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?HEEFFEKTOFHEATINTUl?

ONMI cYRcmRJmAND CSYCKUE IN ALLOY 625 WELDOVERLAYS

I.L.W. Wilson, R.G. Gourley, R.M. Walkosak, and G.J. Bruck* Westinghouse Electric Corporation El-& Division CheswickAvenue cheswick, Pennsylvania 15024

Abstract Weld overlays of alloy 625 have been deposited on AISI Type 304 stainless steelusingPTA,GIlAWandlaserweldingpmcesses. crackingwas-ed inthewelddeposit&cnm~laywithhigherheatin@. Thelcwerheat inputs resulted in sour12 weld overlays. Thecrackingwasfoundtobe associat&iwithsecondphaseparticles intheweldmnt. Metallography and xanningelectronmicrmcopy with EDXAwere used to analyze the particles. Particle analyses and nrxphological characteristics revealed thepresence of Lavesphase. !l%e size and distribution of this phase is affected by the heat iqmt during welding and can be controlled to avoid pmblemswithcracking.

*WestinghouseScie.nce&TechnologyCenter 1310 Beulah Road Pittsburgh, Fennsylvania 15235

718,625 and Various Derivatives Edited by Edward A. lm-ia The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1991

Superalloys

735

Introduction Inconel625 isacorrosiollresistant~~basealloyused~ively for its wear resistance in aggressive, chloride bearing, environmmts. wrouFplt,cast,pawdermetdLlurgyand~dcwerlayp~~havebeen used. Alloy625has alsodemonstratede.xcellentperfonnance in nuclear pcwerplantoperationenvimxmmts (Ref. 1)wfreretheopecating chemistriesarelessaggressive~~~veryreliablel~-~ perfonmnceismquimd. Forthis reason, thealloyhasbeen investigated forapplications inthereactorqstem The~ofthepresmt investigation is to develop a method for producing reliable, defect-free weldoverlays of alloy 625 onAISIType 304 stainless steelusing prcductionweldingtechnigues. lXri.rqthe initial trials, crackingwas observed inthecverlay. Metallographic examinationrevealedthatthe crackirg was asscciated with secmti phase particles which were identified as Laves phase, (Refs. 2,3,4). This paper reports the investigation of the-of Lavesphase inalloy625weldoverlaysusingthree prcxkctionweldirqpmcesses withvaryingheatiqnks.

'Ihreeweldpmcesses wereusedtodepositlixonel 625 onto AISI 304 stainless steel. meseprocesseswereplasnatransferredarc(m),gas imqstenarcweldingwithautcanaticccldwire feed (GIAW) a&laser cladding. TheseproGesseswereselectedbecausetheyrepresented significant variations of welding heat input, the by process variable. TheETApmcess erqloyed Nistelle 625 powder, mesh 100/325 and an AISI 304 stainless substate. Theequi~tusedwasaLindePSM-2SurfaceWelder withaPT9torch. TheAIS 304 bsen&erialwasa ring measuTing 2.0 in&esthick, with anoutsidediamter of 10.9 b-&and an insidediameter of 9.3 inch. Theweldoverlaywasplacedonone face of the ring. The welding was ccnducted in two layers of 0.1 inch thickness intherootand 0.125 inch thickness in the second layer. Priortoweldingthe seccti layer, the firstlayerwas machimdto remve any surface oxidation. The seccndlayerwasma&inedtogenera teasmothsurfacemdpenetrant testingwasparformedtoverifysoundness of the weld.

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TheGTAWprocess was used with 0.045 inch dian&er ERNiCt%o-3 filler its chemistry is given in Table 1. Theequi~usedwasaMillerpower .source With a LiWe wire drive unit aMi an autmatic voltage contml headwithaHW27 torch.

wire: (AVC)

TheAIS 304 stainless steelbasematerialwasaring measuring 2.2 ties thick with an outside diameter of 10.5 in& and an inside diameter of 8.5 in&. Theweldoverlaywas depositedonone oft&two faces ofthe The first layer was welded follmed by interpass/bead grimking and ring. apenetranttest ofthe root layer. Thethicknessoftherootlayerwas 0.08 inch. The second layer was deposited creatiq a build-up of 0.115 in&,ar-ditalsowasgrourdandpenetranttested.?heweldparameters are defined in Table 2. Eightweldbeadswexdepcsited inthe mot layer arvl 7 were requimd for the secoti layer. Theweldbeadswemdeposited startingfromthe insidediamterandworkirqoutwazd~theoutside diameter"

Table 1:

ChemistryofInconelFmderandWim

cr

Fe

MO

Ni

Si

5.Ta

Al

Ti

Nistelle FYx&x

625

0.05

22.17

2.30

0.40

9.22

61.1

.005

.002

.39

3.71

0.19

.29

-045 Dia. 625 Wire

Irkxmd

0.05

22.04

3.75

0.15

9.16

60.86

-008

c.001

0.11

3.48

0.13

.26

737

Table 2:

WeldProcess Parameters aMHeatIqmt(KJ/in2)

PICA Flr.werPolarity lx! DCSP 165 Volts Travel Speed WireFeedspeed Max. Interpass Oscillation Oscillation Temp. 30 2.25 IFM 350" F 0.750 - 1.0" 24-32 OEM 75% He 25% Ar (50 CFH) 1.0" 1 132 (KJ/in2) DC DCSP 70 12 2 IFM 93 IFM 150" F -

8 IFM 0.75" 15 Hz 0.075" 0.375" Arson 5.6 KW 0.750" 1 56 (W/in2)

Width speed

ScanAmplitude -Frequency --Depth Passoverlap Atmosphere DeliveredRwer Shield Gas and Flew Bead Width No. of Beads He&Input

Aryan (45 CFH) 0.375" 7-8 67 (W/in2)

Note: IFN= InchesPerMinute OFM= Oscillations Per Minute IXSP=Direct Current Straightmlarity

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lhelasercladded sampleswereproducedusinganAvcoHpLcontinuouswave carbon dioxide laser rated at 15 kilowatts output pmer. Nistelle 625 ~~waspreplacedonthe3O4substrateandthelaserbeamwasusedto meltthepreplaceand fuse itwiththe substrate. Eachpasswas positioned with a 0.375 in& overlap of the preceding pass. Two cmplete layers were applied. The 304 stainless steel samplewas inan unrestrained position, in a controlled atxmsphere chamber and oriented such that its major axis was parallel to the direction of carriage n&ion. A narrm slot in the chamber coverpermittedlaserbeamaccess. Pure argonpurgegaswas suppliedthroughamanifold systmenclcsed ina plenumbeneaththeporousnketalbase of the cha&er. Anoxyg~mmitor wasusedtownfinnthatshieldingwasadequate inpreventing contaminationdurixqprocessirq. Mterweldingeachpass, light grinding was applied to remve oxidation prior to depositirq the next pass. flrbsequentpasseswere alsogrourdard finally, the entirelayerwas ground 0.020 inch to reeve any surface irregularities arki oxidation. The processparamete~~usedare illustrated inTable 2. Thispmcedure and aforementioned precautions regarding shielding are routine, recmmrded practices for laser beam cladding. The size of the plate clad was 1.0 inch x 6.0 inch x 54.0 inch. The Chemistry of the Nistelle 625 powder can befouMinTable1. Its msh size was 100/325. All welded samples were cm5s-s.ectioned,mountedandmetallographically prepared for examination using standard light micmscopy andahnraymodel 1645 seaming electron mi croscope fittedwithKevexseries 82 Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EEA) system. The spot size used for analysis was l/2 microaneters. The et&ant& forallspecm was a 6% solution of &manic acid in water.

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The initial

at applying an allay 625 wald overlay was conducted testing of Cra~wasKwealedbypenetrant usingthepIlAtechniqlle. csoss-sections~thatthecrackingwas thesurfaceafterma~ substrate; see presentintheoverlaydmntothe304sMnlesssteel Figs. 1, 2, and 3. The crackbq was associatedwiththecnmekrationof 'e, (Fig. 3). EDXA analyses of secxxxlphaseparticles inthem theseparticles revealed increased levels ofNb,Mo, andsiccsnparedtc thecnncekmtions inthemerlaymatrix; seeTable 3. This segregation istypicalofthatf~in~higNyall~~~materialsandhas been identified as Iaves @mse (Ref. 5). lhe cuqosition of the alloy 625

atteqk

pumler, Tablel, shcwsNb,Mo, andsitobe sufficientlyhighsuchthatit wouldresultinLmesphase formation (F&f. 5). content is high, no indications of carbide AlthmtiTheEDXAanalyseswexxclosetothe precipitateswere observed. forthehighFecontenti.nthe stainlesssteelinterfacewhichaaxnmts weld overlay.

304

Fig.

1:

Fh&xnie through Arc (Pm) weldment. Magnification 200X

Cross-Section

of Plasma Transferred

740

. Fig. 2:scarmngElectronMi~ofmwelMm-won. Magnification 500X

Fig. 3:LzaumhgElectronMicrogra33h Magnification 2000X

ofPTAWeldmntCro6s-Section.

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Table 3:

EDXAAnalysisofweldmen~
Wt%

tziDecimt?.n

Nb

MO

Si
9.69

cr 12.46 21.40 18.35 21.76 17.35 21.99 seeFigs.

Fe 12.92

Ni 20.31 37.03 40.54 50.38 36.70 51.67 The

PI24 Particle P-m Matrix cXAW Particle GlYw Matrix laser Particle

27.51 3.73 13.40 4.89 12.26 4.27 observed

17.10 8.08 13.58 9.47 18.57 9.84

2.25 6.12 3.93 8.23 4.82

27.51 8.02 9.57 6.89 7.42 4 and 5.

Laser Matrix Nocrackingwas ccmposition

intheGI7Wweldwerlay;

of the wire consumable is again relatively

high for Si, Mo, ard

Nb, indicatingthatIaves@asecouldbe~dily from the cmss-section through the werlay, thesecomlphaseparticlesis TheEDXAanalyses werlay. segrqationrmparedtothePTAwerlay.

formed. Itcanbe seen Figs. 4 and 5, that the size of

smallerthanwasobervedinthePTA frcantheprticles,Table 3, shmsless

Fig.

4:

FhotoMi~~m-SectionofGasTLlngstenArr= (GI1Aw) weldment Magnification 500X 742

Fig.

5:

. Zkannmg fin Magnification

Micrograph

of GTAWcmss-Section.

2000X

!theap$eammeofthelaserweldcverlay,usingpowder,isverysimilarto ThesecoM@aseparticlesarxscmzwhat theGI!AWwelduverlayusingwire. finerarxImreevenlydistributed;seeFigs. Si,MoandNb see Table 3. 6 and7. l'hesegregationof intheGTAWweld; inthe ExamplesoftheEDXA intotheparticlesis similartothatfaund Saanesegregationwitkinthematrixisp~,asirdicated

bytheli~tareaofthematrixadjacenttotheparticles back-scatMSEMphotomicrcqraphsof Figs. 6and7. ~framtheLavesphaseparticlesardthematrix~shcrwninFigs.8A and 8B.

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Fig.

6:

scanning
-) l

Electron

Mix@

of Iaser

c!mss-section

(Back-scatter

Magnification

500X

Fig.

7:

sodming Electron Mix*


Mode) . Magnification 2000X

of Laser aross-section

(Back-scatter

744

Theweldingparamters anIthecalculat&heatinputs foreachpmcess are sham in Table 2. ThehirPlheat~tofapproximately132W/in2 with investigationof the350" F. interpasstemperatureused inthispreliminary wouldmsultinrelativelyslcwcoolirqth.mughthe thePTApxcess allowtime for the rejection of solidification rarqe. Slcwcoolingwould theSi,Mo, andNb intothe intekiemlritic spaces resultinginalaqe volumeoftheteminal Lavesphaseardagreaterchance forcrackingto occur. Asimilarhighheatinputwasusedby Cieslack for GDNweldingof alloy 625 Plus inwhi&he ckservedcracking (Ref. 2). Theheatinput in inthis studywas significantly less at67 KJ/in2 with theGI?AWpxcess an interpass temperature of 250" F. Thisheatinputwouldresultinmre Rapidcoolingwould rapid cooling and less time available for segregation. segregation of the alloy constitue.& and the prcmtealmerdegreeof smallerparticle size oftheteminal phase. The fastexcooling ratewould alsoleadtoa finerdemlritespacing (Ref. 6), resultingina finer dispersionoftheteminal phase. Thisdemnstrates thattheheatinpkis axmreimportantfactorinthecracking,thanotherweldprocess was co~toproducethelowestheat parameters. Thelaserpinput; seeTable 2, justbelowthatfortheGTAWpmcess. Thedqreeof segregation; see Table 3, is similar for the two pmcesses. Thereisa difference in the size and distribution of the termbal solidification phase; see Figs. 4 and 6. This suggests that, at these lower levels, the reducedheatinputand fastercoolingrate, hadagreatereffecton distribution of the teminal phase than on the degree of segregation leading to it. Thedifferencebetweeslthehighheatinput~welds,~~cracked, and thelcrwerheat~t~andlaserwelds~~didnotcracJc, is significant. No signofcrackixqwas &served intheGTAWpmcess weldments ti it is possible that higher heat inputs and deposition rates arepcssiblebefore a crackingthresholdis ached. Alternately, alcwer heat input FTAprocess could be used to achieve higher deposition rates than the GTAW. Acceptable deposition rates were achieved for cur application using parameters close to those listed for the GTAW process.

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Conclusions Alloy 625 is susceptible tc cracking during welding due tc the formation of raves phase. ~~canbeavoidedbyreducingheat~tzturingthe weldiIqpmcess. Ameptabledepositionrateswere achievedatthe reduced heat input.

Iheauthoxswouldliketoackncwl&gethe follcwingpecple fortheirexpert assistanceintheweldingandpreparationofthesamplesusedinthis G.M. Bumin, A.M. Delenne, V.J. Friscare lla, T.A. Mullin investigation: an3 J.A. Rosepink.

References 1. Ccpson, H.R. and Econcmy, G. 1968. Effect of ScaneEnviromtal Coalitions on Stress Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys in Pressurized Water. Corrosion 24 (3), No. 3: 55. Cieslack, M.J., Headley, T.J., and Frank, R-B., 1989. The Welding of The Welding Journal 68 (12): 473-s to Custan Age 625 Plus Alloy. 482-s. E3mst, S.C., Baeslack III, W.A., and Lippold, J.C., 1989. Weldability The Welding Jcurnal 68 of High-Strength Im-Expansion Superalloys. (10): 418-s to 430-s. of Austenitic ThJr., R.D., 1984. HA2 Cracking inIxickSections Stainless Steels - Part II. The Weldiq Jom-nal 63 (12): 355-s to 368-s. Metallurgy Cieslack, M.J., 1991. The Welding and Solidification Alloy 625. The Weldiq Journal 70 (2): 49-s to 56-s. Cblmers, B., 1967. Principles sons, Inc., p. 120, New York. of Solidification. of

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

John Wiley and

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