Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE Personality is the sum total of physical, mental, emotional and social characteristics

of an individual. Personality development refers to the acquisition of knowledge skills and experience for the purpose of enhancing personal qualities perfectly and efficiently. Importance of personality development Globalization Career Social respect and recognition

Communication plays a vital role in improving the personality of a person. According to Lord Bacon, Reading makes a full man; speaking a ready man and writing an exact man. Reading, writing and speaking skills are the three most important skills of communication. Globalization of Indian economy is leading to INDIAN COMPANIES setting up their offices/branches abroad. Ability to communicate in English is the first and foremost requirement for success in todays career. For becoming an effective business professional reading, writing and speaking skills are the foremost important necessity in todays scenario. Speaking and Writing Skills According to Lord Bacon, "Reading makes a full man; speaking, a ready man; writing an exact man". Reading, writing and speaking skills are the three most important skills of communication. English is now not only the official language but also the language of business and administration in most parts of the world. Globalization of Indian economy is leading to Indian companies setting up their offices/branches abroad. Foreign companies are setting up offices..in India. The well-qualified and ambitious young men and women prefer lucrative jobs.in the corporate sector. Ability to communicate effectively in English is the first and foremost requirement for success in today's careers.

Difference between Speaking and writing skills: Speaking skills mean the skills in speaking effectively so that the listeners understand what is said and the right impression of the speaker is created. Writing skills mean the skills in writing effectively all kinds of messages eg: business letters, memos, reports etc.

S.NO SPOKEN COMMUNIATION


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Receiver is present in spoken communication It is fluency based Noise is an important barrier Need for the correct tone and accent and body signs is necessary Spoken communication is spontaneous The mistakes in SE is neglected or overseen E.g. businesses meetings, Telephone conversation etc

WRITTEN COMMUNIATION
Absent in written communication It is accuracy based Noise is not an important barrier Not needed Written communication is scripted Cannot be neglected as they will be visible clearly E.g.: report, memo, proposals, business letters etc

PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH Oral or spoken communication is much more common than written communication. Therefore, correct pronunciation of English is very important. Ability to speak English fluently and correctly is the most valuable skill in the business world. Most job advertisements clearly mention that the applicants must have excellent command of spoken and written English. That is why so many coaching centers and institutes have sprung up all over the country to teach English conversation. However, there is no shortcut to learning communication skill. Considerable practice in the right environment is necessary for gaining command over spoken and written English. There is a misconception that the English used in business is a special kind of English with a special grammar. English (both spoken and written) is used in business basically for communicating ideas, information and feelings. The main purposes are building rapport, motivating people, to creating goodwill and so on. Conducting and attending meetings, writing summaries and minutes, conducting and attending interviews, writing reports and letters, making presentations, sending telegrams/ telexes/e-mail, using the telephone, videoconferencing, negotiating deals, are some of the important activities that involve communication skills in business. Simple and standard English is effective in business provided it serves the intended purpose.

There is a wide difference between English pronunciation and the system of Hindi pronunciation. In Hindi we use `spelling pronunciation' which means speaking just as we write. But in English this type of pronunciation is not used. For example, the words ending with `ough' (through, rough, plough) are pronounced in very different ways in English. Therefore, the rules of pronunciation as well as the actual practice need to be learnt. Widest possible exposure to the spoken English of well-educated people is necessary. Pronunciation of English words varies from country to country. American, Britishers, Chinese, Japanese, Indians and others pronounce the same words in different ways. A question arises whether one should adopt the pronunciation of B.B.C. or that of the Voice of America. B.B.C. accent is generally regarded as the Standard English. But the American or any other accent is equally acceptable provided one is able to make oneself understood. The pronunciation of the newsreaders on television and radio is supposed to be the most widely understood and can safely be adopted as a model. People often make mistakes in English pronunciation due to lack of complete knowledge about vowels, and consonants. Some vowels and consonants are pronounced one way as single words and differently between words. There are special rules of pronunciation of English language. One must know and apply these rules. We cannot learn the pronunciation of all languages on the basis of their alphabet. Therefore, International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was developed to capture the sounds of all languages. Whenever one consults a dictionary to know the meaning of a word, one first of all sees its transcription in phonetic symbols. English language consists of twenty six letters (A to Z) but there are 44 sounds - 12 pure vowels, 8 diphthongs or vowel glides and 24 consonants. One can easily learn to pronounce the sounds with the help of keywords and examples given after them. However, Indian students find it difficult to pronounce certain sounds. This is so due to their mother tongue and their speaking habits. Indians can overcome this problem by practicing loud pronunciation of pairs of words whose sounds are somewhat similar. Words in Connected Speech Use of words in isolation is known as `citation' form. In this form at least one segment or syllable of the word is stressed without reducing vowel quality. But in connected speech several changes take place. Some words like `to and, etc. are not stressed at all. The vowel may be omitted or reduced to [0]. One or more of the consonants may also be dropped. For example, `and' may be pronounced as [n] or [on]. In connected speech, citation form of words is seldom maintained. Two different forms of pronunciation are used in connected speech. In the strong form the word is stressed e.g., The Librarian wants books and journals". In the weak form a word is not stressed e.g., "she eats bread and butter in breakfast". This change of sound in connected speech is known as `assimilation'. There are some features of English pronunciation which make difference in the meaning of words. These are as follows:

1. Stress: The relative degree of loudness of a word or a part of a word with in an utterance is called stress. There are two broad kinds of stress-word stress and sentence stress. Each word or phrase has one primary stress, e.g. again, bus stop, come back, good bye, go in When word stress brings about change in meaning it is called phonemic, as in the following words: Accent (noun) condition (noun) conduct (noun) Accent (verb) condition (verb) conduct (verb). Every sentence also has at least one stress. But there may be two or more depending on the length of the sentence and the meaning to be conveyed. In a sentence like, "she is doing her homework", the stress is on the `h', of `homework'. But in a sentence like "Where are you going", the stress may be put on "where" or "you". Thus, stress may be put on any word in a sentence depending upon the context or the situation. The rhythm which characterizes English comes from the stressed syllables which are usually longer and louder. 2. Rhythm: In English, the stressed syllables in each word or sentence are rather regularly spaced. While speaking, we try to maintain the same time between one stressed syllable and the next in a word or sentence. The unstressed syllables are pronounced faster in order to maintain rhythm. For example, in the sentence, "what is your name", what and your are unstressed. These are pronounced as `wat' and `yur' respecting. 3. Intonation: The level of pitch or the relative height of the voice in a sentence is called intonation. Rising voice, fading voice and sustained pitch of the voice are three types of intonation. The level of pitch may change from one word to another in the same sentence. That part of a sentence over which the same level of pitch is maintained is known as a tone group. Usually there is a sing tone group in a short sentence. There may be two or more tone groups in a long sentence. The most heavily stressed syllable in a tone group is called `nucleus' or intonation pattern. 4. Pause or Internal Juncture: The pause or internal juncture used within a sentence is a significant feature of the English sound system because it makes a difference in meaning. Let us examine the following sentences: Eye wash I wash In the first sentence, there is a pause between `eye' and `wash'. On the other hand, the pause falls between `I' and `wash' in the second sentence. Thus, sounds, stress, intonation and pause are at the core of the spoken English. In order to acquire better control over this language, more and more practice is necessary. Rhythm in spoken English and intelligibility of speech are necessary. More

you speak English, a better speaker you can become provided you keep in mind all the features given above.

ENGLISH SPELLING As stated earlier, in English words are not pronounced as they are written. Therefore, English spelling appears tricky and one must work hard to learn correct spelling. The following points will help you in learning English speaking. a. b. c. d. e. f. Observe spelling rules Carefully observe the spelling of the words you read Categorize words on the basis of their spelling patterns Remember the words common misspelled Whenever in doubt consult the dictionary Practice again and again to become perfect.

GOOD SPEAKING Good speaking requires two types of skills 1. Courtesy : In order to make your speaking style civilized and attractive, the following words may be used: a) Thanks: You should say "thanks", "thank you" or "thank you very much" to the person who gives you something or helps you in any way. In case you do not want to accept something from a person who offers you the thing, you should say "No, thanks" or "No, thank you". When you help someone and he/she says thanks or thank you, it is desirable to say in reply "that's all right" or "mention not" or "its my pleasure", etc. b) Please: In case you want to talk to somebody say "Please, listen to me". When you want to take something from others say "Please give me your". If you want the help of others say, "Please help me". c) With Great Pleasure: When someone wants your permission for something and you want to give permission say, "By all means" or "With great pleasure" or "0, yes". d) Same to you: If someone wishes you "Happy Christmas", "Happy New Year", etc. say, "Same to you". e) Welcome: In case youre relative, friend or anyone visits you, it is considered proper to say, "Welcome", "You are welcome" or "Most welcome".

f) Please allow me: In case you want to speak in the company of some people or wish to go from there say, "Please allow me". g) Please excuse me: If you want to repent for a mistake or want someone to give you the way, say "please excuse me". h) Sorry: In case you do not want to give the asked thing or help, say "sorry". If you want to say something when others are talking, you should say "sorry to interrupt you" or "sorry to disturb you". i) Pardon: If you want someone to repeat what he said, say "pardon". j) After you: If you want someone to board the bus, car, train before you, "after you" can be said. 2. Knowledge: In order to gain command over spoken English improve youre vocabularies. Practice speaking before your relatives and friends as practice makes a person perfect. Most of the excellent speakers were afraid and nervous when they faced the audience for the first time. So don't feel shy or fearful. Overcome your hesitation and face the audience with courage and conviction. You may not speak well in the few initial occasions. But gradually you will be a better and better speaker. Speaking can be perfected by participating in debates and discussions. Speaking is an art and like any other art it requires regular practice.

MISTAKES IN SPOKEN AND WRITTEN ENGLISH Several mistakes in style and vocabulary mar spoken and written English. These are given below: 1. Jargon: The technical terms used in an inappropriate context are known as jargon. Every profession, science and art has its own technical terms. These terms are accurate and essential tools of communication when used in the appropriate context. But when these are transplanted they become jargon and mar spoken and written English. Business jargon consists of words like `instant', `ultimo', `as per', `proximo', etc. 2. Verbosity: Verbosity implies using more than the needed words. Speaking and writing in a roundabout manner (called circum locution) is one form of verbosity. Quite often people who frequently communicate orally and in writing in the course of their official duties also indulge in verbosity. 3. Tautology: Tautology means the practice of needlessly saying the same thing more than once in different words. Look at the following sentences: (a) Sohan became the sole and only proprietor of a declining business that was not doing well.

(b) The shareholders arrived in the meeting in succession, one after another. (c) The Chairman fixed up the meeting at 5 p.m. in the evening. 4. Pomposity: Pomposity means using difficult, longer and unfamiliar words; using out of the way words and phrases to impress; and using inflated and self-significant language. It makes the message high sounding and conceals the real sense. Look at the following examples: (a) The prolonged state of belligerency occasioned severe labor unrest. (b) The upward trends in the price level situation are escalating to a serious degree (c) Employees must operate within the time parameters obtaining. 5. Colloquialisms: The expressions and grammatical forms used in familiar speech but being inappropriate in formal writing are called colloquialisms. In formal writing and business context, one must be careful. Informal and free expressions like `hold on' are not appropriate in business writing. Contractions like "I'm", abbreviations like "Para", omission of pronouns and verbals sentences should also be avoided in business writing. 6. Slang: Slang refers to words and phrases that are considered outside of Standard English but that are in common colloquial use. Look at the following sentences: (a) That guy's run out a moolah (b) There's this geezer standing at the corner Slang is fashionable in social gatherings. But it is inappropriate in formal writing.

AIDS TO CORRECT BUSINESS WRITING Communication becomes effective when the receiver of the message is able to decode it. This can be possible only when the message is encoded in words and symbols which are familiar to both the sender and the receiver. In most of the business situation simplification of words is necessary due to three reasons: 1. Atypical business person writes at a difficult level either to impress or due to the tendency to be stiff and formal. 2. The writer knows the subject better than the reader; the writer is unlikely to present the words in elementary words that can create a clear meaning in the readers mind. 3. Research studies suggest that writing below the readers level makes the most convenient reading

GUIDELINES REGARDING CHOICE OF WORDS Guidelines regarding the choice of words are given below: 1. Use familiar words: - this is the first golden rule of clear writing. Always use simple and familiar words in place of difficult and unfamiliar ones. The easier and more familiar the words, the better the understanding of the written message. For e.g.Simple (Use them) Pompous (Avoid them) Inform See acquaint visualize

2. Use single words in the place of circumlocution: -sometimes people use more words than are needed; this will cause wastage of words but creates difficulty for the reader. For e.g.Single (Use them) Long Phrases (Avoid them) If Now in the event that at the present time

3. Use concrete words: It is advisable to use exact or specific words in place of abstract one. Concrete words crate a sharp and clear meaning in the readers mind for e.g.Concrete words (Use them) Abstract words (Avoid them) MD Chair Administration furniture

4. Use short words in place of long expressions: long words appear hard and do not easily pass through our mental filter. When the writer use long words he crates problem of comprehension for the reader and the message is unlikely to have the desired effect. For e.g.

Short Words (Use them) Long Words (Avoid them) Often Final action in considerable number of cases definitive action

5. Use strong words: like people, words have personality. Some words are dull and weak. These words are likely to hold the interest of the reader. These make the message forceful and create an immediate impact on the readers mind for e.g.Strong Words (Use them) Weak Words (Avoid them) Slump Tycoon period of decline in business a very successful businessman

6. Avoid double entry: do not use the phrases containing two words which convey the same meaning. For e.g. Simple (Use them) Double Entry Words (Avoid them) Fact Result actual fact end result

7. use of verbs in place of nouns: verb is stronger than noun verb is the action word and, therefore commands better interest adjectives and adverbs are weak words should be avoided. These words also increase length and distract the readers attention. For e.g.Verbs (Use them) Nouns (Avoid them) Appear Perform appearance performance

8. Use active over passive voice: verbs in active voice are preferable to the verbs in the passive voice because active voice verbs make the writing lively and vigorous. In the active voice the subject does the action where as in the passive voice it receives the action. FOR e.g.-

A.V. A committee will discuss your proposal P.V. Your proposal will be discussed by the committee.

9. Use correct idioms: idiom refers to the way in which ideas are expressed in a language. A good writer needs to be familiar with the use of idioms and should use them correctly. For e.g.Correct idiom (Use them) Faulty idiom (Avoid them) Independent of Comply with Independent from comply to

10. Use of technical words with caution: every profession and trade has its own special vocabulary called jargon. It is quite normal and logical to use the technical words while communicating with people in your specialized field. When writing to people outside the professions avoid technical words. Use Lay persons language. For e.g.Accountant generally uses words such as accounts receivable and accounts payable while writing to another accountant. But if he is writing to the people outside his profession then he will use phrases such as- how much customers owe to the firm. And how much the firm owes to its suppliers. 11. Use Saxon words in place of romance: Saxon words are British in origin whereas romance words are words are derived from Latin word. For e.g.Saxon words romance words Living Dead body animate corpse

12. Use appropriate synonym: Many pairs of words have similar meanings but differences in their finer shades of meaning make the differences in writing. GUIDELINES FOR SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION Some guidelines for constructing good sentences are given below: 1. Keep sentences short- Short sentences are more clear and readable. Long sentences, on the other hand are hard to read and understand. Human mind has limited ability to handle complex information. When too much information is presented in a single sentence, the

reader requires repeated readings and his mind must work hard to grasp the message. When a sentence runs beyond 30 words, it is better to break it up into two sentences. 2. Limit the contents of a sentence- Keeping sentence content limited is one way to make short sentences. In order to limit sentence content, it is necessary to distribute our thought units over separate statements. However, in some cases thoughts should be combined into one sentence. When thoughts are closely related or when content or when content is to be deemphasized, there is good reason to combine sentences. 3. Economize on words- Another way to keep sentences short is to keep the minimum number of words in a sentence. It is more difficult to express yourself in few words than in more words. Continuous effort is needed for learning to use words economically. 4. Avoid surplus words- Never use words which contribute nothing to the meaning of a sentence. In some cases the elimination of surplus words that add no meaning may require total recasting of the sentence. For e.g.- we can use management ordered executive type chairs inspite of management ordered chairs that are of the executive type. 5. Avoid unnecessary repetition- Repeating words unnecessarily make sentence construction awkward. This needs to be avoided. Repeat only when you desire special effect or emphasis. For e.g. in my opinion I think he deserves promotion. is a sentence in which in my opinion and I think convey the same meaning and there is no point of using both of them. 6. Avoid cluttering phrases- quite often our writing contains cluttering phrases. It is better to use single words and simpler phrases in place of crowded ones. The shorter substitutes make our writing easier to read and understand. 7. Emphasize the right words- Determine the importance of every word in your sentence and give due emphasis on every word. Short and simple sentences carry better emphsis on content than long ones. 8. Maintain sentence unity- In a good sentence, all its parts should be properly combined to form one clear thought. Unity in sentence construction is lost due to three reasons: a. Unrelated ideas b. Excessive details c. Illogical construction. 9. Follow the rules of grammar- Clear and effective writing requires that we follow established rules of grammar. These rules are based on custom and logical relationship. They determine the meaning and their violation leads to miscommunication. Use of grammar relates to use of pronouns, pepositions, and sequence of tenses, subject-verb agreement, and punctuation and so on.

GUIDELINES FOR STRUCTURING PARAGRAPH 1. Keep the paragraph short- A short paragraph is clear and more effective than a long one. Short paragraphs emphasize the beginning and ending of each item covered. They add emphasis to the facts presented and are more appealing to the eye. Full page paragraph in print or handwriting appears heavy and dull to the reader. 2. Maintain paragraph unity- A good paragraph must have unity. It can be achieved by building the paragraph around a single topic or idea. Only one major topic or idea and the supporting details should be included in a paragraph. 3. Make effective use of topic sentence- The sentence that expresses the main idea in the paragraph is known as topic sentence. Generally, it is written in the very beginning of the paragraph. The details that support or elaborate on the main idea are built around the topic sentence in a logical way. 4. Avoid unnecessary detail- A good paragraph contains only the necessary information. The writer should keep in mind the needs of the reader than the information at his command while designing the paragraph. 5. Make the paragraph move forward- An effective paragraph is one that moves forward through logically connected sentences, an orderly succession of single thoughts makes the paragraph move forward. Clarity of thoughts, logical arrangement of ideas, a smooth writing style and proficiency in designing sentences are helpful. History of Communication Communication is an intercourse by words, letters, symbols or messages; and is a way that one organization member shares meanings and understandings with another Koontz and O. Donnell Louis Communication is the sum of all things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another; it involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. Nonverbal: Oral: Written: Early writing: Egyptian hieroglyphics: Phoenician alphabet: Book printing in China: 1,50,000 years 55,000 years 6,000 years 4,000 BC 3,000 BC 1,500 to 2,000 BC 600 BC

Book printing in Europe: 1,400 AD

Communicating Meaning Physiology and Appearance: Paralanguage: Language: 55 percent 38 percent 7 percent

Latin Word Communis common Sharing of that is making common ideas, opinions or information. W. H. Newman and C.F. Summer Jr. have very simply defined communication as An exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. COMMUNICATION IS THE ART OF TRANSMITTING INFORMATION, IDEAS AND ATTITUDES FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER. COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF MEANINGFUL INTERACTION AMONG HUMAN BEINGS. Communication is the exchange of symbolic information between humans who are aware of each others direct or mediated presence. This information is transmitted interpreted received on a conscious as well as a subconscious level.- Frank Oomkes DEFINITION COMMUNICATION Communication has been derived from the word communis which means to share. It is defined as a process of sharing information, ideas and feelings so as to create mutual understanding and cooperation among people. ACC. TO KEITH DAVIS Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. NATURE OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 1. Two way process: this process is incomplete until the response or reaction based on proper understanding is available. Feedback is an essential part of communication. 2. Communication is an ongoing process: When communication is absent human activity cease to exist 3. Communication is essential in all types of organization and at all levels of management that is it is pervasive in nature. 4. The basic purpose of communication is mutual understanding. 5. Communication is much more than words. The tone and facial expressions often carry a greater meaning than words. We can communicate a lot through signs, symbols and gestures. 6. org. communication consists of a flow of messages through several networks. There are the networks for problem solving, workflow, information sharing and socializing.

7. Communication is a dynamic process. It incorporates the changing shape of the participants and the environment. Changes in the moods and thinking of the sender and the receiver of the message influence the effectiveness of communication. 8. Communication is a goal oriented process. It can be effective if the sender and receiver both are aware of the goal of communication and there is congruence of the goals. 9. Knowledge derived from various disciplines is used in communication. Anthropology, psychology political science has provided insights to make communication effective.

REASONS FOR GROWING NEED FOR BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 1. Increase in size: A large business firm today employs thousands of people and has factories or offices in different parts of the world. The head office of the company must always be in close touch with branch offices. 2. Growing specialization: sound communication is essential for ensuring mutual cooperation and understanding between different departments. Otherwise the organization cannot function smoothly. 3. Technological advancements: Rapid changes in science and technology lead to obsolescence of technology and knowledge. In order to upgrade or modernize technology, management must persuade employees to accept new technology. 4. Cut throat competition: Liberalization and globalization have resulted in severe competition between public sector, private sector and foreign banks. Moreover, banks today have also to compete with various financial institutions. 5. Trade union movements: In banking sector, employee unions are very strong and powerful. Management must consult union leaders on several matters. Regular exchange of information and ideas between managers and union officials helps to maintain healthy relations between them. 6. Human relations: Participation of employees in the decision making process and other means of communication help to develop among employees a sense of belonging and loyalty to the organization. 7. Public relations: society expects more and more from managers. Business has to keep government, distributors, suppliers, investors and other sections of society well informed about its contributions to society. 8. Personal asset: Communication skills are essential for success in every job. Managers are required to deliver speeches, write documents and conduct interviews.

PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Communication is a process which involves a sender of message and a receiver. Communication is complete only when the receiver is able to interpret the message as desired by the sender and responds to it Communication is regarded as two way process.

SENDER

MESSAGE

ENCODING NOISE

CHANNEL

FEEDBACK

DECODING

RECEIVER

COMMUNICATION PROCESS 1. SENDER- The person who conveys the message is known as communicator or sender. By initiating the message, the communicator attempts to achieve understanding and change in the behavior of the receiver. 2. MESSAGE- It is the subject matter of any communication. It may involve any fact, idea or information. It must exist in the mind of communicator if communication is to take place. 3. ENCODING- The sender of information organizes his idea into a series of symbols which he feels will communicate to the intended receiver. 4. CHANNEL- The communicator has to choose the channel for sending the information. It is the link between the receiver and the sender. There are formal and informal channels. 5. RECEIVER- The person who receives the message is called receiver. The communication process is incomplete without the existence of receiver of the message. 6. DECODING-The receiver translates the message into words for the purpose of understanding. Decoding helps the receiver to drive meaning from the message. 7. FEEDBACK- The reaction or response of the receiver is known as feedback. Feedback is the receivers response to the message send by the sender. Feedback may be as simple as a phone call from the prospective client expressing interest in the business proposal or as complex as a written brief on a complicated point of law sent from a attorney to a judge. 8. NOISE- It means any interference that occurs between the transmission and reception of the message. It spoils the quality of communication. The success of communication is proportionate to the control of noise at different stages of the communication process.

OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION The main objectives of communication are discussed as: 1. Exchange of information- The most important purpose of communication is the exchange of information with others for e.g. - in a business organization, the mgmt uses communication to keep the employees informed about the goals, policies and rules. Similarly an organization communicates with outsiders to provide them information about products, policies, contribution to social responsibility etc. 2. Issue of orders- Another purpose of communication is to issue orders and instructions to the employees. An order is directive to do something and an instruction indicates how to carry out the order. An order or instruction is enforceable because the superior has got power to use the sanctions against a subordinate who refuses to carry out an order or do so in an appropriate manner. 3. Advice and Counseling- The manager often give advice to their colleagues and subordinates on both personal and official matters. Advice involves personal opinion of the advisor and so may be subjective whereas information is factual and objective. The purpose of offering advice is to influence the behavior of the other party. It is generally offered in a face to face contact. 4. Persuasion- Communication is aimed at persuading others for a favorable response. Persuasion means making efforts to change or influence the behavior and attitude of others take an example from marketing and finance, the people engaged in persuading one another in the context of organizational goals. 5. Suggestion- It is supposed to be a very mild or subtle form of communication .It may move both ways-downward and upward. Downward suggestion enjoys one great advantage over the other means of communication like advice or order. Advice comes from an expert order comes from a higher authority. In either case, the recipient is slightly is at his discretion, so a suggestion is usually welcome. Under an organized system, suggestion boxes are placed at some convenient place in the office or factory. 6. Education- Business firms are frequently use effective methods of communication to educate workers and consumers. They train and direct their employees for the greater productivity and educate consumers about the quality and uses of products. 7. Motivation- Motivation is the process of inducing people to work hard for achieving organizational goals. Communication is a very effective means of motivation of people by recognizing their talents and achievements and sharing ideas with them. Employees need to be informed about the organization and its progress. 8. Raising morale- Morale reflects the attitudes of employees towards organizational policies and management. Good communication is intended to mould the attitudes of employees and raise their morale by creating an atmosphere of openness and mutual trust.

9. Warning- Warning involves informing about the unpleasant and unfavorable consequences, if certain course of action is not changed; such course of action may be negligence, mishandling material and machinery, misbehaving with the others. The purpose of warning is to ask the employee to abide by the rules and regulations and work with dedication and discipline. Warning can be general or particular.

ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION According to Henry Mintzberg, managers perform three major roles INTERPERSONAL INFORMATIONAL DECISIONAL

Communication helps managers in performing each of these roles effectively. Its importance can be better understood from the following points: 1. Planning- Participation of executives is a pre condition for getting the task done. This can be secured only through interaction and communication. Further to be realistic planning should be based on accurate information. 2. Decision making- Communication helps management in arriving at vital decisions. I f the right type of information is not available at the proper time due to lack of communication; it may not be possible for the management to consider all the pros and cons before taking a decision. 3. Brings coordination- Communication helps in synchronizing the activities of different individuals and groups to bring about unity of action. Liaison men who are employed to coordinate work of different individuals in the organization need to evolve communication between different parts of the organization. 4. Better administration- It is important in the performance of all managerial functions. Planning which is one of the primary functions of management requires detailed communication among the managerial and other personnel. Moreover effective communication is important in executing the plans and then controlling the activities with the help of feedback information. 5. Creations of mutual trust and confidence- An effective communication system help the manager to convey his ideas, views, decisions, suggestions and feelings to the employees. On the other hand, the employees also get the opportunity to express their feelings and communicate their ideas and reactions. 6. Motivation of employees- motivation of employees largely depends upon the effectiveness of communication. Sharing of information with employees helps management

to secure their willing cooperation. Discussion on matters of common concerns between managers and employees is a source of satisfaction for the employees as it signifies recognition of their importance. 7. Building higher employees morale- Communication in industries is the basis for morale building. Under an effective system of communication, it is quiet convenient for the employees to bring their grievances to the notice of the management and get a proper adjustment. 8. Binding force- Effective communication induces the human resources in the organization to develop a spirit of cooperation and produces the will to do work. In this way, effective communication binds them together and creates the spirit of commitment among them. 9. Facilitates effective control- controlling is an important aspect of managing. It helps the managers to measure and evaluate the performance of their subordinates and provide them feedback on their performance. Communication helps in control by transmitting information about the performance of the subordinates to the manager.

CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION A channel of communication is the path through which information is transmitted throughout the organization. It represents various contacts or linking points which exist between different individuals or departments in the organization. Channels of communication are divided into two categories namely: 1. FORMAL 2. INFORMAL FORMAL COMMUNICATION Formal communication refers to the official communication which takes place following the chain of command in the organization. The organization structure reflecting superior subordinate relationship determines the flow of formal communication. Thus, the scalar chain of authority established by the organization provides the channels for all officials communication between the members of the organization and parties outside the organization such as govt., customers. According to the direction of flow, formal communication may be of four types: 1. Downward 2. Upward 3. Horizontal 4. Diagonal

INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Communication between individuals and groups which are not officially recognized is known as informal communication. It consists of exchange of ideas and information resulting from social interaction among the members of an organization. The flow of communication cuts across the official lines of communication. Informal communication is known as grapevine. GRAPEVINE The network or pathway of informal communication is known as grapevine. The use of grapevine is said to have originated during the US civil war when the telegraph lines were strung loosely between trees and soldiers said the wires resembled a grapevine. Messages that were difficult to decipher were said to have come through the grapevine. In the organizational context, the communication is called grapevine because the origin and direction of the flow of informally conveyed messages cannot be easily traced. Grapevine cut across formal channels of communication. Grapevine has the following features: 1. It transmits information in every direction throughout the organization laterally and diagonally. 2. Grapevine, being unrestricted by formal policies and procedures, transmits information rapidly. 3. It is selective with regard to the person who receives the information. 4. It extends beyond the formal hierarchy system of an organization. 5. It generally occurs orally. It arises out of social interactions among people. 6. It is based on people rather than task. 7. It does not follow a fixed pattern as in the case with formal communication.

ADVANTAGES OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION 1. Orderly flow of information: such communication is systematic and ensures orderly flow of information and ideas. 2. Identified source: It can be easily located. 3. Authentic information: It is an officially recognized path of communication. Whatever information flow in whatever direction, it is presumed to be authentic. 4. Expensive: As it requires lot of administrative work and use of formal channels. 5. Justification of authority: It provides support to the authority of superiors over subordinates.

6. Answerability for actions: Responsibility of the actions taken on the basis of any formal communication can be easily fixed. 7. Control: It is facilitated by formal communication providing information about work performance.

DISADVANTAGES OF FORMAL COMMUNICATION 1. Time consuming: This type of communication follows the scalar chain of authority and so is a slow flow moving process. When it is routed through more than one authority level, it takes too much time. 2. Lack of personal touch: Formal communication is mostly conveyed in an impersonal manner. Personal warmth and involvement may be lacking. 3. Distortion: Accurate information may not be transmitted in a view of the likelihood of unfavorable effects of the message or report, or to avoid criticism. Even the information may be distorted in the process of transmission through different levels in the organization.

ADVANTAGES OF INFORMAL COMMUNICATION 1. Social relations- It consists of the network of persons to person relations. It therefore gives opportunity to people to form social groups and communicate with each other. 2. Need satisfaction- It satisfies an important urge of people to know what is happening in other parts of the organization and be in the know of latest information. 3. Speed- It is very useful when information is required to be communicated very quickly. 4. Avenue of expression- During periods of uncertainty, people can express their fears and apprehensions more freely through the grapevine. 5. Feedback- Informal communication is very fast .It can be used by managers to get quick feedbacks from the subordinates. 6. Supporting the formal channel- It can be used to supplement the formal channel of communication. 7. Better human relations- Since informal channels cut across official positions and hierarchical relationships; they develop healthy human relations amongst people in the organization.

DISADVANTAGES OF INFORMAL COMMUNICATION 1. Incomplete information- There is occasions when the grapevine does not carry complete information 2. Distortion- Information communicated through the grapevine may get distorted. People add their personal interpretations and thus distort the facts. 3. Unreliability- Informal communication is generally unreliable. 4. Leakage- Confidential information often leaks out through informal communication. 5. Lack of authenticity- Informal communication spreads by word of mouth. It may not be supported by tangible facts. 6. Problem in fixing responsibility- Origin of information flow cannot be ascertained in this channel.

NETWORKS OF COMMUNICATION A network of communication represents the pattern of contacts among the members of an organization. It mainly depends upon the nature of channels of communication and the number of persons involved in the communication process. There may be five types of communication networks in the organization i.e. single strand, wheel, circular free flow and y network. These are discussed below: 1. Single strand or chain network: As shown in the above figure, one person communicates with one person only. This network is very slow, because the message flows in a direct vertical line along the scalar chain of command. It can flow from top to bottom and bottom to top in a line. 2. Wheel communication network: The wheel network represents the communication pattern under which the subordinates can communicate with and through one manager. It is called a wheel network since all communication pas through one the manager who acts as a central authority like the hub of a wheel. 3. Circular communication network: In case of circular network, the message moves in circle. Each person can communicate with his two neighborhood colleagues only. The main disadvantage of circular network is that communication is very slow. 4. Free flow communication network: Under such an organizational design, there is no restriction on the flow of communication. Everyone is free to communicate with anyone and everyone in the organization. This network is informal and unstructured. In fact, it is very flexible.

5. Y communication network: This network is centralized with information flows along the predetermined paths. Such network might be appropriate for simple operations requiring little interaction among the members of the group. Various networks emerge in practice as most of the members participate in more than one network. For instance, the financial manager may be at the centre of a chain as well as active in the circle and wheel networks. Thus, various combinations of networks are used in modern organization.

FORMAL COMMUNICATION NETWORK

Circle Network Chain Network Wheel Network Y Network

Informal Communication Network


Single strand Gossip network Probability chain Cluster chain

Characteristics of Informal Communication People oriented It flow in all direction Fastest communication Source cannot be identified. Informal communication Networks:

DIFFERENCE B/W FORMAL AND INFORMAL

Formal Official chain of command Slow moving process Easy to pinpoint the responsibility It is task oriented Work related matters It is orderly and systematic It flows in vertical, horizontal and diagonal It can be oral and written The message is accurate and authentic

Informal Independent of authority relations Carries messages at a fast speed. Not possible to fix the responsibility It is people oriented Work related as well as social messages Unsystematic Can flow in every possible direction It is mostly oral Cannot be considered as authentic

RUMOUR Rumour is grapevine information which is communicated without authentic standards of evidence being present. It is thus an untrue part of grapevine. It can by chance be correct but generally is incorrect; so it is presumed to be undesirable. Rumours originate for a number of reasons .The rumour gets twisted and distorted when it passes from one mouth to another. The message gets its own head, tail and wings on its journey and swells, unproportionately to an exaggerated shape.

DIRECTION OR FLOW OF COMMUNICATION From the view point of the direction or flow of information, communication may be either vertical or horizontal. Vertical communication may move both downward as well as upward. Horizontal communication is also known as lateral or sideward communication. Besides, there may be diagonal communication in organizations which may cut across the vertical lines in the organization structure. Thus, on the basis of flow of information, communication may be classified as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Downward communication Upward communication Horizontal communication Diagonal communication

DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION It represents the flow of information from the top level of the lower levels of the organization. The purpose of the downward communication is to communicate policies, procedures, programmes and objectives, and to issue orders and instructions to the subordinates. A major part of the formal communication takes the form of downward communication. It can take place through verbal or written orders and instructions, notices, circulars, letters, memos, posters, publications, group meetings, etc. The objectives of downward communication are as under: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To give the instructions about what to do and how to do. To explain organizational policies, programmes and procedures. To know how effectively a person is performing his job. To motivate employees to improve their performance. To train subordinates in performing their jobs.

MODES OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION 1. Handbooks and pamphlets: To provide an introduction of the organization to the new comers, handbooks and pamphlets are used during the hiring of workers and other staff or during orientation processes. 2. Posters and bulletins: Information concerning the firm employees is often communicated on posters and bulletin boards. Indeed some workers may not be able to read them. 3. House journal: A great deal of information regarding the organization can be communicated through these newsletters. They often contain the information about new products, about its policies. 4. Direct mail: When the top management wants to communicate matters of importance it can use direct mail intended to employees. 5. Annual reports: Most organizations also bring out annual reports for their shareholders. These reports highlight information about new plants, new products, company finances. 6. Special meetings: The management may schedule special meetings with the employees to explain them the new policies and procedures and to obtain feedback from them. MERITS OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION 1. Mission and goals- It informs the employees about the organization mission, goals and how they should contribute their best to accomplish the goals. 2. Plans and policies- It provides the employees with information regarding organizational plans and policies. 3. Duty and authority- It facilitates the employees in knowing what is expected of them and the extent of their authority. 4. Job satisfaction- It increases employees job satisfaction by communicating them about their better performance. LIMITATIONS OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION 1. Distortion- In big-sized organizations, information flows through a number of layers. It is quite possible that by the time it reaches the lowest level in the organizational hierarchy, the message received is different from what was sent. 2. Incomplete information- sometimes managers withhold a part of information with them and transmit incomplete information so that subordinates continue to remain dependent upon them for requisite information. 3. Time consuming- If the organization hierarchy has too many levels, it takes too long for information to reach the person concerned. 4. Filtration of the process- Oral information often gets lost in transit. A part of the information is retained at one level and filled up by some unintended information at

another level. Researchers have shown that in some cases, information up to about 80 percent gets lost on the way.

How to make downward communication effective: 1. 2. 3. 4. Plan your communication Remain informed Use right channel Decentralize

UPWARD COMMUNICATION It signifies the flow of information from the lower levels to the higher levels of the organizations. The purpose of upward communication is to keep the superiors informed about the progress of the work and difficulties faced in executing the orders, suggest measures for improvement. Upward communication can take the form of activity reports, suggestions, recommendations, and grievances. This will help management in taking the steps to overcome resistance to change on the part of workers and to increase the morale of the employees. Upward communication may take the form of either written communication or verbal communication.

MODES OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION 1. Suggestion system- Many firms have formal suggestion systems. They provide for the suggestion boxes for putting in suggestions by the workers. They encourage workers to fill in suggestion form regularly. 2. Grievance procedure- Some organizations evolve a systematic procedure through which employees complain matters affecting them.

3. Open door policy- It is an established channel that allows workers to bypass immediate supervisors and talk to the top executives in regard to important matters without fear of reprisal. The communication channel reduces tension among subordinates and improves trust. 4. Questionnaire- Sometimes, anonymous questionnaires are given to workers to fill in with a view to identify problem areas in the organization, when a large number of workers rate a firm low in a given area, the mgmt should deal with it immediately and find solutions thereof.

MERITS OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION 1. Feedback- It helps managers in receiving feedback from the lower levels that helps him in carrying out the controlling function 2. Creative ideas- It provides the managers with creative ideas and suggestions, which probably they could not have thought of. 3. Better relations- It strengthens superior- subordinates relationships and improves harmonious industrial relations. 4. Overcome resistance to change- It overcomes resistance to change on the part of employees as they are allowed to present their fears and apprehensions about the same before the management and obtain necessary clarification and assurance. 5. Increased motivation- When employees know their grievances, ideas and suggestions are being considered by top managers, they feel morally committed to their work.

LIMITATIONS OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION 1. Fears and apprehensions- Subordinates do not always report the matters upward the way they want, for the fear of being reprimanded by their bosses. 2. Filtration- A substantial part of information gets filtered when it flows upward. During upward transmission each level filters that part of information which it feels will present an unfavorable picture to their superiors. 3. Time consuming- Too many levels in the official chain of command results in delayed transmission from the lower levels to the top level. 4. Inattention by superiors- Sometimes, the superiors do not attach any importance to the upward communication they may even discourage the subordinates to speak to higher levels.

5. Low morale- The employees feel morally depressed when their grievances and suggestions to the higher authorities do not get the required attention.

HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION It refers to the transmission of information among persons of the same level and status. It generally takes place among departmental heads who are responsible for different functional areas of the business. It is also known as lateral or sideward communication. Horizontal communication is essential for achieving coordination in the enterprise. The methods used in this communication are generally limited. The main purpose of this communication is to secure coordination among various departments. The objectives of this communication are as follows: 1. To coordinate among various individuals or departments. 2. To solve problems which involve the efforts of various employees of the department. 3. To resolve the conflicts. 4. To exchange the information. 5. To promote social relations.

Horizontal communication can take place between 1. Members of a particular work group. 2. Members of a different work groups 3. Members of different departments operating at same level. 4. Members of line and staff.

This communication can be both oral and written. It is more of informal nature. If a departmental head needs some information from another departmental head, he may get this by ringing him up directly. Inspite of presence of hierarchy in any large industrial organization, it is possible to accelerate exchange of information if the mgmt recognizes and encourages cross contacts which cut across the organizational lines. MERITS OF HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION 1. It speeds up the flow of work in the organization. 2. It facilitates problem solving amongst members at the same level and brings about coordination. 3. It helps in reviewing activities assigned to people working at identical positions. 4. It develops mutual trust and confidence. 5. It relieves top managers of the burden of solving problem of the lower levels if they can manage to solve them on their own.

LIMITATION OF HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION It suffers from following limitations. 1. Lack of knowledge of other functional areas 2. Personal likes and dislikes amongst members of different work groups can obstruct free flow of information among them. 3. Differences in perceptions and attitudes of functional heads can be counterproductive in this communication.

DIAGONAL COMMUNICATION It cuts across different functions and levels in an organization. When a supervisor in the credit department communicates directly with a regional marketing manager who is not only in a different dept. but also at a higher level in the organization, diagonal communication is said to take place. In some situations, by passing vertical and horizontal channels expedites action and prevents others from being used merely as conduits between sender and receiver. .Also the increased use of electronic mail systems in organization has made diagonal communication much easier. It helps in increasing the efficiency of organizational activities as every information cannot be passed through vertical lines of communication. Best use of diagonal communication can be made by ensuring that cross relationships in cordial in nature and that subordinates keep their line superiors informed of their interactions with people of other departments. The major problem with the diagonal communication is that it departs from the normal chain of command. To minimize communication gaps, most diagonal communications also encompass a vertical communication to superiors or subordinates who may have been by passed.

MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION Communication by using language is called verbal communication. However, it is also possible to communicate without using language for example posters, signs, signals, sounds etc. can also convey the meanings. Communication through symbols is called non- verbal communication. Therefore there are two media of communication. Specifically; 1. Verbal Communication a. Oral Communication b. Written Communication 2. Non verbal Communication

VERBAL COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION BY THE USE OF WORDS I.E. LANGUAGE IS CALLED VERBAL COMMUNICATION. IT IS OF TWO TYPES: 1. ORAL COMMUNICATION 2. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

ORAL COMMUNICATION IT INVOLVES EXCHANGE OF MESSAGE WITH THE HELP OF SPOKEN WORDS. ORAL COMMUNICATION TAKES PLACE. 1. BY FACE TO FACE CONTACTS 2. THROUGH MECHANICAL DEVICES

FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION It is the most natural way of transmitting the message. Oral orders, face to face interviews, lectures, group discussions, social gatherings, etc. are frequently used in our daily life.

Advantages of Face to Face Communication 1. Listeners attention: compared with written or telephonic, face to face communication provides the advantages of exercising control the listeners attention. 2. Effect of facial expression: Another advantage is that the speaker can make it more vivid and forceful by conveying through facial expression, tone and pitch of the voice. 3. Suitable for discussions: Face to face communication is most suitable for discussions where instantaneous feedback is essential as in the case of negotiation, counseling.
DISADVANTAGES OF FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION 1. DIFFICULTY IN ARRANGING PERSONAL CONTACTS: THIS COMMUNICATION SUFFERS FROM THE LIMITATION OF ARRANGING PERSONAL CONTACTS. IF THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS ARE WORKING AT DIFF. PLACES IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO ARRANGE THEIR PERSONAL CONTACTS. MOREOVER IT IS AN EXPENSIVE AND TIME CONSUMING PROCESS. 2. INATTENTIVE LISTENING: FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION NOT ONLY THE ABILITY OF THE COMMUNICATOR MATTERS BUT ALSO THE LISTENING SKILLS OF THE LISTENER PLAYS IMPORTANT ROLE. 3. UNPRODUCTIVE IN UNHEALTHY RELATIONS: IT SOMETIMES PROVES COUNTER PRODUCTIVE WHEN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PARTIES ARE UNHEALTHY. IT MAY FURTHER LEAD TO CONFLICT AND CONFRONTATION AMONG THEM.

COMMUNICATION THROUGH ELECTRONIC DEVICES 1. Telephones: It is the most commonly used in modern offices for both external as well as internal communication. For internal communication extensions are used which are controlled through a switch board, or console. 2. Intercom system: It is used for oral communication. It is generally used when sufficient telephone extensions are not possible. Generally intercom equipment has an automatic switchboard which allows the extension users to dial other extension users direct. Two way intercoms is a valuable time saver because instant consultation is possible without traveling between various points in the office. 3. Electronic paging system: This system is used by enterprises like departmental stores, insurance companies, hospitals, etc, where the top executives normally move from one place to another in the premises of the organization. Cellular phones: It is cordless mobile communication device which facilitates two way communications in a wide geographical area. The caller need not know the location of the

person being called. He can reach anyone, anywhere at any time by cellular phone. Here a message, oral or written, can go to the people anywhere in the world.

ADVANTAGES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION: 1. IT IS MORE EFFECTIVE BECAUSE OF DIRECT CONTACT BETWEEN THE COMMUNICATOR AND THE COMMUNICATE. 2. IT HELPS IN GETTING QUICK RESPONSE FROM THE RECEIVERS. 3. IT CAN BE MADE MORE EFFECTIVE BY SUPPORTING THEM WITH GESTURES AND DEMONSTRATIONS. 4. IT IS FASTER AS COMPARED TO THE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION. 5. IT PROVIDES GREATER FLEXIBILITY. 6. IT IS RELATIVELY LESS EXPENSIVE AS COMPARED TO WRITTEN COMMUNICATION.

LIMITATIONS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION: 1. NOT EFFECTIVE WHEN COMMUNICATOR AND COMMUNICATE ARE TALKING FROM A LONG DISTANCE WITH THE HELP OF A MECHANICAL DEVICE. 2. IT IS NOT FEASIBLE WHEN THE INFORMATION TO BE CONVEYED IS VERY LENGTHY. 3. IT IS NOT POSSIBLE WHEN PARTIES TO COMMUNICATION ARE AT DISTANT PLACES AND NO MEANS OF COMMUNICATION IS AVAILABLE. 4. IT MAY GIVE RISE TO CONFLICTS IN CERTAIN SITUATION BECAUSE OF IMMEDIATE RESPONSE FROM THE LISTENER.

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Written communication is transmitted by written words in the form of letters, memos, circulars, bulletins, reports, instructions cards, manuals, magazine and handbook. Written communication can take place through the following modes: 1. Letters: communication through letters is very old method. Under this, the message is transmitted from the sender to be contacted; notice is one of the best methods. It is the most common method of mass communication.

2. Notice: When many people within an organization are to be contacted, notice is one of the best methods. It is the most common method of mass communication. 3. Memo: It is an informal message between members of a company, pertaining to routine matters. 4. Telegram: For contacting people at distances places telegrams can be used. Since it gives an impression of urgency to the receiver, immediate response is possible. 5. Telex: It is a device which has a facility o type out the messages simultaneously on the senders machine and the receivers machine. It is the channel for sending as well as receiving messages. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION 1. Written communication is used to issue specific instructions and orders to the sub ordinates. 2. Written communication is the only way when the messages are quite lengthy and it is not possible to convey all the points through oral communication. 3. These messages are more carefully formulated than oral communication. That is why they are more clear and specific. 4. This is cheaper means of communication. When the parties are situated at far places. 5. Response in written communication is well thought out. LIMITATIONS OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION 1. It is more expensive. 2. Less scope left for amending the document. 3. If it is poorly drafted it can create misunderstanding. It gives rise to queries for clarification and elaboration which lead to further loss of time and money. 4. Lack of feelings and emotions. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION Communication need not to be verbal all the time in order to convey a message. It can also be non verbal without words. For e.g.- through a smile we can communicate and convey the meanings. Communication without using words is called non verbal communication. Non verbal communication is often used to supplement verbal communication by highlighting or reinforcing parts of a verbal message.

IMPORTANCE OF NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. For conveying ideas related to geography, maps, charts, graphs, etc. are absolutely necessary. 2. For traffic signs and signals, non verbal communication is absolutely essential because there must be instant response from the drivers. 3. Every human being normally responds quickly to colors and pictures or sounds than to any language. 4. The only method to convey important to the illiterate people is through non verbal symbols.

TYPES OF NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Facial Expression Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world. 2. Gestures Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture. 3. Paralinguistic Paralinguistic refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest. 4. Body Language and Posture Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 1970's, but popular media have focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg-crossing, especially after the publication of Julius Fast's book Body Language. While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes, research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed. 5. Proxemics

People often refer to their need for "personal space," which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet. 6. Eye Gaze Looking, staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest and attraction. 7. Haptics Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and early childhood. Harry Harlow's classic monkey study demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes development. Baby monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behavior and social interaction. Touch can be used to communicate affection, familiarity, sympathy and other emotions. 8. Appearance Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can evoke different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgments and interpretations. Just think of all the subtle judgments you quickly make about someone based on his or her appearance. These first impressions are important, which is why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers. LISTENING LISTENING refers to process of receiving, comprehending and retaining the message conveyed by the sender. Listening is more complex than merely hearing. It is a process that consists of four stages: sensing and attending, understanding and interpreting, remembering, and responding. The stages occur in sequence but we are generally unaware of them. Good managers have always sought as listened to the opinions of their staff and key subordinates. A good manager needs to listen at least as he needs to talk. Too many people fail to realize that real communication goes in both the directions.

In order to thrive in highly competitive rapidly changing environment employees must learn to listen well. Listening and hearing should not be confused at one and the same. Hearing takes place when sound waves strike the ears, but listening is more than hearing, getting meaningful understanding out of the message. Listening means receiving a message in a thoughtful manner that leads to an understanding of a meaning in the message. There are four elements of good listening: 1. attention--the focused perception of both visual and verbal stimuli 2. hearing--the physiological act of 'opening the gates to your ears' 3. understanding--assigning meaning to the messages received 4. remembering--the storing of meaningful information In addition to the four elements, there are also four levels of listening: acknowledging, sympathizing, paraphrasing, and empathizing. The four levels of listening range from passive to interactive when considered separately. However, the most effective listeners are able to project all four levels at the same time. That is, they demonstrate that they are paying attention and making an effort to understand and evaluate what it is they are hearing, and they complete the process by demonstrating through their responses their level of comprehension and interest in what the speaker is saying. IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING 1. Most frequent activity: It is the most frequent activity of the human being as well as the important event in the communication process. About one third of the communication is spent in speaking, writing and reading. It is not exaggerating to state that more than 50% of the working of an executive is spent in listening to someone. 2. Play vital role in career success: It plays a very vital role in the career success whether as a general manager, sale person, personnelmanager.etc. It helps a salesman to discover the needs of the people and market his product and services efficiently and effectively. The manager who can listen to his sub-ordinates attentively and effectively can understand the needs and problems and can better motivate him for higher performance. Seek first to understand than to be understood. 3. Misunderstanding due to poor listening: The misunderstanding is a rule rather than exception mostly because of poor listening. Neutral words, attempting to communicate positive messages can convey negative and opposite messages, if the listener processes wrong perceptions and prejudices.

4. Interpersonal influence: Proper listening assures the speaker that the listener is sincere and can be trusted with this the doors of the communication are opened and interpersonal influence is accelerated. 5. No listening no learning: Learning is intimately related to listening that one may almost say: No listening no learning and the minds and hearts are more receptive for learning new ideas and opinions, if we pay little more attention to our listening habits. TYPES OF LISTENING 1. Pretending listening: It means pretending through facial expressions that communicated message is listened. Here, nothing like listening takes place, just hearing is there. 2. Selective listening: It means not taking the message as it is, even adding or deducting according to ones own whims and wishes, selecting the desired part and ignoring the undesired part of the message. 3. Attentive listening: It involves paying attention on the words that are being spoken rather understanding the heart and head of the speaking. 4. Empathic listening: Involves listening not only through ears but also through eyes and heart. It is listening intently and intensively to understand the person fully, deeply both emotionally as well as intellectually. 5. Listening for mutual creativity: listening for creativity not only smoothes but accelerates the understanding process through communion of hearts and minds. This listening relieves the persons from stress and strain, soothes their hearts and helps them to bring the idea lying in the crust of their sub conscious minds to the conscious surface. 6. Intuitive listening: it means listening through intuitive mind by silencing the other internal dialogues going simultaneously. Intuitive listening requires keeping the listeners mind devoid and detached from their mental dialogue to have the full impact of the conversation.

BARRIERS OF LISTENING

1. Hearing problem: Hearing deficiency interrupts in the way of listening. But such
problem is physiological not intentional. Usually such type of persons is very few in the organization. 2. Rapid thoughts: The speaker talks about 125 words per minute, where as the listener can process the information at a rate of 500 words per minute. This leaves ample time for the mind to wander to other matters than concentrating on the speakers message.

3. Overload of message: It is very difficult for the brain to digest the overload message.
When the message is lengthy or illogical in sequencing, it becomes more painful to retain the concentration. Egotism: One of the common barriers to listening is egotism or self centered attitude. Thinking that my own ideas are more important than those of other persons or myself is always right. And the other is wrong, is the major stumbling block in the way of listening. Perceptions: Our perceptions are selective and limited. As a result we indulge in selective listening- taking the desired part and leaving the undesired part of the message. We do not listen to what the other is saying but what we want to listen. Faulty assumptions: There are certain wrong assumptions regarding communication: Assuming that it is only the senders responsibility to communicate effectively. Assuming that listening is basically a passive activity in which the receiver is sponge quietly absorbing the speakers thoughts. Correlating listening with weakness and powerlessness and thinking that talking people can capture everyones attention and can dominate. Cultural differences: Present business organizations, with their operations transcending local or regional boundaries, employ people from different countries, creeds and communities with different cultural backgrounds. Lack of training: Listening seems natural like eating, breathing or sleeping. But effective listening requires great hard work, patience of sitting passively-alert and absorbing the other persons words with suspension of judgments for the time being.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Overcoming Listening Barriers 1. Stop talking as you can not listen during talking. 2. Watch and witness your body and mind to ensure that you are free from negative emotions, which may interrupt the listening process, and you are felling released and revitalized. 3. Free your mind from presumptions and preconceived ideas by being aware of them. 4. Avoid any external distraction if there is any like playing of T.V. or radio, noise in the nearby place, attending somebody else, etc. 5. Put the talker at ease with smiling face and sweet words, so that he can communicate frankly and fearlessly. 6. Demonstrate your interest in the talkers speech through facial expressions or active questioning, related with topic. 7. Be patient and allow the talker sufficient time to clarify his point. 8. Suspend the judgment for the time being to avoid premature evaluation and judgment. 9. Be careful that your listening is not selective and partial, but total and deep. 10. Be in the present; do not think of the past or future. Effective listening requires listening through heart, when you suspend the judgment for the time being, silence the mind, wander NO WHERE and be NOW WHERE.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Barriers to communication imply hurdles or obstacles on the way of transmission of message from the sender to the receiver. In practice, there exist several barriers in communication which render it ineffective. They generate confusion, conflict and misunderstanding in the organization by creating bottlenecks, delays and distortions of information. A large number of organization problems is caused by barriers to communication. It is essential to find out such barriers and take steps to remove them for the accomplishment of effective communication. TYPES OF BARRIERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Physical barriers Language barriers Socio-psychological barriers. Organization barriers Personal barriers.

PHYSICAL BARRIER The physical barrier may be caused by noise, distance, time and information overload. These are discussed below: 1. Noise- Communication does not occur in totally noise- free environment. Noise, though of varying degree, disturbs or interferes with communication. Due to higher level of noise in telephone, sometimes irrelevant information may be screened out and sometimes relevant information may be left out. 2. Distance: Long distance between the senders and receivers can also obstruct effective communication. If sender and receiver are separated by geographical distances, telecommunication is most often resorted to disturbance in telephone connection can result in miscommunication or incomplete communication. 3. Time- Time refers to the reaching of the message. If an important message reaches late it is sure to affect communication. For instance, factories have shift system. Persons working in different shifts fail to communicate due to time gap. 4. Information overload- It refers to excessive transmission of information. Much more information than what the receiver can process is transmitted to him. The receiver cannot understand, digest, analyze and act upon information overload that is beyond his mental capacity. 5. Physical barrier- outdated machines and equipment may produce excessive noise leading to physical barrier in communication. 6. Use of words with different meanings- Communication is mainly carried through spoken and written words. But the words used may convey different meanings to different people. For example- the word tube may mean a fluorescent tube, a cycle tube, or a water tube.

LANGUAGE BARRIERS People of different levels understand, write and speak differently. A speech or statement given in English may not be understood by many of the employees in a factory. The most common types of language barrier: 1. Unclear message- Lack of clarity and precision in a message makes it badly expressed. Poorly chosen and empty words and phrases, careless omission, lack of coherence, bad organization of ideas, awkward sentences structure, and failure to clarify implications are some common faults found in this case. 2. Symbols with different meanings- A word may have several meanings. The receiver has to perceive one such meaning for the word used by the communicator. 3. Faulty translation- Every manager receives various types of communications from superiors, peers, subordinates and he must translate information destined for subordinates, peers and superiors in the language suitable to each. 4. Specialist language: It is often found that technical personnel and special groups tend to develop a special, peculiar and technical language of their own this increases their isolation from others and builds a communication barrier. 5. Unclarified assumptions: there are certain not communicated assumptions which underlie practically all messages. Though a message appears to be specific, its underlying assumptions may not be clear to the receiver. 6. Body language and gesture decoding: Every moment of the body communicates some meaning. T he body movements and gestures of communicator matter so much in conveying the message. If there is no match b/w what is said and what is expressed in body movements, communication may be wrongly perceived. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS 1. Difference in perception: Perceptual barriers may arise due to differences b/w individuals in the way they perceive, organize and understand their environment. Sometimes, barrier may also be due to the use of a particular language or jargon by the people belonging to the same occupational group. 2. Differences in attitude: people with regard to attitudes and opinions which often interfere with communication. 3. Emotions: How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of information influences effectively how he interprets the information. For example: if the receiver feels that the communicator is in jovial mood, he interprets that the information being sent by the communicator to be good and interesting. 4. Inattention: communication has no impact on those who are unable or unwilling to listen. This may be a matter of motivation. If people do not pay the required degree of attention to listening and understanding the messages they are supposed to receive, communication will loose its purpose.

5. Closed minds: One of the assumptions implicit in the communication process is that both the receiver and the sender have open minds, which enable them to process information in an inhibited manner. If people limit their agenda to their own narrow goals and views, no effective communication is possible because closed minds regard all the information as unnecessary overload. 6. Premature evaluation: Some people form a judgment before receiving the complete message. Such premature evaluation prevents effective communication. Once you form a judgment or response your mind is closed to the rest of the message. 7. Distrust: It arises out of ill-considered judgments or illogical decisions or frequent countermanding of the original communication by the communicator. 8. Resistance to change: It is general tendency of human beings to maintain status. When new ideas are being communicated, the listening apparatus may act as a filter in rejecting new ideas. Thus resistance to change is an important obstacle to effective communication. 9. Cultural differences: cultural differences are faced when managers deal with people of different cultures. Culture refers to values, beliefs, norms, attitudes and perception of people of different nations or regions. ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS 1. Status relationship: org. structure creates a number of status levels among the members of the organization. Status refers to the regard and attitude displayed and held towards a position by the members of the organization. 2. Organizational structure: It has an important influence on the ability of members of the organization to communicate effectively, but these days the organization structure of most big enterprises is complex involving a) several layers of supervision. B) Long communication lines. C) Coexistence of specialists. D) org. distance b/w workers and top management. 3. Rules and regulations: it affects the flow of communication by prescribing the subject matter to be communicated and also the channel through which these are to be communicated. 4. Distance barriers: It is another barrier to effective communication. If both communicator and communicate are at distant places, the communicate fails to get the immediate clarification required. He implements the way he understands the communication. 5. Physical barriers: communication becomes ineffective due to physical factors such as a noise pollution of machines, vehicles and environment. Due to noise pollution and suffocation a communicator cannot give complete and effective message to communicate. 6. Mechanical barrier: Equipments used for communication should always be in the perfect working order. Any defect in the equipments may distort the impressions.

PERSONAL BARRIER 1. Attitude of superiors: the attitude of superiors towards communication in generalor in any particular direction affects the flow of messages in different directions. 2. Lack of confidence in subordinates: a superior may perceive his subordinates to be incompetent and incapable and as a result may not have full confidence in them. 3. Insistence on proper channel: one of the basic features of superiors exercising the authority is that they wish to remain in communication links and they do not like any type of by passing in communication. 4. Ignoring communication: sometimes superiors consciously and deliberately ignore the communication from their subordinates to maintain their importance. 5. Filtering of information: sometimes, the sender intentionally screens the information for passing only such information which will look favorable to the receiver. This is because of the simple reason that no one likes to show his mistakes to someone else, especially to his boss. 6. Lack of time: Lack of time is the terms frequently used by the superiors. They do not spare considerable time to talk to their subordinates. They feel whether or not, that they are overburdened with work. 7. Message overload: It is really a hurdle in the communication process. If message overload is routine, there is a grave danger to the orderly and smooth flow of communication. The effect of overload may be omission of message, errors, delay, filtration, approximation. They are barriers to communication. GATEWAYS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1. Two way channel: In communication, two parties are involved, namely, the sender or transmitter, and the receiver of the receiver of the message. Naturally, mere transmission of facts, ideas, opinions etc. Does not make any communication effective and meaningful. 2. Mutual trust: A communication system may be considered good when mutual understanding exists between the transmitter and the receiver of the message, no matter the communication takes place among the executives and subordinates. 3. Clarity of message: The message must be clear as specific. No ambiguity should creep into it. The message will be conveyed properly only if it is clearly formulated in the mind of communicator. 4. Timely message: Considerable attention should be given to the timeliness of communication. Old information is worse than none at all. The message will be received or responded to differently by different individuals and groups at the same time or by the same individuals and groups at different times. 5. Consistency of message: The message to be communicated should always be consistent with the objective, polices and programmes of the enterprise. It should not be conflicting with the previous communications; otherwise it would create confusion and chaos in the organization.

6. Good relations: The mode of communication should be chosen in such a manner that it does not hurt the feelings of the receiver. It should crate proper understanding in their minds if it is to achieve good human relations in the enterprise. 7. Feedback: Feedback provision in the communication process calls for making it a two way process. The sender must try to ascertain through some signals whether or not he is properly understood. 8. Empathetic listening: Manager should resist the temptation of making premature evaluation of subordinates communication or interrupting him in the course of his communication. Only then free and frank response can be assured.

WAYS TO OVERCOME THESE BARRIERS Ensure 2 way channel Develop mutual trust Ensure clarity in the communication Ensure 7 Cs in the communication Ensure consistency between verbal and non verbal communication Develop good relations Be an empathetic listener

7 CS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

There are 7 Cs of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral communication. These are as follows: 1. Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receivers mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features:

Complete communication develops organization.

and

enhances

reputation

of

an

Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is complete.

A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.

Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/ readers/ receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information.

It persuades the audience. 2. Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other Cs of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has following features:

It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving. It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words.

Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the audience.

Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience. Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.

3. Consideration - Consideration implies stepping into the shoes of others. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audiences view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the selfrespect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the audiences needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication are as follows:

Emphasize on you approach. Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a positive reaction from the audience. Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on what is possible rather than what is impossible. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.

4. Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features:

It makes understanding easier. Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message. Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.

5. Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features:

It is supported with specific facts and figures. It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation. Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.

6. Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the senders expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features:

Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message.

Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience. It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message. It is not at all biased.

7. Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features:

The message is exact, correct and well-timed. If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level. Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers. It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.

It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.