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Suggested Answers For Chemistry STPM Section A

1 (a)

(i)

nucleus has no (zero) influence over the electron.

 

1m

 

(ii)

Energy required = 1310 / 6.0 x 10 23 = 2.18 x 10 -21 kJ

1m

 

or

2.18 x 10 -18 J

 

(iii)

Difference in energy (J per electron) between n = 2 and n = 4 = (1230 – 981) x 10 3 / 6.0 x 10 23 J per electron transition. = 4.15 x 10 -19 J per electron transition

1m

E

= hf

f = 4.15 x 10 -19 / 6.3 x 10 -34 = 6.26 x 10 14 s -1

 

1m

(b)

(i)

P 1 : 35 Cl + ion

and P 3 : 37 Cl +

 

1m

 

(ii)

Peak height P 2 : Peak height P 4

   

100 : 33

= 3 : 1

 

1m

 

3 : 1 which conforms to the relative abundance of 35 Cl and 37 Cl

1m

(c)

(i)

At very high pressures, the volume occupied by the gas

1m

molecules cannot be ignored because the volume of the gas is small

and the molecules are closer together.

 
 

(ii)

At medium pressure :

   

-negative deviation caused by stronger intermolecular forces of attraction since HCl is a bigger molecule than hydrogen.

1m

- HCl is a polar molecule; hence stronger intermolecular forces exist .

1m

   

10m

2 (a)

(i)

0 = 2(-127) + 2H f (ClO 2 )- 2 (-25) H f (ClO 2 ) = + 102 kJ mol -1

 

1m

1m

 

(ii)

The enthalpy of formation of ClO 2 is endothermic, hence ClO 2 is

1m

unstable compared to chlorine and oxygen.

 

(b)

(i)

Fe 3+ (aq)

+ e

Fe 3 + (aq); E Ө = +0.77 V

Fe 3+ (aq); E Ө = +0.77 V

   

ClO 2 (aq) +

4H + (aq) + 5 Fe 3+

ClO 2 (aq) + 4H + (aq) + 5 Fe 3 + Cl - (aq)

Cl - (aq)

+

5Fe 2+ + 2H 2 O ;

E.m.f of the cell = 1.50 – (+0.77 ) = + 0.73 V Since e.m.f of the cell is positive, ClO 2 oxidises Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ spontaneously.

1m

1m

 

(ii)

S

+ 2H +

+

2e

H 2 S (aq); E Ө = +0.14 V

H 2 S (aq);

E Ө = +0.14 V

 

ClO 2 + 4H 2 S

ClO 2 + 4H 2 S 2Cl - (aq) + 5S + 4H 2 O +

2Cl - (aq) + 5S + 4H 2 O + 2H +

E.m.f of the cell = 1.50 – (+0.14 ) = + 1.36V Since e.m.f of the cell is positive, ClO 2 oxidises H 2 S to sulphur spontaneously.

1m

1m

 

(iii)

 
2m * Correct arrangement of apparatus as well as functional; 1 mark * correct materials
2m
* Correct arrangement of apparatus as well as functional; 1 mark
* correct materials and prperly labelled
: 1 mark
(c)
2ClO 2
+ 2OH -
ClO 2 -
+ ClO 3 -
+ H 2 O
1m
10m
3
(a)
The minimum energy required to displace/remove one mole of
electron from one mole of atom in the gaseous state
1m
(b)
1. atomic size increases
1m
2. screening effect (shielding effect) increases
1m
(c)
-Valence electron configuration:
1m
Mg: 3s 2 ; Al: 3s 2 3p 1
-
more energy is required to remove an electron from a fully occupied
s-orbital than from a singly occupied p orbital.
1m
(d)
-the small boron ion will distort the electron cloud of its neighbouring
anions, giving a covalent characteristic to its compounds.
1m
the big Ba 2+ ion will not show much polarization; thus barium
compounds are more ionic.
-
1m
x
(e)
(i)
x
1m
N 3-
Mg 2+
x
x
(ii)
Mg 3 N 2
+
6 H 2 O
2NH s (g) + 3Mg(OH) 2
2m
10m

4

4 (a) (b) C H Br No. of moles 35.2/12 = 2.9 6.5/1 = 6.5 58.3/80

(a)

(b)

C H Br No. of moles 35.2/12 = 2.9 6.5/1 = 6.5 58.3/80 = 0.73
C
H
Br
No. of moles
35.2/12 = 2.9
6.5/1 = 6.5
58.3/80 = 0.73
Mole ratio
4
9
1
Molar mass : 136.9
Molecular formula : C 4 H 9 Br

(i)

= 2.9 6.5/1 = 6.5 58.3/80 = 0.73 Mole ratio 4 9 1 Molar mass :

1m

1m

= 2.9 6.5/1 = 6.5 58.3/80 = 0.73 Mole ratio 4 9 1 Molar mass :
CH 3 1m CH 3 - CH - CH 2 Br (ii) Nucleophilic substitution S
CH 3
1m
CH 3 - CH - CH 2 Br
(ii)
Nucleophilic substitution S N 2 (primary halogen alkanes)
1m
(c)
(i)
H
H
1m
CH 3 -
C
= C- CH 3
or CH 3 CH = CHCH 3
(ii)
CH 3
1m
CH 3 -
C
- CH 3
Br
(iii)
Isomer: CH 3 CH 2 – CH = CH 2 or
CH 3 - C = CH 2
1m
CH 3
Equation:
CH 3 CH 2 – CH = CH 2 + 5[O]
CH 3 CH 2 – COOH +CO 2 + H 2 O
1m
Or C(CH 3 ) 2 =CH 2
+ 4[O]
(CH 3 ) 2 C=O
+ CO 2
+ H 2 O
(d)
-Warm with aqueous acidified KMnO 4.
- Alcohol P does not decolourise the purple solution.
-2-methyl-1- propanol decolourises the purple solution. (oxidation of
primary alcohols)
1m
1m
10m

SECTION B

5

(a)

(i)

Relative atomic mass

 

=

Mass of one atom of element X 1/12 x Mass of one atom of 12 C

 
 

1mark

 

(ii)

Isotopes means atoms of an element having the same number of protons but

different number of neutrons.

 
 

2 marks

 

(b)

Ethanol molecule: CH 3 CH 2 OH During bombardment by high speed electrons, various bonds can be broken, positive ions which are fragments are formed.

m/e

Ion

15

CH 3

+

28

CH

3 CH +

 

31

CH

2 OH +

45

CH

3 CH

2 O +

46

CH 3 CH

2 OH +

 

5marks

 

(c)

(i)

Water molecule undergoes autoionisation.

 
 

H 2 O

<=== >

H + + OH -

ΔH = Endothermic

 

Ionic product of water, K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH - ]

 

=

1 x 10 -14 mol 2 dm -6 at 25 0 C When temperature increases, the position of equilibrium shifts to the right forming more H + and OH - . Hence the value of K w increases.

 

4marks

 

(ii)

Ca 2+ (aq) + 2e

Ca(s) E Ө = -2.87V

The standard electrode potential of calcium is the potential difference obtained when the half cell of Ca/Ca 2+ (aq) is connected to a standard hydrogen electrode

under standard conditions.

 
 

3marks

6

(a)

(i)

 

KNO 3 (s) + aq

  KNO 3 (s) + aq K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq)

K + (aq)

+

NO 3 - (aq)

The forward reaction of dissolution of KNO 3 is an endothermic process as the temperature drops when it dissolves.

1m

The backward reaction of crystallization is an exothermic process. On cooling a saturated solution, heat is given off/ removed from the system. By Le Chatelier’s Principle, processes occur in the system to counteract the lost of heat by favouring the reaction that gives out heat.

1m

Since the crystallization is an exothermic process, it is favoured and crystals formed.

(2)

 

(ii)

Ca 2+ (aq)

+ SO 4 2- (aq)

  (ii) Ca 2 + (aq) + SO 4 2 - (aq) CaSO 4 (s)

CaSO 4 (s)

 

When concentrated sodium sulphate solution is added to a saturated

solution of calcium sulphate, concentration of sulphate ions increases.

1m

By

Le

Chatelier’s

Principle,

processes

occur

in

the

system

to

 

counteract this increase of sulphate ions by favouring the process that

1m

decreases the concentration of sulphate ions. The equilibrium shifts to

1m

the right to favour the precipitation reaction, a white precipitate of calcium sulphate forms.

(3)

 

(iii)

2NO 2 (g)

2NO 2 (g)

N 2 O 4 (g)

Δ H –ve

 
 

(brown)

(colourless)

 

Since cooling favours the exothermic reaction which gives out heat,

1m

the forward reaction is exothermic. On compressing the gaseous mixture, total pressure in the system increases; By Le Chatelier’s Principle, the forward reaction that

1m

produces less molecules of gas is favoured, the colour fades as the brown NO 2 gas forms the colourless dimer. On warming, heat is supplied to the system. According to Le Chatelier, the process that absorbs heat is favoured. Since backward

1m

process is endothermic, it is favourd. The brown colour is restored as colourless N 2 O 4 dissociates to form brown NO 2.

(3)

(b)

C(s)

+

H 2 O(g)

(b) C(s) + H 2 O(g) H 2 (g) + CO (g) 1m

H 2 (g)

+

CO (g)

1m

 

Initial partial press./atm

1.0

0

0

1m

Equil m partial press./atm

0.1

0.9

 

0.9

Change in partial pressure of steam = 1.0- 0.1 = 0.9 atm.

 

Since 1 mol of steam produces 1 mol of H 2 and 1 mol of CO, partial pressure of H 2 = partial pressure of CO = partial pressure of steam used = 0.9 atm

 

K p

= 0.9 x 0.9 / 0.1 = 8.1

1m

 

(3)

(c)

K sp = [Mg 2+ ] [ OH - ] 2 At pH 9, pOH = 14-9 = 5 and [OH - ] = 10 -5 = 1 x 10 -5 mol dm -3

 

1m

Max. value of [ Mg 2+ ] = K sp / [OH - ] 2 = 1.8 x 10 -2 mol dm -3

= 1.8 x 10 -12 /

(1 x 10 -5 ) 2

 

1m

At pH 6.5, pOH = 14-6.5 = 7.5; [OH - ] = 10 -7.5 = 3.16 x 10 -8 mol dm -3

 

1m

Max value of [

Mg 2+ ] = K sp / [OH - ] 2

= 1.8 x 10 -12 /

(

3.16

x 10 -8 ) 2

 

= 1803 mol dm -3 Peat based soil is preferred.

 

1m(4)

 

(15m)

7. (a)

(b)

(c)

9 (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Silver bromide is used in black and white photography. The surface of

5m

the paper is spread with a layer of silver bromide. When exposed to sunlight, the bromide ion will be oxidized to bromine gas, leaving a layer of silver on the surface of the paper.

(i) [Co(NH 3 ) 3 (Cl) 3 ]

 

1m

(ii)

   

NH 3

Cl Co NH 3
Cl
Co
NH 3

Cl

Cl

NH 3

   

2m

fac-triamminetrichlorocobalt(III)

 

NH 3

Cl Co Cl
Cl
Co
Cl

Cl

NH 3

NH 3

 

2m

mer-triamminetrichlorocobalt(III)

(i) Observation: no visible change Explanation: There is no reaction between the solution and silver nitrate because there is no chloride ion present.

2m

(ii)

Observation: White precipitate forms when silver nitrate is added Explanation: Ag + will react with the chloride ion from the complex to form AgCl solid which appears as a white precipitate.

3m

 

(15m)

HCl or H 2 SO 4 or H + or acid

 

1m

 

conc(if HCl only)/dilute/aqueous + heat

1m

two rings only (1 ring around the α-C of tyrosine & 1 around the α-C of lysine)

1m

+ NH 3 CH 2 CO 2 -

(or displayed formula)

 

1m

(i) NH 2 CH 2 CO 2- (Na + ) (either -CO 2- Na + or -CO 2 Na but NOT –CO-O-Na)

1m

(ii)

(Na + ) –O-C6H4-CH2CH(NH 2 )CO 2- (Na + )

1m+1m

(iii)

(Cl - ) + NH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CH(NH 3 + )CO 2 H (Cl - )

1m+1m

(iv)

HO-C 6 H 2 Br 2 -CH 2 CH(NH 2 )CO 2 H (if shown, Br at 2,6 to OH group)

1m

 

(e)

  (e) 2m

2m

(f)

(f) 3m

3m

 

15m

10

(a)

(i) AlCl 3 /FeCl 3 /Al/Fe/I 2 (+ heat) (N.B. NOT AlBr 3 etc.) (or names)

1m

 

(ii)

(sun)light/hf/UV

1m

 

(b)

SOCl 2 /PCl 3 /PCl 5 (or names)

1m

(c)

(i) C > B > A

1m

 

(ii)

(acyl chloride fastest) highly δ + carbon atom joined to 2

1m

electronegative atoms or addition-elimination mechanism is possible (aryl chloride slowest) delocalisation of lone pair over ring stronger C- Cl bond

1m

Or

impossibility of ‘backside’ attack on the C-Cl bond

(d)

(ii) C 6 H 5 -CONHCH 3

 

1m

(iii) C 6 H 5 -CONHCH 3

1m

Or structural formula

(3m)

(e)

(i) E

1m

- CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CO

2- (Na + )

[NOT C 3 H 7 COO - Na or C 3 H 7 COOH]

1m

but allow CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 Na]

 

- CHl 3 or name

1m

(ii) the alcohol from E has four different groups around a carbon atom

1m

it is chiral/asymmetric or it is produced as a 50:50 mixture of mirror images

1m

or its mirror images are non-superimposable.

1m

1m

 

(15m )

END OF MARKING SCHEME