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International University of Burch Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) ELT 624

ESP PROJECT: Field: Political science Topic: The role of government

1. Needs analysis plan 2. Discourse/Genre analysis 3. Sample lesson plan

Prof.dr. Azamat Akbarov

Msc. Nudejma Obrali

Sarajevo, December, 2011.

Introduction In the project we were asked to organize courses as an ESP practitioner, to set learning objectives, to establish a positive learning environment in the classroom, and to evaluate students progress. Before this is to be done, we need to identify the group of learner, their nationality, age, what they already know about the English, what their interests are, what their socio-cultural background is, which styles of teaching they are used and prefer, and their attitude to English or to the cultures of the English speaking world. This project is meant to be carried out at International University of Sarajevo, in Sarajevo. University provides pre/in/post session courses. The course, we will observe, is insession type of course. The project will be carried out for the students who study at the Department of Political Science. The group will consist of five to ten students. Upon the Need analysis we will decide on the students level of English language. So, to obtain the information about students and their needs we can use questionnaires; interviews; observation; data collection e.g. gathering texts; information consultations with sponsors, learners and others.

1. Needs analysis plan

In order to define a clear vision of things to be done within a course at IUS, we are supposed to define the analysis of target needs. The most characteristic feature of ESP course design is the needs analysis. It includes far more than simply identifying the linguistic features of the target situation. As we see, there are various methods to complete the need analysis. Need analysis can be done in different periods and it is not once-for-all activity. Need analysis answers a lot of questions on our students, such as: who are the learners, why are students taking course, how do they learn, where / when will the ESP course take place and what the already know. Where as the target analysis framework offers the answer to questions such as:

The reasons they need to study second language, the way language will be used, what will be the content areas, where and when will the language be used. The target analysis will determine the final destination. The results of needs analysis can be readily used as input for the task-based or content-based course design. In order to reach the final aim, ESP practitioners should set the target strategies according to Target Situation Analysis. The strategies will define the way learners will study according to learners background, the concept of teaching and learning, the methodology that the most appeals the students and sort of techniques to be used within the course. In looking at the target situation, the ESL course designer is asking the question: What does the ESP practitioner need to know in order to function effectively in this target situation? This information may be recorded in terms of language items, skills, subject knowledge etc. Course designer should find an appropriate task, adopting tasks as the unit of analysis helps to ensure a high degree of real-world relevance, since they are based on a needs analysis of target performance objectives, thereby most likely increasing student interest and motivation in classroom pedagogic activities, and the possibility of direct transfer of the abilities developed in classrooms to similar situational contexts. 1 After defining the needs of learner and defined target situation, ESP practitioner is supposed to design a course. The following specific objectives were set based on the needs of the students: 1. to develop the learners reading skills to ensure comprehension of politics related reading materials; 2. To help learners develop key techniques that could be adopted while reading texts.

Robinson, P. (2001). Task complexity, cognitive resources, and syllabus design: a triadic framework for examining task influences on SLA. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and Second Language Instruction (pp. 287318). Cambridge: Cambridge University. p.292

3. to develop the learners academic writing skills with the focus on defining political terms, essay writing, and summary writing; 4. to enable the learners to acquire speaking and presentation skills; 5. to develop the learners listening comprehension skills; 6. to develop learner autonomy; 7. to develop aural competence and oral fluency of learners. 8. to develop the learners critical thinking skills through various tasks; 9. to develop their interpersonal skills through various group activities; 10. To help learners achieve proficiency in the effective use of language in various authentic career-related situations Formulating goals and objectives for a particular course allow the teacher to create a clear picture of what the course is going to be about.2

2. Discourse Analysis
Within this course we will deal with the reading tasks in ESP course. The reading texts should reflect learners interests and needs. Appropriate academic readings trigger the learners recognition of core lexico-grammatical elements `to assimilate conventions of genres, but, in our experience, this pattern building is not realized unless actual communicative input is produced in specific tasks.3 Therefore, in our course we will include communication skills tasks before or after reading task. The text we will use is on the role of government at academic level. We chose an authentic text because it is very important in order to create a real studying environment. The text should reflect learners interests and

Graves, K. (1996). Teachers as course developers. England: Cambridge University Press.

Jordan, R.R. (1997) English for Academic Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

needs, related to the filed learners study at, not too technical to read. The language used in text should be clear, has varied sentence structure and complexity. The topic should have novelty. The text should be very much student-centered. In this case, the project will be carried out at IUS, in May, in 2012. The in-session intensive course will be offered to the pre-experienced, five to ten under-graduate students from a political science department. They will attend intermediate level courses. The title of the written text that will be included is The Good Life Beckon. It is on the role of government. The selected reading material is an authentic text, taken from New Statesman and Society. This text, however, will go further, beyond the classroom and into the real world of the target profession. The reading passage has optimal word length. The Good Life Beckons The good society accepts the basic market system and its managers, but there are some things the market system does not do either well or badly. In the good society these are the responsibility of the state. Some areas of state action are evident. In no country does the market system provide good low-cost housing. This is a matter of prime importance and must everywhere be a public responsibility. Few things are more visibly at odds with the good society than badly housed or homeless people. Health care is also a public responsibility in all civilized lands. No one can be assigned to illness or death because of poverty. Here Britain can be proudly point to its leadership. The state has many other essential functions. It must also be borne in mind that many of these - parks and recreational facilities, police, libraries, the arts, others - are more needed by the underclass than by the affluent. Those who attack the services of the state are usually those who can afford to provide similar services for themselves. In the good society, there must also be attention to a range of activities that are beyond the time horizons of the market economy. This is true in the sciences, not excluding medical research. The market system invests for relatively short-run return. To support science is pre-eminently the responsibility of the state. Some of the truly important industrial achievements of recent generations - the great improvements in agricultural productivity, modern air transport, advanced electronics - have depended on such public investment. Necessary also - a matter we are beginning reluctantly to recognize - is investment and regulation in the longer-run interest of the environment. The good society protects and improves life in its planetary dimension. (From New Statesman and Society)

When it comes to carrier content which refers to the subject matter of the text, it implies the issue of government responsibilities and market forces / system. Meanwhile, the authentic topic is used as vehicle for the real content of the unit, the language of process. In The Good Life Beckons, the heading of the text and The good society accepts the basic market system and its managers, but there are some things the market system does not do either well or badly. In the good society these are the responsibility of the state. ', the metadiscourse are employed to hold the entire text. Meta discourse occures at the beginning of the unit, where the writer provided an overview of what is going to be covered, a simple discussion about a given topic. One of the apparent purpose of this reading text task is to help learners improve their vocabulary and to enable them to use words appropriately in different contexts and too familiarize learners with different rhetorical functions of English for Politics. The vocabulary learners are supposed to acquire within the text are: society, housing, global, civilized, assigned illness, state, essential, underclass, invest, provide, achievements and regulations. This text introduces the problem whereas in no country does the market system provide good low costing, no one can be assigned to illness or death because of poverty, state properties are more needed by low-class society, and offers a solutions / reason for such a condition. Its the market economy. Here, the purpose of the sentence is a kind of a response from the author. When it comes to essential and grammatical features in the text, Present Simple Tense and Passive Voice are frequently used. The text is based on the approach of on cooocurrences between all content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives.

There re some extra visual features related to the text. At the beginning of a lesson, ESP practitioner will show up some picture / signs. They are supposed to guess the areas and offer more information on what governments are for.