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G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering , Nagpur.

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Experiment No 1
Aim: - Study of Metallurgical Microscope Introduction: - The metallurgical microscope is the most important tool of the metallurgist. It consist an objective and an eye-piece. Its primary function is to reveal the details of the object. The clarity and the extent to which the details are revealed depends on the degree to which these optical systems are created. Principle: - A horizontal beam of light from the light source is reflected by means of a plane glass reflector downwards through the microscope objective on the surface of the specimen some of these incident light reflected from the specimen surface will be magnified and passing through the plane glass reflector and magnified again by upper lens system of the eye-piece. Constructional Details: - The table type microscopes are consist of 1. Stage:- A flat movable table supporting specimen. This can be moved up or down by knobs. 2. Tubes :- The vertically movable tube containing eyepiece, objective and plane reflector. The tube length varies from 160 mm to 250 mm. 3. Rough & fine focus Adjustments - The limbs of microscope carry the coarse & fine adjustments to facilitate the 4. Objective The body tube carries revolving nose piece carrying the three objectives. This enables quick change of the objective which helps for a quick resolving the structure of metal, the magnification of lenses is enlarged on focal length of the lens used The important properties of an objective are1) Magnifying Power 2) Resolving Power. It is the property by which an objective shows distinctly represented two small adjacent bonds in the structure of the object. This is usually expressed as number of lines per mm that can be separated which depends on the numerical operator, the wavelength of the light used. Resolution is particularly important during the microscopy of the micro constituents of metals consisting of fine lamination with core resolution which appears as one uniform area, where as an objective with higher numerical appearance reveals deeper nature of the structure.

5. Eyepiece - It is named, as it is near to the eye. It is made up of various Powers such as 5, 10, 15 etc. Uses The metallurgical microscope is useful in quality control department in Industries to observe & study 1) Differential phases 2) Porosity or defects. All these have a great effect on mechanical properties of material List of Modern Microscopes i) Watson Royal Microscope. ii) Van Lanes Hock Microscope. iii) Glass led Microscope. iv) Baker series Microscope. v) Leitr Microscope.

Experiment No. 02

Aim Preparation of a Specimen for metallographic examination.

Introduction Metallographic or microscopy consists of the microscopic study of the Structural characteristics of material or an alloy. The microscope is thus the most important tool of a metallurgist from both, scientific & technical study point view. It is possible to determine grain size & the size, shape & distribution of various phases & inclusions which have a great effect on the mechanical properties of metal. The microstructure will reveal the mechanical & thermal treatment of the metal & it may be possible to predict its behavior under a given set of conditions. Experience had indicated the success in microscopic study depends upon the case taken in the preparation of specimen. The most expensive microscope will not reveal the structure of a specimen that has been poorly revealed .The procedure to be followed in the preparation of a specimen is comparatively similar and simple & involves a technique which is developed only after constant practice. The ultimate objective is to produce a flat, scratch free, mirror like surface. The steps involved or required to prepare a metallographic specimen properly are covered in the coming section explained below. Sampling The choice of sample for microscopic study may be very important. If a failure is to be investigated the sampling should be chosen as close as possible to the area of the failure & should be compared with one taken from the normal section. If the material is soft, such as non ferrous metals or alloy & nonheat treated steels, the section is obtained by manual hack sawing /power saw. If the material is hard, the section may be obtained by use of an abrasive cut off wheels. This wheel is thin disk of suitable cutting abrasive rotating at high speed. The specimen should be kept cool during the cutting operation. Rough Grinding Whenever possible the specimen should be of a size & shape that is convenient to handle. A soft sample may be made flat by slowly moving it up to & back across the surface of a flat smooth file. The soft hard may be rough ground on a belt sander with specimen kept cool by frequent dipping in water during the grinding operation. In all grinding & polishing operation, the specimen should be moved perpendicular to the existing scratches this will facilitate, recognition of stage when the deeper scratches are replaced by shallower one characteristic of the finer abrasives. The rough grinding is continued until the surface is flat & free from wire brushes & all scratches due to hacksaw or cutoff wheel are no longer visible.

Intermediate Polishing After the previous processes the specimen is polishing on a series of emery paper containing successively finer abrasive ( SiC) . The first paper is usually no. 1 than 1/ 0, 2/0, 3/0, & finally 4/0.. The intermediate polishing operation using emery paper is usually done dry. However in certain case such as preparation of soft material , Silicon Carbide has greater removal rate & as it is resin bonded , can be used with a lubricant , which prevents overshooting of the sample, minimizes shearing of soft metals & also provides a rising action to flush away surface removal product so the paper willnt be clogged. Fine polishing - The time consumed & the success of fine polishing depends largely on the case that we exercised during the previous polishing processes. The final approximation to the flat , scratch free surface is obtained by the use of a wet rotating wheel covered with a special cloth that is charged by carefully sized abrasive particles. A wide range of abrasive is available for final polishing, while many will do a satisfying job, these appear to be presence of gamma form of aluminum-oxides (Al2O3), for ferrous & copper based materials & Cerium oxide for Aluminum, Magnesium & their alloys, other final polishing abrasives often used are diamond , chromium oxide & magnesium oxide etc. A choice of proper polishing cloth depends upon the particular material being polished & the purpose of metallographic study. Many cloths are available of varying lap or pile, from those having no pile, such as silk, to those of intermediate pile such as broad cloth, billiard cloth, canvas cloth & finally to a deep pile such as velvet synthetic clothes are also available for general purpose of which two under the trival names of gamal & micro cloth are most widely used . Etching The purpose of etching is to make the many structural characteristics of the metal or alloy visible. The process should be such that the various parts of the microstructure may be clearly differentiated. This is to subject the polished surface to chemical action. In the alloys composed of two or more shapes. The competent are revealed during etching by a preferential attack of one or more of the constituents by the reagent because of difference in chemical composition of the phases. In uniform single phase alloy contact is obtained and the grain boundaries are made visible because of difference in the rate at which various grains are attacked by the reagent This difference in the rate of attack by reagent which is mainly associated with angle of the different grain structure section to the plane of the polished surface. Because of chemical attack of the chemical reagent the grain boundary appears as valleys in the polished surface light from the microscope hitting the side of these valleys will be reflected but of the microscope making the grain boundaries appears dark lines The section of the appropriate etching reagent is determined by metal or alloys & the specific structure desired for viewing.

Experiment No. -3
Aim: Preparation of Mounted samples with the help of mounting press/cold setting resins.
Theory- Specimens that are very small or awkwardly shaped should be mounted to favorite, intermediate & final polishing wires small rods steel, sheet metal specimens, thin sections etc. must be approximately mounted in a suitable material or rigidly damped in a mechanical mount Synthetic plastic materials applied in a special mounting press will yield a mount of uniform convenient size (usually 1 inch or 1.25 inch or 1.5 inch. in diameter) for handling in subsequent polishing operation. These mounts when properly made are very resistant to attack by etching reagent ordinarily used. The most common thermosetting resin for mounting is Bakelite. Bakelite molding powders are available in variety of colors which simplifies the identification of mounted specimen. The specimen & the correct amount of bakelite powder are available in variety of cloves which simplifies the identification of mounted specimen. The specimen & the correct amount of bakelite powder are placed in the cylinder of the mounting press. The temperature is gradually1500 C & a molding pressure of about 4000 PSI is applied simultaneously since bakelite is set & curved when this temperature is reached, the specimen mount may be ejected from the molding die which is still hot. Lucite is the most common thermosetting plastic resin for mounting. It is completely transparent when properly mounted. This transparency is useful when it is polished or when it is desirable for any other reason to see the entire specimen in the mould mount unlike the thermosetting plastic, the thermosetting resin dont under go curing at the molding temperature, rather they set on cooling. The specimen & a proper amount of Lucite powder are placed in the mounting press & are subjected to the same temperature & pressure as for Bakelite (1500 c, 4000 PSI) After this has been reached, the heating coil is removed & cooling fins are placed around the cylinder to cool the mount to about 750 c in about 7 minutes while the molding pressure is maintained. Then the mount be rejected from the mould, ejecting the mount while still hot, or allowing it to cool slowly in the molding cylinder to ordinary temperature before ejection will cause mount to remain opaque. Small specimens may be continently mounted for metallographic preparation in a laboratory made damping device. Thin sheet specimens when mounted in a damping device, are usually alternated with metal. Filler sheet which have approximately the same hardness as these specimens. The use of filler sheet will preserve surface irregularities of the specimen & will prevent to some extent the edges of the specimen from becoming rounded during polishing.

Experiment No.- 4
Aim: Study and drawing of microstructures of Steels.
Draw Iron Carbon Diagram / Fe-Fe3C/ Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram and show the range of following steels on it 1. Hypo eutectoid 2. Eutectoid and 3. Hypereutectoid steels Also draw the microstructures of

1. Hypo eutectoid Steel

(0.2% C)

2. Hypo eutectoid Steel

(0.4 % C)

3. Hypo eutectoid Steel

(0.6% C)

4. Eutectoid Steel

(0.8% C)

5. Hypereutectoid Steel

(> 0.8% C)

Experiment No. :- 5
Aim: Study and drawing of microstructures of Cast Iron..

Draw the microstructures of following Cast Iron

1. White Cast Iron

2.Grey Cast Iron

3. Malleable Cast Iron

4. Nodular Cast Iron

5. Ferritic Grey Cast Iron

6. Pearlitic Grey Cast Iron

7. Ferrito pearlitic Grey Cast Iron

Experiment No. :- 6
Aim: Study of effect of Annealing & Normalizing on properties of the steel
. Equipment Used for Annealing AND Normalizing : Muffle Furnace Equipment For checking Hardness after Annealing and Normalizing : Rockwell Hardness Tester

Theory Annealing in general, involves heating to sufficient high temperatures Holding at this temperature & finally cooling at a very slow rate. The temperature to which steel is heating & holding time are determined by various factors such as the chemical composition of the steel, size & shape of steel component & final properties desired. Annealing can form either the final treatment or a preparatory step for further treatment. The various purposes of this treatment are i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) To relive internal stresses developed machining, forging, rolling or welding etc. To improve or restore ductility or toughness To enhance machinability. To eliminate chemical non-uniformity. To refine grain size To reduce gaseous content in steel. during solidification,

Types of Annealing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Full Annealing Isothermal Annealing Diffusion Annealing Partial Annealing Re crystallization Annealing

Normalizing It is the process of heating steel to about 40 0 - 50 0 c above upper critical temperature ( A 3) holding for proper time & then cooling it in air or slightly agitated air to room temperature or air volume. After normalizing the resultant microstructure should be pearlitic. This is particularly important

for some alloy steels which are air hardened by nature for such steels, cooling in air dont lead to normalized structure. Slower cooling rates are read since the temperature involved in this process is more than that for normalizing, the homogeneity as austenitic increases & it results in better dispersion. Results in enhanced mechanical properties. The grain size in finer in normalized structure that in annealing grain size of normalized steel is governed by section thickness. As cooling rates differ considerably from case to case, there is variation in grain size of normalizing steel over its cross section. Refinement of grain size is on of the most important objectives of normalizing & it is to be a great extent due to high temperature involved in these operation are subjected to a great extent . Normalizing treatment is frequently applied to steel in order to gain refinement, improvement in mach inability & enhanced mechanical properties such as hardness, strength & toughness.

Experiment No. - 07
Aim: Study of Pack carburizing of steel samples.

Carburizing Medium- Charcoal, Petroleum Coke Energizer Barium chloride (BaCO3) 10 -15 % The box containing the part to be treated which are packed with Carburizing medium are placed in the furnace & heated to the desired temperature for carburization. This temperature is high enough to form austenite .The parts are maintained at this temperature till desired degree of penetration is achieved. Although, charcoal is basic acceptance of any carburizing compound experiment have show that no carbon is absorbed by steel if all air is removed from carburinsing box . It shows that there is no direct penetration of carbon to steel. It is probable that the carbon absorption at the surface occurs by reaction between iron (Fe) & carbon monoxide, the later serving as an active carrier of carbon or carbon monoxide & carbon

C + O2 = CO2 CO2 + C = 2CO

-----------------(1) -----------------(2)

At carburizing temperature, this reaction always goes to right. Carbon Monoxide is free to combine with iron.

2 CO + 3Fe = Fe3 C + CO2


The carbon is not form of iron carbide but is in elemental form dissolved in gamma forming austenite. As the carbon content at the interface between solid & gas is increased, the carbon by diffusion migrates towards region of lower carbon concentration i. e. centre of part being carburized; CO2 produced by this reaction is liberated at surface & reacts with carburizing compound to from more CO at expense of carbon of charcoal. The penetration of carbon into steel depends on temperature, time & Carburizing agent. The boxes covered by lids & lusted (sealed & airtight) by fire flame to exclude air & escape of gases. Box heated unto 900 0 950 0 C requires time of 6 15 hrs depending on case depth. A

portion of the part which doesnt need to be hardened is covered & protected by mixture of asbestos & fire plate or copper plating (0.003 inches).

Energizer Ba CO3 = Ba O + CO 2 ------------------------(4)

After decomposition of BaCO3 it provides source of CO2 which reacts with CO for Carburizing. Advantages - 1) Case thickness of 0.16 is possible, so more grinding allowances are Possible. 2) Negligible dimension change during carburizing, distortion may Occur during heat treatment. 3) This process is used for gears, camshaft & bearing manufacturing 4) No special equipment are required. Disadvantages 1) Process is Batch Type. 2) Case carburized layer is not uniform . 3) Required very long time cycle 4) Carburized part have tendency to form grinding cracks during after hardening .

Experiment No. 8
Aim: Determination of Harden ability of steel by Jominy end Quench Test
Theory :- When a piece of steel of any appreciable size is heated to its austenization temperature & then quenched, the cooling rates during quenching vary across the cross section. The cooling rate at the surface & the center are not same. The difference in their rate increases with rise in severity of quenches or decreases in the speed of heat absorption. At the centre of the cross section, the cooling rate is slowest. This may give rise to the formation of pearlite. The relatively permanent & most common method of determining the hard ability of steel is the Quench test. This is also called as Jominy End Quench Test. In this test, the steel bar of 1 inch diameter & 4 inch long is heated to proper austenization temperature. After being soak for sufficient time the specimen is quickly placed in a fixture as shown in figure. A water jet is opened quickly. Water comes out at a constant pressure through the orifice of inch diameter. The distance between orifice and bottom of steel is 0.5 inch. The temperature of water is kept around 240 C (R.T). A stream of water strikes at lower end of specimen. The end is quenched and is continued to about 20 min. to cool. Figure shows the typical Jominy curve for a no. of AISI steel. Jominy curved is strictly valid only for a given heat of particular steel, because other is in tolerance range. In chemical composition which allows the appropriate range of hardness. Figure shows the harden ability for AIST 4145-H steel. Harden ability occurs for all steel will lies within the range, for many commercial grades of steel. Harden ability limits of specimen standards have been adopted by the society of automotive Engineerings (SAE). These limits are termed as Harden ability Bands. Attempts have been made by several words correlate the cooling rates in the different distances along the quenched end of Jominy bar with the cooling rates at different distances of the cylindrical bar. It can be quenched end of Jominy bar with cooling rates at different distances in two steel rods are same then the cooling conditions are also identical at these portions Determination of Harden ability:-. When a appreciable size is heated to the austenization temperature and then quenched, the cooling rates varies across the surface. The cooling rate at the center and surface are not the same. The difference in these rates increases with the rise in severity of quench and decreases with speed of heat absorption. At the center of cross section, the cooling rate is slowest. This may give rise to the formation of pearlite. Marten site may be formed on surface and hence gradient of hardness exist from the surface to centre.

Since each grade of steel has its own transformation, hardness across cross section. Harden ability of steel is measure of this depth. Properly it may be designed as the susceptibility of steel to harden ability of steel is measured of this depth and distribution of hardness across the cross section. It is not related to maximum hardness and the term hardness and harden ability term should be clearly distinguished. The maximum hardness depends upon carbon content in the steel. It can be achieved by fulfilling the following conditions i) All the carbon is solution of austenite. ii) Critical cooling rate is achieved iii) No retained austenite is present after quenching. Harden ability on other hand depends upon the addition of alloy element and grain size of austenite. Besides the coolant used for quenching, the size of the specimen and criteria used for assessment of harden ability also affects the law of harden ability. If drastic cooling is carried out, martensite can form at the centre of crosssection of steel because the cooling rate at the centre may be exceeded the critical cooling rate and the drastic quenching may give rise to other under effects such as warping and cracking of steel is reflecting by its quenching ability to harden throughout its cross-section . While avoiding quenching and deep hardened steel in low hardening steel depth of hardening steel is uniform through out the cross-section. . A number of alloy steels come under the category of deep hardened steel. In shallow hardening steel, the narrow zone when the surface transform to martensite, pearlite transformation occurs in and around the centre. In intermediate zone, the austenite transformation takes place at high temperature and the remaining at low temperature range. In these zones the hardness depends upon the relative amount of martensite and pearlite phase. In deep hardening steel formation and marten site mends deep into the section. The martensite and pearlite region can be easily distinguished in steel section by 1) Etching the steel section and viewing microstructure. 2) Sudden fall in hardness of steel due to increase of pearlite content in the narrow zone of Split transformation 3) By structure of sample micro structured steel containing 50% marten site and 50% Pearlite at brittle to ductile transformation region.

Experiment No. -9 Aim: Tensile test on mild steel & Aluminum Test Specimen

Objective To observe the behavior of mild steel & Aluminum under gradual axial tension to plot & interpret the stress strain curve. To calculate physical quantities. Apparatus Universal testing machine, venire caliper, steel rule

Theory Stress: Force per unit area. Torque acting through a small area within a plane. It can be divide it in to two components parallel & normal. The plane called Normal & shear stress respectively. . Strain It is a measure of change of size of body to its original size or shape. True stress & strain The continual tensile test given valuable information upto the point of yielding, beyond this point other stress value are falls since the actual cross sectional area reduces at that moment of loading. The true stress is by dividing the cross sectional at the normal of the loading. True strain determined by the change in length divide by immediately proceeding length. Theory Universal testing machineUniversal testing machine designed for tension, compression, hardness & bending test on metallic material & others. Together with a variety of optional, the machine is provided a number of tests on the non metallic materials like plastic, rubber, wood etc. The loading method employed hydraulically transmission system in which the loading rate is widely adjustable, smooth & simple. Higher mechanical efficiency is available & greater load is handled properly with the load weighing mechanisms a load being applied to it than transformed into a change in oil pressure whose force is balanced with the hydraulic system and the moment of force of rise of pendulum. This mechanism is provided with an attachment called the load calibration unit which is prominently designed as a guide to loading rate measurements and to constantly control the loading rates thus a variety of motors behind it and speed, setting duties or control panel. In case if reinforcement bars, yield pt. is measured by the drop of beam or Hall of the pointer method when the yield pt. of the material is to increasing of the load will stop , but the poise is in beyond the balance position and the machine will stop the correspondingly strain recorded as the yield point.

Engineering stress strain It is based entirely on the original dimension of specimen. Hence engineering Stress, strain doesnt given a true indication of deformation characteristics. Procedure 1) Adjust specimen pendulum according to the grips is fixed 2) Adjust range of dial gauge. 3) Switch on the machine for regular interval of time. 4) At the same time note the corresponding elongation. 5) Continue this till the specimen is broken and load at this point is called breaking load 6) Also note the mechanism load which is called as ultimate load . 7) Remove the specimen from fixture & measure the neck diameter. 8) Take the readings and do the calculations

Observation Tables For Aluminum - Diameter of rod before load apply (mm) = Gauge Length (cm) = Diameter of rod after load applies (mm) = Elongation (cm) = Ultimate load =


Breaking Load= Sr,. No. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) LOAD (KN) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Elongation (mm)


For Mild Steel - Diameter of rod before load apply (mm) = Gauge Length (cm) = Diameter of rod after load applies (mm) = Elongation (cm) = Ultimate load = KN

Breaking Load=


Sr. No.

Load (KN)

Elongation (mm)

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11)

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

Calculate 1. Elongation 2. Ultimate Stress 3. Breaking Stress

Draw stress strain diagram for Aluminum and M.S. bar

Experiment No 10
Aim: - Measurement of Hardness of Ferrous & Non- Ferrous materials by 1. Rock-well Hardness Tester 2. Brinell Hardnes 3. Vickers Hardness Tester

Equipments Used: Indenters steel ball, diamond etc Force Select/Apply: Depends upon Material Indentation /Penetration: 1. Check the hardness of the sample before and after Annealing 2. Check the hardness of the sample before and after Normalizing 3. Differentiate between the hardness of sample before Annealing & Normalizing Theory: Rock-well Hardness Tester:

Brinell Hardness Tester:

Vickers Hardness Tester:

Micro hardness