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Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP)

Log-Periodic Patch Antenna With Tunable Frequency

M. F. Ismail1, M. K. A. Rahim2, F. Zubir3, O. Ayop4
Radio Communication Engineering Department Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Skudai Johor, Malaysia mfaizal69@live.utm.my1, mkamal@fke.utm.my2, farid@fke.utm.my3, osman@fke.utm.my4

Abstract This paper describes the design and analysis of a LogPeriodic Microstrip Antenna Array operating between 3.3 Gigahertz (GHz) and 4.5 GHz. A five square patches fed by inset feed line technique are connected with a single transmission line by a log-periodic array formation. By applying five PIN Diodes at the transmission line with a quarter-wave length radial stub biasing, four different sub-band frequencies are configured by switching ON and OFF the PIN Diode. Simulation as well as measurement results with antenna design is presented and it shows that a good agreement in term of return loss. The simulated radiation pattern and realized gain for every sub bands also presented and discussed. Keywords- Log-periodic, Microstrip antenna, Reconfigurable, PIN Diode

I. INTRODUCTION Reconfigurable antennas have received a great deal of attention for their applications in wireless communication in recent years. Compared to conventional antennas, reconfigurable antennas provide the ability to dynamically adjust various antenna parameters such as operating frequency [1], polarization [2], radiation pattern [3], and/or two or more of parameters [4] in single antenna. In [1], the frequency reconfigurability is achieved when the RF switches are inserted with log periodic aperture fed microstrip antenna. The five bands are selected from a wideband frequency by switching ON and OFF state at desired patches. The polarization reconfigurable also has been presented in [2]. A square patch with two cross-shaped diagonal slots has been designed with three types of reconfigurable polarization which are a linear, right-handed and left handed. In [3] the author has presented the pattern reconfigurable from a planar array microstrip antenna with separated transmission line design. The most remarkable feature of this antenna is that two or more parameters of the antenna can be reconfigurable. In [4], a novel both pattern and frequency reconfigurable annular slot antenna is presented. The antenna has three different frequencies by controlling the matching stubs, which are fabricated on the opposite side of the board. And it also has a reconfigurable radiation pattern, which is controlled by the dc voltage of the PIN diodes on the slot.

In this paper, the concept of frequency reconfigurable is study from a combination of RF switching and the wideband antenna. This proposed antenna is designed from the combination of five elements using log-periodic technique with a scaling factor of 1.05. Compared to others a wideband frequency reconfigurable antenna like monopole as reported in [5], the log-periodic antenna is easier to select the required band because of each element radiates at the different frequency bands. This antenna used one switching for each patches instead using two switches for single frequency for dipole antenna as reported in [6]. The Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software is used to carry out the simulation process for the reconfigurable antenna. The simulation results are compared with measurement results in terms of return loss while other parameters are also discussed such as radiation pattern, gain and half-power beam width. II. ANTENNA DESIGN All The concept of a reconfigurable antenna is investigating by changing the switches of PIN diode to ON or OFF. This antenna can perform a frequency range from 3.3 GHz until 4.5 GHz with four different sub bands. Figure 1 shows the proposed log-periodic microstrip antenna with frequency reconfigurable. Five square patches with quarterwave length radial stub are connected with a single transmission line in a single substrate. The patches are printed on a FR-4 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm, dielectric constant of 4.5 and loss tangent of 0.019. The design principle for log-periodic wideband microstrip antenna requires scaling of dimensions from period to period so that the performance is periodic with the logarithm of frequency. The patch length (lp), the width (wp) and the inset feed (I) are related to the scaling factor () by equation 1 [7]. The dimension of the first patch (higher frequency) is 16.32 mm x 16.32 mm. The space between each patch is a half wavelength apart thus giving a forward fire radiation pattern and reducing mutual coupling effect. The dimension of ground plane is 130 mm x 100 mm.


where m = 1, 2, 3,

For fabricated antenna, when +9 volts DC is applied to each PIN diode, it becomes a forward bias (ON state) while 0 volts DC is applied, the PIN diode become OFF states or no bias. The quarter-wave length radial stub is located at the middle length of patch to connect from PIN diode to the DC and its operating as a RF choke. The capacitor also placed at the transmission line before connect to the SMA port to block the DC signal from going into the signal generator. III. SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT RESULT The prototype of the proposed reconfigurable frequency antenna was fabricated using conventional photolithography technique. Figure 2 shows photograph of the fabricated antenna structure with biasing circuit. The antenna structure was tested on vector network analyzer (VNA). Figure 3 to 5 show the simulated as well as measured return loss characteristics of the antenna with different band frequencies. Figure 3 shows the bandwidth at -10dB Return loss of the antenna without reconfigurable between simulation and measurement. It shows that the operating frequency is between 3.3 GHz until 4.5 GHz. The results also agree well for the reconfigurable antenna between simulation and measurement as shown in Table 2.

Figure 1. Geometry of purpose antenna where wp=16.31mm; ltx=11.32mm; lt=95.2mm; ls=10.81mm; sl=130mm; sw=100mm; h=1.6mm; =60

The reconfigurabilty is achieved when the RF PIN diodes are integrated at the feeding line of microstrip antenna to act as a switch and to control the ON/OFF mode. For simulation, the switches in RF systems are represented by an open or short of the transmission line. Therefore, metal stripes of 3mm x 1mm have been used to represent a switch and located at the transmission line of patches. Hence, the ON state is representing by that metal stripe and the absence of the metal stripe is representing the OFF state. The same configuration also presented in [3] and [5]. The five patches require five switches PIN diode. The wideband operation is achieved when all switches are in ON state. By controlling the switch at the transmission line of patch, the required frequency band could be achieved. The PIN diode switch conditions are shown in Table 1. In simulation process, the ohmic losses are assumed to be zero by using the ideal substrate and perfect electric conductor.
TABLE I. No of PIN Diode D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Wide Band O O O O O Band 1 O O X X X PIN DIODE CONDITION Band 2 X O O X X Band 3 X X O O X Band 4 X X X O O

Figure 2. Photograph of the fabricated antenna

O : PIN Diode ON X : PIN Diode OFF

Figure 3. Simulated and measured return loss of log-periodic antenna


3.5 GHz, 3.6 GHz, 3.8 GHz and 4.0 GHz while the radiation pattern for each bands of reconfigurable antenna are plotted in Figure 8. The half power bandwidth of the antenna is taken from the middle frequency of each band. The HPBW for log periodic antenna is 76.3 while for Band 1, Band 2, Band 3 and Band 4 is 98.2, 95.2, 95.4 and 74.4 respectively. The increase of beam angle at high frequency might be due to the increased of the active region length at high frequency.

Figure 4. Simulated return loss for each bands

Figure 6. Simulated realized gain for each bands

Figure 5. Measured return loss for each bands TABLE II. COMPARISON OF RETURN LOSS FOR EACH BANDS fL (GHz) 3.33 3.34 3.93 4.04 3.75 3.73 3.47 3.55 3.32 3.35 fH (GHz) 4.38 4.38 4.4 4.36 4.08 3.98 3.87 3.83 3.58 3.60 BW (%) 27.5 27.19 11.3 7.62 8.44 6.5 10.9 7.6 7.54 7.20

Antenna Parameter All Band Sim Mea Band 1 Sim Mea Band 2 Sim Mea Band 3 Sim Mea Band 4 Sim Mea


The simulated realized gain for each state of PIN Diode is plotted in Figure 6. The antenna operates from 3.3 GHz to 4.5 GHz with realized gain between 3 dB to 6 dB for each bands. Since the log periodic technique enables one patch radiated at single frequency hence, the gain is equally to a single patch. The radiation patterns of the log-periodic antenna are shown in figure 7. The patterns are taken at each sub band which is





Figure 7. Simulated radiation pattern in E-plane and H-plane for logperiodic antenna at (a) 3.5 GHz (b) 3.6 GHz (c) 3.8 GHz (d) 4.0 GHz

Figure 8. Simulated radiation pattern in E-plane and H-plane for Reconfigurable Antenna at (a) Band 1 (b) Band 2 (c) Band 3 (d) Band 4


IV. CONCLUSIONS The proposed frequency reconfigurable log-periodic antenna has been design and simulated. It has been demonstrated that the required frequency band could be achieved by controlling the PIN diode switch. Four sub-bands in which four groups of patches were selected from a wideband frequency are obtained. For different group patches selection, others sub-band could be achieved. For each frequency band, a good return loss, gain and radiation pattern have been obtained. The proposed antenna could be used for cognitive radio that requiring wideband sensing and dynamic band switching. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thank to the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE), Ministry of Sceince, Technology and Innovation Malaysia (MOSTI), Research Management Centre (RMC) and Radio Communication Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the supporting the research works.



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