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Stuck Pipe Prevention

Prentice & Hill, LLC

Second Day

Differential Sticking Causes


High Differential Pressures
Excessive Mud Weight Drawn Down Formations Poor Well Planning

Well Bore Contact Poor Filter Cake Little or No Pipe Motion

Solids Induced Pack-off


Causes UNCONSOLIDATED FORMATIONS Formation Loose w/ Little or No Bonding Insufficient Hydrostatic to Hold Back Formation

Pack-off Due to Unconsolidated Formations

Prevention
Plan / Anticipate: Gel up Mud / Run Hi Vis Sweeps Control Drill Spot Gel Pill Prior to TOH

Solids Induced Pack-off


Causes

MOBILE / PLASTIC FORMATIONS


Formation Extrudes Into Well Bore Due to Overburden Forces. Prevention
Proper Well Planning:

Increase Mud Weight, if possible Use Under-saturated Water Base Mud Pump Fresh Water Sweeps Design Casing to Handle Collapse Loads

Solids Induced Pack-off


Causes FRACTURED / FAULTED FORMATIONS
Loose Chunks of Rock Fall into Well Bore

Prevention Plan / Anticipate Control Drill & Ream Connections Anticipate Reaming on Trips

Solids Induced Pack-off


Causes
OVER-PRESSURED SHALE COLLAPSE Shale Pops Off Wall Due to Pressure

Prevention Plan / Anticipate Raise Mud Weight, if possible Set Casing Appropriately

Solids Induced Pack-off


Causes REACTIVE FORMATIONS
Mud Filtrate Reacts Chemically with Formation

Prevention Plan / Anticipate Use Inhibited Mud System Minimize Exposure Time Be Prepared for Gumbo Attack

Solids Induced Pack-off


Causes POOR HOLE CLEANING
Not Removing Cuttings From Well Bore

Prevention Increase Annular Velocities Better Mud Properties Subject of another section

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes KEYSEATING Abrupt Change in Well Bore Path (Dog Leg) Long Hole Section Below Dog Leg Prevention Minimize Dog Leg Severity Case Off Curves Soon After Building Use Keyseat Wiper Make Frequent Wiper Trips Back Ream Out of Hole

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes UNDERGAUGE HOLE Undergauge Bit and/or Stabilizers Coring (Core heads slightly U.G.) Prevention Always Gauge Bit & Stabilizers IN and OUT Run Gauge Protected Bits & Stabilizers Ream Suspected Undergauge Sections

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes LEDGES & DOGLEGS Limber BHAs Hard - Soft Interbedded Formation Prevention Run Packed Hole Assemblies Ream on Trips Through Problem Zones

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes SHOE JOINT BACKS OFF Prevention Do Not Overdisplace Cement Thread Lock Bottom 3 Joints of Casing Drill Out Carefully

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes JUNK
Something Manmade is Loose in the Hole

Prevention Good Housekeeping on Rig Floor Keep Hole Covered Inspect Equipment Frequently

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes CEMENT BLOCKS


Hard Cement Falls In From Casing Shoe or From Open Hole Cement Plug

Prevention Set All Casing As Close To TD As Possible Ream Casing Shoe & Open Hole Plugs Before Drilling Ahead

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes GREEN CEMENT


Run BHA Into Un-set Cement

Prevention Wash Down Carefully to Top of Cement Pre-Treat Mud Before Drilling Green Cement

Mechanical / Wellbore Geometry Sticking

Causes LINER & SQUEEZE CEMENTING


Cementing Yourself in the Hole

Hazards in Liner Cementing


Too Much Excess Overdisplacement

Squeeze Cementing
Hold Pressure on Back Side, If Possible Use Cement Retainers DO NOT Cement Up a Squeeze Packer (RTTS)

Trend Analysis
Plot Property -vs- Depth or Time and Analyze
Drag on each Connection Torque -vs- Depth PWD -vs- Time Soap Box

Pressure While Drilling


120 100
Pressure

80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 Time 4 5

Pressure While Drilling


120 100
Pressure

80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3
Time

Pressure While Drilling


120 100
Pressure

80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 Time 4 5

Drag on Trip
Weight
100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 80000 40000 60000

0 1000 2000 3000 4000


Depth

5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000

Recovery
Our Best Preventive Efforts Have FAILED

WERE STUCK !!
What Do We Do Now?

Identifying the Problem: Why are we stuck?


Stuck Pipe Handbook Flowcharts

Problem Diagnosis
Computer Intelligent System on Network at Cambridge Facility Charts in Front of Sedco Forex Handbook

Solving the Problem: What do we do now?


First Actions

Solids Induced Stuck Pipe


First Actions Formation Movement / Poor Hole Cleaning Stop pumps & bleed pressure to 500 psi Hold pressure & cycle drill string up to MUT with no up/down movement Try pumping if pressure bleeds off Begin working pipe up/down - max 50K overpull

Solids Induced Stuck Pipe


First Actions Continued Do not commence jarring Increase standpipe pressure to 1500 psi Work pipe Commence secondary procedures

Differential Sticking
First Actions Overbalanced, Filter Cake, Contact Area Circulate at maximum allowable rate Set compression w/ 50% MUT Pull tension w/ 50% MUT Secondary Procedures

Mechanical Sticking
First Actions Dogleg, Keyseat, Junk, Undergauge Maintain circulation Jar in opposite direction of last movement Light loads (50K) w/ systematic increases Secondary procedures

Locating the Problem: Where are we stuck?


Pipe Stretch Measurements

Pipe Stretch Equation


L 735,000 W L F

L = Length of Free Pipe (ft) L = Length of Stretch (in) F = Incremental Force (lbs) W = Weight of Drill Pipe (lb/ft)

Locating the Problem: Where are we stuck?


Pipe Stretch Measurements Free Point Tool
Review Stuck Pipe Handbook Procedures

Pull On DP

Measure Stretch Here

Free Point Tool

Stuck Here
Measure Stretch Here

Solids Induced Stuck Pipe


Secondary Procedures Jarring Back off and wash over

Differential Sticking
Secondary Procedures Attack Filter Cake -- Spotting Fluid
Spot within 4 hrs of sticking Omit after 16 hrs Rule of Thumb - Soak minimum 20 hrs and a maximum 40 hrs

Pipe Releasing Agents Spotting Fluids


Pump shear thinning spacer Viscosity: 100 rpm value > drilling mud 50 to 100 bbl spacer Calculate volume of PRA - Example Spot at highest allowable pump rate Work pipe (up/down, torque) while soaking

Differential Sticking
Secondary Procedures Reduce Hydrostatic

Cut Mud Weight U Tube - Kick it free Caution - Well May Come In

Back Off and Wash Over

Mechanical Sticking
Secondary Procedures Jar in opposite direction of last pipe movement Back Off and Wash Over

Acid Pills
Secondary Procedures Calcium Formations, Strip Filter Cake Typically 7.5% to 15% HCl Cover stuck zone Pump acid quickly to bit Large water spacers Work pipe while soaking Circulate out after 5 minutes

Fresh Water Pills


Secondary Procedures Mobile Salt Cover stuck zone plus 20 bbl inside drill string OBM - Viscous weighted spacer Maintain overpull while soaking Repeat after 2 hrs

Drilling Jars - Benefits


Jar stuck pipe immediately Minimize fishing / sidetrack potential Minimize surface loads (safety) Something to do while waiting on tools

Mechanical Jars
Most basic type of jar Sliding sleeve inside shoulder sleeve Holding mechanism locks hammer Overpull stretches drill string Sudden release when holding mechanism is overcome

Mechanical Jars - Advantages


Remain locked until loaded More freedom of placement in string No special tripping procedures Do not jar unexpectedly Short jar cycle Cost Availability

Mechanical Jars - Disadvantages


Load may not be varied Jarring immediate once load is reached Large shock to hoisting equipment Rig may not pull over holding force Difficult to load in deviated wellbores

Hydraulic Jars
Oil reservoir w/ orifice & bypass valve Oil bleeds slowly until piston reaches bypass valve Hydraulic delay

Hydraulic Jars - Advantages


Allows time to set drilling brake No torque needed to operate Torque does not affect load Varied impact force Use in deviated holes

Hydraulic Jars - Disadvantages


May jar unexpectedly Tripping more time consuming Longer jar cycle More expensive Availability

Reasons Jars Fail to Fire


Incorrect weight - calculation incorrect Pump open force exceeds compression force Stuck above jar Jar mechanism failed Jar not cocked Drag too high to load jar

Reasons Jars Fail to Fire (cont.)


Jar firing not felt at surface Torque trapped in mechanical jar No patience

Accelerators - Functions
Compensate for short string Compensate for hole drag slowing contraction Act as a reflector to jar shock wave Intensify jar blow

Jar / Accelerator Placement Considerations


Sticking point Jar direction required Differential risk Neutral point of tension / compression Buckling point Drag in the hole section Depth of hole section

Placement - Vertical Holes


Above buckling point at maximum WOB Two DCs above jars No stabilizers above jars Accelerators needed in shallow hole sections

Placement - Deviated Holes


Do not run jars buckled Avoid tension / compression neutral point Calculate measured weight reading required Account for hole drag

Jar Placement Programs


Do not typically account for buckling Accurately calculate and account for pump open forces Maximize jar impact at stuck point Example - Griffith Oil Tools

Fishing - Overshots
Catches OD of fish Right hand torque operated Always run a bumper sub Circulating sub Basket grapple
More sturdy, Easier to release

Spiral grapple
Stronger hold, Use in slim hole

Wall hooks

Fishing - Spears
Catches ID of pipe Consider stop ring Risk back off of wash pipe Rope spears

Fishing - Taps
Use when overshot or spear cannot be used Taper Tap - Screws inside fish Box Tap - Screws over fish Cannot be released & subject to breakage String shot cannot be run through taper tap Excessive torque will split box tap

Fishing - Junk
Magnets Junk Baskets Confusion Blocks Mills
Pilot, Tapered, Concave, Flat-Bottom, Section, Fluted, Watermelon

Fishing - Milling
Pilot Tapered Concave Flat-Bottom Section Fluted Watermelon

Washover Operations
Run minimum size required - clearance inside, " clearance outside Maximum length 600' drill pipe, 300' BHA Conditioning trip Easy to differentially stick Run jars in deeper hole sections Steady feed when cutting formation Jerky feed when going over tool joints

Washover Shoes
Short tooth mills (mill tooth) for medium to hard formations Long tooth mills for soft formations
Cut faster Hang easier Harder to get over top of fish

Flat bottom for stabilizers, reamers, tool joints, etc.

Solving the Problem: What do we do now?


THE OTHER OPTION:

SIDETRACK
Free Point and Back Off as Deep as Possible Go Around the Fish

What Do We Do Now? Sidetrack or Fish?


Its Purely a Matter of Economics Sidetrack is a good choice when:
Fish Inexpensive or Recovery Unlikely Hole is Cheap (read Fast) to Drill Soft Formation - Easy to Kick Off Spread Rate (Total Daily Cost) is HIGH