual problem to social issue. The first step in framing is to

make sure that what you say is consistent with your approach. It's hard to justify an environmental approach to an issue if all media interviews frame it from an individual perspective. Further, a social issue is news, an individual problem is not. Translating an issue helps others to see why it is important and newsworthy. tobacco sales to kids, it's hard to justify a new ordinance if spokespeople assign primary responsibility for the problem to parents. Framing for content means framing your message in ways that support your initiative goal and explains to others why the target you chose is the right entity to address the issue.

Assign primary responsibility. Again consistency is key. If the issue is

can address. To use youth access to tobacco as an example, the solution offered in this case is to make it harder for merchants to profit from youth smoking.

Present solution. The message should clearly articulate what the initiative

Make practical policy appeal. This is where the initiative comes in. It

should be communicated as practical, fair, legal, affordable and the right thing to do. the average media bite is seven seconds, developing compelling visuals that illustrate your perspective is critical.

Develop pictures and images. If a picture is worth a thousand words and

case. Communities are fragmented with lots of different interests and concerns. Tailor your message to your audience, which is usually your target.

Tailor to audience. Remember who you are communicating with in each

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Framing for Access

Getting media attention means getting the news media, that moving train, to stop and pay attention to our issue. Framing a story for the media so it gets their attention is called framing for access. There are many framing techniques for getting the media's attention. Featuring celebrities is, of course, one way to attract the media. Here are some other elements of newsworthiness to consider: Controversy, conflict, injustice. The news media is in the storytelling business. These make stories interesting. Irony or uniqueness. Something that makes viewers sit up and pay attention; that catches the eye. Population of interest. Media outlets are businesses that must reach consumers in order to stay profitable. Oftentimes, some demographic groups (and therefore, stories that appeal to them) are of greater interest than others. Call the advertising department of your local media outlet for its package to prospective advertisers. These materials are free and often outline an outlet's target markets. Significant or serious. Although this is often subjective, any story affecting large numbers of people is usually considered significant. Breakthrough, anniversary, milestone. Something new and amazing -- like a discovery or new drug; or the commemoration of something important. Local peg, breaking news. Piggybacking on a news story that is already getting media attention can be an effective strategy. Advocates artfully used the O.J. Simpson case to raise public awareness of the tragedy of domestic violence. Good pictures. All media, including print media, need good visuals for their stories. Some groups provide balloons and beautiful backdrops. Others opt for more dramatic visuals like candlelight vigils or deteriorating neighborhoods in order to provide news media with some direct experience of the issues advocates seek to address.

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Rats bite infant An infant left sleeping in his crib was bitten repeatedly by rats while his 16 year old mother went to cash her welfare check. A neighbor responded to the cries of the infant and brought the child to Central Hospital where he was treated and released in his mother's custody. The mother, Angie Burns of the South End, explained softly, "I was only gone 5 minutes. I left the door open so my neighbor would hear him if he woke up. I never thought this would happen in the daylight."

Source: Prime Time Activism: Media Strategies for Grassroots Organizing, by Charlotte Ryan, South End Press, 1991

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Rats bite infant: Landlord, Tenants Dispute Blame An eight-month old South End boy was treated and released from South End Hospital yesterday after being bitten by rats while he was sleeping in his crib. Tenants said that repeated requests for extermination had been ignored by the landlord, Henry Brown. Brown claimed that the problem lay with the tenants' improper disposal of garbage. "I spend half my time cleaning up after them. They throw garbage out the window into the back alley and their kids steal the garbage can covers for sliding in the snow."

Source: Prime Time Activism: Media Strategies for Grassroots Organizing, by Charlotte Ryan, South End Press, 1991

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Rat Bites in the City's "Zone of Death"

Rats bit eight month old Michael Burns five times yesterday as he napped in his crib. Burns is the latest victim of a rat epidemic plaguing inner-city neighborhoods labeled the "Zone of Death." Health officials say mortality rates in these neighborhoods approach those in many third world countries. A Public Health Department spokesperson explained that federal and state cutbacks forced short-staffing at rat control and housing inspection programs. The result, noted Joaquin Nunez, M.D., a pediatrician at Central Hospital, is a five-fold increase in rat bites. He added, "The irony is that Michael lives within walking distance of some of the world's best medical centers."

Source: Prime Time Activism: Media Strategies for Grassroots Organizing, by Charlotte Ryan, South End Press, 1991

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Principles for Talking About RACE to the Media

Document the Racism

Some media folks have a hard time seeing it

Prepare for Racist Assumptions

Ask yourself: Whats the racist explanation for whats going on? Pre-empt the set-up

Challenge the Terms of Debate

Reject the question Propose a new question

Name the Enemy

Otherwise it might be people of color

Frame for Institutional Accountability

Dont let a single bad-egg racist be blamed as the problem

Challenge the lies

Lies based on stereotypes have power

Claim the Moral High Ground

No one wants to be morally wrong

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Policy Advocacy Resources

Options for Policy Action Policy Options Beyond Legislation Equity Impact Statement

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Options for Policy Action

Voluntary Agreements Identify institutional actors that have an impact on the issue. Research their role(s) and possible actions these actors could take to reduce harm in the community. Develop a "wish list" of actions you'd like the institution(s) to undertake. Identify both "sticks" and "carrots" for their participation and your power to back up any agreement. Negotiate (and never negotiate alone. At least two members of your coalition should be present at all times) Legislation Identify existing laws and how they can be enforced. Try to get them enforced. Do stings and other investigations to gather data. Identify policy "ideas" that help address the problems or advance community vision; try to ensure that the initiative helps build community power and agency as well as addresses the issue. Identify levers of power and influence in the decisionmaking body and undertake a power analysis to identify allies, opposition and legislative champions. Develop an organizing plan to advance the policy initiatives you identify. Lawsuits and Other Legal Options Lawsuits often drag out, are cumbersome and can pull much needed energy away from organizing so consider them carefully before engaging. They are best used when there are enough resources to continue other mobilizing efforts without interruption. Lawsuits and injunctions can also be effective in halting an action that requires further study and input. If the siting of negative land uses appear to correlate with the presence of traditionally disfranchised populations, explore Title VI and other legal remedies concerning discrimination.
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If a local jurisdiction is being sued by an industry as a result of public health regulation, your organization might be able to intervene with an attorney to ensure community interests are addressed. File complaints about bad or illegal practices with regulatory agencies. For example, alcohol ads that appeal to children are violations in many states. Find out who enforces what public health regulations and work accordingly. Moratoriums Suspend a policy until there can be further study of its impact and any possible alternatives. Suspend an administrative practice or procedure at the institutional level. Use a moratorium to prevent a policymaking body from making a decision or even suspending a policy by halting all action until further study. Determine the most appropriate body and methods of community input for assessing the issue. Developing policy goals All policy initiatives must operate within the framework of your organization's purpose and long range goals. It's important to compare your organization's goals with the goal for your issue. In your assessment you should ask yourself: what constitutes victory? How will this policy address the problem/have an impact on the quality of life of your clients/members and/or community? When developing policy initiatives, try to incorporate features that help to address your coalition's long term vision. Good policies can: Build community capacity. Effective policy leaves the community improved and with more involved community members than before. The experience of advocating for the policy expands the base of leadership. Pay for itself. Advocates must develop creative ways to fund new policies. One way is user fees -- where the licensee or the storeowner or whoever is using the service or selling the product, must pay a fee for the privilege of using that service or product. Examples: local permit fees for alcohol and/or tobacco outlets, fees for one-day special event permits for the sale of alcohol by private parties. A handy formula for calculating fees is to divide the cost of regulating the activity or enforcement by the number of projected "users." Another way is to require the diversion of funds (either funds seized through drug busts, special levies or other means) to support your program. Some agencies develop economic development plans within their prevention policy with an eye toward self-sufficiency in the long term.
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Solves real problems. When developing a policy, ask how does this solve the problem? Your answer should be clear, concise, and 25 words or less. Contributes to a sense of community. How do we regulate liquor stores? Closed administrative hearings for outlet owners with clear regulations and standards, or open community hearings with those same standards administered by neighborhood people in their own neighborhood? Which is easier? But which will bring more people together, give them a sense of their own power and build a new cadre of skilled leadership? What do we do to develop policies for seniors? Do we develop a free meals project or a credit bank where seniors contribute skills and goods in exchange for others? One senior can take another shopping, another can do carpentry. Which one builds bureaucracy? Which one builds capacity? Lays the foundation for more good policy. Look to the future. Policy should be incremental and should take you somewhere. The policy you develop today should open the door and set the stage for further progress tomorrow. What will you gain from this initiative? How will it bring you closer to your ultimate goals? Brings us closer to our ideal world. We have to reflect upon and revisit that idealistic place; that place where we dream and see the best in everything. We must make sure that whatever we do will, in the long run, help make that dream a reality. Other things to think about Policy development can be complex. It helps to secure the help of a pro bono (free of charge) attorney to help your organization navigate the process. However, remember that laws are not inflexible or carved in stone. They reflect the power relationships and agreements in effect at any given time. An attorney should be a partner in your efforts to shift those relationships in the public interest. Legal issues are important but they should not drive your efforts. Take care to keep your goals and community interests firmly in place. Non-profit organizations must take care when entering the policy arena. Check with the Internal Revenue Service, your state tax exempt certifying agency and any grant compliance officers to ensure that your organization is in compliance with relevant regulations. Common Stages in the Development a Policy Initiative Most initiatives go through a development process characterized by seven stages. These stages are not sequential per se, but tend to overlap -- more like a gradual spectrum than a straight line. Often, groups are working at more than one stage at a time once an initiative is underway. For example, groups will continually "test the waters" throughout the life of an initiative and use that feedback to refine and improve their work. Effective initiatives rarely miss any of these stages in development. Poor initiatives often do. I've often heard groups say that they went ahead without much preparation because of some unique opportunity that just wouldn't wait. It's true that the right timing can provide important levers for an initiative's success, but usually groups wish they had waited and were better prepared. In any case, there's nothing like good
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preparation and solid organizing to help a group take better advantage of the opportunities that exist -- as well as create new ones. It's also important to recognize that policy is a process of negotiation and compromise. When working on a policy, for which there is little precedence, remember that local governments are often afraid to be the first jurisdiction to adopt a new, untested ordinance. First ordinances are usually more conservatively written and less comprehensive than those that follow it. It's always helpful to know about similar policy initiatives that have been enacted without legal challenge or, at least, upheld in court. Without some precedence, making a case for a new policy can be tough -- but not impossible. In any case, it helps to decide early on what you can give up and what's non-negotiable. Remember that you can go back and make changes later but it's a lot easier to get it "right" the first time. Stage 1: Testing the Waters At this stage, most groups are focused on the problem and are just beginning to develop ideas for solutions. It is that first sense that something concrete can be done about an issue but no one is sure exactly what. Often, a number of approaches are "tested" and screened for community support, legality and likelihood of success. When a San Diego community group organized in the wake of a shooting death of a local youth, their first target was gun control. After conducting research on the legislative remedies available to them, they focused on a ban of junk guns -- and ways to locally regulate bullets. A key lesson: the coalition was flexible and moved where residents wanted to go. Stage 2: Defining the Initiative Once the primary issue is defined, it must be refined into a clear, practical policy initiative. The best initiatives come out of residents articulating their "ideal" policy and then looking for the best mechanisms for bringing their vision into reality. The Coalition on Alcohol Outlet Issues wanted less liquor stores in Oakland and wanted better regulation of those in operation. In their ideal policy, they wanted storeowners, not public funds, to pay for enforcement. They took their idea to city council who then instructed staff to find a way. They did. The ordinance requires merchants to pay higher conditional use permit fees to support an augmented regulatory structure. Stage 3: Strategy and Analysis Once the initiative has been identified, groups will conduct what is known as a power analysis to identify targets, allies, opponents and other important factors in the campaign. Often, the initiative is refined further in light of this information. Living wage coalitions omitted construction work from their initiatives as a strategic and political consideration. Stage 4: Direct Issue Organizing Informed by the power analysis and strategic planning, the organizing begins. In city or countywide campaigns without a neighborhood focus, organizing is usually done through outreach to other organizations. For example, much of the organizing for living wage campaigns
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focused on unions, advocacy organizations and affected (unorganized) employees. Neighborhood oriented campaigns tend to conduct more canvassing operations. In Los Angeles, the Community Coalition for Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment had organizers go door-to-door and hosts house parties as neighborhood meetings. They focus on neighborhoods with problem liquor stores in order to build a solid base of support among those most affected by the issue. It is during this stage that media work also begins in earnest. Stage 5: In the Belly of "The Beast" At some point in every initiative, advocates must meet with policymakers and begin the long process of getting the policy enacted. This stage is characterized by intensive work with city or county staff, negotiations and accountability sessions. It is important to stay focused on the group's initial goals during this phase, as it is easy to get caught up in the politics of the bureaucracy. Working with policymakers is an "inside" game but it need not mean getting disconnected from grassroots support. As veteran organizer Greg Akili often says, "Don't start to talk like them or take on their ways. If you do you'll confuse the people you're working with and you become untrustworthy. Stay connected. Always go in groups and rotate the people who attend the meetings so that you build leadership and confidence." Stage 6: Victory and Defense If an initiative is lucky enough to get enacted, celebration and evaluation is definitely in order. However, for most ordinances, soon after the partying is over, the litigation begins. Prepare for the possibility of litigation at the beginning of the initiative and be ready to play an active role in any legal action even if the local government (and not your group) is the defendant. Some organizations like the Community Coalition and the Coalition on Alcohol Outlet Issues got intervenor status in litigation directed toward their city government. Baltimore's Citywide Liquor Coalition made sure their attorney worked closely with the City Attorney throughout the process making sure to carefully craft public testimony with an eye toward building a strong public record in preparation for the inevitable litigation. Stage 7: Enforcement After the policy is enacted and clear of court hurdles, the work begins to get the new law enforced. For initiatives with powerful opposition, negotiation continues around issues like the timeline for implementing the policy, interpretation of particular clauses, and fitting the new policy in with other staffing priorities. It is important to maintain grassroots involvement throughout this process. All Phases Are Important One common mistake is to launch policy initiatives without any preparation or prior analysis as required in the first three stages of development, before direct advocacy begins. Numerous policy initiatives skip stage four and therefore suffer from inadequate grassroots support because not enough attention was paid to community organizing. Advocates in this case often go directly to stage five, working with policymakers, without grassroots support or even public awareness of their efforts in hopes that policymakers will be swayed by the "sensibility" of their initiative.
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However, policy is not about sensibility as much as it is about interests. Advocates must never assume support based on the logic of their argument or the strength of a personal relationship. One coalition in a small town in the Midwest did just that. They took their initiative directly to a local policymaker without building support, identifying allies or even working through the details of their initiative. Their idea seemed straightforward and simple: to have their local hospital keep track of alcohol related gun trauma. They were completely caught by surprise when the hospital administrator did not agree to simply enact the policy at their request. It was an honest mistake. The group had a warm relationship with the administrator but had not thought through the implications of such a policy on staff resources. By doing the necessary preparation, groups can effectively manage these issues and plan accordingly. The Role of Information and Research Policy should have a strong research foundation that supports the initiative's particular strategy or approach toward addressing the problem. This is of particular importance in the case of progressive, regulatory policies as they usually receive greater scrutiny than policies perceived to be pro business. The extra scrutiny can be a good thing as it forces proponents to make sure their policies have an effect on real life issues that are of concern to communities. Initiatives should start with a strong and respectable database. And groups don't have to start from scratch or conduct their own studies. There are an incredible amount of studies that have never been widely disseminated that can support progressive initiatives. In children and family services, for example, there are literally hundreds of well crafted studies that examine the impact of poverty on children; and hundreds more on drug policy, employment, race relations and so forth. A search of the various social science indexes or a guided "surf" on the Internet can be very helpful in this regard. Data can guide the development of an initiative in at least three ways. It can direct how the policy should be targeted by providing detailed information about the problem. Data can indicate the impact and severity of the problem and justify social action. Finally, by showing that some groups are disproportionately affected by the problem, the data establish that the problem is not random but linked to specific social and environmental factors. Practically speaking, research should provide a clear analysis of the issues your group wants to address. It is one thing to say, "We have a problem with youth drinking." It's quite another to say "We have alcohol-related problems because merchants are selling alcohol to local youth at these particular stores." The difference is community-based research. Gather as many reports, surveys, personal observations and other resources that accurately describe the problem in order to identify effective policy options. Using the youth drinking example, it would be helpful to know among other things, the number of youth alcohol related arrests, injuries and other incidents; where alcohol is purchased; what kind and brand youth prefer; and where they go to consume it. Research can shed light on existing policy initiatives and suggest new ones. When community groups in Oakland, California formed a coalition to fight youth access to alcohol and tobacco they expected to propose policy initiatives concerning billboard regulation. However, research conducted on possible policy options and their effectiveness in other communities indicated that
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their efforts might be better rewarded if they focused on alcohol outlet licensing issues. The group adjusted strategies accordingly and moved on their city council soon after. In less than a year, they had convinced their council to pass what is currently among the strongest ordinances regulating alcohol outlets in California -- one which included the passage of a moratorium on new outlets in certain high density areas. Another reason to have detailed information to substantiate policy recommendations is that all legislation must be based on findings or a set of facts that provide the rationale for enacting the law. These findings are important because they constitute much of the legal case if the law is challenged in court. Above all, have information that clearly describes the problem in ways that help your community, coalition, and the media grasp how serious it is. This requires some research and information gathering in the beginning of an initiative -- most of which can not be confined to the library. Activists often identify these issues by spending time talking with their neighbors, walking around observing their neighborhoods with "fresh eyes," and identifying the assets (or protective factors) and factors that put neighbors at risk. Environmental Factors Any behavior or activity operates within a context or an environment that shapes it. Assessing environmental factors in a community means shifting the focus from individual problems to the context in which these problems take place. This shift is important because environmental factors can play a major role in proliferation and prevention of problems in a community. This shift from an individual to an environmental perspective is much like shifting a camera lens away from a simple portrait to capture the "big picture" or landscape that surrounds it. There are different levels and dimensions of a community landscape. Identifying risk and protective factors requires attention to a community's environment, or the context in which these assets and challenges exist. Risk factors are those policies, issues, norms, problems, needs, deficiencies, etc., that are barriers to healthy communities. Protective factors are those norms, institutions, policies, etc. that support and enhance community health and development. All communities have both. Some factors will fit under both categories. An initiative plan has three main parts: Goal or what we want to accomplish. The goal should be easily understood and should meet as much of a group's criteria as possible. A good goal requires cutting or shaping the issue into effective, doable action that engages community interest and support. Target or decisionmaking body with the power to enact the action sought. The difference between education and advocacy efforts is that advocacy seeks concrete institutional changes. Having broad segments of the community as target populations are fine for outreach and health education, it simply doesn't work as well in advocacy initiatives. Every initiative must identify a clear target or decisionmaking body that can enact the institutional change required to achieve the goal. For example, when developing an initiative to ban alcohol and tobacco billboards near schools, the group must identify whom best to make this happen. City council zoning ordinance? Billboard company policy? State law? Each potential decisionmaking body or
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target will mean different organizing strategies. Identifying the target is central to initiative planning because it focuses the rest of the outreach toward moving the target to action. Note: Don't confuse target and allies you need in order to win. Primary targets are always the individuals or decisionmaking body that ultimately have the power to grant group goals. There are lots of folk to work with and convince along the way, but they are not targets. (See materials on assessing targets in the back of this section for more information). Objectives necessary to achieve the goal. Once the group has identified the goal and target, they are ready to develop an action plan or set of objectives and timeline to make it happen.

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Policy Options Beyond Legislation

(Adapted from Making Policy Making Change: How Communities Are Taking Law Into Their Own Hands by Makani Themba) Before undertaking any initiative, it is important ascertain which policy approach is best to address the issue at hand. Policy isn't always legislation. Sometimes, it just isn't practical to get legislation enacted. It may be too soon to try to address the problem directly so other actions are needed to set the groundwork for regulation down the line. Advocates have a number of tools they can choose from that can be used instead of legislation -- or as a complement to legislative strategies. The four most common policy actions (in addition to legislation) are voluntary agreements, lawsuits, moratoriums and mandated studies. Voluntary Agreements Voluntary agreements are pacts between a community and institutions that outline conditions, expectations, or obligations without the force of law. This is a good option in places where there isn't support for more formal regulations. Voluntary agreements need not be limited to cordial words and a handshake. Communities can still negotiate written memoranda of understanding that clearly spells out the conditions of the agreement. Getting a solid agreement still requires research and organizing. It helps to start by identifying all of the institutional actors that have an impact on the issue. Once these actors are identified, research their role in, and possible actions they could take to reduce harm in the community. Then, develop a "wish list" of actions you'd like the institution(s) to undertake. It's especially important (since this agreement will not have the force of law) to identify both "sticks" and "carrots" for institutional participation as well as any community power to back up any agreement. Of course, it will take some negotiating and community pressure to actually reach an agreement. Make sure no one ever negotiates alone. At least two members of your coalition should be present at all times. Lawsuits and Other Complaints Lawsuits and other court actions can be tedious and expensive. Therefore, groups should carefully consider all options before deciding to take on a lawsuit. If an organization has the resources (in staff, money or pro bono legal support), a well-framed legal intervention can accomplish much in both the short term and long term -- even if it simply gets the other side to the table. The framing of any action is important. Care should be taken to name the right defendants including parent companies and others who profit from the action that the group wants stopped. Activists can also learn much from the skillful use of interrogatories -- requests for information and documents from the opponents. In some cases, groups will consult with other activists to identify useful information for regulation beyond the current legal action. For example, one group engaged in a lawsuit against an alcohol company for copyright infringement solicited items for their interrogatory from alcohol policy activists nationwide. The documents yielded from that single lawsuit provided the foundation for years of policymaking -- even though the case was eventually settled out of court. Other legal actions commonly pursued by groups include injunctions against the implementation of laws before they have had a chance to take effect; organizing victims with standing to sue
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polluters or other institutions causing damage to a community; and civil suits when an institutional action has a pattern of discrimination or damage to certain populations (i.e., people of color, women, people with disabilities). Sometimes, an organization has no choice but to get into the legal fray. It's simply a matter of defending their legal rights. Also, companies are increasingly suing local governments, groups and individual activists for their efforts to hold industries accountable. Lawsuits can be scary and distracting if not properly integrated into the organization's overall organizing strategy. The first, most important rule is to never keep a lawsuit or a company's threat of one a secret. Make sure to publicize the company's action widely. If the target of the lawsuit is the local jurisdiction that enacted the policy, your organization may be able to intervene with an attorney to ensure community interests are addressed. Intervenor status enables a community group to participate in a lawsuit and argue its case almost as if it were a defendant. This kind of participation can make a real difference when a local jurisdiction is not strongly committed to defending an ordinance in court. In addition to lawsuits, it also helps to simply file complaints about bad or illegal practices with the appropriate regulatory agencies. For example, alcohol ads that appeal to children are violations in many states. Pollution, labor practices and fair trade are other areas of regulation that can be pursued. If one regulatory agency is notoriously slow to act, try redefining the issue so it fits under the purview of a more active regulator. For example, redefining a violation from a bad business practice to a health concern often brings a whole new set of actors into play. In any case, find out who enforces what relevant regulations and work accordingly. Moratoriums Sometimes you just need to stop policy activity until there can be further study of its impact and any possible alternatives. Common moratoriums include bans on new alcohol outlets, billboards, dumpsites or office construction. It isn't enough to enact a time-limited ban, any moratorium policy should use the time to gather more information and assess policy options. Mandated Study Research can be costly and time consuming. If time and support allows, why not get local government to do the research? Through policy that mandates a study or data collection, resources can be set aside to do a thorough job of information gathering. The policy can set parameters for the kind of group or institution that can conduct the study; key questions framing the study; resident involvement and monitoring of the study; and the plan for dissemination and use of the results. A Los Angeles, California coalition got the city to conduct its study on living wage. The resulting data was hard to dispute when it came time to discuss the need for the living wage law. It was the city's own.

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Developing an Equity Impact Statement A Tool for Policymaking

The Praxis Project Developed as part of the Applied Research Center's Grass Roots Innovative Policy Program

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Developing an Equity Impact Statement for Local Policymaking

Why measure equity impact?
Equity and fairness in policymaking is no accident. Legislative bodies must pay close attention to the impact of their policies and play an active role in ensuring that both their intent and impact are consistent with a jurisdiction's expressed values. By measuring equity impact in a few representative areas, a legislative body can assess whether laws and rulemaking advance a shared agenda of fairness; spread the burden of regulation fairly; and help address historic patterns of institutional bias and discrimination. There is another critical reason to develop ongoing measures of equity in policymaking. Jurisdictions are under "strict scrutiny" by the Courts when undertaking race conscious remedies and "intermediate scrutiny" when undertaking gender conscious remedies. The two-pronged test of strict scrutiny is: compelling government interest the intervention is narrowly tailored to address the effects of demonstrated discrimination

A jurisdiction will find it difficult to meet these standards without identifying compelling interest and building a body of evidence of local decisionmaking and its impact on its various constituents. In implementing this process, it is highly recommended that the jurisdiction consider awarding an assessment contract out to an appropriate research entity in much the same way as a jurisdiction would identify an agency to conduct an environmental impact statement. Larger, more complex projects may benefit from the input of an organization experienced in this kind of evaluation.

Defining the concern and scope of the process

It is important to clearly identify the communities of concern to this process (racial and ethnic, gender, disabled, low-income, etc.) and establish definitions for these communities. Most jurisdictions have already defined these communities using some version of national or regional government guidelines. Be sure to include whatever relevant definitions in use in the enabling policy. Adverse Effects. A jurisdiction should also clearly define what constitutes adverse effects on the communities of concern. The US Executive Order 12898 offers useful language as a departure point in this regard: Adverse Effects means the totality of significant individual or cumulative human health or environmental effects, including interrelated social and economic effects, which may include, but are not limited to: bodily impairment, infirmity, illness or death; air, noise,
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and water pollution and soil contamination; destruction or disruption of man-made or natural resources; destruction or diminution of aesthetic values; destruction or disruption of community cohesion or a communitys economic vitality; destruction or disruption of the availability of public and private facilities and services; vibration; adverse employment effects; displacement of persons, businesses, farms, or nonprofit organizations; increased traffic congestion, isolation, exclusion or separation of minority or low-income individuals within a given community or from the broader community; and the denial of, reduction in or significant delay in the receipt of, benefits of [jurisdiction] programs, policies, or activities.

Developing mechanisms for assessing equity impact

The following is a process that local governments can enact in order to institutionalize a mechanism for assessing the impact of their policies on equity and fairness. Enacting this procedure will require that a jurisdiction amend and expand the rulemaking process: Amend or revise jurisdiction's value statements (or develop a set of findings and values) to guide this process. A jurisdiction should articulate clear statements or findings that support policymaking that takes into account equity, fairness and historic institutional bias. A set of value statements could include the following: The [jurisdiction] is committed to ensuring that each and every policy enacted reflects democratic principles of equity and fairness. The [jurisdiction] understands that carrying on its business in a fair and equitable manner that takes into account critical issues of bias and discrimination requires concerted and purposeful action. The [jurisdiction] recognizes that institutions can play a negative role in issues of racial equity. It seeks to proactively and positively address both present day and past patterns of bias and discrimination in a way that truly creates equitable opportunities for all of its residents. Findings could include: Local policymaking is a critical factor in the creation of opportunities for its residents. Local policies help create jobs, markets, housing; decide matters of land use and land value; and set code and rules for the administration of key public functions like law enforcement, health and sanitation, and access to recreation. Low-income, communities of color have been traditionally victimized by institutional bias and discrimination. Studies by the federal Office on Civil Rights, University of Michigan, Applied Research Center and others have shown that local government
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policies play a significant role in this victimization by enacting policies that exacerbate and/or maintain inequity. Local budget and resource allocation practices are traditionally biased toward more affluent and white residents of local jurisdictions. Studies by the Applied Research Center and the Institute on Race and Poverty have found that local governments that pay attention to these traditional biases and act consciously to address them develop fairer and more equitable policies that result in fairer more equitable development. As [jurisdiction] is committed to the fair and equitable treatment of all its residents, policymaking will reflect these values at every level of the process. Therefore, it is the [jurisdictions] policy to actively administer and monitor operations and decision making to assure that nondiscrimination is an integral part of its programs, policies, and activities. There is relationship between the siting of certain negative and positive uses and the quality of life of those who reside near these uses. The [jurisdiction's] commitment to ensuring that all of its residents have a decent quality of life requires that its residents share both the burdens of necessary negative uses and the benefits of positive uses in a fair and equitable manner. These policies are enacted in accordance with several UN conventions including the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination adopted by the United Nations and ratified by many governments worldwide in order that [jurisdiction] become a world citizen accountable to the highest standards of fairness. Accountability to the [jurisdiction's] constituents is important to the Council. The Council asserts the importance of evaluating the impact of its policymaking on constituents over time and utilizing this evaluation in the development of new policy initiatives. As part of the [jurisdiction's] commitment to accountability and impact in this area, it will increase its enforcement efforts as enforcement of policies to address bias and discrimination is as important as enacting the policies in the first place. The [jurisdiction] will commit adequate resources to support enforcement, implementation and evaluation of policies in this area. Establish tracking systems, evaluation and reporting mechanisms that building a body of evidence Developing a body of reportage in these areas will require expanding the roles of the [jurisdiction] attorney functions and [jurisdiction] planning offices to conduct assessments in preparation for the discussion of proposed ordinances. Assess how to use processes already in place to minimize added workload. For example, some required data and/or analysis may already be available as part of a sustainability
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program or planning ordinance. Local jurisdictions already committed to a high level constituent accountability will have effective policy tracking systems in place. In these cases, a few added fields to the database will make a significant difference. Adapt a set of normative questions to be addressed that are incorporated into the legislative process. A jurisdiction can choose to exclude certain actions (i.e., resolutions, minor code revisions, etc.) from this added review. It should also specifically mandate others (i.e., economic development, budgeting, siting, planning and zoning, etc.) for review. This process should ask at least four main questions: 1. Will this proposed policy affect compliance with regional, national, and international anti-bias and anti-discrimination policies? In what ways? If there is a problem or conflict, how might it be resolved? 2. How will the proposed policy affect access to livelihood? (affordable housing, jobs for residents, transportation, food access, emergency services and medical care, school access and quality)? 3. Will the proposed policy compromise/improve quality of life? (i.e., reduce access to recreation, services, increase crime, etc.) 4. Which geographic and/or cultural communities will carry the greatest burden if the proposed policy is implemented? Gain the most benefit?

Develop mechanisms to identify, evaluate and address adverse effects

A jurisdiction should, when the scope and impact of a proposed policy is quite significant, convene key stakeholders and develop additional impacts to be assessed. For example, a proposed shopping center might require additional assessments related to the displacement of local business, property values and the negotiating of local hiring agreements. When adverse effects are identified, mechanisms for addressing these impacts should include at least the following components as outlined in federal government policies to advance environmental justice: Identify the risk of discrimination early in the development of the program, policy or activity, so that positive corrective action can be taken. In implementing this process, the following information should be obtained where relevant and appropriate: - Population served and/or affected by race, color or national origin, and income level;
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- Proposed steps to guard against disproportionately high and adverse effects on persons on the basis of race, color, or national origin; - Present and proposed membership by race, color, or national origin, in any planning or advisory body that is part of the program, policy or activity. Policies, programs and activities will be administered so as to identify and avoid discrimination and avoid disproportionately high and adverse effects on minority populations by: (1) identifying and evaluating environmental, public health, socio-cultural and economic effects of programs, policies and activities; (2) proposing measures to avoid, minimize and/or mitigate disproportionately high and adverse environmental and public health effects and interrelated social and economic effects, and providing offsetting benefits and opportunities to enhance communities, neighborhoods, and individuals affected by programs, policies and activities, where permitted by law and consistent with this rulemaking; (3) considering alternatives to proposed programs, policies, and activities, where such alternatives would result in avoiding and/or minimizing disproportionately high and adverse impacts consistent with this rulemaking; and (4) eliciting public involvement opportunities and considering the results thereof, including soliciting input from affected minority and low-income populations in considering alternatives. This process, though challenging, is a rewarding one. It can help bring about greater collaboration in policymaking, strengthen public support and input, and develop policymaking mechanisms that advance equity and fairness. An abbreviated list of organizations follow that can provide technical support to this end. Of course, there are many other groups out there with great resources. In addition, some of the groups on this list have expertise across a wide range of issues but were only listed under two or three categories at most. In addition, please feel free to contact the Praxis Project if we can be of assistance.

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RESOURCES (a very abbreviated list)

Land Use and Planning Equity American Planning Association Joanne Garnett, President 1776 Massachusetts Ave., NW Washington, DC 20036-1904 Phone: (202) 872-0611 Fax: (202) 872-0643 Email: Website: Land Use Law Center John R. Nolon, Director Pace University School of Law 78 Broadway, White Plains, NY 10603 Phone: (914) 422-4262 Email: Website: Useful Gateway for planning issues Website: Housing Policy Equity National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC) Sheila Crowley, President 1012 Fourteenth Street NW, Suite 610 Washington, D.C. 20005 Phone: (202) 662-1530 Fax: (202) 393-1973 Website: National Housing Institute Harold Simon, Executive Director 439 Main Street Suite 311 Orange, NJ 07050 Phone: (973) 678-9060 Fax: (973) 678-8437 Website: Equity in Economic Development Economic Policy Institute Jeff Faux, President 1660 L Street NW Suite 1200 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 775-8810 Fax: (202) 775-0819 Website: Center for Community Change
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Andrew Mott - Executive Director 1000 Wisconsin Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20007 Phone: (202) 342-0519 Fax: (202) 333-5462 Website: Corporation for Enterprise Development (CFED) Brian Dabson - President 777 North Capitol Street, NE, Suite 410 Washington, DC 20002 Phone: (202) 408-9788 Fax: (202) 408-9793 Website: Poverty & Race Research Action Council Chester Hartman, Director 3000 Connecticut Ave, NW Suite 200 Washington, DC 20008 Phone: (202) 387-9887 Fax: (202) 387-0764 Website: United for a Fair Economy Chuck Collins 37 Temple Place 2nd Floor Boston, MA 02111 Phone: (617) 423-2148 Website: Food Access America's Second Harvest Deborah Leff, President 116 S. Michigan Ave., #4 Chicago, IL 60603 Phone: (312) 263-2303 Website: Poverty & Race Research Action Council Chester Hartman, Director 3000 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20008 Phone: (202) 387-9887 Fax: (202) 387-0764 hungerresources.htm Equity and Fairness in Crime Policy/Law Enforcement The Sentencing Project Marc Mauer, Director 514 - 10th Street, NW Suite 1000
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Washington, DC 20004 Phone: (202) 628-0871 Fax: (202) 628-1091 Website: Assessing Racial and Gender Impact Applied Research Center Gary Delgado, Director 3781 Broadway Oakland, CA 94611 Phone: (510) 653-3414 Fax: (510) 653-3427 Website: Center for Women Policy Studies Leslie R. Wolfe, President 2000 P St., NW, Suite 508 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 872-1770 Fax: (202) 296-8962 American Association of University Women (AAUW) Sandy Bernard, President 1111 16th Street, NW Washington, DC 20036-4873 Type: advocacy Phone: (202) 785-7793 Fax: (202) 466-7618 Website: Ms. Foundation for Women Marie C. Wilson 120 Wall Street, 33rd Floor New York, NY 10005 Phone: (212) 742-2300 Fax: (212) 742-1653 Website: Institute on Race and Poverty Gavin Kearney 415 Law Center 229 19th Avenue Minneapolis, MN 55455 Phone: (612) 625-8071 Fax: (612) 624-8890 Website: Disability Equity and Access Issues National Council on Disability Ethel D. Briggs, Executive Director 1331 F St., NW, Suite 1050 Washington, DC 20004-1107 Phone: (202) 272-2004 Fax: (202) 272-2022 TTY: (202) 272-2074
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Website: National Association of Developmental Disabilities Councils Charlotte Duncan, President 1234 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Suite 103 Washington, DC 20005 Phone: (202) 347-1234 Fax: (202) 347-4023 Website: Age Discrimination and Ageism AARP Joseph S. Perkins, President 601 E. St. NW Washington, DC 20049 Phone: (800) 424-3410 Website: Public School Equity ERASE Terry Keleher 3781 Broadway Oakland, CA 94611 Phone: (510) 653-3414 Fax: (510) 653-3427 Website: Rethinking Schools Bob Peterson 1001 E. Keefe Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53212 Phone (800) 669-4192 Fax: (414) 964-7220 Website: National Coalition of Education Activists PO Box 679 Rhinebeck, NY 12572 Phone: (914) 876-4580 Fax: (914) 876-4461 Website: Employment Good Jobs First Greg LeRoy 1311 L Street NW Washington, D.C. 20005 Tel: (202) 737.4315 Fax: (202) 638.3486 Website: /itep/gfj.htm Labor/Community Strategy Center 3780 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 1200 Los Angeles, CA 90010 Phone: (213) 387-2000 Website:

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Center for Budget and Policy Priorities Robert Greenstein, Executive Director 820 First Street, NE, Suite 510 Washington, DC 20002 Phone: (202) 408-1080 Fax: (202) 4088-1056 Website: Jobs With Justice 501 Third Street NW Washington DC 20001-2797 Phone: (202) 434-1106 Fax: (202) 434-1477 Environmental Quality Earth Island Institute Robert Wilkinson, President 300 Broadway, Suite 28 San Francisco, CA 94133 Phone: (415) 788-3666 Fax: (415) 788-7324 Website: Greenpeace USA Damu Smith 1436 U Street, NW Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 462-1177 Fax: (202) 462-4507 Website: The Preamble Center Kim Freeman 2040 S Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20009 Phone: (202) 265-3263. Website: Fair Budgeting Center for Budget and Policy Priorities Robert Greenstein, Executive Director 820 First Street, NE Suite 510 Washington, DC 20002 Phone: (202) 408-1080 Fax: (202) 4088-1056 Website: OMB Watch Gary D. Bass, Executive Director 1742 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20009 Phone: (202) 234-8494 Fax: (202) 234-8584 fax Website:
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Local Application of International Human Rights Policy International Human Rights Law Group Gay McDougall, Director 1200 18th Street, NW Suite 602 Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 822-4600 Fax: (202) 822-4606 Website: International Possibilities Unlimited Dr. Deborah Robinson, Executive Director 5113 Georgia Ave., NW Washington, DC 20011 Phone: (202) 723- 5622 Fax: (202) 723-5637 Website: Transportation Labor/Community Strategy Center 3780 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 1200 Los Angeles, CA 90010 Phone: (213) 387-2000 Website: Surface Transportation Policy Project 1100 17th Street, NW 10th Floor Washington, DC 20036 (202) 466-2636

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Participant Roster

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Participant Roster
Vicky Aguare Indian Family Health Clinic 1220 Central Ave. Suite 1-B Great Falls, MT 59401 406-268-1587 w 406-268-1572 f Rosa Benedicto Vision Y Compromiso 144 New Orleans Drive El Paso, TX 79912 915-585-8601 w 915-585-8262 f Dalvery Blackwell Black Health Coalition of Wisconsin 2801 West Wisconsin Ave. Milwaukee,WI 53208 414-933-0064 w 414-933-0084 f Jaqueline Bridges Youth Advocacy Network PO Box 24886 Detroit, MI 48224 313-876-4353 w 313-876-0778 f Mauri Carter Manna CDC/Shaw Education for Action PO Box 26049 Washington, DC 20001 202-232-2915 w 202-667-5196 f

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Ossie Colley Manna CDC/Shaw Education for Action PO Box 26049 Washington, DC 20001 202-232-2915 w 202-667-5196 f Johnnetta L. Davis-Joyce Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation 11710 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300 Beltsville, Maryland 20705-3102 301-755-2744 w 301-586-9214 f Katherine Donald Coalition for a Tobacco Free Arkansas 200 S. University Suite 302 Little Rocks, AR 72205 501-687-0345 w 501-687-0347 f Robyn Ferguson Center for Safe Communities and Schools 350 N Guadalupe St 140 PMB 164 San Marcos, TX 78666 877-304-2727 w 512-245-8065 f Veronika Geronimo Asian Pacific American Legal Center 1145 Wilshire Blvd. 2nd Floor Los Angeles, CA 90017 213-241-0271 w 213-977-7595 f

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Matthew Haas Coalition for a Tobacco Free Arkansas 200 S. University Suite 302 Little Rocks, AR 72205 501-687-0345 w 501-687-0347 f David Haiman Manna CDC/Shaw Education for Action PO Box 26049 Washington, DC 20001 202-232-2915 w 202-667-5196 f Zahara Heckster Center for Economic Justice 733 15th Street NW Suite 928 Washington, DC 20005 202-393-6665 w 202-393-1358 f Ernestine Holley Smoke Free Baltimore City PO Box 39117 Baltimore, MD 21212 410-435-6496 w 410-435-6496 f Dr. David H. Jolly NC Central U./ALF Priority Populations Miller Morgan Bldng/Nelson St. Durham, NC 27707 919-530-7548 w 919-530-7985 f

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Maria Lemus Vision Y Compromiso 2536 Edwards Ave. El Cerrito, CA 94530 510-232-7869 w 510-231-9954 f Tamu Mitchell People Reaching Out 5299 Auburn Blvd Sacramento, CA 95841 916-576-3300x309 w 916-576-3306 f Amelia Munoz Indiana Latino Institute 445 N. Pennsylvania Indianapolis, IN 46204 317-472-1055 w 371-472-1056 f Lori Ann New Breast Blackfeet Nation PO Box 866 Browning, MT 59417 406-338-2413 w 406-338-6311 f Sovath Nhar Socio-Economic Development for SE Asians 270 Elmwood Ave Providence, RI 02907 401-274-8811 w 401-274-8877 f

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Colleen P. O'Brien Huron Potawatomi Health Dept. 2775 W Dickman Road Springfield, MI 49015 269-966-1101 w 269-966-1113 f Rosalind Richardson NC Central U./ALF Priority Populations Miller Morgan Bldng/Nelson St. Durham, NC 27707 919-530-7548 w 919-530-7985 f Barry Schecter Ithaca Counseling Services 679 Owego Road Candor, NY 13743 607-659-4223 w 607-659-4042 f Deirdre Smith Publications & Media Coordinator Smoke Free Maryland Coalition 1211 Cathedral Street Baltimore, MD 21201 (410) 539-0872 x307 w (410) 649-4131 f Suzana Ventura Tapia CHIRLA 2533 W Third St. Ste 101 Los Angeles, CA 90057 213-353-1782 w 213-353-1344 f

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Erika Urbani People Reaching Out 5299 Auburn Blvd Sacramento, CA 95841 916-576-3300 w 916-576-3306 f Juan Carlos Velazquez LLEGO 1420 K St NW, Washington, DC 2005 202-408-5380 w 202-408-8478 f Dave Williams Center for Safe Communities and Schools 350 N Guadalupe St 140 PMB 164 San Marcos, TX 78666 877-304-2727 w 512-245-8065 f Wing Yee Chinese Progressive Association-SF 1964 Alemany Boulevard San Francisco, CA 94133 415-391-6986 w 415-391-6987 f Jessie Yu Chinese Progressive Association-SF 1964 Alemany Boulevard San Francisco, CA 94133 415-391-6986 w 415-391-6987 f

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About The Praxis Project

About the Organization Praxis Staff Upcoming Training Events This Session's Trainers and Presenters

Effective Policy Advocacy Training Materials (p. 88 ) The Praxis Project

About The Praxis Project

"Who suffer the effects of oppression more than the oppressed? Who can better understand the necessity of liberation? They will not gain this liberation by chance but through the praxis of their quest for it, through their recognition of the necessity to fight for it." - Paulo Freire

Mission Praxis mission is to support and partner with communities to achieve health justice by leveraging resources and capacity for policy development, advocacy and leadership. Praxis uses innovative participatory approaches that bridge theory, research and action. What is health justice? A community's health is as much the result of institutional policies and practice as it is personal choice. Which communities have fresh, nutritious food? Where do governments allow dumping? Who is more often targeted by advertisers with unhealthy products? Which communities have state-of-the-art medical facilities? Which ones don't? All of these factors are symptoms of the bias and privilege that shape virtually every aspect of our lives. It is no secret that across nearly every indicator of health status, poor people and people of color are more likely to be sick, injured, or die prematurely. Great brochures and good advice are not enough. It will take organizing from the ground up; social change that transforms the current systems of neglect, bias, and privilege into systems -- policies, practices, institutions -- that truly support health for all. That's health justice. Why Policy?
Policies determine our quality of life. They are the agreements, the codes that shape every aspect of our lives. That is why all around the country, people are turning to advocacy and policymaking as tools to improve their communities.

Training: Building Skills and Community Community groups are often trained in service provision, education or public health. They need new and different skills to enact policy changes -- media advocacy, community organizing, legislative advocacy, etc. However, building skills is not enough. These advocates also need a supportive community in which they can explore new models, forge new alliances and learn from each other's experiences. Praxis is dedicated to the principles of popular education. Staff is experienced in training and education approaches that value participation and experiential learning. Guiding principles of the training component are closely tied to Praxis' overall commitment to capacity building. Technical Assistance Even with the best training, advocates need support in implementing their advocacy and policy initiatives. The best technical assistance is the right help at the right time, a sort of policy triage that flexibly and effectively anticipates the fluid, changing needs of advocates. This means the
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development of mechanisms via mail, phone and on-line to respond to requests quickly and efficiently. Evaluation that Matters To truly evaluate policy approaches, process measures must reflect an understanding of where the "transcript" of the policymaking process is "written" (i.e., in meetings, in phone conversations and press conferences) and how to make explicit this transcript of events (or body of evidence) so that the process can be explained to readers, so they can replicate it and that process can be credibly linked to the outcomes. This requires a fair amount of ethnography and attention to the process as one resembling political science more than medical science. Strong interviewing skills, extensive experience with the policymaking process, the ability to write clearly and effectively for people outside of academia, and the ability to effectively translate those skills into the development of an appropriate evaluative framework are critical elements of Praxis' approach. Research for a New Climate This is the Information Age and research is the new currency in policymaking. Praxis is committed to developing information to help shape policy and strategy in this shifting social climate. Focus group testing, polling, media content and data analysis are a critical part of our research component. We examine the context as well as the content of policy initiatives to provide credible information that advocates can use. Who We Serve Praxis is committed to serving community groups and institutions (both public and private) that want to address social issues through environmentally-focused policies. Why an environmental focus? Most policymaking focuses on the punishment and surveillance of individuals -- often individuals who are poor, disfranchised and/or are people of color. Whether at the national, state or local level, we will work with groups to shift the balance toward approaches that address root causes and increase corporate and institutional accountability. Serving those disproportionately affected by social problems is a priority. The Praxis Project 1750 Columbia Road, NW, 2nd Floor Washington, DC 20009 202-234-5921 202-234-2689

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Praxis Staff Members

Makani Themba-Nixon, Executive Director E-mail:

Makani Themba-Nixon is director of The Praxis Project. An internationally renowned trainer and organizer, Makani was previously director of the Transnational Racial Justice Initiative (TRJI), an international project of the Applied Research Center to build capacity among advocates to more effectively address structural racism and leverage tools and best practices from around the world. Prior to that, she served as director of the Applied Research Center's Grass Roots Innovative Policy Program (GRIPP) and directed the Center for Media and Policy Analysis at the Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. Makani has published numerous articles and case studies on race, media, policy advocacy and public health. She is co-author of Media Advocacy and Public Health: Power for Prevention, a contributor to the volume State of the Race: Creating Our 21st Century as well as many other edited book projects. Her latest book is Making Policy, Making Change available from JosseyBass Publishers.

Elva Yaez, Deputy Director/Policy Director E-mail:

Elva Yaez comes to the Praxis Project with a professional background that integrates health policy and advocacy, community activism and information systems. Most recently, Elva was a Grants Liaison Officer with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded SmokeLess States National Tobacco Policy Initiative. At SmokeLess States she provided grantee coalitions technical assistance in the areas of strategic planning, community organizing and policy campaigns. Previously, Ms. Yaez was Associate Director at Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights (ANR), a national tobacco control advocacy organization. During her five-year tenure at ANR, she provided technical assistance and training to advocates throughout the U.S. working on local clean indoor air ordinances as well as statewide campaigns to prevent preemption. Prior to her involvement in tobacco control, Elva worked on environmental approaches to the prevention of alcohol-related problems. From 1989 through 1992, Elva was Associate Director/Resource Center at the Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. In 1993, she was the media coordinator for a community-based policy initiative in Oakland, CA, that resulted in the enactment of a ground-breaking zoning ordinance that holds local alcohol retailers accountable for the crime and nuisance problems taking place on their property. The California Supreme Court upheld this ordinance after a series of legal challenges by the alcohol industry. Elva's community activism dates back to her involvement with the Chicano movement and campus politics as a high school and college student. Her activism led to her involvement in the early development of one of the first academic Chicano Studies libraries in the U.S. at the University of California, Berkeley as well as the creation of a prototype bilingual education library at the Bay Area Bilingual Education League. These activities resulted in a master's degree in library and information management and a 10 year professional career in numerous research libraries including, UCLA's Spanish Speaking Mental Health Research Center, the Los Angeles Times Editorial Library and the University of Southern California's Norris Medical Library. Linking policy advocacy with information technology, Elva established the library systems at the Marin Institute and ANR. Elva attended the University of California, Berkeley. She received her Bachelor's Degree from Mills College in Oakland, CA and her Master's Degree from the University of Southern California.
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Marta Vizueta, Training Director E-mail:

Marta de los ngeles Vizueta is a popular educator who has worked with grassroots and national projects around the U.S. and Latin America. Martas experience includes community organizing and movement building, capacity building and leadership development in lowincome communities of color, anti-racist curriculum development and organizational development. She has worked on projects that include participatory action research, parent organizing, professional development for teachers and school administrators, youth organizing, labor organizing and the rights of immigrants and the working poor. Marta is also very active in creating networks for other young progressive activists of color that provide support and mentorship in the development of the rising generation of movement building educator-organizers. In her spare time, she is an amateur potter, folk guitarist and flamenco dancer who hopes to continue her midwifery studies in the future.

Salimah Salaam has extensive experience in non-profit and corporate management. Hailing from a varied business background that spans nearly two decades, her experience includes managing a holistic health clinic to a management stint at Citibank. Salimah brings a strong sense of administrative and fiscal management to Praxis. She is a Washington, DC native with a love of mathematics and numbers.

Salimah Salaam, Finance Director E-mail:

Juan Carlos Vega, Information Specialist E-mail:

Juan Carlos Vega was born in San Juan, Puerto Rico and attended Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan where in December 1994 he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Marketing and a Minor in Latin American and Caribbean Studies. He completed his Master of Information Sciences from the University of Maryland, College Park in December 2001. From 1995 to 2001, Juan Carlos was a Digital Conversion Specialist with the American Memory Project at the Library of Congress where he gained valuable experience in the areas of research, technical support, and library and information management. Prior to this, he worked for the Michigan State University Libraries where he was Team Coordinator for the Csar E. Chvez Collection on Chicano and Puerto Rican Studies and Library Assistant at the Map Library. Juan Carlos' involvement in alcohol and tobacco control began with the National Latino Council on Alcohol and Tobacco Prevention (LCAT) in 2001. As the Information Resources Manager, he organized, disseminated, and managed all aspects of LCAT's Information Center and its publications. By providing reference assistance to LCAT staff, the media, other non-profit organizations, as well as federal, state, and local government agencies, Juan Carlos successfully disseminated the importance of a healthier Latino community. Currently, Juan Carlos is a member of SALIS, Substance Abuse Librarians and Information Specialists Association and REFORMA, the National Association to Promote Library and Information Services to Latinos and the Spanish-Speaking, where he performs outreach activities. From 1998 to the beginning of 2001 he was a Volunteer Tutor for Latino kids at the Latino Student Fund program.

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Jenny Chung, Administrative Manager E-mail:

Jenny lends her organizational skills, attention to detail, and capacity for multi-tasking to the behind-the-scenes coordination of many efforts. She has experience as a school office manager and has organized various efforts in social justice education. Jenny has demonstrated her commitment to social justice work primarily in the field of K-12 education. She has worked with educational programs that address issues of access and equity for students of color. Her experiences both inside and outside the classroom include designing and implementing anti-racist curricula, creating safe spaces for students and teachers to come together for sincere dialogue, and organizing area conferences on leadership, diversity and community. She has worked closely with school communities in Southern California and the Washington, DC region. Jenny received her Bachelors Degree in Cultural Psychology from Pomona College in Claremont, CA and her Masters Degree in Race & Ethnic Studies in Education from the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Upcoming Training Events

August 2003 August 6 Web/TeleConference Series: Youth Advocacy for Organizing Presenters: Ditra Edwards, Listen Inc., & Taj James, Movement Strategy Center Residential Training II: Building Strong Networks & Coalitions

August 22-24

September 2003 September 25-28 PATH Grantees Residential Training

Praxis Training Area Description

The Training Area draws on the principles of popular education and other liberatory, peoplecentered pedagogy to develop a progressive training plan to advance Praxis' goals. Within this work we will address issues of racial and economic justice, working with traditionally disenfranchised populations, changing structural conditions to improve the quality of life, building community power, and institutional/systemically focused strategies, capacity building rooted in social and economic justice. In doing this work, we are committed to providing culturally appropriate translation support as needed.

Praxis Training Services

Praxis offers trainings and workshops independently and as part of conferences and institutes many times during the year. We encourage you to visit our website at to browse our future events (in case you can attend one of them) and free relevant resources that may aid you in your work. We are also available to deliver tailored trainings to diverse groups on a variety of subjects, including coalition building, media advocacy, policy advocacy, progressive youth organizing for advocacy, as well as tobacco focused themes such as culturally relevant organizing and mobilizing tactics for clean indoor air. Please contact Marta Vizueta, Training Director at if you would like more information on tailored, on-site events.

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The Trainers & Presenters

Juan Carlos Ruiz Trainer, Midwest Academy

Juan Carlos Ruiz hails from Peru where he began his life as an organizer -- first as a student. When he found his life threatened, he sought refuge in the United States where he continued his efforts as an organizer in the Milwaukee area. Juan Carlos has been involved in a number of organizing efforts including work in alcohol, tobacco and other issues affecting quality of life at the community level. He is currently a trainer at the renowned Midwest Academy where he works with groups nationwide.

Makani Themba-Nixon, Praxis Executive Director E-mail:

Makani Themba-Nixon is director of The Praxis Project. An internationally renowned trainer and organizer, Makani was previously director of the Transnational Racial Justice Initiative (TRJI), an international project of the Applied Research Center to build capacity among advocates to more effectively address structural racism and leverage tools and best practices from around the world. Prior to that, she served as director of the Applied Research Center's Grass Roots Innovative Policy Program (GRIPP) and directed the Center for Media and Policy Analysis at the Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. Makani has published numerous articles and case studies on race, media, policy advocacy and public health. She is co-author of Media Advocacy and Public Health: Power for Prevention, a contributor to the volume State of the Race: Creating Our 21st Century as well as many other edited book projects. Her latest book is Making Policy, Making Change available from JosseyBass Publishers.

Liz Towne, Senior Council, Alliance for Justice E-mail:

Liz Towne is an Attorney with the Nonprofit Advocacy Project at Alliance for Justice. The Nonprofit Advocacy Project seeks to strengthen the capacity of the public interest community to influence public policy by providing workshops, legal guides, technical assistance, and public education. Before joining Alliance for Justice, Liz served in the Clinton Administration in the Office of General Counsel at the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Prior to HUD, she was counsel to Gore 2000, Inc., Clinton/Gore 96, and the March Fund for Cancer Education. She received a J.D. from D.C. School of Law in Washington, D.C. and a B.S. from SUNY @ Brockport in Brockport, NY.

Marta Vizueta, Praxis Training Director E-mail:

Marta de los ngeles Vizueta is a popular educator who has worked with grassroots and national projects around the U.S. and Latin America. Martas experience includes community organizing and movement building, capacity building and leadership development in lowincome communities of color, anti-racist curriculum development and organizational development. She has worked on projects that include participatory action research, parent organizing, professional development for teachers and school administrators, youth organizing, labor organizing and the rights of immigrants and the working poor.

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Other Resources

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Publications and Resources available at

Tools for Advocates
Fighting Back on Budget Cuts: A Tool Kit [online version] [print version (PDF, 551K)]

Using the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICER) to Advance Human Rights At Home Policy Options Beyond Legislation Advocating for Tobacco Policy Change Building Diverse Community-Based Coalitions Developing an Equity Impact Statement: A Tool for Local Policymaking Developing a Policy Initiative A Good Framing Strategy Capability Index: Assessing Individual Assets Getting Ready for Media Advocacy Defensive Framing Media Planning Template Ujima Action Guide: African Americans Building Stronger, Healthier Tobacco Free Communities Together (Complete Draft Pre State Approval and Edits!)

Publications and Presentations

Publications and Tools from Capacity Building Among Community-Based Reproductive Health Programs in Communities of African Descent Initiative Clean Indoor Air and Communities of Color: Challenges and Opportunities, Elva Yaez, The Praxis Project, November 2002 o o Background Paper (95K) PowerPoint Presentation (178K)

Themba, M.N. Are Jurisdictions with Significant Concentrations of Communities of Color More or Less Likely to Have Tobacco Control Ordinances? (Paper presented at National Conference on Tobacco or Health) Themba, M.N. (ed.) The Persistence of White Privilege and Institutional Racism in US Policy: A Report on US Government Compliance with the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, Applied Research Center Transnational Racial Justice Initiative, 2000
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Themba, M.N. and Robinson, R.G. Crossing Substances for Common Interests Robinson, R.G. Presentation on Community Competency o o PowerPoint Presentation (3MB) Background Paper (77K)

A Grassroots Advocates Guide to Participating in the Local Government Budget Process, by Darold Johnson and Makani Themba (108K)

World Health Organization Regional Committee for Europe, Fifty-second Session, Copenhagen, TECHNICAL BRIEFING: HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENTA tool to include health on the agenda of other sector

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"Organizers! This is the book you have been waiting for."

Heather Booth

A book that belongs in the hands of every progressive organizer. Now in its 2001 third edition, this 425 page manual covers every aspect of Direct Action Organizing. Used as a text in many of the leading schools of social work.

Partial Table Of Contents o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o The Fundamentals Of Direct Action Organizing Developing a Strategy Organizing Models: The underlying structure of organization Building and Joining Coalitions Developing Leadership Using The Media Working With Religious Organizations and with unions Public Speaking Working With Community Organization Boards On Line Research and Tactical Investigation Grass Roots Fundraising Supervision Administrative Systems The New Economy And lots more.

How To Order List Price: $23.95. Reduced prices for bulk orders are available through the publisher. Seven Locks Press, PO Box 25689, Santa Ana, CA 92799 800/354-5348 714-545-2526 714-545-1572 F Discounted prices are often available if you order on line directly from Amazon.COM Website:

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About Harpers Ferry

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Harpers Ferry History

Searching for stories and, background information about Civil War soldiers who were in units of either side that were active in or around Harpers Ferry. Harpers Ferry 1734, Robert Harper , a Scotch Irishman from Philadelphia, settled at the junction of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers. Here he established a ferry, which was operated for a number of years, and gave its name to the settlement. Robert Harper later built a gristmill on the Shenandoah River. His will, dated 26th September, 1782, proved in Berkeley county 15th October 1782, mentions heirs, niece Sarah Harper, nephews Robert and Josiah Harper, who were children of Robert's brother, Joseph Harper. When Robert Harper settled in the area, it was located in the state of Virginia. In the year 1745, all that portion of the colony of Virginia, which lay west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, was erected into a County which was named Augusta. In December of that year, the county court was organized and held its first sitting. Prior to that time it had become the refuge and abiding place of a strong body of Scotch-Irish immigrants. The bounds of the new county were limited on the north by Fairfax's Northern Neck Grant and the boundaries of Maryland and Pennsylvania to the westward of Fairfax; on the east by the Blue Ridge Mountains, including the whole of the present state of West Virginia. Records of the daily life of these early settlers reflect the needs, the trials, the struggles, the efforts, the labors, the implements and tools, the occupations and amusements, the aids and obstacles, the aims and longings, the achievements and failures, the forming and shaping, the beauty and ugliness, the riches and sordidness, the risings and declinings, the moral, physical, and spiritual evolution of an offshoot and a nucleus of a people whose characteristics have ever been truth, honesty, simplicity, singleness of purpose, and courage. (Augusta Co., VA court records 1745-1800) In 1862 those Virginians who resided in the western area of the state, were opposed to slavery and seceded, or withdrew from Virginia and formed the state of West Virginia. Harpers Ferry is located in the eastern tip of West Virginia, called the Eastern Panhandle. It sits on a point of land formed by the joining of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers, an area originally occupied by different tribes of Native Americans. Thirty years before the Hilltop House Hotel existed, on July 3, 1859 John Brown arrived in Harpers Ferry, changed his name to Isaac Smith and spread the word he was in the cattle business. He rented a property known as the Kennedy Farm and circulated the story of a plan to engage in the mining business. As a part of his pretense, he sent men out into the hills with picks and shovels, pretending to be prospectors. They offered to purchase some of the surrounding farms to divert attention from the true purpose of their presence in the area. Browns favorite Biblical passage was Hebrews 9:22 - "without shedding of blood is no remission (of sin)" and his willingness to risk the shedding of his own blood in that cause had won him the ardent but clandestine support of a small network of northern abolitionists who could not bring themselves actually to take up arms against the institution they loathed. Among them were Dr. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a Unitarian minister in Boston; Professor Samuel Gridley Howe, an educator of the blind and a veteran of the Greek revolt against the Turks; and Frederick Douglass, himself a former slave, who had declined Browns personal invitation to take part in his raid, believing it suicidal, and who would blame himself often in later years for his decision. "His zeal in the cause of freedom was infinitely superior to mine," Douglass wrote of Brown. "Mine was as the taper light; his was as the burning sun. I could live for the slave; John Brown could die for him." Sunday evening, October 16, 1859, John Brown, bearded like an Old Testament prophet, led a tiny army of five black and thirteen white men into the village. He brought along a wagon filled with two hundred rifles, two hundred pistols, and a thousand pikes with which to arm the slaves he was sure were going to rally to him. Once they had, he planned to lead them southward along the crest of the Appalachians and destroy slavery. "I expect to effect a mighty conquest," he said, "even though it be like the last victory of Samson."
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At Harpers Ferry, Brown and his men quietly seized the federal armory, arsenal, and engine house, and rounded up hostages, including George Washingtons great-grand-nephew, who was made to bring with him a sword given to the general by Frederick the Great of Prussia. Brown strapped it on. After that, nothing went right. The first man Browns men killed was the town baggage master, a free black. The slaves did not rise, but angry townspeople did, surrounding the engine house and picking off its defenders. The first of Browns followers to fall was Dangerfield Newby, a former slave who had hoped by joining Brown to liberate his wife and children from a Virginia plantation. On Tuesday morning, ninety United States Marines arrived from Washington. In command was Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee of Virginia, a cavalry officer on leave when the call for Federal help reached the capital; he had hurried to the scene so swiftly that he had no time to dress in his uniform. Lees men easily stormed the engine house. Brown was slashed with an officers dress sword and turned over to Virginia to be tried for treason against the state. He lay on the floor of the courtroom, too weak from his wounds to stand. An "Old Lion tangled in the net," wrote William Dean Howells,"...a captive but a lion yet." Browns guilt was impossible to deny. There could be only one outcome to his trial. "I have been whipped, as the saying is," Brown acknowledged to his wife, "but I am sure I can recover all the lost capital occasioned by that disaster; by only hanging a few moments by the neck; and I feel quite determined to make the utmost possible out of a defeat." John Brown was taken into custody on Tuesday and his trial was held the following Friday. His attorneys attempted, to prevent his being sentenced to the gallows by entering a plea of insanity but Brown was incensed at the idea, and announced he was as sane as they were. The court agreed with him and on the following Monday, after a deliberation by the jury of less than an hour, he was found "Guilty of treason, and conspiring and advising with slaves and others to rebel, and murder in the first degree." Each of these crimes carried the death penalty. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow noted in his diary on the morning of Browns execution, "the date of a new Revolution - quite as much needed as the old one." Henry David Thoreau saw Browns hanging and the crucifixion of Christ as "two ends of a chain which is not without its links. He is not old Brown any longer; he is an angel of light." Fifteen hundred troops guarded the scene of Browns hanging at Charles Town, among them a contingent of cadets from the Virginia Military Institute led by Thomas J. Jackson, later known as "Stonewall" Jackson. One of the militiamen present, a private in the Richmond Grays, was a young actor, John Wilkes Booth; he detested abolition but had to admit that "Brown was a brave old man...a man inspired... the greatest character of this century. On his way to the scaffold, John Brown commented to his jailer: This is a beautiful country, I never noticed it before".

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Harpers Ferry Walking Tour

Charles Town is easy to tour on foot. With comfortable shoes and a desire to step back in history you can locate many of its most significant structures in about an hour and a half. And even though the two farthest points on the walking tour are just 11 blocks apart some visitors may choose to drive to some of the sites. (Only the museum and properties that are commercial establishments are open to the public). Walk along the sidewalks of Charles Town and it will become obvious that there are many historic properties along the older streets, George and Samuel. Stop in at the Jefferson County Museum at 200 East Washington Street where you will find several thousand artifacts, including papers relating to the original town survey conducted by Charles Washington. Of special interest are the cot on which John Brown lay while being tried (he was wounded during his infamous raid at Harpers Ferry) and the wagon in which he rode to his execution. The Civil War is illustrated through such items as the Confederate battle flag of "Stuarts Horse Artillery" and other mementoes belonging to Colonel Roger P. Chew, C.S.A. BISHOP HOUSE This handsome house, located at 311 South George Street, was constructed in 1896 by Dr. Jonathan Peale Bishop. His son, John Peale Bishop, a well-known author and poet, grew up in Charles Town and was visited on many occasions by his friend, F. Scott Fitzgerald. BROWN-SHUGART HOUSE 633 South Samuel Street, built in 1883 by Forrest Washington Brown, this fine frame Victorian has 15 spacious rooms, including a large formal ballroom on the first floor. BROWN HOUSE 635 South Samuel Street, located next door to the Brown-Shugart House stands this stately 1873 house constructed by Thomas Brown. The formal gardens feature English boxwoods from Mt. Vernon. During the construction of the stone wall around the property, many Civil War relics, including a bayonet, a belt buckle, a saber, and a knife were placed in the wall, as well as Indian arrowheads. CHARLES WASHINGTON HALL 100 West Washington Street, was first a marketplace and meeting hall, Charles Washington Hall burned during the civil war following an explosion of ammunition stored there. The present building was built in 1874 and served briefly as Jefferson County seat. CHEW HOUSE 514 South George Street. Of early 19th century construction, this was the home of Colonel Roger Preston Chew of Chews battery and artillery, who served with distinction under Confederate Generals Turner Ashby and J.E.B. Stuart. He married Louisa F. Washington, one of the last members of the Washington family to be born at Mt. Vernon. The house was remodeled and a tower was added by Colonel Chew during the Victorian era. EPISCOPAL LECTURE ROOM Northeast corner of Liberty and Lawrence Streets. Built between 1833 and 1839, a brick cross in the stonework indicates its origins. Here, during the time of John Browns trial, John Wilkes Booth entertained townspeople with dramatic readings. FLAGG HOUSE 323 East Washington Street. The Flagg House, named for the postmaster who lived there in 1898, was built for Samuel Washington, son of Charles, in 1798. John Young, a carpenter who settled in Charles Town in 1796, built this and other structures.

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GIBSON-TODD HOUSE 515 South Samuel Street. This property, now the site of a brick Victorian built in 1892 by Colonel John Thomas Gibson, encompasses the site of John Browns execution. On December 2, 1859, the wagon carrying Brown and the procession that followed moved out George Street to the gallows in a field on the Rebecca Hunter Farm. (The gallows stood at a spot just to the north of where the house now stands.) Nearly 800 troops under the command of Colonel Gibson were posted to keep order, among them a corps from the Virginia Military Institute commanded by a Colonel Preston and Major Thomas Jackson, later nicknamed Stonewall. HAPPY RETREAT Blakeley Place and Mordington Avenue. Charles Washington (1738-99) was only 14 years old when his brother Lawrence died, leaving this land to Charles. Charles brought his family from Fredericksburg in about 1780 to the place he called "Happy Retreat". Construction of the house began with the building of two wings connected by a breezeway. Charles wanted to build a larger middle section but may not have had the financial resources to do so. After his death his son sold the house and it subsequently had several owners. In 1837 the house was bought by Judge Isaac Douglass who built the center, three-story portion of the house. Judge Douglass renamed the house Mordington after his ancestral home in Scotland. In 1945 a new owner, R. J. Funkhouser, restored the name "Happy Retreat". HUNTER HOUSE Now the Iron Rail Inn, located Northwest corner of Washington and Samuel Streets. This Federal-style building was constructed about 1810. It was once the residence of Andrew Hunter, prosecutor in the John Brown trial. A later owner, William Correl, added the turret. JEFFERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE Northeast corner of Washington and George Streets. This courthouse was built in 1857 when county business outgrew the original 1803 building. Work on the old courthouse building had begun soon after the Virginia General Assembly created Jefferson County on October 26, 1801, by dividing Berkeley County. During the Civil War, the federally controlled courthouse was bombarded by Confederate Army units, leaving only the shell of the building. Restoration work was completed in December of 1872. The courthouse also witnessed the trial of William Blizzard in 1922. Blizzard, the alleged leader of striking coal miners, was charged with treason and murder for engaging in warfare with state and federal troops in Mingo and Logan Counties. The trials of Blizzard and John Brown are two of only three treason trials held in the United States prior to World War II. JEFFERSON COUNTY LIBRARY/MUSEUM Located at 200 East Washington Street. LOCKE HOUSE Northeast corner of Lawrence and Avis Streets. An African-American Masonic and Odd Fellows Lodge for over a century, this is one of Charles Towns oldest stone buildings, built about 1795 by John Locke on land purchased from Charles Washington. Note the S-shaped iron clasps that are connected through the building, bracing the walls. MASON/GIBSON HOUSE 221 East Washington Street. This brick Georgian house was built about 1900 by Braxton Gibson and was his familys home. Mrs. Gibson left the house to her nieces in 1929 who in turn donated it to Zion Episcopal Church. MCCURDY-WYSONG HOUSE
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502 South Samuel Street. This fine example of Victorian architecture was built by John Watson McCurdy about 1868-70. For 120 years, the house has remained in the builders family. OLD OPERA HOUSE Northwest corner of George and Liberty Streets. Commissioned by a Washington family descendant, Mrs. Ann Packette, the Opera House was built in 1910. The first show was presented on February 11, 1911 - a comedy by "home talent", the proceeds of which went to the Daughters of the Confederacy for the benefit of indigent Confederate veterans. The theater has an orchestra pit, a curved balcony, and seats for 330 people. One of only a dozen of its kind left in the U.S., the Old Opera House seasonally offers community theater productions. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 220 East Washington Street. A classic example of Greek Revival architecture, this church was built in 1851 on land given by John Stephenson. Having served as a hospital for both Union and Confederate troops, it was the only church in town not damaged during the Civil War. The steeple was added in 1907. PRESBYTERIAN MANSE 222 East Washington Street. Built as a residence for Presbyterian ministers in 1854, this house still serves that purpose. Soon after the manse was built a fair was held to help pay for the construction. Records state that the large sum of $700 was raised. RIDDLE-MURPHY-HUNTER HOUSE 534 South Samuel Street. Constructed about 1858 by Andrew Hunter, this house was also on the farm where John Brown was hanged in 1859. Although martial law prevented the general public from witnessing the hanging, some residents viewed the scene from this house. SHEETZ HOUSE Southeast corner of Liberty and Lawrence Streets. Built in 1797 by Thomas Griggs, the house is made of logs and brick. The brick building attached to the house was used by Charles Washington as an office and later as slave quarters. Iron rings in the basement are evidence that horses may have been hidden there during the Civil War. STRIBLING HOUSE (Now the Carriage Inn). 417 East Washington Street. Dr. Taliaferro Stribling commissioned the construction of this house in 1839. When Thomas Rutherford purchased it in 1858 he paid $800 for the two-story brick house and the adjacent lots that compose the block between Church and Seminary Streets. During the Civil War, Union General Philip Sheridan occupied the house as his headquarters. It was here that Generals Grant and Sheridan met to plan the Valley Campaign. TATE-FAIRFAX-MUSE HOUSE 201 East Washington Street. An excellent example of late Georgian architecture, the main block of the house was constructed about 1800 on a lot owned by Magnus Tate II, a prominent Jefferson County attorney and legislator. In 1803, the property was leased by Ferdinando Fairfax, great-nephew of both George Washington and Thomas Lord Fairfax, and one of the countys first justices of the peace. TIFFIN HOUSE (Now the Charles Washington Inn) 10 West Liberty Street. Completed in 1787 for the Tiffin family, this is the oldest house built within the original confines of Charles Town. Dr. Edward Tiffin, born in 1766 in Carlisle, England, came to Charles Town in 1784 with his parents and helped in the building of the house. He attended the University of Pennsylvania studying medicine, and upon graduation he returned to Charles town to open his practice. In 1798 he left for Ohio with other pioneer settlers including his brother-in-law, Thomas Worthington. Tiffin used a letter of introduction from George Washington to make acquaintance with Territorial Governor Arthur St. Clair and thus became active in local politics. When Ohio was admitted to the Union in 1803, he was
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elected its first governor, and he served two terms. Thomas Worthington was elected the first Senator from Ohio, having lobbied Washington to allow Ohio statehood. Worthington also served as Ohios governor, beginning in 1816. The Tiffin House has undergone many changes. Its log construction was faced with brick, and the building was enlarged by the addition of a wing at the rear. It has many interior amenities of the period, including fine Georgian mantels and a spiral staircase with a mahogany rail. WILSON HOUSE Southeast corner of Mildred and Avis Streets. This Victorian Gothic house, designed and built by J. C. Holmes, was completed in 1876 and was the home of William L. Wilson (1833-1900). It is presently owned by his grandson. While serving as president of West Virginia University in 1882-83, Wilson accepted a nomination for U.S. Congress from the Second District of West Virginia. He won the election by ten votes and went on to serve six terms in Congress. Appointed U.S. postmaster general in 1894 he introduced ruralfree delivery of mail in Jefferson County, the first in the country. WOODFORD LAWN 619 South Samuel Street. This large brick residence once stood on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C. James Mason, Jr. learned that it was slated for destruction and arranged for his client, the B&O Railroad, to transport the dismantled house to Charles Town, rose-colored brick by rose-colored brick, in 1890. ZION EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND GRAVEYARD Congress Street between Mildred and Church Streets. Zion Church was completed in 1851. It was preceded by two other Episcopal church buildings on this site, the first one built in 1818, and the other in 1846. The second church burned two years after it was completed. Federal troops quartered there during the Civil War desecrated the church almost beyond recognition by dismantling it and destroying the pews. The graveyard may hold the greatest number of descendants of the Washington family - more than 80 including twenty who were born at Mt. Vernon. It includes some graves that were moved from St. Georges Chapel graveyard. Other notables include Edmund Randolph and his wife. Julia Paca Kennedy (Edmund was a great-great-grandson of Thomas Jefferson and a great-grandson of Edmund Randolph, the first secretary of state of the United States); Colonel Pearson Chew, chief of the horse artillery of the Confederate Army, and his wife, Louisa Washington, and Dr. Paca Kennedy, a professor of Greek at Virginia Theological Seminary. The stone-and-brick wall that surrounds the property was built under the supervision of John Yates Beall, an engineer who studied at the University of Virginia. John Wilkes Booth was a friend of Beall, having attended college with him, and at the time of the trial of John Brown, Booth gave readings from Shakespeare locally. Beall later enlisted in the Confederate Army and was wounded while part of Colonel Turner Ashbys cavalry. He then joined the Confederate Navy and helped in raiding shipping on the Chesapeake Bay where he was captured and exchanged. In 1864, he went to Canada to aid in the effort to disrupt the shipping of war material destined for Federal troops. He was captured, tried by military commission, and convicted as a spy. In spite of pleas made directly to President Lincoln and General John A. Dix, commander of military court, that his life be spared, Beall was hanged on February 18, 1865. He is buried in Zion graveyard.

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