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SUBMITTED TO Kanij Fatema Lecturer Department of Public Administration Shahjalal University of Science and technology, Sylhet

SUBMITTED BY Md. Maksu Miah 3 Year 2nd Semester Reg. No - 2008237031 Date of Submission: 15.12.2011 Department of Public Administration

Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

1.0 Executive Summary 2.0 Introduction 3.0 Objectives of the Study 4.0 Rationale of the Study 5.0 Limitations of the Study 6.0 Research Methodology 7.0 A Review of Relevant Literature 8.0 Analysis and Interpretation 9.0 Findings and Discussions 10.0 Recommendations 11.0 Conclusion

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Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

1.0 Executive Summary

The social networking sites (SNSs) are gaining a lot of popularity these days with almost all of the educated youth using one or the other such site. These have played a crucial role in bridging boundaries and crossing the seas and enabling them to communicate on a common platform. It has become a popular and a potential mean for them to stay friends with the existing ones and to grow up their social circle at least in terms of acquaintances. The question regarding whether social networking impact positively or negatively and how safe is its privacy system have been cropping up all this time. Through this research we have tried to find out real effects of online social networking on personal lives of the people. Our research is subjective in nature and very opinion based and the same is reflected in the research methodology adopted by us. The report is initiated with the definition of the objective, rationale and limitations followed with the research methodology used along with the research design, sample size, variables, methods used for the purpose of conducting survey. It also incorporates the data collection procedure. Subsequent to this is the review of relevant literature which contains the definition, brief history and basic structure of social networking sites from which anyone can get a primary concept about SNSs at a glance. We then analyzed and interpreted the collected data at length. After that we have tried to find out the positive and negative impacts of SNSs upon our study variables by carefully analyzing and incorporating the opinion of all concerned. The last part deals with the suggestions and recommendations regarding how to reduce the negative effects and how to use SNSs positively and safely.

2.0 Introduction
In the 21st century, the world has become a too small place due to electronic media and virtual portals. Communication has become effective as never before thanks to the advent of the internet. Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have become a global phenomenon, with communities such as MySpace, Facebook and Bebo reporting user figures in the hundreds of millions. People using these sites are able to publish multimedia content about themselves, their interests and concerns. They can establish links to existing friends or discover new friendships because the social networking sites help them to identify people who share common interests and pastimes. Instead of being limited to a network amongst peers within the schoolyard or workplace, social networking sites are increasingly allowing relationships to be built up with people right across the globe and from all walks of life. However, one major issue that has been overlooked is the changing mind-set of the youth due to the online social networking. Spending so much time on social networking by youngs also highlights the importance of analyzing how Social Networking Sites are affecting our daily life styles.

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

3.0 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of our study is to find out the positive and negative effects of online social networking on personal lives of the people. Specific objectives: 1. To know the concept of people about online social networking and its uses. 2. To know how much the people are benefited from it. 3. To know how much problem the people are facing for it.

4.0 Rationale of the Study

There are over 8 million internet users in Bangladesh, among them currently there are 2110720 Facebook users. [1] This trend is increasing day by day among the young people of our country. The guardians who are anxious about the effects of SNSs can see this paper and have a look of SNSs positive and negative effects. The increasing dependency on technology for basic communication also highlights the importance of analyzing how social networking is affecting our daily processes. Moreover, as a student of public administration we need to know about various social aspects which are influencing our everyday life and of course the knowledge and skill of modern technology to contribute to better e-governance system of our country. The future researcher also can see the study paper and can compare the present effects of social networking with the future one. So, we think our research topic is highly rationale.

5.0 Limitations of the Study

1. The sample size that we have taken is 50 which we are assuming that it is homogeneous.

2. Most of the sample population consists of students and hence our research mainly focuses on students using social networking sites. 3. The analysis done is mainly judgmental in nature. 4. The concept of social networking sites is not very old in Bangladesh thus not much of research has been done in regards to its effects. 5. The expertise of the questionnaire design is limited. 6. The underlying assumption is that the survey conducted in limited area represents the general psyche of the users of the social networking site. 7. Scarcity of time and resources.

6.0 Research Methodology

A qualitative research approach has been used for the study as it is involved to capture reality in interaction. It also involved studies a small number of respondent. A qualitative research approach employs no random sampling techniques and research procedure that produce descriptive data. We have conducted our research in a limited area due to meager of time and resources and as our prime aim is to express the

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realistic view of respondents in a systematic way the qualitative research approach has helped us a lot to fulfill our research objectives. 6.1 Mode of Data Collection: After secondary data collection through data collection over the internet, a short survey was carried out with a questionnaire. The questionnaire was well structured and the responses were sought from the respondents. It contains both close and open type of questions. The nature of the questions was such that it avoided ambiguous responses from the respondents and it also helped in quick analysis of the data collected. 6.2 Population and Sampling: The target population for our research was the students who are the major users of these social networking sites. This was done to have a better insight into the research as the target population was conscious about various aspect of our research topic and could provide better response. The understanding of the questionnaire was very easy to them as they always use these sites and aware of the benefits and problems of these sites. The extent of the survey was limited to SUST (Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet) campus. Purposive sampling method was used to select the respondents. The reasons behind using purposive or judgment sampling is that we were aware of the fact that still a limited number of people in our country use SNSs as well as to save our time and resources. Moreover, we thought that data collected through purposive sampling will satisfy our research objectives as it is involved in collecting only appropriate characteristics which is thought to be relevant to the research topic. We have surveyed among 50 students of SUST whom we were previously known that using various social networking sites regularly. 6.3 Variables of the Study: Variables are qualities the researcher wants to study and draw conclusions about. Our research was also based on some variables which are of two kinds (i) Dependent variable (ii) Independent variable 6.3.1 Dependent Variables: The dependent variable is that quantity or aspect of nature whose change in different states the researcher wants to understand or explain or predict. In our study the dependent variables were: (i) Positive effects (ii) Negative effects We have conducted our research to find out the positive and negative effects of online social networking in relation to some independent variables. 6.3.2 Independent Variables: Independent variable is a variable whose affect upon the dependent variables the researcher attempts to understand and explain. In our study the independent variables were: (i) Social Relations (ii) Education (iii) Society (iv) Privacy
Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

We have tried to find out through our study whether online social networking effects positively or negatively on the above independent variables. A relationship between independent and dependent variable is shown below -


(a) share course related information quickly (b) develop technological skill and knowledge (c) lax attitude towards proper spelling and grammar (d) waste a lot of time



7.0 A Review of Relevant Literature

Social networking is defined as being the act of exchanging information, personal or public, through various forms of technology, such as the internet, cell phones, and other services. Almost all social media has emerged on the internet, with many developing applications. There are various forms of social networking and media, often with employers, organizations, and private groups establishing their own social networks for employees, members, or those who meet certain qualifications. When it comes to online social networking, websites are commonly used. These websites are known as social sites. Social networking websites function like an online community of internet users. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks. Social Networking Sites abbreviated as SNS is the phrase used to describe any Web site that enables users to create public profiles within that Web site and form relationships with other users of the same Web site who access their profile. Social networking sites can be used to describe community-based Web sites, online discussions forums, chatrooms and other social spaces online. Boyd (2007) offers the following definition for todays Social Networking Sites: They include web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semipublic profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users within whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within their system. [2] Hitwise and Experian (2007) in a recent report states that: Social networking websites are online communities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. They
Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

typically provide a variety of ways for users to interact, through chat, messaging, email [3] Web sites dedicated to social networking include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, MySpace, Ning, Google Plus+, Tagged, orkut, hi5, myyearbook, Meetup, Badoo, bebo, mylife, friendster. [4] 7.1 History of Social Networking: Early efforts to support social network via computer mediated communication were made in many online services including Usenet, Arpanet, Listserv and Bulletin Board System (BBS). Social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as the in 1995, Geocities in 1994 and in 1995. Many of these early communities focused on bringing people together to interact with each other through chat rooms, and encourage users to share personal information and ideas via personal webpages by providing easy publishing tools and free or inexpensive webspace. Among the early communities (1995) took a different approach by simply having people link to each other via email address. New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s and many sites began to develop more advanced features for users to find and manage friends. This newer generation of social networking sites began to flourish with the emergence of in 1997. Friendster (2002) was the pioneer of social networking which was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later, and finally Bebo. Facebook was launched in 2004 with the intent to connect U.S. college students, starting with Harvard College. After gaining popularity, Facebook opened its registration to non-college students, and in 2008, Facebook surpassed MySpace as the leading social networking website. [5, 6] 7.2 Basic Structure of Social Networking Sites (SNSs): Social Networking Sites share some conventional features. This includes having profiles, friends, blog posts, widgets, and usually something unique to that particular social networking website - such as the ability to 'poke' people on Facebook. Profile: This is where you tell the world about yourself. Profiles contain basic information, like where you live and how old you are, and personality questions, like who's your favorite actor and what's your favorite book. Social networks dedicated to a special theme like music or movies might ask questions related to that theme. Friends: Friends are trusted members of the site that are allowed to post comments on your profile or send you private messages. You can also keep tabs on how your friends are using social networking, such as when they post a new picture or update their profile. Friends are the heart and soul of social networking. Groups: Most social networks use groups to help you find people with similar interests or engage in discussions on certain topics. They are both a way to connect with likeminded people and a way to identify your interests. Discussions: A primary focus of groups is to create interaction between users in the form of discussions. Most social networking websites support discussion boards for the

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

groups, and many also allow members of the group to post pictures, music, video clips, and other tidbits related to the group. Blogs: Another feature of some SNSs is the ability to create your own blog entries. While not as feature-rich as blog hosts like Wordpress or Blogger, blogging through a social network is perfect for keeping people informed on what you are up to. [7]

8.0 Analysis and Interpretation

The primary data have been collected by a short survey are analyzed and interpreted below by using appropriate statistics No. of Respondents 50 Male (%) 84 Female (%) 16

Levels of Education of the Respondents Higher Secondary Undergraduate Graduate Postgraduate 0% 76 % 20 % 4% No. of Questions Asked Part A : 6 Part B : 3 Part C : 7 8.1 Who Uses SNSs? The young people especially the young students are the major users of social networking sites. The study shows that most of the users are of between age group 1825. It also reveals that the percentage of female (16%) users is comparatively less than male users (84%). Our study also reveals that SNSs are extremely popular among the undergraduate students. The percentages are higher secondary 0%, undergraduate 76%, graduate 20% and postgraduate 4%. The detail statistics is shown below by charts: Response Rate (male) 100 % 100 % 95 % Response Rate (Female) 100 % 100 % 87 %

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

8.2 Which SNSs Are Used? SNSs are extremely popular among undergraduates, and Facebook, with its origin in higher education, is clearly the SNS of choice. The percentage of students using various social networking sites is Facebook 96%, Twitter 24%, MySpace 10%, LinkedIn 14%, and others 8%. The senior students who are closer to entering the workforce are more likely to use LinkedIn (70%) than do freshmen (30%). But two of the famous sites Twitter (24%) and Orkut (2%) have not attracted the Bangladeshi SNSs users. The statistics is shown below by a chart:

8.3 How SNSs Are Used?

Our study shows that highest 46% of users update or check their profiles frequently and other percentages are very frequently 18%, occasionally 30%, Never 6%. Our study also shows that

more than 51% of users spend only 2-3 hours per week which means that using of SNS actually doesnt involve a huge time. The other percentages are less than 1 hour 12%, 12 hours 17%, 3-4 hours 15% and 4-5 hours or more 5%. It is shown below by charts:

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

8.4 Why SNSs Are Used? Almost all of the respondents (80%) said that using SNSs to stay in touch with friends. The other percentages are communicate with classmates 30%, to share photos, videos, music 12%, and to interact with people with common interest 28% and plan or invite people to events 10%. The detail is shown below by a chart:

8.5 What Are The Negative Impacts Of SNSs? Most of the respondents (60%) said that SNSs havent created any negative impact on their personal lives. Others (40%) said that SNSs impact negatively on their personal lives. Among them 54% said that it is loss of time, 14% said that loss of privacy, 22% said that they feel less emotional bonding in relations and another 10% said that more reliance on electronic medium is the negative impact of SNSs. Our study also reveals that the negative impacts are mostly reported by the female and the elder student. While the young male students feel no negative impacts of SNSs. The statistics is shown below by a chart:

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

8.6 How SNSs Impact On The Students? Almost all of the respondents (80%) said that SNSs have both positive and negative impacts on the students while only an 8% of users report that SNSs impact negatively on the students. They said that it waste a lot of time. About 48% of respondents said using SNSs to share course related information quickly and other 24% of respondents think that it will develop technological knowledge and skill. While others 50% report that it waste a lot of time and another 16% think that lax attitude towards proper spelling and grammar may happen. The detail is shown below by a chart:

8.7 How SNSs Impact On Our Society?

About 92% of respondents said that SNSs have both positive and negative impacts on our society and rest 8% think that SNSs impact negatively on our society. Among the respondent -ants 52% said that increased communication between family members, friends, and colleagues, 36% said that provides a medium of communication between different socio-economic strata, 24% said that elderly people and those with physical disabilities are able to stay in touch while another 48% said that reduce face-to-face interaction and leads to social isolation. The detail is shown below by a chart:

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

8.8 What are the Issues of Privacy On SNSs?

The people we have surveyed among them highest 66% said that they put some restriction on access of profiles. Some other (10%) said that they put a lot of restriction. But a number of

undergraduate students (24%) said that they dont restrict their profiles. When we asked our respondents about what kind of invasion may happen they think, then 56% of the respondents said that misuse of their information may happen, others are security problems 32%, Cyberbullying 8%, leaving a history that causes me problems 38%. The detail statistics is shown below by charts:

9.0 Findings and Discussions

9.1 Effects on Education A number of students now a days use social networking sites for educational purposes. It is a platform where students can easily share information about their lessons, assignments, research or other course related topics. By spending much time working with new technologies, students develop more familiarity with computers and other electronic devices which will help students build skills that will aid them throughout their lives. On the other hand, many students rely on the accessibility of information on social media specifically and the web in general to provide answers. That means a reduced focus on learning and retaining information. Moreover, the more time students spend on social sites, the less time they spend socializing in person and the speed at which information is published, has created a lax attitude towards proper spelling and grammar. 9.3 Effects on Relationship Social networking sites allow people to create new relationships and reconnect with friends and family. When people maintain these close connections, they have a positive influence on society by increasing the bonds of friendship and love that create in us a
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desire to better our world. It also helps people with disabilities that can't get out of their houses not to feel so isolated. Social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace provide an outlet for people to interact with others without being shy or fearful of rejection. These sites allow people to join various groups in which they share similar interests. A lot of day to day information is shared on daily updates. On the other hand, Social networking can be very addictive which can cause an issue in a relationship. When a partner puts more priority on spending time on social networking sites, then the relationship it can lead to hurt feelings. 9.4 Effects on Society Social networking sites allow for communication between individuals who ordinarily would not have the ability to communicate on a regular basis. When used in moderation these sites can facilitate discussions between family members spread across the country or the world. Increased communication between family members, friends, and colleagues, as well as between near complete strangers allows for the rapid transfer of information and resources. Therefore, social networking sites can have a very large impact on society as long as they are used in moderation. By providing a medium of communication between different socio-economic strata, social networking sites have a positive influence on society. When used responsibly as part of a society's method of communication, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and other social networking sites provide an avenue of communication between younger and older generations, bosses and employees, and people who have never and, indeed, will never meet. On the other hand, the hours per day of face-to-face socializing have declined as the use of social media has increased. People who use these sites frequently are prone to social isolation. Parents spend less time with their children and couples spend less time together even when they live in the same house, because they are using the Internet instead of interacting with each other. This, in turn, will lead to social awkwardness and furthers the desire to comfortably socialize on the Internet. 9.5 Issues of Privacy The public nature of online profiles creates security risks about which most users are unaware. Cybercriminals can gather information to be used for identity theft from social networking profiles, such as birthdays, pet names, mothers' maiden names, names of children, and other details often used in passwords and security questions. Offline crime may result from posting personal information, like home robberies committed after a person announces vacation plans and alerts criminals when the home will be left unattended. Therefore, privacy concerns must be of primary importance in networking. It is true that social networking provides an opportunity to develop inter-personal relationship, one need to be aware of the possible security threats. Especially, students often post
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detailed and specific information, on Facebook, Friendster, MySpace etc, they can be more easily traced by strangers and even acquaintances. Another aspect is the loss of private space. For todays generation, things that were considered personal a generation before, are all public. Status updates, wall post and tweets yell about every move we make, every step we take and every relation we make or break.

10.0 Recommendations
Here are some recommendations suggested by the respondents1. Young generation should take social networking sites as a general system of communication as like as others communication system. No one should be much addicted as it is not an essential part of our life. 2. Educational institutions can inspire their young students to use social networking sites positively. 3. Young generation should remember the value of time and should not waste too much time on social networking. 4. The students should practice the proper spelling and grammar instead shortcut which in term will be benefitted for them. 5. They should be conscious about the privacy system and should not share very personal information. 6. The government can include the various aspect of social networking in Information and Technology Policy and can provide guidelines for proper using of these sites. 7. The users should be aware about the facts and things what they are doing during online social networking. 8. The young generation should share accurate information instead of wrong one which in term will be benefitted for others who are looking for the same information. 9. The nature of profiles shouldnt be open for all. There should some restrictions regarding personal information, photos, and videos. The female users should put more restrictions as exposure of their information may bring unnecessary problems to them. 10. The attitude of the users should be very positive and they should select the positive activities instead of something wrongdoing.

11.0 Conclusion
Online social networking offers people great convenience for social networking. It allows people to keep in touch with friends, reconnect with old friends or acquaintances, meet new people, and even conduct business with the click of a few
Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

buttons. You can find people with similar interests as you and get to know them better, even if they are in a different country without having to worry about an enormous phone bill or going over the restricted minutes on a phone card. Although there are many valuable assets to social networking web sites, there are also major issues that the sites must address such as the protection of private information, the protection of children, and the protection of copyrighted material. At last we can say that, although they have issues, social networking web sites are still one of the best inventions of the modern era because they connect so many people.

1. Accessed 25/11/2011.

2. Boyd, D & Ellison, N (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship [Online]. Available from 3. Hitwise and Experian (2007). [Online] Available from http://www.bergenmed$_11_Social_Networking_Report_2008.pdf 4. 15 Most Popular Social Networking Sites. [Online] Available from http://ebizm ba.ebizm Accessed 21/11/2011. 5. Nickson, Christopher. The History of Social Networking. [Online] Available from http:// Accessed 23/11/2011. 6. Walker, Miles. A brief look at the history and rise of social networks. [Online] Available from Accessed on 23/11/2011. 7. Social Networking Basic. [Online] Available from /od/socialnetworking/a/social-network.htm Accessed 23/11/2011. 8. Aminuzzaman, M. Salahuddin (1991), Introduction to Social Research. Dhaka: Bangladesh Publishers.

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

Title of the Study: Effects of Online Social Networking on Personal Lives of the People.

[Information provided by the respondents will be kept confidential and will only be used for research purpose] [Instructions: As the questions are interrelated all the questions should be answered. Multiple options could be chosen where necessary]

1. Name 2. Age 3. Gender 4. Religion : : (a) 14-17 (b) 18-25 (c) 26-35 (d) 36-45 (e) 46 and Above : (a) Male (b) Female : (a) Islam (b) Hinduism (c) Christian (d) Others .

5. Education : (a) Higher Secondary (b) Undergraduate(c) Graduate (d) Postgraduate 6. Institution :

1. Which social networking sites do you use? (a) Orkut (b) Facebook (c) Twitter (d) MySpace (e) Hi5 (f) LinkedIn (g) Tagged (h) Bebo (i) Any others (please specify) 2. How often do you update or check them? (a) Very Frequently (b) Frequently (c) Occasionally (d) Never 3. How much time do you spend on using these sites every week? (a) Less than 1 hour (b) 1-2 hours (c) 2-3 hours (d) 3-4 hours (e) 4-5 hours or more

1. What do you use social networking sites for? (a) to stay in touch with friends (b) to interact with people with common interests (c) share photos, music, video (d) communicate with classmates (e) plan or invite people to events (f) Any others (please specify) ..

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

2. Do you feel these networking sites have created any negative impact on your personal life? (a) Yes (b) No

If yes, then what do you feel can be these impacts? (a) Loss of privacy (b) Loss of time (c) More reliance on electronic medium (d) Less emotional bonding in relations (e) Any others (please specify) .. 3. How social networking affects on the students?

(a) Positively

(b) Negatively

(c) Both

Select the effects, you think may happen(a) share course related information quickly (b) develop technological skill and knowledge (c) lax attitude towards proper spelling and grammar (d) waste a lot of time (e) Any others (please specify) . 4. How social networking affects on our society? (a) Positively (b) Negatively (c) Both

Select the effects, you think may happen(a) increased communication between family members, friends, and colleagues. (b) provides a medium of communication between different socio-economic strata. (c) reduce face-to-face interaction and leads to social isolation. (d) elderly people and those with physical disabilities are able to stay in touch. (e) Any others (please specify) . 5. Do you think that there is invasion of privacy through these networking sites? (a) Yes (b) No

If yes, then what do you feel can be these problems? (a) Misuse of my information (b) Security problems (c) Cyberbullying (d) Leaving a history that could cause me problems. 6. To what extent do you restrict access to profile? (a) I dont restrict (b) I put some restriction (c) I put a lot of restrictions

7. Any other insights and suggestions you would like to provide? ........

Thanks for your cooperation!

Copyright @Jihan Ahmed, SUST, Sylhet, Bangladesh.